DATASHEET

Compact 2-3-4-Ch LED Drivers with Phase Shift Control
ISL97682, ISL97683, ISL97684
Features
The ISL97682, ISL97683, ISL97684 are Intersil’s highly
integrated 2-3-4-channels LED drivers that are suitable for
medium size TFT-LCD backlights. These parts can drive multiple
channels of LEDs from inputs as low as 4V to outputs of up to
45V. They can also operate from inputs as low as 3V to outputs of
up to 26.5V in bootstrap configuration (see Figure 26 for 3V
operation).
• ISL97682 - 2 x 100mA Channels
The ISL97682, ISL97683, ISL97684 feature optional channels
phase shift control. This feature is used to minimize the input,
output ripple characteristics and load transient, which help
eliminate or reduce the video and audio noise interference from
the backlight driver operation.
The ISL97682, ISL97683, ISL97684 offer 8-bit PWM dimming for
systems that need frequency tuning flexibility. With the unique
adaptive boost switching architecture, the ISL97682, ISL97683,
ISL97684 also offer Direct PWM dimming with output, which
follows input and achieves linearity as low as 0.009% at 200Hz
or 1.35% at 30kHz.
The drivers incorporate dynamic headroom control that monitors
the highest LED forward voltage string and uses its feedback signal
for the minimum output regulation. The ISL97682, ISL97683,
ISL97684 incorporates extensive fault protection functions including
string open and short circuit detections, OVP, and OTP. The switching
frequency can be selected at either 600kHz or 1.0MHz in PFM or
PWM mode. These parts are available in the thin and compact
16 Ld 3mmx3mm TQFN package and operate in ambient
temperature from -40°C to +85°C.
L1
VIN = 4~26.5V
Ci
D1
0.1µF
11 VDC
• Input Voltage 4.0V~26.5V with Max VOUT of 45V
• Input Voltage 3.0V (see Figure 26)~24V with Max VOUT of 26.5V
• PWM Dimming Linearity
- PWM Dimming with Adjustable Dimming Frequency with
Duty Cycle Linear from 0.4% to 100% <30kHz
- Direct PWM Dimming with Duty Cycle Linear from 0.009%
to 100% at 200Hz
• Current Matching of 0.7% typical from 1%~100% Dimming
• Selectable 600kHz or 1MHz Switching Frequency in PWM/PFM
Mode
• Dynamic Headroom Control
• Fault Protection
- String Open/Short Circuit Protections, OVP, OTP
• Thin and Compact TQFN-16 3mmx3mm Package
Applications
• Tablet to Notebook PC Displays LED Backlighting
• PMP LED Backlighting
VIN = 4~26.5V
Ci
Co
4.7µF
7 VIN
• ISL97684 - 4 x 50mA Channels
45V, 4 x 50mA*
10µH
10µF
• ISL97683 - 3 x 50mA Channels
4.7µF
7 VIN
0.1µF
11 VDC
LX 9
ISL97684
1µF
OVP 12
6 EN
OVP 12
5 PWMI
5 PWMI
3 RSET
PGND 10
8 FPWM/DIRECTPWM
4 FSW
3 RSET
8 FPWM/DIRECTPWM
CH1 13
CH2 14
4 FSW
CH3 15
2 COMP
33pF
45V, 4 x 50mA*
Co
10µF
ISL97684
6 EN
D1
10µH
LX 9
1µF
L1
2 COMP
CH4 16
10kΩ
33pF
8.2nF
1 AGND
*VIN > = 9V AND WITH
GOOD LEDS MATCHING
PGND 10
CH1 13
CH2 14
CH3 15
CH4 16
10kΩ
8.2nF
1 AGND
*VIN >=9V AND WITH
GOOD LEDS MATCHING
FIGURE 1B. PWM DIMMING WITH DIMMING FREQUENCY
ADJUSTMENT USING RFPWM
FIGURE 1. ISL97684 TYPICAL APPLICATION DIAGRAMS
FIGURE 1A. DIRECT PWM DIMMING
May 16, 2012
FN7689.1
1
CAUTION: These devices are sensitive to electrostatic discharge; follow proper IC Handling Procedures.
1-888-INTERSIL or 1-888-468-3774 | Copyright Intersil Americas Inc. 2011, 2012. All Rights Reserved
Intersil (and design) is a trademark owned by Intersil Corporation or one of its subsidiaries.
All other trademarks mentioned are the property of their respective owners.
ISL97682, ISL97683, ISL97684
Block Diagram
OUTPUT = 45V, 4 X 50mA*
VIN = 4~26.5V
10µH/1.5A
OPTIONAL FUSE
4.7µF/50V
LX
VIN
EN
ISL97684
INTERNAL
BIAS
REG
VDC
OSC &
RAMP
COMP
Σ
=0
♦∏
LOGIC
OVP
OVP
O/P SHORT
FET
DRIVER
IMAX ILIMIT
FSW
PGND
PHASE
FSW
SELECT
DETECT
COMP
GM
AMP
8-BIT
DAC
VSET
+
-
RSET
REFOVP
DYNAMIC
HEADROOM
CONTROL
PE
OPEN CKT, SHORT CKT DETECTS
HIGHEST
VF
STRING
DETECT
CH1
CH4
1
+
-
REF
GEN
REFVSC
AGND
TEMP
SENSOR
PHASE SELECT
PWMI
FPWM/
DIRECTPWM
PHASE SHIFT
& PWM
CONTROLLER
8-BIT
DIGITIZER
*VIN >= 9V AND WITH
GOOD LEDS MATCHING
4
+
-
DIRECTPWM
DETECT
FIGURE 2. ISL97684 BLOCK DIAGRAM
Ordering Information
PART NUMBER
(Notes 1, 2, 3)
PART MARKING
TEMP RANGE
(°C)
PACKAGE
(Pb-free)
PKG.
DWG. #
ISL97682IRTZ
7682
-40 to +85
16 LD 3x3 TQFN
L16.3x3D
ISL97683IRTZ
7683
-40 to +85
16 LD 3x3 TQFN
L16.3x3D
ISL97684IRTZ
7684
-40 to +85
16 LD 3x3 TQFN
L16.3x3D
ISL97682IRTZ-EVALZ
Evaluation Board
ISL97683IRTZ-EVAL
Evaluation Board
ISL97684IRTZ-EVALZ
Evaluation Board
NOTES:
1. Add “-T*” suffix for tape and reel. Please refer to TB347 for details on reel specifications.
2. These Intersil Pb-free plastic packaged products employ special Pb-free material sets, molding compounds/die attach materials, and 100% matte
tin plate plus anneal (e3 termination finish, which is RoHS compliant and compatible with both SnPb and Pb-free soldering operations). Intersil
Pb-free products are MSL classified at Pb-free peak reflow temperatures that meet or exceed the Pb-free requirements of IPC/JEDEC J STD-020.
3. For Moisture Sensitivity Level (MSL), please see device information page for ISL97682, ISL97683, ISL97684. For more information on MSL please
see techbrief TB363.
2
FN7689.1
May 16, 2012
ISL97682, ISL97683, ISL97684
Pin Configurations
ISL97683
(16 LD TQFN)
TOP VIEW
NC
CH2
NC
CH1
NC
CH3
CH2
CH1
ISL97682
(16 LD TQFN)
TOP VIEW
16
15
14
13
16
15
14
13
AGND 1
12 OVP
AGND 1
12 OVP
COMP 2
11 VDC
COMP 2
11 VDC
8
EN
VIN
FPWM_DIRECTPWM
9
FSW
9
LX
4
5
6
7
8
FPWM_DIRECTPWM
7
10 PGND
VIN
6
RSET 3
EN
5
PWMI
FSW 4
10 PGND
PWMI
RSET 3
LX
CH4
CH3
CH2
CH1
ISL97684
(16 LD TQFN)
TOP VIEW
16
15
14
13
AGND 1
12 OVP
COMP 2
11 VDC
10 PGND
RSET 3
FSW 4
3
5
6
7
8
PWMI
EN
VIN
FPWM_DIRECTPWM
9
LX
FN7689.1
May 16, 2012
ISL97682, ISL97683, ISL97684
Pin Descriptions
PIN
ISL97682
ISL97683
ISL97684
DESCRIPTION
1
AGND
AGND
AGND
Analog Ground for precision circuits
2
COMP
COMP
COMP
External Compensation Pin
3
RSET
RSET
RSET
Resistor connection for setting LED current, (see Equation 2 for calculating the ILEDpeak)
4
FSW
FSW
FSW
FSW = 0 ~ 0.11 * VDC, Boost Switching Frequency = 600kHz with phase shift and PFM mode enabled.
FSW = 0.34 * VDC ~ 0.44 * VDC, Boost Switching Frequency = 600kHz with phase shift and PWM mode
enabled.
FSW = 0.53 * VDC ~ 0.63 * VDC, Boost Switching Frequency = 1MHz with phase shift and PWM mode
enabled.
FSW = 0.86 * VDC ~ VDC, Boost Switching Frequency = 1MHz with phase shift and PFM mode enabled.
5
PWMI
PWMI
PWMI
PWM brightness control pin.
6
EN
EN
EN
Enable, can be tied directly to VIN if the system lacks of I/O
7
VIN
VIN
VIN
LED and Driver Supply Voltage. LED supply and Driver supply can be separated if high voltage application
is needed and dual supplies are available
8
FPWM/
FPWM/
FPWM/
External PWM dimming with frequency modulation or Direct PWM dimming without frequency
DirectPWM DirectPWM DirectPWM modulation.
With a resistor connected to ground, the dimming frequency will be set by the Setting Resistor.
When this pin is floating, the part enters Direct PWM mode such that the dimming follows the input PWM
signal without frequency modulation.
9
LX
LX
LX
10
PGND
PGND
PGND
Input to boost switch
Power ground (LX, CIN, and COUT Power return)
11
VDC
VDC
VDC
De-couple capacitor for internally generated 5V supply
12
OVP
OVP
OVP
Overvoltage protection input
13
CH1
CH1
CH1
Input 1 to current source, CH, and monitoring
14
NC
CH2
CH2
Input 2 to current source, CH, and monitoring (ISL97682 is No Connect)
15
CH2
CH3
CH3
Input 3 to current source, CH, and monitoring
16
NC
NC
CH4
Input 4 to current source, CH, and monitoring (ISL97682, ISL97683 are No Connect)
4
FN7689.1
May 16, 2012
ISL97682, ISL97683, ISL97684
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Thermal Information
VIN, EN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -0.3V to 28V
VDC, PWMI, FPWM/DirectPWM, FSW, RSET, COMP, OVP . . . -0.3V to 5.5V
CH1 to CH4, LX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -0.3V to 45V
PGND, AGND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -0.3V to +0.3V
Above voltage ratings are all with respect to AGND pin
Thermal Resistance (Typical)
θJA (°C/W) θJC (°C/W)
16 LD TQFN (Notes 4, 5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
51
4.6
Thermal Characterization (Typical)
PSIJT (°C/W)
Operating Conditions
Temperature Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -40°C to +85°C
16 Ld TQFN (Note 6). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0.11
Maximum Continuous Junction Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .+125°C
Storage Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-65°C to +150°C
Pb-Free Reflow Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see link below
http://www.intersil.com/pbfree/Pb-FreeReflow.asp
CAUTION: Do not operate at or near the maximum ratings listed for extended periods of time. Exposure to such conditions may adversely impact product
reliability and result in failures not covered by warranty.
NOTES:
4. θJA is measured in free air with the component mounted on a high effective thermal conductivity test board with “direct attach” features. See Tech
Brief TB379.
5. For θJC, the “case temp” location is the center of the exposed metal pad on the package underside.
6. PSIJT is the PSI junction-to-top thermal characterization parameter. If the package top temperature can be measured with this rating then the die
junction temperature can be estimated more accurately than the θJC and θJC thermal resistance ratings.
Electrical Specifications
5.
All specifications below are characterized at TA = -40°C to +85°C; VIN = 12V, EN = 5V, RSET = 20kΩ,
unless otherwise noted. Boldface limits apply over the operating temperature range, -40°C to +85°C.
PARAMETER
DESCRIPTION
CONDITION
MIN
(Note 7)
TYP
MAX
(Note 7)
UNIT
GENERAL
VIN
Backlight Supply Voltage, (Note 8)
TA = +25°C
IVIN
VIN Active Current
EN = 3.3V
4.0
26.5
IVIN_STBY
VIN Shutdown Current
EN = 0V, TA = 25°C
5
µA
VOUT
Output Voltage
4.0V < VIN ≤ 26.5V
45
V
VUVLO
Undervoltage Lockout Threshold
VUVLO_HYS
Undervoltage Lockout Hysteresis
5
2.2
V
mA
2.5
100
V
mV
LINEAR REGULATOR
VDC
LDO Output Voltage
VIN > 6V
VIN = 5V, IVDC = 20mA
VLDO
VDC LDO Dropout Voltage
ENLow
Guaranteed Range for EN Input Low Voltage
ENHi
Guaranteed Range for EN Input High Voltage
tEN(Low)
EN low time before shut-down
4.6
4.8
5
V
30
200
mV
0.5
V
1.5
V
29.5
ms
BOOST SWITCHING REGULATOR
SS
Soft-start
SWILimit
Boost FET Current Limit
rDS(ON)
Internal Boost Switch ON-Resistance
Eff_peak
Peak Efficiency
DMAX
100% LED Duty Cycle
Boost Maximum Duty Cycle
5
7
1.4
1.8
ms
2.3
A
500
mΩ
VIN = 24V, 48 LEDs, 30mA
each, L = 10µH with DCR
≤100mΩ, TA = +25°C
90.1
%
VIN = 12V, 48 LEDs, 30mA
each, L = 10µH with DCR ≤
100mΩ, TA = +25°C
87
%
VFSW < 2.4V (FSW = 600kHz)
92
%
VFSW > 2.4V
(FSW =1.0MHz)
85
%
FN7689.1
May 16, 2012
ISL97682, ISL97683, ISL97684
Electrical Specifications
All specifications below are characterized at TA = -40°C to +85°C; VIN = 12V, EN = 5V, RSET = 20kΩ,
unless otherwise noted. Boldface limits apply over the operating temperature range, -40°C to +85°C. (Continued)
PARAMETER
DMIN
FSW
ILX_leakage
DESCRIPTION
Boost Minimum Duty Cycle
Boost Switching Frequency
MAX
(Note 7)
UNIT
VFSW < 2.4V (FSW = 600kHz)
8
%
VFSW > 2.4V
(FSW = 1.0MHz)
15
%
CONDITION
MIN
(Note 7)
TYP
FSW < 2.4V
500
600
650
kHz
FSW > 2.4V
0.9
1.0
1.1
MHz
10
µA
LX Leakage Current
LX = 45V, EN = 0
Channel-to-Channel DC Current Matching
RSET = 20kΩ (ILED = 20mA for
ISL97683/4 and 40mA for
ISL97682)
-2
+2
%
RSET = 40kΩ (ILED = 10mA for
ISL97683/4 and 20mA for
ISL97682)
-2.5
+2.5
%
-2
+2
%
4.9
V
REFERENCE
IMATCH
IACC
Current Accuracy
ILED = 20mA (ISL97683/4)
ILED = 40mA (ISL97682)
FAULT DETECTION
VSC
Channel Short Circuit Threshold
Vtemp
Over-Temperature Threshold
Vtemp_acc
Over-Temperature Threshold Accuracy
VOVPlo
Overvoltage Limit on OVP Pin
OVPfault
OVP Short Detection Fault Level
3.8
4.4
150
°C
5
1.18
1.22
°C
1.24
V
70
mV
500
mV
CURRENT SOURCES
VHEADROOM
Dominant Channel Current Source Headroom
at CH Pin
VRSET
Voltage at RSET Pin
ILED(max)
Maximum LED Current per Channel
ILED = 20mA
1.2
ISL97682
1.22
1.24
V
100
mA
ISL97683
50
mA
ISL97684
50
mA
PWM GENERATOR
VIL
Guaranteed Range for PWM Input Low Voltage
0.8
V
30,000
Hz
VIH
Guaranteed Range for PWM Input High Voltage
1.5
FPWMI
PWMI Input Frequency Range
100
V
DPWMACC
Direct PWM Dimming Output Maximum
Resolution
tDPWM_ON_MIN
Direct PWM Dimming Minimum On-Time
PWMACC
PWM Dimming with Adjustable Dimming
Frequency Output Resolution
PWMHYST
PWMI Input Allowable Jitter Hysteresis
-0.46
+0.46
LSB
FPWM
Generated PWM Dimming Frequency Range
100
30,000
Hz
VFPWM
Voltage at FPWM pin
1.24
V
85
Direct PWM Mode
250
ns
450
ns
8
RFPWM = 3.3kΩ
1.20
1.22
bit
NOTES:
7. Parameters with MIN and/or MAX limits are 100% tested at +25°C, unless otherwise specified. Temperature limits established by characterization
and are not production tested.
8. At maximum VIN of 26V, minimum VOUT is 28V. Minimum VOUT can be lower at lower VIN.
6
FN7689.1
May 16, 2012
ISL97682, ISL97683, ISL97684
Typical Performance Curves
90
85
80
80
EFFICIENCY (%)
EFFICIENCY (%)
70
60
50
40
4.2VIN
30
3.7VIN
20
3VIN
0
20
70
40
60
80
60
50
100
3VIN
0
20
40
DC (%)
80
100
FIGURE 4. ISL97683 TYPICAL EFFICIENCY FOR 3V TO 4.2V IN A
3P7S, ILED = 20mA/CH CONFIGURATION AT
FSW = 600kHz IN PWM MODE WITH VIN SUPPLY = 5V
90
95
90
80
EFFICIENCY (%)
EFFICIENCY ( %)
60
DC (%)
FIGURE 3. ISL97683 TYPICAL EFFICIENCY FOR 3V TO 4.2V IN A
3P7S, ILED = 20mA/CH SINGLE SUPPLY
CONFIGURATION AT FSW = 600kHz IN PWM MODE
70
5V
60
50
4.2VIN
3.7VIN
65
55
10
0
75
85
80
600k PWM
75
0
50
DC (%)
100
70
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
DC (%)
FIGURE 5. ISL97683 TYPICAL EFFICIENCY FOR 5VIN IN A 3P7S,
ILED = 20mA/CH CONFIGURATION AT FSW = 600kHz
IN PWM MODE
93
FIGURE 6. ISL97684 EFFICIENCY FOR 4P10S AT 20mA/CH AT
600kHz IN PWM MODE
87
EFFICIENCY (%)
88
86
83
78
85
1000k PFM VIN = 15V
73
68
58
84
1000k PWM VIN = 15V
63
0
10
20
30
40
50
1000k PWM 50%
1000k PFM 50%
60
70
80
90
100
83
0
10
20
30
DC (%)
FIGURE 7. ISL97864 PWM vs PFM EFFICIENCY vs DC AT
VIN = 15V IN4P8S CONFIGURATION
7
FIGURE 8. PFM vs PFM MODE FOR 4P8S vs VIN AT 1MHz
FN7689.1
May 16, 2012
ISL97682, ISL97683, ISL97684
Typical Performance Curves
(Continued)
4.5
CHANNEL CURRENT (mA)
4.0
CURRENT (mA)
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
CALCULATED
1.0
MEASURED
0.5
0
0
0.8
1.6
2.4
DC (%)
3.2
4.0
4.8
CH2
CH4
CH1
0
20
40
60
80
100
FIGURE 10. CURRENT LINEARITY vs PWM DIMMING DUTY CYCLE
AT 12VIN FOR 4P10S AT 20mA/CH
1.0
4
0.8
VHEADROOM (V)
5
3
2
1
0
CH3
DIMMING DUTY CYCLE (%)
FIGURE 9. CURRENT LINEARITY vs LOW LEVEL PWM DIMMING
DUTY CYCLE AT 12VIN FOR 4P10S AT 20mA/CH
IIN (mA)
32
30
28
26
24
22
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
0.6
CH4
0.4
CH2 CH1 CH3
0.2
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
0
0
FIGURE 11. QUIESCENT CURRENT vs VIN WITH EN = HIGH, NO
LEDS CONNECTED
10
20
30
VIN (V)
VIN (V)
FIGURE 12. CHANNEL VOLTAGE vs VIN FOR VIN = 12V AT 4P10S AT
20mA/CH
VIN (5V/DIV)
VIN (5V/DIV)
IIN (0.5A/DIV)
IIN (0.5A/DIV)
ILED (20mA/DIV)
FIGURE 13. LINE REGULATION WITH VIN CHANGE FROM 6V TO 26V
FOR 4P10S AT 20mA/C
8
ILED (20mA/DIV)
FIGURE 14. LINE REGULATION WITH VIN CHANGE FROM 26V TO 6V
FOR 4P10S AT 20mA/CH
FN7689.1
May 16, 2012
ISL97682, ISL97683, ISL97684
Typical Performance Curves
(Continued)
VOUT
(50mV/DIV)
Vout(50mV/Div)
VO (1V/DIV)
LXLx=20V/div
= 20V/DIV)
ILED (20mA/DIV)
FIGURE 15. LOAD REGULATION WITH ILED CHANGE FDROM 100%
TO 0% PWM DIMMING, VIN = 12V AT 20mA/CH
VVout
OUT
FIGURE 16. VOUT RIPPLE VOLTAGE, VIN = 12V, 4P10S AT 20mA/CH
VOUT
Vout
IIN
(0.5A/DIV)
Iin(0.5A/div)
IIN
(0.5A/DIV)
Iin(0.5A/div)
ILED
(20mA/DIV)
ILED(20mA/div)
EN
EN
ILED(20mA/div)
ILED (20mA/DIV)
FIGURE 17. IN-RUSH AND LED CURRENT AT VIN = 5V FOR 4P10S
AT 20mA/CH
9
EN
EN
FIGURE 18. IN-RUSH AND LED CURRENT AT VIN = 12V FOR 4P10S
AT 20mA/CH
FN7689.1
May 16, 2012
ISL97682, ISL97683, ISL97684
Theory of Operation
Current Matching and Current Accuracy
PWM Boost Converter
Each channel of the LED current is regulated by the current
source circuit, as shown in Figure 19.
The current mode PWM boost converter produces the minimal
voltage needed to enable the LED stack with the highest forward
voltage drop to run at the programmed current. The ISL97682,
ISL97683, ISL97684 employs current mode control boost
architecture that has a fast current sense loop and a slow voltage
feedback loop. Such architecture achieves a fast transient
response that is essential for the notebook backlight application
where the power can be a series of drained batteries or instantly
change to an AC/DC adapter without rendering a noticeable
visual nuisance. The number of LEDs that can be driven by the
ISL97682, ISL97683, ISL97684 depend on the type of LED
chosen in the application. The ISL97682, ISL97683, ISL97684
are capable of boosting up to 45V and typically driving 13 LEDs
in series for each of the 4 channels, enabling a total of 52 pieces
of the 3.2V/20mA type of LEDs.
The LED peak current is set by translating the RSET current to the
output with a scaling factor of 401.8/RSET. The source terminals
of the current source MOSFETs are designed to run at 500mV to
optimize power loss versus accuracy requirements. The sources
of errors of the channel-to-channel current matching come from
the op amps offset, internal layout, reference, and current source
resistors. These parameters are optimized for current matching
and absolute current accuracy. However, the absolute accuracy is
additionally determined by the external RSET. A 1% tolerance
resistor is recommended.
OVP
The Overvoltage Protection (OVP) pin has a function of setting the
overvoltage trip level as well as limiting the VOUT regulation
range.
The ISL97682, ISL97683, ISL97684 OVP threshold is set by
RUPPER and RLOWER shown by Equation 1:
VOUT_OVP = 1.22V * (RUPPER + RLOWER)/RLOWER
+
-
REF
+
-
RSET
(EQ. 1)
VOUT can only regulate between 42% and 100% of the VOUT_OVP
such that:
PWM DIMMING
FIGURE 19. SIMPLIFIED CURRENT SOURCE CIRCUIT
Allowable VOUT = 42% to 100% of VOUT_OVP
Dynamic Headroom Control
For example, if 10 LEDs are used with the worst case being VOUT
of 35V. If R1 and R2 are chosen such that the OVP level is set at
40V, then the VOUT is allowed to operate between 16.8V and 40V.
If the requirement is changed to 4 LEDs of 14V VOUT application,
then the OVP level must be reduced and users should follow the
VOUT = (42% ~100%) OVP level requirement. Otherwise, the
headroom control will be disturbed such that the channel voltage
can be much higher than expected and sometimes can prevent
the driver from operating properly.
The ISL97682, ISL97683, ISL97684 feature a proprietary
Dynamic Headroom Control circuit that detects the highest
forward voltage string or the lowest voltage from any of the CH
pins digitally. When the lowest CH voltage is lower than the short
circuit threshold (VSC), such voltage will be used as the feedback
signal for the boost regulator. The boost makes the output to the
correct level such that the lowest CH is at the target headroom
voltage. Since all LED stacks are connected to the same output
voltage, the other CH pins will have a higher voltage, but the
regulated current source circuit on each channel will ensure that
each channel has the same current. The output voltage will
regulate cycle-by-cycle and it is always referenced to the highest
forward voltage string in the architecture.
The ratio of the OVP capacitor should be the inverse of the OVP
resistor. For example:
if RUPPER/RLOWER = 33/1, then CUPPER/CLOWER = 1/33 with
CUPPER = 100pF and CUPPER = 3.3nF.
Dimming Controls
Enable
An EN signal is required to enable the internal regulator for normal
operation. If there is no signal for longer than 28ms, the device will
enter shutdown.
The ISL97682, ISL97683, ISL97684 allow two ways of controlling
the LED current, and therefore, the brightness. They are:
1. DC current adjustment
2. PWM chopping of the LED current defined in Step 1.
Power Sequence
There is no specific power sequence requirement for the
ISL97682, ISL97683, ISL97684. The EN signal can be tied to VIN
but not the VDC that will prevent the device from powering up.
10
There are various ways to achieve DC or PWM current control,
which will be described in the following.
FN7689.1
May 16, 2012
ISL97682, ISL97683, ISL97684
Maximum DC Current Setting
The initial brightness should be set by choosing an appropriate
value for RSET. This should be chosen to fix the maximum
possible LED current as shown in Equation 2 for ISL97682 and
Equation 3 for ISL97683 and ISL97684:
( 804 )
I LEDmax = --------------R SET
(EQ. 2)
( 402 )
I LEDmax = --------------R SET
(EQ. 3)
ILED1-20mA
ILED2-20mA
ILED3-20mA
ILED4-20mA
ILED_Total_20mA
5
DC Current Adjustment
Once RSET is fixed, the LED DC current can be adjusted.
For example, in the 4-channel ISL97684, if the maximum required
LED current (ILED(max)) is 20mA, rearranging Equation 3 yields
Equation 4:
R SET = ( 402 ) ⁄ 0.02 = 20.1kΩ
10
TIME (ms)
FIGURE 21. PHASE SHIFT 4-Ch LED DRIVER WITH 10% PWM
DIMMING CHANNEL CURRENT (UPPER) AND TOTAL
CURRENT (LOWER)
(EQ. 4)
ILED4-20mA
PWM Control
ILED3-20mA
The ISL97682, ISL97683, ISL97684 have high speed 8-bit
digitizers that decode the incoming PWM signal and convert it into
2- 3- or 4- channels of 8-bit PWM current with a phase shift
function that will be described later. During the PWM On period,
the LED peak current is defined by the RSET resistor value. The
average LED current of each channel is controlled by ILEDmax and
the PWM duty cycle in percent shown by Equation 5:
I LED ( ave ) = I LEDmax × PWM
ILED2-20mA
ILED1-20mA
ILED_Total_80mA
(EQ. 5)
When the PWM input = 0, all channels are disconnected and the
ILED is guaranteed to be <5µA in this state.
5
10
TIME (ms)
FIGURE 22. CONVENTIONAL LED DRIVER PWM DIMMING CHANNEL
AND TOTAL CURRENT AT 50% DUTY CYCLE
The PWM dimming frequency is adjusted by a resistor at the
RFPWM pin, described in “PWM Dimming Frequency
Adjustment” on page 12.
ILED4-20mA
ILED1-20mA
ILED3-20mA
ILED2-20mA
ILED2-20mA
ILED3-20mA
ILED1-20mA
ILED4-20mA
ILED_Total_40mA
ILED_Total_80mA
5
10
TIME (ms)
15
FIGURE 20. CONVENTIONAL 4-Ch LED DRIVER WITH 10% PWM
DIMMING CHANNEL CURRENT (UPPER) AND TOTAL
CURRENT (LOWER)
11
5
10
TIME (ms)
FIGURE 23. EQUAL PHASE SHIFT LED DRIVER PWM DIMMING
CHANNEL AT 50% DUTY CYCLE
FN7689.1
May 16, 2012
ISL97682, ISL97683, ISL97684
Phase Shift Control
The ISL97682, ISL97683, ISL97684 are capable of delaying the
phase of each current source. Conventional LED drivers exhibit
the worst load transients to the boost circuit by turning on all
channels simultaneously as shown in Figures 20 and 21. In
contrast, the ISL97682, ISL97683, ISL97684 phase shifts each
channel by turning them on once during each PWM dimming
period as shown in Figures 23 and 24. At each dimming duty
cycle except at 100%, the sum of the phase shifted total current
will be less than a conventional LED drivers’ total current.
For ISL97682, the two channels are separated by 180°. For
ISL97683, the three channels are separated by 90° and not
120°. For ISL97684, the four channels are separated by 90°. If
the channels are combined for higher current application, the
phase shift function must be disabled by running the part in
direct PWM mode by floating the RFPWM/DirectPWM and
selecting switching frequency by biasing the FSW pin as
explained in Table 2.
PWMI
ILED1
60%
40%
tPWMIN
tFPWM (tPWMOUT)
tOFF
tON
40%
60%
For example, for a 200Hz input PWM frequency, the minimum
duty cycle is:
Min DC = 450ns × 200Hz = 0.009%
(EQ. 8)
Table 1 shows the PWM Dimming with Phase Shift and Direct
PWM Dimming configurations.
TABLE 1.
RFWM/
DIRECTPWM
FUNCTION
PHASE
SHIFT
DIMMING
RESOLUTION
Connects with
Resistor
PWM Dimming with
frequency adjust
Yes
8-bit
Floating
DirectPWM without
frequency adjust
No
N/A
Switching Frequency and PWM/PFM Mode
When the FSW pin is biased from VDC with a resistor divider
RUPPER and RLOWER, the switching frequency and PFM/PWM
mode will change according to the following FSW levels shown in
Table 2 with the recommended RUPPER and RLOWER.
TABLE 2.
FSW
ILED2
FSW
PHASE
SHIFT
Mode
RUPPER
RLOWER
(0 ~ 0.11)*VDC
600kHz
Yes
PFM
Open
0
ILED3
(0.34~0.44)*VDC
600kHz
Yes
PWM
187kΩ
120kΩ
ILED4
(0.53~0.63)*VDC
1.0MHz
Yes
PWM
100kΩ
138kΩ
(0.86~1) VDC
1.0MHz
Yes
PFM
0
Open
ILED1
FIGURE 24. ISL97684 4 CHANNELS PHASE SHIFT ILLUSTRATION
PWM Dimming Frequency Adjustment
The dimming frequency is set by an external resistor at the
RFPWM/DirectPWM pin to GND calculated by Equation 6:
7
( 12.4 ) × 10
⎛F
= ---------------------------------⎞
⎝ PWM
RFPWM ⎠
(EQ. 6)
The ISL97682, ISL97683, ISL97684 goes into PFM mode at
FSW = 600kHz/1MHz when the FSW pin is biased at 0/VDC volts.
The part will only go into PFM mode depending on the LED output
voltage and loading conditions and can be more efficient than
running the part in PWM mode as shown in Figures 5 and 6. The
dimming frequency can be set or applied up to 30kHz with duty
cycle from 0.4% to 100%. The lower limit of 0.4% is the result of
an 8-bit digitizer resolution.
Soft-Start
where FPWM is the desirable PWM dimming frequency and
RFPWM is the setting resistor. Do not bias RFPWM/DirectPWM if
direct PWM dimming is used; see Table 1 for clarification.
The in-rush current will flow towards COUT when VIN is applied
and it is determined by the ramp rate of VIN and the values of
COUT and L.
The PWM dimming frequency can be set or applied up to 30kHz
with duty cycle from 0.4% to 100%. The lower limit of 0.4% is the
result of 8-bit digitizer resolution.
Once the part is enabled, the boost regulator will begin to switch
and the current in the inductor will ramp-up. The current in the
boost power switch is monitored and the switching is terminated
in any cycle where the current exceeds the current limit. The
ISL97682, ISL97683, ISL97684 include a soft-start feature
where this current limit starts at a low value (225mA). This is
stepped up to the final 1.8A current limit in 7 further steps of
225mA. These steps will happen over approximately 8ms and
will be extended at a low LED PWM frequency if the LED duty
cycle is low. This allows the output capacitor to be charged to the
required value at a low current limit and prevents high input
current for systems that have only a low to medium output
current requirement.
Direct PWM Dimming
The ISL97682, ISL97683, ISL97684 can also operate in direct
PWM dimming mode such that the output follows the input PWM
signal without phase shifting. The FSW pin can still be used to
select between 600kHz and 1MHz in PWM or PFM mode as
explained in “Pin Descriptions” on page 4. To use Direct PWM
mode, users should float the RFPWM/DirectPWM pin. The input
PWM frequency should be limited to 30kHz and the minimum
duty cycle be calculated by Equation 7:
Min Duty Cycle = 450ns × Input PWM Frequency
12
(EQ. 7)
FN7689.1
May 16, 2012
ISL97682, ISL97683, ISL97684
Fault Protection and Monitoring
The ISL97682, ISL97683, ISL97684 feature extensive protection
functions to cover all the perceivable failure conditions. The
failure mode of a LED can be either open circuit or as a short. The
behavior of an open circuited LED can also take the form of
either infinite resistance (or for some LEDs, a zener diode), which
is integrated into the device in parallel with the now opened LED.
For basic LEDs (which do not have built-in zener diodes), an open
circuit failure of an LED will only result in the loss of one channel
of LEDs without affecting other channels. Similarly, a short circuit
condition on a channel that results in that channel being turned
off does not affect other channels unless a similar fault is
occurring.
Due to the lag in boost response to any load change at its output,
certain transient events (such as LED current steps or significant
step changes in LED duty cycle) can transiently look like LED
fault modes. The ISL97682, ISL97683, ISL97684 use feedback
from the LEDs to determine when it is in a stable operating
region and prevents apparent faults during these transient
events from allowing any of the LED stacks to fault out. See
Table 3 for more details.
Short Circuit Protection (SCP)
The short circuit detection circuit monitors the voltage on each
channel and disables faulty channels which are detected above
the programmed short circuit threshold. When an LED becomes
shorted, the action taken is described in Table 3. The short circuit
threshold is 4.4V.
Open Circuit Protection (OCP)
When one of the LEDs becomes open circuit, it can behave as
either an infinite resistance or a gradually increasing finite
resistance. The ISL97682, ISL97683, ISL97684 monitors the
current in each channel such that any string which reaches the
intended output current, is considered “good”. Should the current
subsequently fall below the target, the channel will be
considered an “open circuit”. Furthermore, should the boost
output of the ISL97682, ISL97683, ISL97684 reach the OVP
limit, all channels which are not “good” will immediately be
considered as “open circuit”. Detection of an “open circuit”
channel will result in a time-out before disabling of the affected
channel.
13
Some users employ some special types of LEDs that have zener
diode structure in parallel with the LED for ESD enhancement, thus
enabling open circuit operation. When this type of LED goes open
circuit, the effect is as if the LED forward voltage has increased,
but no light is emitted. Any affected string will not be disabled,
unless the failure results in the boost OVP limit being reached,
allowing all other LEDs in the string to remain functional. Care
should be taken in this case that the boost OVP limit and SCP limit
are set properly, in order to assure that multiple failures on one
string do not cause all other good channels to be faulted out. This
is due to the increased forward voltage of the faulty channel
making all other channels look as if they have LED shorts. See
Table 3 for details for responses to fault conditions.
Overvoltage Protection (OVP)
The integrated OVP circuit monitors the output voltage and keeps
the voltage at a safe level. The OVP threshold is set as Equation 9:
OVP = 1.22V × ( R UPPER + R LOWER ) ⁄ R LOWER
(EQ. 9)
These resistors should be large to minimize the power loss. For
example, a 1MkΩ RUPPER and 30kΩ RLOWER sets OVP to 41.2V.
Large OVP resistors also allow COUT discharges slowly during the
PWM Off time. Parallel capacitors should also be placed across
the OVP resistors such that RUPPER/RLOWER = CLOWER/CUPPER.
Using a CUPPER value of at least 30pF is recommended. These
capacitors reduce the AC impedance of the OVP node, which is
important when using high value resistors.
Undervoltage Lockout
If the input voltage falls below the UVLO level of 2.5V, the device
will stop switching and be reset. Operation will restart only if the
device is re-powered and re-enabled once the input voltage is
back in the normal operating range.
Over-Temperature Protection (OTP)
The ISL97682, ISL97683, ISL97684 over-temperature protection
threshold is set to +150°C. Each time this is reached, the boost
will stop switching and the output current sources will be
switched off.
For the extensive fault protection conditions, please refer to
Figure 25 and Table 3 for details.
FN7689.1
May 16, 2012
ISL97682, ISL97683, ISL97684
VIN
LX
VOUT
O/P
SHORT
OVP
IMAX
ILIMIT
FET
DRIVER
LOGIC
VSC
VIN
CH4
VSET/2
REG
REF
THRM
SHDN
T2
TEMP
SENSOR
T1
OTP
VSET
+
Q1 VSET
PWM1/OC1/SC1
+
Q4
-
-
PWM4/OC4/SC4
PHASE SHIFT
AND LOGIC
CONTROL
FIGURE 25. SIMPLIFIED FAULT PROTECTIONS
TABLE 3. PROTECTIONS TABLE
CASE
FAILURE MODE
DETECTION MODE
FAILED CHANNEL ACTION
GOOD CHANNELS ACTION
1
CH1 Short Circuit
CH1 ON and burns power
Over-Temperature
Protection limit (OTP) not
triggered and CH1 < 4.4V
2
CH1 Short Circuit
OTP triggered but VCH1 < All channels switched off until power-cycled.
4.4V
Highest VF of CH2
through CH4
3
CH1 Short Circuit
OTP not triggered but
CH1 > 4.4V
CH1 faults out after 6 PWM cycle
(7-18 in direct PWM) time-out
CH2 through CH4 Normal
Highest VF of CH2
through CH4
4
CH1 Open Circuit
with infinite
resistance
OTP not triggered and
CH1 < 4.4V
VOUT will ramp to OVP. CH1 will
CH2 through CH4 Normal
time-out after 6 PWM cycles (7-18
in direct PWM) and switch off. VOUT
will drop to normal level.
Highest VF of CH2
through CH4
5
CH1 LED Open
Circuit but has
paralleled Zener
OTP not triggered and
CH1 < 4.4V
CH1 remains ON and has highest
VF, thus VOUT increases
CH2 through CH4 ON, Q2 through VF of CH1
Q4 burn power
6
CH1 LED Open
Circuit but has
paralleled Zener
OTP triggered but CH1 <
4.4V
CH1 goes off
Same as CH1
7
CH1 LED Open
Circuit but has
paralleled Zener
OTP not triggered but
CHx > 4.4V
CH1 remains ON and has highest
VF, thus VOUT increases.
VF of CH1
VOUT increases then CH-X
switches OFF after 6 PWM cycles.
This is an unwanted shut off and
can be prevented by setting OVP
at an appropriate level.
8
Channel-to-Channel
ΔVF too high
OTP triggered but CHx <
4.4V
All channels switched off until chip cooled
9
Output LED stack
voltage too high
VOUT > VOVP
Driven with normal current. Any channel that has insufficient headroom Highest VF of CH1
will fault out after 6 PWM cycle (7-18 in direct PWM) time-out.
through CH4
14
CH2 through CH4 Normal
VOUT REGULATED
BY
Highest VF of CH2
through CH4
VF of CH1
Highest VF of CH1
through CH4
FN7689.1
May 16, 2012
ISL97682, ISL97683, ISL97684
Components Selections
According to the inductor Voltage-Second Balance principle, the
change of inductor current during the switching regulator
On-time is equal to the change of inductor current during the
switching regulator Off-time. Since the voltage across an inductor
is as shown in Equation 10:
V L = L × ΔI L ⁄ Δt
(EQ. 10)
and ΔIL @ On = ΔIL @ Off, therefore:
( V I – 0 ) ⁄ L × D × tS = ( VO – V D – VI ) ⁄ L × ( 1 – D ) × tS
(EQ. 11)
where D is the switching duty cycle defined by the turn-on time
over the switching periods. VD is a Schottky diode forward
voltage that can be neglected for approximation.
Rearranging the terms without accounting for VD gives the boost
ratio and duty cycle as Equations 12 and 13:
VO ⁄ VI = 1 ⁄ ( 1 – D )
(EQ. 12)
D = ( VO – VI ) ⁄ VO
(EQ. 13)
Input Capacitor
Switching regulators require input capacitors to deliver peak
charging current and to reduce the impedance of the input
supply. This reduces interaction between the regulator and input
supply, thereby improving system stability. The high switching
frequency of the loop causes almost all ripple current to flow in
the input capacitor, which must be rated accordingly.
A capacitor with low internal series resistance should be chosen
to minimize heating effects and improve system efficiency, such
as X5R or X7R ceramic capacitors, which offer small size and a
lower value of temperature and voltage coefficient compared to
other ceramic capacitors.
It is recommended that an input capacitor of at least 10µF be
used. Ensure the voltage rating of the input capacitor is suitable
to handle the full supply range.
Inductor
The selection of the inductor should be based on its maximum
and saturation current (ISAT) characteristics, power dissipation
(DCR), EMI susceptibility (shielded vs unshielded), and size.
Inductor type and value influence many key parameters,
15
including ripple current, current limit, efficiency, transient
performance and stability.
The inductor’s maximum current capability must be adequate
enough to handle the peak current at the worst case condition.
Additionally if an inductor core is chosen with too low a current
rating, saturation in the core will cause the effective inductor
value to fall, leading to an increase in peak to average current
level, poor efficiency and overheating in the core. The series
resistance, DCR, within the inductor causes conduction loss and
heat dissipation. A shielded inductor is usually more suitable for
EMI susceptible applications, such as LED backlighting.
The peak current can be derived from the voltage across the
inductor during the Off-period, expressed in Equation 14:
IL peak = ( V O × I O ) ⁄ ( 85% × V I ) + 1 ⁄ 2 [ V I × ( V O – V I ) ⁄ ( L × V O × f SW ) ]
(EQ. 14)
The choice of 85% is just an average term for the efficiency
approximation. The first term is the average current, which is
inversely proportional to the input voltage. The second term is
the inductor current change, which is inversely proportional to L
and FSW as a result, for a given switching.
Applications
Low Voltage Operations
The ISL97682, ISL97683, ISL97684 VIN pin can be separately
biased from the LEDs power input to allow low voltage operation.
For systems that have only single supply, VOUT can be tied to the
driver VIN pin to allow initial start-up; see Figure 26. The circuit
works as follows; when the input voltage is available and the
device is not enabled, the VOUT follows VIN with a Schottky diode
voltage drop. The VOUT bootstrapped to VIN pin allows an initial
start-up once the part is enabled. Once the driver starts up with
VOUT regulating to the target, the VIN pin voltage also increases.
As long as the VOUT does not exceed 26.5V and the extra power
loss on VIN is acceptable, this configuration can be used for input
voltage as low as 3.0V. For systems where a single input supply
of 4V to 5.5V is available, the VIN pin can be shorted to VDC,
allowing a slight gain in efficiency due to bypassing the internal
LDO.
For systems that have dual supplies, the VIN pin can be biased
from 5V to 12V. The input voltage can be as low as 2.7V without
the limitations previously mentioned; see Figure 27.
FN7689.1
May 16, 2012
ISL97682, ISL97683, ISL97684
VOUT < 26.5V
2.7 TO 24 VIN
VOUT < 26.5V
VIN = 3V ~ 24V
5V TO 12V BIAS
ISL97684
LX
VIN
VDC
OVP
PGND
EN
CH1
PWMI CH2
FSW CH3
RSET CH4
ISL97684
LX
VIN
VDC
EN
PWMI
FSW
RSET
20mA
AGND
COMP
COMP
FIGURE 26. SINGLE SUPPLY 3V OPERATION
OVP
PGND
CH1
CH2
CH3
CH4
20mA
AGND
FIGURE 27. DUAL SUPPLIES 2.7V OPERATION
Revision History
The revision history provided is for informational purposes only and is believed to be accurate, but not warranted. Please go to web to make
sure you have the latest Rev.
DATE
REVISION
CHANGE
February 3, 2012
FN7689.1
On page 1, RC values on COMP pin in Figure 1A and 1B were both updated with values of 10kΩ, 8.2nF, and 33pF.
On page 4, the pin description for Pin#4 was updated with new numbers to set boost switching frequency and
PFM mode.
In Table 2 on page 12, the FSW pin setting was updated with new numbers to set boost switching frequency and
PFM mode.
March 11, 2011
FN7689.0
Initial Release.
Products
Intersil Corporation is a leader in the design and manufacture of high-performance analog semiconductors. The Company's products
address some of the industry's fastest growing markets, such as, flat panel displays, cell phones, handheld products, and notebooks.
Intersil's product families address power management and analog signal processing functions. Go to www.intersil.com/products for a
complete list of Intersil product families.
For a complete listing of Applications, Related Documentation and Related Parts, please see the respective device information page on
intersil.com: ISL97682, ISL97683, ISL97684
To report errors or suggestions for this datasheet, please go to: www.intersil.com/askourstaff
FITs are available from our website at: http://rel.intersil.com/reports/search.php
For additional products, see www.intersil.com/product_tree
Intersil products are manufactured, assembled and tested utilizing ISO9000 quality systems as noted
in the quality certifications found at www.intersil.com/design/quality
Intersil products are sold by description only. Intersil Corporation reserves the right to make changes in circuit design, software and/or specifications at any time
without notice. Accordingly, the reader is cautioned to verify that data sheets are current before placing orders. Information furnished by Intersil is believed to be
accurate and reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed by Intersil or its subsidiaries for its use; nor for any infringements of patents or other rights of third
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For information regarding Intersil Corporation and its products, see www.intersil.com
16
FN7689.1
May 16, 2012
ISL97682, ISL97683, ISL97684
Package Outline Drawing
L16.3x3D
16 LEAD THIN QUAD FLAT NO-LEAD PLASTIC PACKAGE
Rev 0, 3/10
4X 1.50
3.00
A
12X 0.50
B
13
6
PIN 1
INDEX AREA
16
6
PIN #1
INDEX AREA
12
3.00
1
1.60 SQ
4
9
(4X)
0.15
0.10 M C A B
5
8
16X 0.40±0.10
TOP VIEW
4 16X 0.23 ±0.05
BOTTOM VIEW
SEE DETAIL “X”
0.10 C
0.75 ±0.05
C
0.08 C
SIDE VIEW
(12X 0.50)
(2.80 TYP) (
1.60)
(16X 0.23)
C
0 . 2 REF
5
0 . 02 NOM.
0 . 05 MAX.
(16X 0.60)
TYPICAL RECOMMENDED LAND PATTERN
DETAIL "X"
NOTES:
1.
Dimensions are in millimeters.
Dimensions in ( ) for Reference Only.
2.
Dimensioning and tolerancing conform to ASME Y14.5m-1994.
3.
Unless otherwise specified, tolerance : Decimal ± 0.05
4.
Dimension applies to the metallized terminal and is measured
between 0.15mm and 0.25mm from the terminal tip.
5.
Tiebar shown (if present) is a non-functional feature.
6.
The configuration of the pin #1 identifier is optional, but must be
located within the zone indicated. The pin #1 identifier may be
7.
JEDEC reference drawing: MO-220 WEED.
either a mold or mark feature.
17
FN7689.1
May 16, 2012
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