01327A

AN1327
Avoiding MOSFET Driver Overstress
Author:
Ray DiSilvestro
Microchip Technology Inc.
INTRODUCTION
This application note describes how to avoid MOSFET
driver overstress. MOSFET drivers are used in many
applications to drive the high input capacitance of a
power MOSFET device. MOSFET drivers are very reliable when used within their operating specifications.
Care must be taken, however, to control supply line
transients and power dissipation, and prevent latch-up.
AVOIDING SUPPLY LINE
TRANSIENTS
During switching transitions, parasitic inductances can
create transients on the supply line, and those can create electrical overstress. Proper bypass capacitor
selection and PCB layout must be performed to protect
the driver from voltage transients during switching transitions. Proper PCB layout is necessary to minimize
parasitic inductance in the supply path, and the ground
path.
Microchip provides MOSFET driver models for the
following devices:
-
TC1410
TC1411
TC1412
TC4404/05
TC4420/29
TC4421/22
TC4423/24/25
TC4423A/24A/25A
TC4426/27/28
TC4426A/27A/28A
TC4431/32
TC4451/52
TC4467/68/69
These driver models can be downloaded from the
Microchip web site, www.microchip.com.
 2010 Microchip Technology Inc.
Simulating Supply Line Transients
The Mindi™ Circuit Designer and Simulator can be
used to simulate supply line transients. (Mindi software
can be downloaded from the Microchip web site.) The
following simulation includes the parasitic inductances
that are associated with package inductance, bypass
capacitor parasitic series inductance, and printed wiring board inductance.
The PCB Trace Inductance diagram in Figure 1 shows
the TC4423A device (3A peak output current) in a
circuit with following items:
• L4 – parasitic inductance in series with ground pin
• L5 – parasitic inductance in series with VDD pin
• L1, L2 – parasitic inductance in series with the
bypass capacitor
• Capacitor C2 (1 nF) is used to represent the
MOSFET
• L3 – the inductance from the TC4423A device to
the power source
Note that the inductance between the driver output and
C2 (MOSFET) is not included in this circuit simulation,
but should be included in common practice. Additionally, the driver should be located as close to the output
MOSFET as possible.
GETTING STARTED
Before simulation can begin, a symbol for the MOSFET
driver must be created, and a MOSFET driver model
netlist must be assigned to that symbol. Pressing the
F11 key in Mindi opens a window where the model
netlist can be copied, and the symbol can be assigned
to that model netlist.
For example, assume that the following characteristics
are applied to the items in the simulated circuit in
Figure 1:
• L4 and L5 – SOIC package leads PCB trace =
10 nH
• L1 and L2 – series inductance of a 0805 ceramic
capacitor PCB trace = 10 nH
• L3 – PCB trace inductance from the VDD pin to
the power source that feeds the MOSFET driver
Note that the parasitic series resistance and input/output PCB inductance have been omitted from this
simulation, but they are available for inclusion.
DS01327A-page 1
AN1327
The results of the simulation, as presented in Figure 2,
illustrate the voltage overshoot effect caused by the
parasitic inductances.
FIGURE 1:
DS01327A-page 2
Schematic – Parasitic Inductances.
 2010 Microchip Technology Inc.
AN1327
Figure 2 shows the results of the simulation. The supply line (SUPPLY) overshoot and VOUT (VOUT) overshoot are shown. The overshoot is a result of parasitic
inductance. Care must be taken so that the overshoot
does not exceed the maximum operating voltage of the
device.
FIGURE 2:
Supply Line and VOUT Overshoot.
 2010 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS01327A-page 3
AN1327
To minimize parasitic inductance in the supply path and
ground path, a proper bypass capacitor must be
selected and an associated PCB layout must be completed to reduce voltage transients during switching
transitions. These steps prevent ringing on the output
of the driver and supply lines. Accordingly, proper PCB
line-widths must be chosen to handle the required peak
current. Low-parasitic and low-ESR capacitors should
be used directly at the driver, from the power supply to
the ground, to minimize voltage transients to safe levels during switching.
Components in the circuit should be placed as close as
possible to the driver to reduce the amount of lead
inductance. VDD is the bias supply input for the MOSFET driver, and has a voltage range of 4.5V to 18V.
This input must be decoupled to ground with a local
ceramic capacitor. This bypass capacitor provides a
localized low-impedance path for the peak currents
provided to the load.
AVOIDING EXCESSIVE POWER
DISSIPATION
Calculating the power dissipation in the drivers for a
desired application is critical to ensuring safe operation. Exceeding the maximum allowable power dissipation level will push the device beyond the maximum
allowable operating junction temperature of +125°C.
The total power dissipation in a MOSFET driver is comprised of three separate power dissipations. These
power dissipations are due to the following activities:
• charging and discharging of the total gate
capacitance of the MOSFET
• power dissipation quiescent current draw of the
MOSFET driver when the output is high and low
• internal shoot-through current of the MOSFET
driver
CALCULATING CHARGING AND
DISCHARGING POWER DISSIPATION
The charging and discharging power dissipation is calculated using the gate charge. The gate charge for a
particular VGS and VDS is usually available from the
appropriate Power MOSFET Driver data sheet. These
data sheets[1] are available on the Microchip web site
(www.microchip.com).
The charging and discharging power dissipation of the
gate capacitance is calculated by Equation 1.
EQUATION 1:
PC = CG x VDD2 x FSW
(or with gate charge capacitance, PC = QG x VDD x FSW)
Where:
PC
= Power dissipation due to charging and
discharging the load
CG
= Total gate capacitance
QG
= Total gate charge
VDD = MOSFET driver supply voltage
FIGURE 3:
Printed Wiring Board Layout
(Top View) – Low Parasitic Inductance.
FSW = switching frequency
If the following values apply:
QG
= 100 nC
VDD = 15V
FSW = 100 kHz
then:
PC = (100 nC) x (15V) x (100 kHz) = 150 mW
DS01327A-page 4
 2010 Microchip Technology Inc.
AN1327
CALCULATING QUIESCENT CURRENT DRAW
POWER DISSIPATION
CALCULATING INTERNAL JUNCTION
TEMPERATURE
The quiescent current draw power dissipation is
calculated through use of Equation 2.
The internal junction temperature rise is a function of
internal power dissipation and the thermal resistance,
from junction to ambient, for the application.
EQUATION 2:
PQ = (IQH x D + IQL x (1 - D)) x VDD
Where:
PQ
= Power dissipated due to the quiescent
current draw
IQH
= Quiescent current draw with the input in
high state
IQL
= Quiescent current draw with the input in
low state
D
= Duty Cycle
VDD = MOSFET driver supply voltage
If the following values apply:
IQH = .5 mA
IQL = 50 µA
D
= 50%
VDD = 15V
then:
PQ = (0.5 mA x .5 + 50 µA x (1 - .5)) x 15V = 4.125 mW
A value for thermal resistance from junction to ambient
(RθJA) is derived from JESD51-7[2], the EIA/JEDEC
Standard for measuring thermal resistance of small
surface mount packages. The standard describes the
test method and board specifications for measuring the
thermal resistance from junction to ambient. The actual
thermal resistance for a particular application can vary,
depending on many factors, such as the amount of
copper traces on the board and thickness of the layers.
EQUATION 4:
TJ(RISE) = PTOTAL x RθJA
TJRISE = 224.63 mW x 155.0°C/Watt
TJRISE = 34.82°C
To estimate the internal junction temperature, the calculated temperature rise is added to the ambient or offset temperature. For this example, the worst-case
junction temperature is estimated using Equation 5.
EQUATION 5:
CALCULATING SHOOT-THROUGH CURRENT
POWER DISSIPATION
TJ = TJRISE + TA(MAX)
The shoot-through current power dissipation is calculated from the crossover energy. The crossover energy
is usually available in the appropriate data sheet.
TA = 40°C
The shoot-through current power dissipation is
calculated through use of Equation 3.
EQUATION 3:
Where:
PS = CC x FSW x VDD
PS
= Power dissipation due to the shootthrough current
CC
= Crossover energy constant
FSW = Switching frequency
VDD = MOSFET driver supply voltage
If the following values apply:
VDD = 15V
FSW = 100 kHz
CC = 47 nA/sec
then:
PS = (47 nA x sec) x (100 kHz) x (15V) = 70.5 mW
TJ = 74.72°C
Maximum package power dissipation at +40°C ambient
temperature is derived from Equation 6.
EQUATION 6:
SOIC (155°C/Watt = RθJA)
PD(MAX) = (TA(MAX) - TA)/RθJA
PD(MAX) = (125°C - 40°C)/155°C/W
PD(MAX) = 548 mW
AVOIDING LATCH-UP
Latch-up occurs in CMOS technologies due to parasitic
transistors that form a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR).
Once triggered, the parasitic SCR turns on and shorts
VDD to ground, usually destroying the CMOS device.
Microchip application note AN763 – “Latch-Up Protection For MOSFET Drivers”[3], describes in detail the
latch-up effect and how to prevent it.
The total power dissipated is:
PT = PC + PQ + PS = 150 mW + 4.125 mW + 70.5 mW =
224.63 mW
This value is less than the maximum power dissipation
of the device.
 2010 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS01327A-page 5
AN1327
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES
Avoid supply voltages exceeding the absolute maximum ratings. Ratings of the maximum voltage that can
be applied safely to a particular device are supplied in
the corresponding data sheet. Anything in excess of
that voltage may result in electrical overstress of an
internal junction, and damage to the device. In addition,
operation of the device under conditions that are close
to the maximum ratings may degrade long-term
reliability.
[1]
4.0A Dual High-Speed Power MOSFET Drivers
With Enable Data Sheet (DS22062) Microchip
Technology Inc., 2008.
2A Synchronous Buck Power MOSFET Driver
Data Sheet (DS220830) Microchip Technology
Inc., 2008.
It is important to note that these ratings apply at all
times, including those intervals when the device is
being powered on and off. The triggering mode could
result from transients on supply lines. Care should be
taken to ensure that the maximum ratings are not
exceeded.
Also avoid input/output pin voltage that exceeds either
supply line by more than a diode drop. This could occur
as a result of transients on input/output line. Care
should be taken to ensure that the maximum ratings
are not exceeded.
Avoid improper power-supply sequencing. Latch-up
can occur from improper power-supply sequencing in
devices that have multiple power supplies. It is possible
for the maximum ratings to be exceeded and the device
to enter a latch-up state, in some cases, when the
digital supply is applied prior to other supplies. For this
reason, care should be taken to ensure the maximum
ratings are not exceeded.
Tiny 1.5A, High-Speed Power MOSFET Driver
Data Sheet (DS22092) Microchip Technology
Inc., 2008.
Tiny 500 mA, High-Speed Power MOSFET
Driver Data Sheet (DS22052) Microchip Technology Inc., 2007.
4.5A Dual High-Speed Power MOSFET Drivers
Data Sheet (DS22022) Microchip Technology
Inc., 2007.
3A Dual High-Speed Power MOSFET Drivers
Data Sheet (DS21998), Microchip Technology
Inc., 2007.
[2]
EIA/JEDEC Standard JESD51-7, “High Effective Thermal Conductivity Test Board for Leaded
Surface Mount Packages”, Electronic Industries
Alliance, February 1999.
[3]
Latch-Up Protection For MOSFET Drivers Application Note AN763 (DS00763), Microchip
Technology Inc., 2009.
Microchip application note AN763 recommends the following course of action, summarized below, to prevent
latch-up:
• properly decouple IC
• clamp outputs with diodes when driving inductive
loads
• clamp inputs with diodes if input signal exceeds
the negative or positive rails of the power supply
• use star grounds, if at all possible, in high current
applications
DS01327A-page 6
 2010 Microchip Technology Inc.
AN1327
Software License Agreement
The software supplied herewith by Microchip Technology Incorporated (the “Company”) is intended and supplied to you, the
Company’s customer, for use solely and exclusively with products manufactured by the Company.
The software is owned by the Company and/or its supplier, and is protected under applicable copyright laws. All rights are reserved.
Any use in violation of the foregoing restrictions may subject the user to criminal sanctions under applicable laws, as well as to civil
liability for the breach of the terms and conditions of this license.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED IN AN “AS IS” CONDITION. NO WARRANTIES, WHETHER EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE APPLY TO THIS SOFTWARE. THE COMPANY SHALL NOT, IN ANY CIRCUMSTANCES, BE LIABLE FOR
SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, FOR ANY REASON WHATSOEVER.
APPENDIX A:
CIRCUIT NETLIST
*******************
Circuit Netlist **********************************************
X1 VOUT V2_P L5_N L4_P TC4423A
V1 L3_N 0 15
V2 V2_P 0 PULSE 0 5.5 0 10n 10n 4.99u 10u
R1 V2_P 0 1K
L1 C3_P L1_N 10n
L2 C1_P L1_N 10n
L3 L1_N L3_N 100n
L4 L4_P 0 10n
L5 L1_N L5_N 10n
C1 C1_P 0 1u
C2 VOUT 0 1n
C3 C3_P 0 1u
.TRAN 20u 20u
.SUBCKT TC4423A 2 1 3 4
*
| | | |
*
| | | | Negative Supply
*
| | | Positive Supply
*
| | Input
*
| Output
*
********************************************************************************
* Software License Agreement
*
*
*
* The software supplied herewith by Microchip Technology Incorporated (the
*
* 'Company') is intended and supplied to you, the Company's customer, for use *
* soley and exclusively on Microchip products.
*
*
*
* The software is owned by the Company and/or its supplier, and is protected
*
* under applicable copyright laws. All rights are reserved. Any use in
*
* violation of the foregoing restrictions may subject the user to criminal
*
* sanctions under applicable laws, as well as to civil liability for the
*
* breach of the terms and conditions of this license.
*
*
*
* THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED IN AN 'AS IS' CONDITION. NO WARRANTIES, WHETHER
*
* EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, IMPLIED
*
* WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE APPLY TO *
* THIS SOFTWARE. THE COMPANY SHALL NOT, IN ANY CIRCUMSTANCES, BE LIABLE FOR
*
* SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, FOR ANY REASON WHATSOEVER.
*
********************************************************************************
*
* The following MOSFET drivers are covered by this model:
*
3A Inverting Driver - TC4423A
*
* Polarity: Inverting
*
* Date of model creation: 11/14/2008
* Level of Model Creator: G
*
 2010 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS01327A-page 7
AN1327
* Revision History:
*
11/14/08 RAW Initial model creation
*
11/20/08 RAW Adjusts to rise/fall times
*
*
*
*
*
* Recommendations:
*
Use PSPICE (or SPICE 2G6; other simulators may require translation)
*
For a quick, effective design, use a combination of: data sheet
*
specs, bench testing, and simulations with this macromodel
*
For high impedance circuits, set GMIN=100F in the .OPTIONS statement
*
* Supported:
*
Typical performance for temperature range (-40 to 125) degrees Celsius
*
DC, AC, Transient, and Noise analyses.
*
Most specs, including: propgation delays, rise times, fall times, max sink/source current,
*
input thresholds, voltage ranges, supply current, ... , etc.
*
Temperature effects for Ibias, Iquiescent, output current, output
*
resistance,....,etc.
*
* Not Supported:
*
Some Variation in specs vs. Power Supply Voltage
*
Vos distribution, Ib distribution for Monte Carlo
*
Some Temperature analysis
*
Process variation
*
Behavior outside normal operating region
*
* Known Discrepancies in Model vs. Datasheet:
*
*
*
* Input Impedance/Clamp
R1 4
1
100MEG
C1 4
1
20.0P
G3 3
1
TABLE { V(3, 1) } ((-770M,-1.00)(-700M,-10.0M)(-630M,-1.00N)(0,0)(20.0,1.00N))
G4 1
4
TABLE { V(1, 4) } ((-5.94,-1.00)(-5.4,-10.0M)(-4.86,-1.00N)(0,0)(20.0,1.00N))
* Threshold
G11 0
30
TABLE { V(1, 11) } ( (-1m,10n)(0,0)(0.78,-.1)(1.25,-1)(2,-1) )
G12 0
30
TABLE {V(1,12)} ( (-2,1)(-1.2,1)(-0.6,.1)(0,0)(1,-10n))
G21 0
11
TABLE { V(3, 4) } ((0,1.35)(4.00,1.35)(6.00,1.5)(10.0,1.48)(13.0,1.49)(16.0,1.5))
G22 0
12
TABLE { V(3, 4) } ((0,1.35)(4.00,1.16)(6.00,1.25)(10.0,1.24)(13.0,1.24)(16.0,1.25))
R21 0
11
1 TC 504U 2.33U
R22 0
12
1 TC 231U -103N
C30 30
0
1n
* HL Circuit
G31 0
31
TABLE { V(3, 4) } ((0,170)(4.5,80)(10.0,46.2)(12.0,39.1)(14.0,35.8)(18.0,35.1))
R31 31
0
1 TC 2.42M -3.91U
G33 0
30
TABLE { V(31, 30) } ( (-1M,-10)(0,0)(1,10N) )
S31 31
30 31 30 SS31
* LH Circuit
G32 32
0
TABLE { V(3, 4) }
((0,190)(4.5,52)(5,67)(10.0,41.0)(12.0,38.6)(14.0,34.5)(18.0,36.8))
R32 0
32
1 TC 2.50M 1.09U
G34 30
0
TABLE { V(30, 32) } ( (-1M,-10)(0,0)(1,10N) )
R30 32
30
1MEG
* DRIVE
G51 0
50
TABLE { V(30, 0) } ( (-5,-1U)(-3,-1U)(0,0)(6,4)(18,4.1) )
G52 50
0
TABLE { V(0, 30) } ( (-5,-1U)(-3,-1U)(0,0)(6,3.5)(18,3.6) )
R53 0
50
1
G50 51
60
VALUE {V(50,0)*300M/(-700M+18.0/(V(3,4) + 1M))}
R51 51
0
1
G53 3
0
TABLE {V(51,0)} ((-100,100)(0,0)(1,1n))
G54 0
4
TABLE {V(0,51)} ((-100,100)(0,0)(1,1n))
DS01327A-page 8
 2010 Microchip Technology Inc.
AN1327
R60 0
60
100MEG
H67 0
69
V67 1
V67 60
59
0V
C60 561 60
1000P
R59 59
2
1.28
L59 59
2
5.0N
* Shoot-through adjustment
VC60 56 0 0V
RC60 56 561 1m
H60 58 0 VC60 56
G60P 0 3 TABLE { V(58, 0) } ((-1,-1u)(0,0)(20,0)(200,-2))
G60N 4 0 TABLE { V(0, 58) } ((-1,-1u)(0,0)(20,0)(200,-2))
* Source Output
E67 67
0
TABLE { V(69, 0) } ( (-4.5,-4.5)(0,0)(1,2.00) )
G63 0
63
POLY(1) 3 4 6.81 -439M 12.9M
R63 0
63
1 TC 3.45M -4.18U
E61 61
65
VALUE {V(67,0)*V(63,0)}
V63 65
3
100U
G61 61
60
TABLE { V(61, 60) } (-20.0M,-450)(-15.0M,-225)(-10.0M,-45.0)(0,0)(10,1N))
* Sink Output
E68 68
0
TABLE { V(69, 0) } ( (-1,-2.00)(0,0)(4.5,4.5) )
G64 0
64
POLY(1) 3 4 6.49 -455M 12.6M
R64 0
64
1 TC 3.18M -5.83U
E62 62
66
VALUE {V(68,0)*V(64,0)}
V64 66
4
100U
G62 60
62
TABLE { V(60, 62) } (-20.0M,-450)(-15.0M,-225)(-10.0M,-45.0)(0,0)(10,1N))
* Bias Current
G55 0
55
TABLE { V(3, 4) } ((0,0)(4.5,75.0U)(10.0,97.5U)(14.0,120U)(18.0,145U))
G56 3
4
55 0 1
R55 55
0
1 TC 2.49M -16.9U
G57 0
57
TABLE { V(3, 4) } ((0,0)(4.5,35.0U)(10.0,37.5U)(14.0,40.0U)(18.0,40.0U))
G58 3
4
57 0 1
R57 57
0
1 TC 1.03M 15.4U
S59 55
0
1 0 SS59
* Models
.MODEL SS59 VSWITCH Roff=1m Ron=100Meg Voff=1.2V Von=1.5V
.MODEL SS31 VSWITCH Roff=100MEG Ron=800 Voff=0.2V Von=0.1V
.ENDS
 2010 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS01327A-page 9
AN1327
NOTES:
DS01327A-page 10
 2010 Microchip Technology Inc.
Note the following details of the code protection feature on Microchip devices:
•
Microchip products meet the specification contained in their particular Microchip Data Sheet.
•
Microchip believes that its family of products is one of the most secure families of its kind on the market today, when used in the
intended manner and under normal conditions.
•
There are dishonest and possibly illegal methods used to breach the code protection feature. All of these methods, to our
knowledge, require using the Microchip products in a manner outside the operating specifications contained in Microchip’s Data
Sheets. Most likely, the person doing so is engaged in theft of intellectual property.
•
Microchip is willing to work with the customer who is concerned about the integrity of their code.
•
Neither Microchip nor any other semiconductor manufacturer can guarantee the security of their code. Code protection does not
mean that we are guaranteeing the product as “unbreakable.”
Code protection is constantly evolving. We at Microchip are committed to continuously improving the code protection features of our
products. Attempts to break Microchip’s code protection feature may be a violation of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. If such acts
allow unauthorized access to your software or other copyrighted work, you may have a right to sue for relief under that Act.
Information contained in this publication regarding device
applications and the like is provided only for your convenience
and may be superseded by updates. It is your responsibility to
ensure that your application meets with your specifications.
MICROCHIP MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR
WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND WHETHER EXPRESS OR
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OTHERWISE, RELATED TO THE INFORMATION,
INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ITS CONDITION,
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intellectual property rights.
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Printed on recycled paper.
ISBN: 978-1-60932-266-3
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 2010 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS01327A-page 11
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Tel: 678-957-9614
Fax: 678-957-1455
Boston
Westborough, MA
Tel: 774-760-0087
Fax: 774-760-0088
Chicago
Itasca, IL
Tel: 630-285-0071
Fax: 630-285-0075
Cleveland
Independence, OH
Tel: 216-447-0464
Fax: 216-447-0643
Dallas
Addison, TX
Tel: 972-818-7423
Fax: 972-818-2924
Detroit
Farmington Hills, MI
Tel: 248-538-2250
Fax: 248-538-2260
Kokomo
Kokomo, IN
Tel: 765-864-8360
Fax: 765-864-8387
Los Angeles
Mission Viejo, CA
Tel: 949-462-9523
Fax: 949-462-9608
Santa Clara
Santa Clara, CA
Tel: 408-961-6444
Fax: 408-961-6445
Toronto
Mississauga, Ontario,
Canada
Tel: 905-673-0699
Fax: 905-673-6509
Australia - Sydney
Tel: 61-2-9868-6733
Fax: 61-2-9868-6755
China - Beijing
Tel: 86-10-8528-2100
Fax: 86-10-8528-2104
China - Chengdu
Tel: 86-28-8665-5511
Fax: 86-28-8665-7889
Korea - Daegu
Tel: 82-53-744-4301
Fax: 82-53-744-4302
China - Chongqing
Tel: 86-23-8980-9588
Fax: 86-23-8980-9500
Korea - Seoul
Tel: 82-2-554-7200
Fax: 82-2-558-5932 or
82-2-558-5934
China - Hong Kong SAR
Tel: 852-2401-1200
Fax: 852-2401-3431
Malaysia - Kuala Lumpur
Tel: 60-3-6201-9857
Fax: 60-3-6201-9859
China - Nanjing
Tel: 86-25-8473-2460
Fax: 86-25-8473-2470
Malaysia - Penang
Tel: 60-4-227-8870
Fax: 60-4-227-4068
China - Qingdao
Tel: 86-532-8502-7355
Fax: 86-532-8502-7205
Philippines - Manila
Tel: 63-2-634-9065
Fax: 63-2-634-9069
China - Shanghai
Tel: 86-21-5407-5533
Fax: 86-21-5407-5066
Singapore
Tel: 65-6334-8870
Fax: 65-6334-8850
China - Shenyang
Tel: 86-24-2334-2829
Fax: 86-24-2334-2393
Taiwan - Hsin Chu
Tel: 886-3-6578-300
Fax: 886-3-6578-370
China - Shenzhen
Tel: 86-755-8203-2660
Fax: 86-755-8203-1760
Taiwan - Kaohsiung
Tel: 886-7-536-4818
Fax: 886-7-536-4803
China - Wuhan
Tel: 86-27-5980-5300
Fax: 86-27-5980-5118
Taiwan - Taipei
Tel: 886-2-2500-6610
Fax: 886-2-2508-0102
China - Xian
Tel: 86-29-8833-7252
Fax: 86-29-8833-7256
Thailand - Bangkok
Tel: 66-2-694-1351
Fax: 66-2-694-1350
Italy - Milan
Tel: 39-0331-742611
Fax: 39-0331-466781
Netherlands - Drunen
Tel: 31-416-690399
Fax: 31-416-690340
Spain - Madrid
Tel: 34-91-708-08-90
Fax: 34-91-708-08-91
UK - Wokingham
Tel: 44-118-921-5869
Fax: 44-118-921-5820
China - Xiamen
Tel: 86-592-2388138
Fax: 86-592-2388130
China - Zhuhai
Tel: 86-756-3210040
Fax: 86-756-3210049
01/05/10
DS01327A-page 12
 2010 Microchip Technology Inc.
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