AN 1974

AN1974
Introduction to USB Power Delivery Over the
USB Type-C™ Cable
Author:
Andrew Rogers & Josh Averyt
Microchip Technology Inc.
INTRODUCTION
The USB Power Delivery revision 2.0 specification details how the Power Delivery (PD) protocol truly “unlocks” the
advanced features of the USB Type-C™ cable. Power Delivery protocol allows port-to-port communication that provides
mechanisms for: negotiating power roles, negotiating power sourcing and consumption levels, performing active cable
identification, exchanging vendor specific sideband messaging, and performing Alternate Mode negotiation allowing 3rd
party communication protocols to be routed onto the USB Type-C cable’s reconfigurable pins.
If you are not yet familiar with the USB Type-C, please refer to Application Note AN1953 “Introduction to USB TypeC™” before reading this document.
SECTIONS
Section 1.0, General Information
Section 2.0, USB PD Protocol Layer
Section 3.0, PD Physical Layer
Section 4.0, Cable Identification
Section 5.0, Power and Data Negotiation
Section 6.0, Alternate Modes
REFERENCES
This document is an introduction to USB Power Delivery 2.0 and is not intended to be a replacement to the official specification. Consult the following specifications for technical details not described in this document.
•
•
•
•
•
•
USB Type-C™ Specification
USB Power Delivery 2.0 Specification
USB 2.0 Specification
USB 3.0 Specification
USB 3.1 Specification
USB Battery Charging BC1.2
GLOSSARY
DFP - “Downstream Facing Port”. A USB host-side port or hub downstream port.
UFP - “Upstream Facing Port”. A USB device-side port or hub upstream connection.
DRP - “Dual Role Port”. A USB port that may operate as either a DFP or a UFP.
Source - The provider of VBUS power in a USB connection.
Sink - The consumer of VBUS power in a USB connection.
USB PD - Abbreviation of USB Power Delivery.
SOP* - The Start of Frame field in a USB Power Delivery packet indicates the intended recipient of the packet.
VCONN - the dedicated power supply rail for cables and accessories.
USB-IF - USB Implementers Forum. A non-profit corporation found by the group of companies that developed USB.
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1.0
GENERAL INFORMATION
The USB Type-C cable is a reversible 24-pin interconnect created by the USB-IF. The USB Type-C™ specification was
first released in August 2014. Power Delivery revision 2.0 is a overhaul of the specification to provide compatibility for
the new USB Type-C™ specification. Power Delivery revision 2.0 protocol is what truly unlocks the advanced capabilities of the USB Type-C. These features include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Elevated VBUS voltage and current capability.
Dynamic power contract renegotiation.
Dynamic power role swapping
Dynamic Data Role Swapping
Electronically Marked Cable Identification
Alternate Modes
1.1
Elevated VBUS Voltage and Current Capability
A standard USB Type-C connection allows for up to 15W (5V at 3A) of power without USB Power Delivery messaging.
If Power Delivery messaging is implemented, power levels provided across the cable can be extended beyond the 15W.
By default all passive USB Type-C cables support up to 60W of power (20V at 3A). This can be extended up to 100W
(20V at 5A) with electronically marked cables that are identified as either an active cable or one that is capable of
extended current capability.
See Section 5.0, Power and Data Negotiation for additional details.
1.2
Dynamic Power Contract Renegotiation
USB Power Delivery messaging can be used to dynamically change the power negotiation to any values in the ranges
5V-20V and 0A-5A at any time during a USB Type-C connection.
See Section 5.0, Power and Data Negotiation for additional details.
1.3
Dynamic Power Role Swapping
The roles of power source and power sink may also be changed dynamically via USB Power Delivery messaging. A
Source or a Sink may request at any time to change roles.
See Section 5.0, Power and Data Negotiation for additional details.
1.4
Dynamic Data Role Swapping
Either a DFP or UFP may request a data role swap at any time over USB Power Delivery messaging. If the request is
accepted by the port partner, the data roles will be reversed. Note that the power role (source/sink) is not affected by a
data role swap.
See Section 5.0, Power and Data Negotiation for additional details.
1.5
Electronically-Marked Cable Identification
USB Type-C cables may or may not be electronically marked. Electronically marked cables may also send and receive
USB Power Delivery messages to communicate specific attributes.
See Section 4.0, Cable Identification for additional details.
1.6
Alternate Mode
The USB Type-C™ specification allows for additional independently defined and organized specifications which allow
for alternate protocols to be transmitted on the USB Type-C cable. There are no specific limitations on Alternate Modes
provided the USB Type-C cable can support it and a USB2.0 and USB Power Delivery connection is maintained.
See Section 6.0, Alternate Modes for additional details.
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2.0
USB PD PROTOCOL LAYER
The general anatomy of a USB Power Delivery packet is shown in Figure 1 below.
FIGURE 1:
Preamble
POWER DELIVERY PROTOCOL PACKET FORMAT
SOP*
Header
Byte 0
Byte 1
Byte n-1
Byte n
CRC
EOP
Provided by Protocol Layer
Provided by Physical Layer, 4b5b encoded
Provided by Physical Layer, not encoded
2.1
Preamble
Every USB Power Delivery packet begins with a 64-bit sequence of alternating 0s and 1s. This preamble is used to train
the receiver and achieve lock.
2.2
Start of Packet (SOP*) Signaling
The Start of Packet field typically also indicates the intended recipient. Some fundamental commands can also be sent
through the SOP* field. These addresses/commands are collectively called SOP*. Table 1 below defines the SOP signaling.
TABLE 1:
SOP* SIGNALING DEFINITIONS
Name
Value
Use
SOP
11000 11000 11000 10001
Communication to UFP
SOP’
11000 11000 00110 00110
Communication to USB Type-C Plug
Side A
SOP’’
11000 00110 11000 00110
Communication to USB Type-C Plug
Side B
Hard Reset
00111 00111 00111 11001
Resets logic in all connected PD devices
(UFP and/or Active/Electronically
Marked Cable)
Cable Reset
00111 11000 00111 00110
Reset for only Active/Electronically
Marked Cable.
SOP’_Debug
11000 11001 11001 00110
Used for debug of USB Type-C Plug
Side A
SOP’’_Debug
11000 11001 00110 10001
Used for debug of USB Type-C Plug
Side B
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FIGURE 2:
SOP* SIGNALING
DFP
UFP
ELECTRONICALLY MARKED CABLE
CABLE PLUG
CABLE PLUG
SOP’
SOP’’
SOP
Note:
2.3
SOP’ is assigned to one plug of the cable while SOP’’ is assigned to the other. The cable plugs cannot tell
which side that they are connected to, just that one end may respond to SOP’ addressed messages and
the other may respond SOP’’ addressed messages.
Header
Every USB Power Delivery message begins with a 16-bit header. The header contains basic information including the
length of the data to follow. The header may also be used as a standalone control message if the data length field is zero.
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3.0
PD PHYSICAL LAYER
Every USB Power Delivery device must have a PD physical layer that contains both a transmitter and a receiver. All
power delivery communication occurs at half duplex over the CC (Configuration Channel) wire on the USB Type-C
cable. The DFP is the Bus Master and initiates all communication.
3.1
Transmitter
The transmitter performs the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Receive raw (non-encoded) packet data from protocol layer.
Calculate a CRC and append to end of data packet.
Encode the whole packet (with CRC) in 4b5b encoding.
Transmit the entire packet (preamble, SOP*, data payload, CRC, and EOP)
FIGURE 3:
PD TRANSMITTER
Packet
From
Protocol
Layer
3.2
4b5b
Encoder
CRC
Generator
To CC
Wire
Transmitter
Receiver
The receiver performs the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Recovers clock from the packet preamble.
Detect SOP*
Decode from 4b5b to raw data (included CRC)
Detect EOP and validate CRC. If valid, delver packet to protocol layer. If invalid, flush data.
FIGURE 4:
From CC
Wire
3.3
PD RECEIVER
Receiver
SOP*
Detect
4b5b
Decoder
EOP
Detect
+
CRC Check
CRC =
Good
CRC =
Bad
To
Protocol
Layer
Flush
Data
BMC Signaling
All messages are Biphase Mark Coding (BMC), a modification of Manchester coding where a ‘zero’ has one transition
and a ‘one’ has two transitions. All messages occur at a 300k Baud rate. The signaling is effectively DC balanced with
a nominal voltage swing of 1.125V.
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FIGURE 5:
Data In
BMC SIGNALING
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
Before
Encoding
BMC
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4.0
CABLE IDENTIFICATION
The USB Type-C™ specification introduced VCONN, the dedicated power supply rail for cables and accessories with
electronic marker ICs embedded within. Cables which contain electronic markers must terminate their VCONN line with
value Ra (1 kΩ) in order to allow the USB Type-C Source (which is also the default DFP upon initial connection) to detect
that an electronic marker is present, and source VCONN power in addition to VBUS power.
In particular, active cables (those that include signal conditioning electronics) and cables supporting VBUS currents in
excess of 3A are required to include the electronic marker, for storing vendor and other feature details of these cables.
Collectively, these details are called the “Identity”.
If the USB Type-C Source is USB PD-enabled, then before any power negotiation begins, the Source should discover
the cable’s Identity as described by the following sequence:
1.
2.
3.
Source sends Discover Identity command message to SOP’ (see Section 2.2, Start of Packet (SOP*) Signaling), directing the message to the cable’s electronic marker.
The SOP’ device responds with GoodCRC to confirm proper receipt of the Discover Identity command.
The SOP’ device then sends a Discover Identity ACK response back to the Source, with its Identity information
enclosed. This message contains a header and 160 bits of description data for the cable.
Note:
4.
The exact detail of this Discover Identity data is beyond the scope of this application note but to summarize,
the data contains fields describing the following:
- USB Vendor ID and Product ID
- USB Test ID (for USB certification traceability)
- Product Hardware & Firmware Revisions
- Interconnect Type (USB Type-C Plug or Receptacle)
- Cable Latency (specified in nanoseconds)
- Cable Terminations
- SuperSpeed Data Directionality
- VBUS Current Handling Capability (3 or 5 Amps)
- USB SuperSpeed Signaling Capability (Gen 1/Gen 2)
- Modes Supported? (Boolean, can prompt further Discovery queries)
The Source responds with GoodCRC and then evaluates the contents of the Identity.
Not all USB Power Delivery-capable ports are necessarily sensitive to all the details returned by an active cable. However, ports designed to be able to supply more than 3 A of current must confirm the cable is designated with the 5 A
current capability. Based upon that evaluation, the USB Power Delivery port knows whether or not to “advertise” any
power profiles to its port partner which exceed 3 A.
Note:
By USB Type-C™ specification, if there is no electronic marker detected and/or no response from the
cable, then it must be assumed that the cable is only capable of supporting current up to 3 A.
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5.0
POWER AND DATA NEGOTIATION
In classic USB, the DFP was always the Source and the UFP was always the Sink. However, products which implement
USB Power Delivery protocol can dynamically negotiate the following:
• Increasing/decreasing voltage
- Sink may request & sink power from the Source at voltages ranging 5-20 V if both the Source and Sink support it.
• Increasing/decreasing current
- Sink may request & sink power from the Source at currents ranging 0-5 A if the Source, Sink, and cable support it.
Note:
The above voltage and current range allows for up to a 100 W power connection between two USB PD
products.
• Power Role Swap (PR_SWAP)
- Original Source (for VBUS) may “swap” to Sink role, and vice versa. When a power role swap occurs, VBUS
is discharged to 0 V by the old Source, prior to the new Source driving VBUS, in order to prevent unsafe
power scenarios.
• Data Role Swap (DR_SWAP)
- Original DFP/Host may “swap” to UFP/Device role, and vice versa. The partner with the DFP role becomes
the USB PD bus master, in addition to the assumed role as USB Host.
• VCONN Swap (VCONN_SWAP)
- Original Source may “swap” its VCONN source responsibility with the Sink.
After the default power and data roles are designated upon USB Type-C connection between two port partners [refer
to Application Note (AN 1953) “Introduction to USB Type-C™” for further clarification], these additional power and data
negotiations may take place over USB PD protocol when both partners are USB PD-capable, and an explicit power contract has been established between them.
To determine if the default Sink device is USB PD-capable, the default Source attempts to enter an explicit USB PD
power contract with the Sink as the following sequence describes:
1.
2.
3.
The Source sends a Source_Capabilities USB PD message to the Sink which includes a menu of available
VBUS power supply options (the first option must be the 5 V default VBUS supply, but may also include up to 6
additional power options).
A USB PD-capable Sink will respond first with a GoodCaRC message to confirm proper receipt of the Source_Capabilities.
The Sink replies with a Request message indicating which of the power supply options it prefers to use.
Note:
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
At this point in the transaction, the Source knows the Sink is USB PD-capable and continues with the
explicit contract negotiation.
The Source responds with a GoodCRC message and verifies the Request is valid.
The Source sends an Accept message to the Sink.
The Sink replies with GoodCRC
The Source transitions its power supply to the requested voltage level and current limit. When the power supply
is transitioned, the Source sends a PS_RDY (power supply ready) message to the Sink.
The Sink replies with GoodCRC and begins to sink power under the explicit contract’s voltage and current allocation.
Note:
This example describes the USB PD communications between port partners in terms of Source and Sink
because no Power Role Swap or Data Role Swap have previously occurred in the session and are therefore still in their default USB Type-C roles. Therefore we can equate the Source as the DFP, and the Sink
as the UFP.
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6.0
ALTERNATE MODES
Alternate Modes allow the USB Type-C cable to be reconfigured to support 3rd party (e.g. standards groups or vendors)
protocols. This feature is enabled only if both ports support the USB Power Delivery protocol and are both compatible
with the specific Alternate Mode.
As long as the cable can support the 3rd party protocol signaling while maintaining a USB2.0 connection and USB
Power Delivery connection, then the Alternate Mode can be implemented. The USB Type-C and USB Power Delivery
specifications do not define any Alternate Modes themselves; Each 3rd party must maintain its own USB Type-C Alternate Mode specification.
Alternate Mode negotiation is performed via USB Power Delivery protocol between port partners after Alternate mode
compatibility is realized using the Discovery messages (Discover Identity, Discover SVIDs, and Discover Modes).
6.1
Reconfigurable Pins
All Alternate Modes must minimally maintain a USB2.0 and USB Power Delivery connection. The following pins/wires
may be reconfigured for the use with the Alternate Mode.
FIGURE 6:
RECONFIGURABLE PINS ON A FULL FEATURED CABLE
A12
A11
A10
A9
A8
GND RX2+ RX2- VBUS SBU1
A7
D-
A6
D+
GND TX2+ TX2- VBUS VCONN
B1
FIGURE 7:
B2
B3
B4
B5
A4
A3
A2
A1
CC VBUS TX1- TX1+ GND
SBU2 VBUS RX1- RX1+ GND
B6
B7
B8
B9
B10
B11
B12
RECONFIGURABLE PINS ON A DIRECT CONNECT APPLICATION
A12
A11
A10
A9
A8
GND RX2+ RX2- VBUS SBU1
A7
D-
A6
D+
GND TX2+ TX2- VBUS VCONN
B1
6.2
A5
B2
B3
B4
B5
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
CC VBUS TX1- TX1+ GND
SBU2 VBUS RX1- RX1+ GND
B6
B7
B8
B9
B10
B11
B12
Alternate Mode Example: DisplayPort
DisplayPort was one of the first 3rd party standards (as defined by VESA) to be specified as a USB Type-C Alternate
Mode. The DisplayPort Alternate Mode supports the following modes of operation:
• (2) DisplayPort lanes + (1) USB3.1 lane
• (4) DisplayPort lanes
FIGURE 8:
(2) DISPLAY PORT LANES + (1) USB3.1 LANE EXAMPLE
A12
A11
A10
A9
A8
GND DP1- DP0+ VBUS AUX+
A7
D-
A6
D+
GND DP1+ DP0- VBUS VCONN
B1
B2
 2015 Microchip Technology Inc.
B3
B4
B5
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
CC VBUS TX1- TX1+ GND
AUX- VBUS RX1- RX1+ GND
B6
B7
B8
B9
B10
B11
B12
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6.2.1
STRUCTURED VENDOR DEFINED MESSAGES (SVDM) FOR DISPLAYPORT
Structured Vendor Defined Messages or SVDMs are a class of USB Power Delivery messages which enable nonpower-related messages to be communicated between port partners. These messages serve a variety of use-cases
including discovery of port partner and cable identity (as described in Section 4.0, Cable Identification), the discovery
of supported Alternate Modes (by use of similar Discover SVIDs (Standards/Vendor ID) and Discover Modes commands), and exchange of messages specific to Alternate Modes, once those modes are explicitly negotiated.
DisplayPort’s Alternate Mode specification defines three primary SVDMs:
• DisplayPort Capabilities
This message contains what the UFP’s DisplayPort capabilities are (number of DisplayPort lanes supported),
USB support, connector type (plug/receptacle), and pin assignments supported.
• DisplayPort Configure
This message is a command which tells the UFP to reconfigure for a specific DisplayPort pin assignment, reconfigure to operate as a DisplayPort Source or DisplayPort Sink, and which signaling type to use (USB 3.1 Gen 2
vs. DisplayPort v1.3)
• DisplayPort Status
This message is used to convey: DisplayPort connection state, DisplayPort Hot Plug Detect (HPD) state (High/
Low/IRQ), USB mode enabled/disabled, DisplayPort mode enabled/disabled, DisplayPort adapter power status,
and whether there is a pending request to exit DisplayPort Alternate Mode.
The HPD state feature of this DisplayPort Status SVDM is worth noting because in classic DisplayPort, HPD is
a dedicated signal that is connected through the DisplayPort cable between the DisplayPort Source and Sink.
However, there were not enough reconfigurable pins in the USB Type-C cable to accommodate this signal.
Therefore, the DisplayPort specification committee designed this Alternate Mode so that the HPD signal would
be bridged between the DisplayPort Source and Sink via USB Power Delivery protocol.
The DisplayPort Sink drives the HPD pin, and the UFP’s USB Power Delivery controller detects that state,
encodes it in a DisplayPort Status message for receipt by the DFP. The DFP then regenerates the HPD pin state
locally for the DisplayPort Source, therefore completing a virtual circuit which is backward compatible with legacy
DisplayPort ASICs.
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 2015 Microchip Technology Inc.
AN1974
APPENDIX A:
TABLE A-1:
APPLICATION NOTE REVISION HISTORY
REVISION HISTORY
Revision Level & Date
Note:
Section/Figure/Entry
Correction
AN1974, Revision A replaces the previous SMSC version.
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AN1974
Note the following details of the code protection feature on Microchip devices:
•
Microchip products meet the specification contained in their particular Microchip Data Sheet.
•
Microchip believes that its family of products is one of the most secure families of its kind on the market today, when used in the
intended manner and under normal conditions.
•
There are dishonest and possibly illegal methods used to breach the code protection feature. All of these methods, to our
knowledge, require using the Microchip products in a manner outside the operating specifications contained in Microchip’s Data
Sheets. Most likely, the person doing so is engaged in theft of intellectual property.
•
Microchip is willing to work with the customer who is concerned about the integrity of their code.
•
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mean that we are guaranteeing the product as “unbreakable.”
Code protection is constantly evolving. We at Microchip are committed to continuously improving the code protection features of our
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DS00001974A-page 13
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Indianapolis
Noblesville, IN
Tel: 317-773-8323
Fax: 317-773-5453
Los Angeles
Mission Viejo, CA
Tel: 949-462-9523
Fax: 949-462-9608
New York, NY
Tel: 631-435-6000
San Jose, CA
Tel: 408-735-9110
Canada - Toronto
Tel: 905-673-0699
Fax: 905-673-6509
China - Dongguan
Tel: 86-769-8702-9880
China - Hangzhou
Tel: 86-571-8792-8115
Fax: 86-571-8792-8116
India - Pune
Tel: 91-20-3019-1500
Japan - Osaka
Tel: 81-6-6152-7160
Fax: 81-6-6152-9310
Japan - Tokyo
Tel: 81-3-6880- 3770
Fax: 81-3-6880-3771
Korea - Daegu
Tel: 82-53-744-4301
Fax: 82-53-744-4302
China - Hong Kong SAR
Tel: 852-2943-5100
Fax: 852-2401-3431
Korea - Seoul
Tel: 82-2-554-7200
Fax: 82-2-558-5932 or
82-2-558-5934
China - Nanjing
Tel: 86-25-8473-2460
Fax: 86-25-8473-2470
Malaysia - Kuala Lumpur
Tel: 60-3-6201-9857
Fax: 60-3-6201-9859
China - Qingdao
Tel: 86-532-8502-7355
Fax: 86-532-8502-7205
Malaysia - Penang
Tel: 60-4-227-8870
Fax: 60-4-227-4068
China - Shanghai
Tel: 86-21-5407-5533
Fax: 86-21-5407-5066
Philippines - Manila
Tel: 63-2-634-9065
Fax: 63-2-634-9069
China - Shenyang
Tel: 86-24-2334-2829
Fax: 86-24-2334-2393
Singapore
Tel: 65-6334-8870
Fax: 65-6334-8850
China - Shenzhen
Tel: 86-755-8864-2200
Fax: 86-755-8203-1760
Taiwan - Hsin Chu
Tel: 886-3-5778-366
Fax: 886-3-5770-955
China - Wuhan
Tel: 86-27-5980-5300
Fax: 86-27-5980-5118
Taiwan - Kaohsiung
Tel: 886-7-213-7828
China - Xian
Tel: 86-29-8833-7252
Fax: 86-29-8833-7256
Germany - Karlsruhe
Tel: 49-721-625370
Germany - Munich
Tel: 49-89-627-144-0
Fax: 49-89-627-144-44
Italy - Milan
Tel: 39-0331-742611
Fax: 39-0331-466781
Italy - Venice
Tel: 39-049-7625286
Netherlands - Drunen
Tel: 31-416-690399
Fax: 31-416-690340
Poland - Warsaw
Tel: 48-22-3325737
Spain - Madrid
Tel: 34-91-708-08-90
Fax: 34-91-708-08-91
Sweden - Stockholm
Tel: 46-8-5090-4654
UK - Wokingham
Tel: 44-118-921-5800
Fax: 44-118-921-5820
Taiwan - Taipei
Tel: 886-2-2508-8600
Fax: 886-2-2508-0102
Thailand - Bangkok
Tel: 66-2-694-1351
Fax: 66-2-694-1350
07/14/15
DS00001974A-page 14
 2015 Microchip Technology Inc.
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