AN200 - Low Cost FM Radio LNA using BFR340F (Mobile Phone Applications)

L o w C o s t F M R a d i o L NA u s i n g
BFR340 F
Mobile Phone Applications
App lication No te AN200
Revision 1.1, 2010-08-17
RF and Protect i on Devi ces
Edition 2010-08-17
Published by
Infineon Technologies AG
81726 Munich, Germany
© 2010 Infineon Technologies AG
All Rights Reserved.
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Information
For further information on technology, delivery terms and conditions and prices, please contact the nearest
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be endangered.
Low Cost FM Radio LNA
BFR340F
Application Note AN200
Revision History: 2010-08-17, Revision 1.1
Previous Revision: 1.0
Page
Subjects (major changes since last revision)
11
ESD Appendix text changed
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MUSLIC™, my-d™, NovalithIC™, OCTALFALC™, OCTAT™, OmniTune™, OmniVia™, OptiMOS™,
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SINDRION™, SLIC™, SMARTi™, SmartLEWIS™, SMINT™, SOCRATES™, TEMPFET™, thinQ!™,
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Other Trademarks
AMBA™, ARM™, MULTI-ICE™, PRIMECELL™, REALVIEW™, THUMB™ of ARM Limited, UK. AUTOSAR™ is
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COLOSSUS™, FirstGPS™ of Trimble Navigation Ltd. EMV™ of EMVCo, LLC (Visa Holdings Inc.). EPCOS™ of
Epcos AG. FLEXGO™ of Microsoft Corporation. FlexRay™ is licensed by FlexRay Consortium.
HYPERTERMINAL™ of Hilgraeve Incorporated. IEC™ of Commission Electrotechnique Internationale. IrDA™ of
Infrared Data Association Corporation. ISO™ of INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION.
MATLAB™ of MathWorks, Inc. MAXIM™ of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc. MICROTEC™, NUCLEUS™ of
Mentor Graphics Corporation. Mifare™ of NXP. MIPI™ of MIPI Alliance, Inc. MIPS™ of MIPS Technologies, Inc.,
USA. muRata™ of MURATA MANUFACTURING CO. OmniVision™ of OmniVision Technologies, Inc.
Openwave™ Openwave Systems Inc. RED HAT™ Red Hat, Inc. RFMD™ RF Micro Devices, Inc. SIRIUS™ of
Sirius Sattelite Radio Inc. SOLARIS™ of Sun Microsystems, Inc. SPANSION™ of Spansion LLC Ltd. Symbian™
of Symbian Software Limited. TAIYO YUDEN™ of Taiyo Yuden Co. TEAKLITE™ of CEVA, Inc. TEKTRONIX™
of Tektronix Inc. TOKO™ of TOKO KABUSHIKI KAISHA TA. UNIX™ of X/Open Company Limited. VERILOG™,
PALLADIUM™ of Cadence Design Systems, Inc. VLYNQ™ of Texas Instruments Incorporated. VXWORKS™,
WIND RIVER™ of WIND RIVER SYSTEMS, INC. ZETEX™ of Diodes Zetex Limited.
Last Trademarks Update 2009-10-19
Application Note AN200
3
Revision 1.1, 2010-08-17
Low Cost FM Radio LNA
BFR340F
Introduction
1
Introduction
FM Radio has a long history to its credit starting from its development in 1933. Today, FM radio is an integral part
of almost all mobile phones, including the ultra low cost phones. FM Radio broadcast today is not just used to listen
to songs and news, but also used for RDS (Radio Data System) to receive various services including TMC (Traffic
Message Channel) which gives traffic information for navigation purposes. In addition, some handsets are being
equipped with FM Radio transimission capability to send voice signals to car audio systems or Hi-Fi systems.
Therefore, FM system design in a phone is getting more and more complex. Till recently, the headset served as
the antenna for FM Radio reception, wherein the antenna size is a bit relaxed and the antenna performance is
satisfactory. A new trend has emerged to be able to use FM radio also without the headset, wherein the antenna
embedded into the phone. But in this case, the space constraint poses a challenge on the antenna design.
Shrinking the size of the antenna reduces antenna gain and bandwidth, which introduces a high loss into the
system which deteriorates the receiver performance, namely the receiver sensitivity. This application note
presents Infineon solution to the aforementioned challenges leading to the design of a high performance RF
front end with the lowest power consumption.
A general topology for the RF front-end of FM Radio is as shown in Figure 1. Variations of the given application
schematic are possible based on the complete system design and concept. These may include systems with only
external headset antenna, only internal embedded antenna or both antennas co-existing. Infineon offers the
complete chain of RF front-end parts between the antenna and the receiver IC for FM Radio, which include ESD
protection devices, RF switches and LNAs. The focus of this application note is Low Noise Amplifier for FMR.
A ESD protection circuit is needed at the antenna to protect the front-end system from ESD strikes, as the antenna
is susceptible to ESD events. More details and Infineon solutions for ESD protection can be found in Appendix 1.
A Single Pole Double Throw or SPDT RF switch is used to toggle between the headset and embedded antenna.
The switch being in front of the LNA and in the vicinity of strong cellular signals should introduce minimal loss to
the system and offer high linearity. To know more about Infineon solutions for RF Switches, please refer to
Reference [2].
Headset
Antenna
ESD
Protection
SPDT
LNA
FM Transceiver
IC
Rx
Embedded
Antenna
Figure 1
ESD
Protection
FM_Application _Diagram .vsd
FM Radio RF Front-End schematic
A Low Noise Amplifier or LNA follows the switch, which significantly reduces the noise figure of the whole receiver
chain, thereby improving the receiver sensitivity. However, there are a few challenges in the design of the LNA for
this purpose. Using it in a hand held device demands low current consumption and high linearity due to the coexistence of cellular bands. In a system with internal antenna, due to the very small size, the antenna impedance
is very high and thus the LNA has to be matched to this high impedance and in addition offer a low noise figure.
Application Note AN200
4
Revision 1.1, 2010-08-17
Low Cost FM Radio LNA
BFR340F
Infineon Solution
2
Infineon Solution
Infineon offers its LNA solution using a ultra low cost discrete transistor BFR340F, which fulfills all these
performance criteria. The LNA is designed for worldwide FM band (76-108 MHz). The LNA finds its application in
all kinds of mobile devices like mobile phones, PDAs, portable FM radio, MP3 players etc.
The following table gives a quick overview on the performance of the FM Antenna LNA described in this application
note.
Table 1
Electrical characteristics at
TA = 25°C, VCC = 1.8V, ICCq =2.9 mA, f = 100MHz
All measurements done in a 50 Ohm system
Parameter
Symbol
Values
Min.
Insertion power gain
|S21|
Input return loss1)
Output return loss
Typ.
2
Unit
Max.
15.5
dB
RLIN
1.0
dB
RLOUT
24.7
dB
ISO
42
dB
F50ohm
1.45
dB
Input 1dB gain
compression point
P-1dB,in
-27
dBm
Output 1dB gain
compression point
P-1dB,out
-12.2
dBm
Input 3rd Order Intercept
Point3)
IIP3
-16
dBm
-1.2
dBm
Isolation
Noise figure (Zs=50Ohm)
2)
Output 3rd Order Intercept OIP3
Point4)
1) LNA presents a high input impedance match over the 76-108 MHz FM radio band.
2) Does not include PCB and SMA connector losses
3) IP3 value depends on termination of all intermodulation frequency components. Termination used for the measurement is
50 Ω from 0.1 to 6 GHz
4) IP3 value depends on termination of all intermodulation frequency components. Termination used for the measurement is
50 Ω from 0.1 to 6 GHz
Application Note AN200
5
Revision 1.1, 2010-08-17
Low Cost FM Radio LNA
BFR340F
Application Circuit
3
Application Circuit
The FM Radio application schematic for the BFR340F is shown in Figure 2 and the function of each component
is explained in Table 2.
Vcc
1.8V
R3
10Ω
C3
R1
RFin
47n
33kΩ
R2
100Ω
BFR340F
C1
B
330 p
E
C
R4
C2
10Ω
330 p
RFout
L1
91n
C4
15p
N1
Appl_Ckt.vsd
Figure 2
Application schematic for FM Radio
Table 2
Bill of material
Component
Value
Manufacturer / Type
Function
N1
BFR340F Transistor
Infineon Technologies /
TSFP-3
LNA Active device
C1
330 pF
Various / 0402
DC blocking
C2
330 pF
Various / 0402
DC blocking
C3
47 nF
Various / 0402
DC stabilization
C4
15 pF
Various / 0402
Narrow-band output
matching for FMR
R1
33 kOhm
Various / 0402
Biasing
R2
100 Ohm
Various / 0402
Biasing, Matching,
Stability
R3
10 Ohm
Various / 0402
Biasing and DC operating
point stabilization over
temperature & transistor
hfevariation
R4
10 Ohm
Various / 0402
RF Stability
L1
91 nH
Wirewound / 0402
Narrow-band output
matching for FMR
Application Note AN200
6
Revision 1.1, 2010-08-17
Low Cost FM Radio LNA
BFR340F
Evaluation Board
4
Evaluation Board
To enable a fast and stand alone evaluation of the Application circuit described in this document, Infineon offers
an application board, which is as shown in the Figure 3.
PCB.vsd
Figure 3
Evaluation Board
The PCB cross-section of the evaluation board is shown in Figure 4.
Copper Top
FR4, 0.2mm
Copper Middle
Cu 35µm
FR4, 0.8 mm
Copper Bottom
Figure 4
PCB_Cross_Section.vsd
PCB Cross-section
Application Note AN200
7
Revision 1.1, 2010-08-17
Low Cost FM Radio LNA
BFR340F
Measurement Results
5
Measurement Results
This section presents the measurement results of the aforementioned application circuit on the evaluation board.
The measurements were performed at 25°C and include the losses of both SMA connectors and the PCB
microstrip lines.
5.1
Narrowband Results
Gain
17
16.5
DB(|S(2,1)|)
BFR340F_FM_LNA
16
15.5
15
14.5
14
70
80
90
Frequency (MHz)
100
110
NB_Gain .vsd
Figure 5
Power Gain (dB)
Return_Loss
0
DB(|S(1,1)|)
BFR340F_FM_LNA
-5
-10
DB(|S(2,2)|)
BFR340F_FM_LNA
-15
-20
-25
-30
-35
-40
-45
-50
70
Figure 6
80
90
Frequency (MHz)
100
110
RL.vsd
Input and Output Reflection Coefficient (dB)
Application Note AN200
8
Revision 1.1, 2010-08-17
Low Cost FM Radio LNA
BFR340F
Measurement Results
Most of the internal antennas for FM Radio are high ohmic and vary in their impedance value based on the antenna
design. Therefore, the LNA in this AN is designed to have high impedance at the input, which can be easily
matched to the desired antenna. The input impedance of the LNA is shown in Figure 7 for the FMR frequency
range.
Input Impedance
6
0 .8
1.0
Swp Max
110MHz
2.
0
0.
S(1,1)
BFR340F_FM_LNA
0.
3.
0
4
4.
10.0
10.0
4.0
5.0
3.0
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.2
0
2.0
70 MHz
r 172.264 Ohm
x -368.196 Ohm
0
5.0
-10.0
.0
Figure 7
Swp Min
70MHz
-1.0
- 0 .8
-0
.6
-2
.0
.4
-3
-0
110 MHz
r 82.9588 Ohm
x -245.459 Ohm
4
.0
-5.
0
2
-0.
Input-Smith.vsd
Input Reflection Coefficient
Isolation
-35
DB(|S(1,2)|)
BFR340F_FM_LNA
-40
-45
-50
70
Figure 8
80
90
Frequency (MHz)
100
110
Iso.vsd
Input to Output Isolation (dB)
Application Note AN200
9
Revision 1.1, 2010-08-17
Low Cost FM Radio LNA
BFR340F
Measurement Results
5.2
Wide-Band Results
Below is a graph depicting wide-band LNA characteristics up to 10 GHz.
DB(|S(1,1)|)
BFR340F_FM_LNA
DB(|S(2,2)|)
BFR340F_FM_LNA
DB(|S(2,1)|)
BFR340F_FM_LNA
DB(|S(1,2)|)
BFR340F_FM_LNA
WB_Results
20
0
-20
-40
-60100 MHz
0
Figure 9
2000
4000
6000
Frequency (MHz)
8000
10000
WB_ Results.vsd
Wide-Band: Gain, Input/Output Matching, Isolation
Stability
5
K()
BFR340F_FM_LNA
4
B1()
BFR340F_FM_LNA
3
2
1
0
0
Figure 10
2000
4000
6000
Frequency (MHz)
8000
10000
Stability.vsd
Stability Factor (necessary and sufficient condition for “Unconditional Stability”: k>1 & B1>0)
Application Note AN200
10
Revision 1.1, 2010-08-17
Low Cost FM Radio LNA
BFR340F
Appendix 1: ESD protection circuit for system level ESD robustness
Appendix 1: ESD protection circuit for system level ESD robustness
Introduction
With the advancement in miniaturization of semiconductor structures, ESD handling capability of the devices is
becoming a concern. Increasing ESD handling capability of the I/O ports costs additional chip size and affects the
I/O capacitance significantly. This is very important for high frequency devices, especially when high linearity is
required. Therefore, tailored and cost effective ESD protection devices can be used to build up an ESD protection
circuit. To handle ESD events during assembly, devices normally have on-chip ESD protection according to the
device level standards e.g. “Human Body Model” JEDEC 22-A-115. To fulfill the much more stringent system level
ESD requirements according to IEC61000-4-2 as shown in Figure 11, the external ESD protection circuit has to
handle the majority of the ESD strike. The best external ESD protection is achieved using a TVS diode assisted
by additional passive components.
ESD_current, A
60
m6
Reference Pulse
15kV contact discharge
according IEC61000-4-2
40
m6
time=1.507nsec
ESD_current=57.68 A
m7
time=30.01nsec
ESD_current=29.43 A
m7
m8
20
m8
time=60.01nsec
ESD_current=15.18 A
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
time, nsec
Figure 11
140
160
180
200
ESD_Pulse .vsd
ESD test pulse according to system level specification IEC61000-4-2 – Contact Discharge 15kV
Some examples of RF applications addressed by the Infineon ESD protection proposal are given below:
•
•
•
•
•
•
FM Radio (76 MHz -110 MHz)
WLAN 802.11b/g/n (2.4 GHz, Tx ~ +20 dBm)
Bluetooth (2.4 GHz, Tx ~ +20 dBm)
Automatic Meter Reading, AMR (900 MHz, TX ~ +20 dBm)
Remote Keyless Entry, RKE (315 MHz - 434 MHz - 868 MHz - 915 MHz, Tx~13 dBm)
GPS (1575 MHz, Rx only but can be affected by RF interferer)
For an ESD protection device tailored for medium power RF signals (=< +20 dBm), following requirements are
essential:
1. RF requirements
a) Bidirectional characteristic to handle DC free signals without clipping / signal distortion
b) A highly symmetrical behavior of the ESD device for positive and negative voltage swings is mandatory to
keep the power level of even Harmonics low
c) Breakdown voltage of 5 V-10V, to avoid signal distortion at high RF voltage swing applied at the TVS diode,
located close to the antenna
d) High linearity
e) Low leakage current and stable diode capacitance vs. RF voltage swing
f) Ultra low diode capacitance is mandatory
Application Note AN200
11
Revision 1.1, 2010-08-17
Low Cost FM Radio LNA
BFR340F
Appendix 1: ESD protection circuit for system level ESD robustness
2. ESD requirements:
a) Lowest dynamic resistance Rdyn to offer best protection for the RFIC; Rdyn is characterized by Transmission
Line Pulse (TLP) measurement
b) Very fast switch-on time (<<1nsec) to ground the initial peak of an ESD strike according to IEC61000-4-2
c) No performance degradation over a large number of ESD zaps (>1000
Two-step ESD Protection approach
General structure for a 2-step ESD approach according to Figure 12 enables to split the entire ESD current
between the internal and external ESD protection device. The external device is much more robust and handles
the majority of the ESD current. To avoid any impact on the RF behavior of the system and to minimize non
linearity effects, the TVS diode should possess an ultra low device capacitance.
Therefore the bi-directional (symmetrical) Infineon TVS Diode ESD0P2RF is well suited, which provides a diode
capacitance as low as 0.2 pF and a Rdyn of only 1 Ohm. The additional insertion loss in the 50 Ohm environment
caused by the ESD0p2RF is less than 0.05dB up to 3Ghz.
+ Vcc
Figure 12
PCB line or
Resistor
ESD current
Main ESD
curr ent
Internal
ESD
protection
External
ESD
Pprotection
U_ cla mp
e xtern
LNA/
Switch/
Filter
V_Clamp
Internal
OUT
Residual
ESD
current
ESD
strike
PCB- line
ESD_protection_1.vsd
Smart 2-step ESD protection approach based on external and internal ESD protection structure
For further ESD improvement it is highly recommend to add a serial capacitor (C1). The capacitor cuts off most of
the high energy created by the ESD strike. For an improved ESD robustness, C1 should be as small as possible,
but has to match to the intended application frequency as well. For a broadband ESD protection (80MHz…3GHz)
C1 should be about 150pF…50pF. Optional matching can be implemented with a serial inductor L1 for a dedicated
frequency. In combination with L1, C1 can be reduced significantly which improves the ESD performance further
more. The serial inductor should be a low Q type serving a (small) serial resistor which is helpful for the ESD
performance. An serial resistor of e.g. 2.2 Ohm costs 0.2dB IL, but limits the residual ESD current significant to
reduce the ESD stress for the IC input.
OUT
LNA/
Switch/
Filter
Internal
ESD
Protection
RF IC
input
C1
R1
Residual
ESD
current
ESD_protection_2b.vsd
Figure 13
RX antenna
Low Q inductor
or optional Resistor
L1
ESD Diode
Vcc
ESD current
Standard ESD protection topology with optional ESD resistor, blocking capacitor and a serial inductor
Application Note AN200
12
Revision 1.1, 2010-08-17
Low Cost FM Radio LNA
BFR340F
Appendix 1: ESD protection circuit for system level ESD robustness
Alternatively another TVS diode (ESD5V3L1U-02LRH/LS, unidirectional) can be used for ESD performance
improvement in order to reduce the residual stress for the IC (FM-LNA) in case of high IEC61000-4-2 ESD strikes.
The ESD5V3L1U-02LRH/LS provides a dynamic resistance of 0.31 Ohm only (1 Ohm for ESD0P2RF) and a diode
capacitance of 1pF typically. For the FM radio frontend the low diode capacitance of 1pF is not affecting the circuit
matching performance, the very low dynamical resistance (0.31 Ohm) makes the serial resistor (2.2 Ohm in Figure
2/3) obsolete.
However designers have to obey that in packed design with possible high RF interference level e.g. from the TX
path of GSM the unidirectional ESD5V3L1U could clip the signal in the negative direction. In a more "non hostile"
environment the ESD5V3L1U-02LRH/LS works very fine and provides lower R_dynamic/lower clamping voltage,
resulting in in a lower residual ESD stress for the FM radio LNA.
For hostile interfering environment, the bidirectional ESD0P2RF is the preferred ESD solution for FM radio, for
other FM radio environments, the ESD5V3L1U-02LRH/LS is the better alternative.
Application Note AN200
13
Revision 1.1, 2010-08-17
Low Cost FM Radio LNA
BFR340F
References
References
[1]
BFR340F Datasheet, Infineon Technologies AG.
[2]
Application Note AN175, RF CMOS SPDT Switches, Infineon Technologies AG
Authors
1. Deepak Bachu, Senior Application Engineer of the Business Unit “RF and Protection Devices”
2. Ralph Kuhn, Senior Staff Engineer of the Business Unit “RF and Protection Devices”
Application Note AN200
14
Revision 1.1, 2010-08-17
w w w . i n f i n e o n . c o m
Published by Infineon Technologies AG
AN200
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