AN1306

AN1306
Thermocouple Circuit Using MCP6V01 and PIC18F2550
Yang Zhen and Ezana Haile
Microchip Technology Inc.
INTRODUCTION
Target Audience
This application note is intended for hardware and
firmware design engineers who need to accurately
measure Type-K Thermocouple voltage and convert it
to degree Celsius (°C).
Goals
• Accurately measure Type-K Thermocouple
Electromotive Force (EMF)
• Provide Low-Cost and accurate thermocouple
solution
Description
This application note shows how to use a difference
amplifier system to measure EMF voltage at the cold
junction of thermocouple in order to accurately
measure temperature at the hot junction. This can be
done by using the MCP6V01 auto-zeroed op amp
because of its extremely low input offset voltage (VOS)
and very high common mode rejection ratio (CMRR).
This solution minimizes cost by using resources
internal to the PIC18F2550, such as 10-bit ADC and
4-bit adjustable reference, to achieve less than 0.1°C
resolution from a measurement range of -100°C to
1000°C.
THERMOCOUPLE OVERVIEW
Thermocouples are constructed of two dissimilar metals
such as Chromel and Alumel (Type-K). The two
dissimilar metals are bonded together on one end of the
wires with a weld bead, or Hot Junction. The junction
point is the temperature sensor. Temperature
difference between the Hot Junction and the open
junction, Cold Junction, generates measurable voltage
between the two terminals of the open junction. This
voltage is commonly called the Electromotive Force
(EMF) voltage, or Seebeck Effect. This EMF voltage
does not require excitation current or voltage. If the
difference in temperature between the open and closed
end of the Thermocouple wires increases, then the
EMF voltage increases proportionally.
The Type-K thermocouple used in the circuit is from
OMEGA with part number 5SRTC-TT-K-24-36. The
EMF voltage and temperature range of Type-K
thermocouple are shown in Figure 1. The voltage
shown is referenced to 0°C.
60
50
40
EMF (mV)
Author:
30
20
10
0
-10
-300 -100 100
300
500
700
900 1100 1300
Temperature (°C)
Related Reference Design Board
The measurements for this application note were made
on the MCP6V01 Thermocouple Auto-Zeroed
Reference Design Board which is discussed in the
user’s guide (DS51738)[9]. This board is further
described by:
• Order Number: MCP6V01RD-TCPL
• Assembly Number: 114-00169
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
FIGURE 1:
Temperature.
EMF Voltage vs.
From Figure 1, it can be summarized that the EMF
voltage has relatively small magnitude (millivolts).
Consequently, the signal conditioning portion of the
electronics requires an analog gain stage. In addition,
the signal conditioning circuit must have absolute
reference voltage in order to measure temperature with
absolute accuracy.
DS01306A-page 1
AN1306
SYSTEM BLOCK DIAGRAM
range is segmented into 16 smaller ranges. This gives
a greater range (-100°C to +1000°C) and better
accuracy.
Figure 2 shows the system block diagram of the
solution. The difference amplifier uses MCP6V01 autozeroed op amp to amplify the thermocouple’s EMF
voltage.
The MCP1541 provides a reference voltage of 4.1V
which references the PIC18F2550’s internal 10-bit
ADC. The 2nd order RC low-pass filter reduces noise
and aliasing at the ADC input.
The CVREF is an internal comparator voltage reference
of PIC18F2550, which is a 16-tap resistor ladder
network that provides a selectable reference voltage. It
has low accuracy and high variable output resistance.
The buffer amplifier eliminates the output impedance
loading effect and produces the voltage VSHIFT that
shifts the VOUT1.
The MCP9800 senses temperature at the
thermocouple connector, or cold-junction. It should be
located as close as possible to the connector on the
PCB. This measurement is used to perform cold
junction compensation for the thermocouple
measurement.
The VSHIFT is brought back into the PIC18F2550,
sampled and calibrated by the internal ADC, then used
to adjust measured VOUT1, so that the temperature
The Thermal Management Software is used to perform
data acquisition to show the real-time temperature
data.
PC
(Thermal Management Software)
USB
PIC18F2550 (USB) Microcontroller
I2CTM Port
Buffer
Amplifier
I2C + ALERT
10-Bit ADC Module
CVREF
VOUT2
x1
2nd Order RC
Low-Pass Filter
MCP1541 4.1V
Voltage Reference
3
VOUT1
Difference
Amplifier
MCP6V01
VSHIFT
Cold Junction
Compensation
TCJ
VREF
+ VP
TTC
MCP9800
Temp. Sensor
-
VM
Connector
(Cold Junction)
FIGURE 2:
DS01306A-page 2
Type-K Thermocouple
Welded Bead
(Hot Junction)
System Block Diagram.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
AN1306
HARDWARE CIRCUITS
Voltage Sensors With Common Mode
Noise
Any remote voltage sensor with differential output is
usually subject of high common-mode noise. An
example would be a temperature sensor for an engine,
such as a thermocouple sensor.
EQUATION 1:
V1 + V2
V CM = -----------------2
Where:
V DM = V 1 – V 2
Common mode noise is reduced by shielding, PCB
layout, and using a difference or instrumentation
amplifier. In this application note, we will focus on using
difference amplifier to reduce the common mode noise.
Difference Amplifier
Figure 5 shows a difference amplifier using an op amp.
It presents an impedance of R1 to each end of the
sensor (V1 and V2) and amplifies the input difference
voltage (V1 - V2).
An ideal difference amplifier gives an output as:
EQUATION 2:
VCM
=
Common Mode Voltage
V OUT = G DM × ( V 1 – V 2 )
VDM
=
Difference Mode Voltage
V1, V2
=
Differential Outputs of
Remote Voltage Sensor
R
G DM = -----2R1
Where:
GDM
Figure 3 shows voltage sensors with high common
mode noise.
VDD
V1
=
R1
Difference Mode Gain
R2
V1
VDD/2
VDD
V2
0V
+
-
VDD
VCM
VDD/2
V2
VDM
R1
0V
FIGURE 3:
Voltage Output Sensor with
High Common Mode Noise.
FIGURE 5:
Figure 4 shows voltage sensor with low common mode
noise.
•
•
•
•
V1
V2
VDD
VOUT
R2
Difference Amplifier
Advantages:
Resistive isolation from the source
Large input voltage range is possible
Rejects common mode noise
Simplicity
Disadvantages:
VDD/2
• Resistive loading of the source
• Input stage distortion
0V
VDD
VCM
VDD/2
VDM
0V
FIGURE 4:
Local Sensors with Low
Common Mode Noise.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS01306A-page 3
AN1306
Equation 3 gives a more practical result for the difference amplifier.
Analog Sensor Conditioning Circuit
EQUATION 3:
It includes three building blocks:
V1 + V2
V OUT = G DM × ( V 1 – V 2 ) + G CM × ⎛ -------------------⎞
⎝ 2 ⎠
R
G DM = -----2R1
G DM
G CM = ---------------------------CMRR DIFF
Figure 6 shows the analog sensor conditioning circuit.
• Buffer Amplifier
• Difference Amplifier
• 2nd Order Low-Pass Filter
BUFFER AMPLIFIER
GDM
=
Difference Mode Voltage
GCM
=
Common Mode Voltage
• MCP6001 standard op amp used as unity gain
buffer
• Provides a low impedance adjustable reference
voltage
CMRRDIFF
=
Common Mode Rejection
Ratio of Difference Amplifier
EQUATION 5:
Where:
CVREF = V SHIFT
From the above equation, it can be summarized that a
practical difference amplifier amplifies the difference
mode voltage by GDM and the common mode voltage
by GCM.
Where:
CVREF = Selectable reference voltage of
PIC18F2550
The CMRRDIFF is given by:
EQUATION 4:
DIFFERENCE AMPLIFIER
1
CMRR DIFF = -----------------------------------------------------1 - + 2 × TOL
----------------------R
CMRR OP
Where:
TOLR
=
Resistors’ Tolerance
CMRROP
=
Common Mode Rejection
Ratio of Operational Amplifier
Notice that a difference amplifier with lower TOLR and
higher CMRROP will have the higher CMRRDIFF.
If the op amp’s CMRR (CMRROP) is given in V/V (e.g.,
80 dB is converted to 10,000 V/V), and the resistor
tolerance (TOLR) is given in absolute terms (e.g., 0.1%
becomes 0.001), then the difference amplifier’s CMRR
(CMRRDIFF) will be in V/V (for the example already
given, 476 V/V = 54 dB).
Equation 3 shows that as CMRRDIFF increases, GCM
becomes smaller. For a perfectly symmetrical
difference amplifier, as CMRRDIFF approaches infinity,
GCM approaches zero.
DS01306A-page 4
•
•
•
•
VDD = 5.0V, VSS = 0V
Uses a MCP6V01 auto-zeroed op amp (U5)
Two 0.1% tolerance gain resistors (R8 and R11)
Two 0.1% tolerance input resistors for shifting
VOUT1 (R9 and R10)
• Two 0.1% tolerance input resistors for the
thermocouple output (R6 and R7)
The difference amplifier is powered in single supply
configuration and VDD should have a local bypass
capacitor (i.e., 0.01 µF to 0.1 µF). VOUT1 must be kept
within the ADC’s allowed voltage range, which is scaled
by the gain of MCP6V01. The low tolerance gain
setting resistors are matched to provide symmetry for
good common mode rejection.
The MCP6V01 auto-zeroed op amp less than 2 µV
input offset voltage and high common-mode rejection
ratio makes it ideal for thermocouple sensing
applications.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
AN1306
2ND ORDER RC LOW-PASS FILTER
The transfer function set by the difference amplifier is:
• Fast enough to quick changes in temperature
• Double pole for anti-aliasing and removing highfrequency noise
• No DC offset and simple architecture
EQUATION 6:
V OUT1 = G 1 × V TH + G 2 × ( 0 – V SHIFT ) + V REF
= G 1 × V TH – G 2 × V SHIFT + V REF
The pole set by the low-pass filer is:
Where:
VTH
=
VP - VM ; EMF Voltage from
Thermocouple
VREF
=
4.1V ; Reference Voltage
VSHIFT
=
CVREF
VOUT1
=
Output Voltage of Difference
Amplifier
G1
=
R11/R7 = R8/R6 = 1000 V/V
G2
=
R11/R10 = R8/R9 = 17.86 V/V
EQUATION 7:
1 - = --------------------1 - = 3.19Hz
f P = --------------------2 π R 12 C 6
2 π R 13 C 7
R10
5.6 kΩ
R11
100 kΩ
VREF
R7
100Ω
U5
MCP6V01
VP
R12
499Ω
R13
499Ω
VOUT2
VM
CVREF
VSHIFT
R9
5.6 kΩ
U4
MCP6001
C6
100 nF
R6
100Ω
R8
100 kΩ
C7
100 nF
2nd order low-pass filter
Difference Amplifier
Buffer Amplifier
FIGURE 6:
Analog Sensing Circuit Diagram.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS01306A-page 5
AN1306
VSHIFT Operation Description
In this application note, CVRSS = 1 is set for VREF+
and CVRSS = 0 is set for VREF-. The MCP1541 provides an absolute reference voltage 4.1V. (VREF+ =
4.1V and VREF- = 0V).
PIC18F2550’S COMPARATOR VOLTAGE
REFERENCE BLOCK DIAGRAM
The comparator voltage reference is a 16-tap resistor
ladder network that provides a selectable reference
voltage. Although its primary purpose is to provide a
reference for the analog comparators, it may also be
used independently of them. A block diagram of the
module is shown in Figure 7. The resistor ladder is
segmented to provide two ranges of CVREF values and
has a power-down function to conserve power when
the reference is not being used. The module’s supply
reference can be provided from either device VDD/VSS
or an external voltage reference.
CVRSS = 1
VREF+
VDD
8R
CVRSS = 0
CVR3 : CVR0
CVREN
R
R
16 Steps
16-to-1 Mux
R
R
CVREF
VSHIFT
R
R
R
CVRR
8R
CVRSS = 1
VREFCVRSS = 0
FIGURE 7:
DS01306A-page 6
PIC18F2550 Comparator Voltage Reference Block Diagram.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
AN1306
VSHIFT OPERATION CONCEPTUAL DIAGRAM
This solution minimizes cost by using resources
internal to the PIC to achieve high accuracy and high
resolution thermocouple solution. This solution
eliminates the need for a high end and costly
instrumentation system to measure temperature using
thermocouple. Further savings could be achieved by
using a voltage reference internal to the PIC instead of
the external MCP1541.
Figure 8 shows the VSHIFT operation conceptual
diagram. VSHIFT is also connected to the PIC18F2550
ADC channels along with VOUT2, which is uses to
calculate Thermocouple EMF voltage. The 10-bit ADC
and the 4-bit adjustable reference voltage provide a
14-bit measurement resoution. The MCP1541 provides
an absolute reference to the ADC and difference
amplifier circuit.
• 14-bit Resolution, 10-bit ADC:
- PIC18F2550’s CVREF (4-bit Adjustable
Reference Voltage)
- PIC18F2550’s internal 10-bit ADC
- The firmware automatically searches for
correct CVREF level
VREF
×1
CVREF
VSHIFT Difference V
OUT1
VP Amplifier
MCP6V01
VM
(VOUT1 without VSHIFT)
(Voltages not to Scale)
VOUT1
VSHIFT
V P – VM
FIGURE 8:
1100
1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
-100
TTC (°C)
VSHIFT Operation Conceptual Diagram.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS01306A-page 7
AN1306
Automatic Reference Voltage Search
Figure 9 shows a screen capture from an osciloscope
while the PIC18F2550 searches a reference voltage
VSHIFT. Channel 1 (yellow trace) is the MCP6V01
output VOUT1 and Channel 2 is VSHIFT. VSHIFT is
adjusted until the output is scaled within a voltage
range of 0.2V to 4V, as shown in Table 1. The search is
sequenced by first setting CVREF levels 0, 15, 1, 14, 2,
13, ... 6, 9, and 7. The voltage at level 7 set the output
to equal approximately 0.7V. Then, EMF is calculated
by measuring VSHIFT and VOUT2.
Must be:
0.2V < VOUT1 < 4.0V
End at
High T TC
VOUT1
Hunt for
Correct
VSHIFT
Start at
Low TTC
VSHIFT
FIGURE 9:
TABLE 1:
Voltage vs. Time Plot
VSHIFT OPERATION CHANGING POINTS
# Ref
Approximate
VSHIFT
ADC (Code)
VOUT1 (V)
VTH (mV)
Approximate Temp
Range (°C)
0
0
50 to 1000
0.200 to 4.000
-3.900 to -0.096
-102 to +2
1
0.208333
50 to 1000
0.200 to 4.000
-0.180 to 3.624
-4 to +88
2
0.416667
50 to 1000
0.200 to 4.000
3.541 to 7.344
+86 to +180
3
0.625000
50 to 1000
0.200 to 4.000
7.261 to 11.065
+178 to +272
4
0.833333
50 to 1000
0.200 to 4.000
10.981 to 14.785
+270 to +361
5
1.041667
50 to 1000
0.200 to 4.000
14.701 to 18.505
+359 to +449
6
1.250000
50 to 1000
0.200 to 4.000
18.422 to 22.225
+447 to +537
7
1.458333
50 to 1000
0.200 to 4.000
22.142 to 25.946
+535 to +624
8
1.666667
50 to 1000
0.200 to 4.000
25.862 to 29.666
+622 to +712
9
1.875000
50 to 1000
0.200 to 4.000
29.582 to 33.386
+710 to +802
10
2.083333
50 to 1000
0.200 to 4.000
33.303 to 37.106
+800 to +894
11
2.291667
50 to 1000
0.200 to 4.000
37.023 to 40.827
+892 to +988
12
2.500000
50 to 1000
0.200 to 4.000
40.743 to 44.547
+986 to +1083
13
2.708333
50 to 1000
0.200 to 4.000
44.463 to 48.267
+1081 to +1184
14
2.916667
50 to 1000
0.200 to 4.000
48.184 to 51.987
+1182 to +1277
15
3.125000
50 to 1000
0.200 to 4.000
51.904 to 55.707
+1275 to +1372
DS01306A-page 8
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
AN1306
FIRMWARE AND SOFTWARE
Firmware
The firmware uses the PIC18F2550 USB PIC®
Microcontroller to compute Thermocouple temperature
and transfer temperature data to PC via the USB
interface. The firmware has two major functions,
maintain USB interface with PC and measure/compute
temperature.
The firmware uses USB HID interface and does not
require PC side driver software. Once the USB is
connected to a PC the USB module is initialized, and
the Thermocouple temperature conversion is started
upon a successful USB initialization.
The Thermocouple measurement routine starts by
measuring the thermocouple output voltage from the
MCP6V01. If the output voltage is out of range as
shown in the Table 1 then the reference voltage is
adjusted automatically as shown in Figure 9. Once the
corresponding VSHIFT value is determined, both VOUT2
and VSHIFT are digitized using the 10bit ADC. From
these voltages, the Thermocouple EMF is calculated.
The EMF voltage is converted to temperature in degree
Celcius (°C) using the 9th order equation provided by
ITS-90 standard (www.nist.org). The temperature
value is cold-junction compensated using the
MCP9800 temperature sensor.
EQUATION 8:
EMF CALCULATION
EMF = ( V OUT2 + V SHIFT • Gain – V REF )
Where:
The temperature data is stored in memory in IEEE
Standard for Floating-Point Arithmetic (IEEE 754).
When a temperature data is requested from the PC the
floating point data is converted to Binary Code Decimal
(BCD) and each byte is loaded in the USB data transfer
buffer. Along with the temperature data, VOUT2, VSHIFT
and the cold-junction temperature are loaded. The PC
Graphical User Interface (GUI) converts the BCD data
to floating point number which represents temperature.
The temperature data is displayed and plotted on the
graphical display. Additionally, the GUI displays EMF
voltage, thermocouple output and cold junction
temperature.
Start
Initialize
USB
Perform
USB tasks
Perform
Thermocouple
Measurement
Adjust
VSHIFT
Measure VOUT2
is 0.2V < VOUT2< 4V?
EMF = Thermocouple voltage (mV)
VOUT2 = MCP6V01 Filtered Output (V)
VSHIFT = Adjustable reference voltage (V)
Measure VSHIFT
Gain = Difference Amplifier Gain (R8/R9)
VREF = Absolute reference voltage,
MCP1541 output (V)
EQUATION 9:
COLD JUNCTION
COMPENSATION
T = T CJ – T HJ
Where:
Calculate EMF (mV)
Also see Equation 8
Convert EMF to ×C
Also see ITS-90 Standard
Measure Cold-junction temperature
and Compensate Sensor
Also see Equation 9
T = Absolute Thermocouple temperature (°C)
TCJ = Cold-Junction temperature,
MCP9800 output (°C)
THJ = Hot-Junction temperature or Thermocouple
temperature from ITS-90 standard (°C)
Save
Temperature
If requested, send temperature
data to PC via USB
FIGURE 10:
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
Top Level Flow Chart.
DS01306A-page 9
AN1306
Thermal Management Software GUI
The GUI is a measurement tool which enables user to
see the changes in temperature graphically by
displaying the Thermocouple raw output data along
with linearized temperature data. It also enables user to
calibrate the system.
Temperature can also be measured over an extended
period of time by clicking the Start Acquisition button
or Play button. The measurement interval is controlled
by the software timer. When the timer ticks a command
is sent to the hardware to acquire temperature data
then the firmware transfers the last successfully
converted temperature data.
FIGURE 11:
DS01306A-page 10
Additionally, user can calibrate the Thermocouple
sensor by using the calibration option from the GUI.
This feature can be enabled by clicking on the Enable
Calibration check box. Once enabled, user can type in
the thermocouple calibration temperature and click the
Calibrate! button. When calibrated, the temperature
difference between the thermocouple and calibration
temperature is stored in the PICmicro EEPROM. The
difference is also shown in the “Calibration Offset”
display of the GUI. Once calibrated, the offset is
subtracted from temperature measurements. In
addition, clicking the Reset button clears the calibration
offset value to 0 (the EEPROM content is set to 0).
Graphical User Interface.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
AN1306
SUMMARY
REFERENCES
This application note shows hardware and firmware
design engineers how to use a PICmicro®
Microcontroller and a difference amplifier system to
measure Type-K Thermocouple voltage to accurately
measure temperature from -100°C to 1000°C using a
10-bit ADC and 4-bit adjustable reference voltage.
[1]
“The OMEGA® Made in the USA Handbook™”,
Vol. 1, OMEGA Engineering, Inc., ©2002.
[2]
“The OMEGA® Made in the USA Handbook™”,
Vol. 2, OMEGA Engineering, Inc., ©2002.
[3]
AN990, “Analog Sensor Conditioning Circuits –
An Overview”, Kumen Blake, Microchip
Technology Inc., DS00990, ©2005.
[4]
AN1258, “Op Amp Precision Design: PCB
Layout Techniques”, Kumen Blake, Microchip
Technology Inc., DS01258, ©2009.
[5]
AN679, “Temperature Sensing Technologies”,
Bonnie Baker, Microchip Technology Inc.,
DS00679, ©1998.
[6]
AN684, “Single Supply Temperature Sensing
with Thermocouples”, Bonnie Baker, Microchip
Technology Inc., DS00684, 1998.
[7]
MCP6V01/2/3 Data Sheet, “Auto-Zeroed Op
Amps”, Microchip Technology Inc., DS22058,
©2008.
[8]
PIC18F2455/2550/4455/4550 Data Sheet,
“28/40/44-Pin, High-Performance, Enhanced
Flash, USB Microcontrollers with nanoWatt
Technology”, Microchip Technology Inc.,
DS39632, ©2007.
[9]
“MCP6V01
Thermocouple
Auto-Zeroed
Reference Design”, Yang Zhen, Microchip
Technology Inc., DS51738, ©2008.
[10]
AN1297, “Microchip’s Op Amp SPICE Macro
Models”, Yang Zhen, Microchip Technology Inc.
DS01297, ©2009.
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
DS01306A-page 11
AN1306
NOTES:
DS01306A-page 12
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
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DS01306A-page 13
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Tel: 480-792-7200
Fax: 480-792-7277
Technical Support:
http://support.microchip.com
Web Address:
www.microchip.com
Asia Pacific Office
Suites 3707-14, 37th Floor
Tower 6, The Gateway
Harbour City, Kowloon
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Tel: 852-2401-1200
Fax: 852-2401-3431
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Fax: 91-80-3090-4080
India - New Delhi
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Fax: 91-11-4160-8632
Austria - Wels
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Denmark - Copenhagen
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Fax: 45-4485-2829
India - Pune
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Fax: 91-20-2566-1513
France - Paris
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Fax: 33-1-69-30-90-79
Japan - Yokohama
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Germany - Munich
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Fax: 774-760-0088
Chicago
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Fax: 630-285-0075
Cleveland
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Tel: 216-447-0464
Fax: 216-447-0643
Dallas
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Tel: 972-818-7423
Fax: 972-818-2924
Detroit
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Kokomo
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Los Angeles
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Fax: 408-961-6445
Toronto
Mississauga, Ontario,
Canada
Tel: 905-673-0699
Fax: 905-673-6509
Australia - Sydney
Tel: 61-2-9868-6733
Fax: 61-2-9868-6755
China - Beijing
Tel: 86-10-8528-2100
Fax: 86-10-8528-2104
China - Chengdu
Tel: 86-28-8665-5511
Fax: 86-28-8665-7889
Korea - Daegu
Tel: 82-53-744-4301
Fax: 82-53-744-4302
China - Hong Kong SAR
Tel: 852-2401-1200
Fax: 852-2401-3431
Korea - Seoul
Tel: 82-2-554-7200
Fax: 82-2-558-5932 or
82-2-558-5934
China - Nanjing
Tel: 86-25-8473-2460
Fax: 86-25-8473-2470
Malaysia - Kuala Lumpur
Tel: 60-3-6201-9857
Fax: 60-3-6201-9859
China - Qingdao
Tel: 86-532-8502-7355
Fax: 86-532-8502-7205
Malaysia - Penang
Tel: 60-4-227-8870
Fax: 60-4-227-4068
China - Shanghai
Tel: 86-21-5407-5533
Fax: 86-21-5407-5066
Philippines - Manila
Tel: 63-2-634-9065
Fax: 63-2-634-9069
China - Shenyang
Tel: 86-24-2334-2829
Fax: 86-24-2334-2393
Singapore
Tel: 65-6334-8870
Fax: 65-6334-8850
China - Shenzhen
Tel: 86-755-8203-2660
Fax: 86-755-8203-1760
Taiwan - Hsin Chu
Tel: 886-3-6578-300
Fax: 886-3-6578-370
China - Wuhan
Tel: 86-27-5980-5300
Fax: 86-27-5980-5118
Taiwan - Kaohsiung
Tel: 886-7-536-4818
Fax: 886-7-536-4803
China - Xiamen
Tel: 86-592-2388138
Fax: 86-592-2388130
Taiwan - Taipei
Tel: 886-2-2500-6610
Fax: 886-2-2508-0102
China - Xian
Tel: 86-29-8833-7252
Fax: 86-29-8833-7256
Thailand - Bangkok
Tel: 66-2-694-1351
Fax: 66-2-694-1350
Italy - Milan
Tel: 39-0331-742611
Fax: 39-0331-466781
Netherlands - Drunen
Tel: 31-416-690399
Fax: 31-416-690340
Spain - Madrid
Tel: 34-91-708-08-90
Fax: 34-91-708-08-91
UK - Wokingham
Tel: 44-118-921-5869
Fax: 44-118-921-5820
China - Zhuhai
Tel: 86-756-3210040
Fax: 86-756-3210049
03/26/09
DS01306A-page 14
© 2009 Microchip Technology Inc.
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