an1355

ISL9208EVAL1Z (Rev D) User Guide
Application Note
October 10, 2007
Warrior development tools. To get the source code, contact
Intersil and sign the license agreement.
Description
This document is intended for use by individuals engaged in
the development of hardware for a 4 to 7 series connected Liion battery pack using the ISL9208EVAL1Z (Rev D) board.
• Set-up a power supply for the board. The power supply
should consist of a string of 4 to 7 batteries (see Figure 1),
or a string of 4 to 7 resistors and a power supply, or 4 to 7
individual power supplies (see Figure 1 or Figure 2).
The evaluation kit consists of the ISL9208EVAL1Z (Rev D)
board, a power supply cable and an I2C cable. Operation of
the ISL9208EVAL1Z (Rev D) board requires the use of a USB
to I2C kit and part number “ISLI2C-Cable2”, which is ordered
separately. An optional link between the PC and the
microcontroller BKGD connector is available from NXP
(formerly Freescale) for monitoring and debugging the
microcontroller code.
Battery/Power Supply Connection
When connecting battery packs or power supplies, use the
connections of Figure 1 and Figure 2. If individual power
supplies are being used to replace battery cells, then
connect the power supplies identically to the battery
connections (see Figure 1). Also, make sure that the
individual power supply voltages do not exceed the ISL9208
maximum input voltage differential of 5V per cell.
First Steps
• If not already available, acquire the DeVaSys USB to I2C
interface cable and module. This is available from Intersil
in the ISLI2C-Cable kit.
If using a string of resistors to emulate the battery cells, then
use the connection in Figure 2. In this case, limit the power
supply voltage so that the resistor divider outputs do not
exceed the ISL9208 input maximum ratings.
• Download the software from the Intersil website on the
ISL9208 page. This is a zip file entitled: “ISL92xx Eval Kit
Software Release V1.41”.
It is recommended that, when using the circuit of Figure 2, the
series resistors be 20 or less and 2W minimum. Resistors
with higher resistance can be used, but when activating the
ISL9208 cell balance outputs, the 39 cell balance resistor on
the board will lower the voltage across that series power
supply resistor while raising the voltage on all of the other
series resistors. Turning on multiple cell balance outputs could
then result in one or more of the VCELLN input voltages
exceeding their maximum specified limit. If using series
resistors greater than 20, the cell balance resistors on the
ISL9208EVAL1Z (Rev D) board (R14 to R20) should be
replaced with higher values (1k recommended).
• Unzip the software files to a directory of your choice.
• Prior to powering the ISL9208 board, install the USB to I2C
board software and connect the DeVaSys board to the PC
(see Appendix 1). However, don’t connect the DeVaSys
board to the ISL9208EVAL1Z (Rev D) board, yet. This is
just preparation of the test set up. With these pieces in
place, the PC interface can then quickly be used to monitor
the operation of the board, once power is applied.
• If changes to the microcontroller code are desired, then it will
be necessary to order a programming/debug module from
NXP (formerly Freescale), part number,
USBMULTILINKBDME. This kit also contains the Code
7-CELLS
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
6-CELLS
7 POWER SUPPLIES
20
VCELL7
CB7
VCELL6
V
CB6
VCELL5
V
CB5
VCELL4
V
CB4
VCELL3
V
CB3
VCELL2
V
CB2
VCELL1
V
CB1
VSS
V
5
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
VCELL7
CB7
VCELL6
CB6
VCELL5
CB5
VCELL4
CB4
VCELL3
CB3
VCELL2
CB2
VCELL1
CB1
VSS
AN1355.0
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
VCELL7
CB7
VCELL6
CB6
VCELL5
CB5
VCELL4
CB4
VCELL3
CB3
VCELL2
CB2
VCELL1
CB1
VSS
5-CELLS
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
VCELL7
CB7
VCELL6
CB6
VCELL5
CB5
VCELL4
CB4
VCELL3
CB3
VCELL2
CB2
VCELL1
CB1
VSS
4-CELLS
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
VCELL7
CB7
VCELL6
CB6
VCELL5
CB5
VCELL4
CB4
VCELL3
CB3
VCELL2
CB2
VCELL1
CB1
VSS
5
NOTE: MULTIPLE CELLS CAN BE CONNECTED IN PARALLEL
FIGURE 1. BATTERY CONNECTION OPTIONS
1
CAUTION: These devices are sensitive to electrostatic discharge; follow proper IC Handling Procedures.
1-888-INTERSIL or 1-888-468-3774 | Intersil (and design) is a trademark of Intersil Americas LLC.
Copyright © Intersil Americas LLC. 2007. All Rights Reserved.
All other trademarks mentioned are the property of their respective owners.
Application Note 1355
V
NOTES:
5
7
6
CB1
VSS
9
8
CB2
VCELL1
11
10
CB3
VCELL2
13
12
CB4
VCELL3
15
14
CB5
VCELL4
17
16
CB6
VCELL5
19
18
CB7
VCELL6
VCELL7
7-CELLS
20
15V TO 30V
1. For the battery simulation resistors, use 20/2W devices (minimum). If
the resistors are more than 100, then turning on the cell balance
resistors cause fluctuations in the cell input voltages that can violate
the ISL9208 max specifications. If the series resistors are larger than
20, we recommend replacing the cell balance resistors on the board
with 1k devices.
2. Switch the power supplies on at the same time, or if this cannot be
guaranteed, turn them on from bottom to top.
3. Before connecting the cable to the board, check the voltages at the
connector to verify that they are correct.
FIGURE 2. USING RESISTOR/POWER SUPPLY COMBINATION TO EMULATE A STRING OF BATTERIES
OPTIONAL 6-CELL CONNECTION
7-CELL CONNECTION
TO
LOAD
TO
LOAD
B+/PACK+
B+/PACK+
3M CONNECTOR
MALE ON BOARD
(TOP VIEW)
3M CONNECTOR
MALE ON BOARD
(TOP VIEW)
OPTIONAL
THERMISTOR
(IF USED, REMOVE
THERMISTOR ON
BOARD)
1
OPTIONAL
THERMISTOR
OR 50k POT
(IF USED, REMOVE
THERMISTOR ON
BOARD)
1
BAT-
PACKTO
LOAD
OPTIONAL
THERMISTOR
OR 50k POT
(IF USED, REMOVE
THERMISTOR ON
BOARD)
BAT-
PACKTO
LOAD
FIGURE 3. BATTERY CELL CONNECTION TO ISL9208 PCB
Initial Testing
Set-up (See Figure 4)
• Make sure the following jumpers are on: IC GND JMPR,
RGO LED JMPR, WKUP JMPR, I2C GND JMPR and the
I2C Jumpers.
• For initial testing, set the I2C jumpers (SCL and SDA) to
the PC position. This configures the board such that the
PC communicates directly with the ISL9208.
• Before connecting the PC to the ISL9208EVAL1Z (Rev D)
board (through the USB to I2C interface), turn off the
power supply and then connect the power supply to the
ISL9208EVAL1Z (Rev D) board.
• Turn on the power to the board. Once power is turned on
(or Li-ion cells are connected to the ISL9208EVAL1Z
(Rev D) board) the RGO LED should light. Use meter 1 to
measure the RGO voltage. It should read about 3.3V.
2
AN1355.0
October 10, 2007
Application Note 1355
TO BATTERY/POWER SUPPLY
I2C GND JMPR
VC7
GND
RGO LED JMPR
RGO (ISL9208)
METER 1
A2DIN
(3.3V)
TO PC:
RGO
I2C
A2DIN (ISL9208)
DEVASYS:
USB TO I2C
METER 2
(0V TO 2.3V)
E-LOAD
(60V/1A)
SCL JUMPER
I2C GND JMPR
I2C JUMPERS
SDA JUMPER
WAKE-UP JMPR
USBLINK:
USB TO BKGD
(OPTIONAL)
TO PC:
FIGURE 4. ISL9208EVAL1Z (REV D) EVALUATION BOARD TEST CONNECTION
.
Testing Without the Microcontroller
ISL9208EVAL1Z (REV D)
J11
FETS
SCL
NC
NC
GND
SDA
J29
CABLE
5-PIN TO 5-PIN
DEVASYS BOARD
J2
1
1
USB
USE FLEX-CABLE
SUPPLIED WITH
ISL9208EVAL1Z (REV D)
FIGURE 5. I2C CONNECTION TO ISL9208 PCB
USB to I2C Interface
• Once the power supply connections are verified,
power-down the ISL9208EVAL1Z (Rev D) boards and make
the PC connection to the board, via the USB port, the
DeVaSys board and the I2C cable. Before making this
connection, make sure that the USB to I2C interface software
is installed (see software installation guide).
• Connect the I2C cable from the interface board to the
ISL9208EVAL1Z (Rev D), as in Figure 5. The kit may
come with a 5-pin to 5-pin cable or a 5-pin to 4-pin cable.
Use the 5-pin to 5-pin cable.
3
Cell Voltage Monitor Accuracy Check
• For this test, make sure the SCL and SDA jumpers are set
to the PC position. In this case, the PC has full control of
the board and the microcontroller function is disabled.
(See Figure 6). Except for the ISL9208 automatic
response to overcurrent and over-temperature, all other
actions of the board are manual and controlled through
the GUI.
• Make the I2C port connection to the PC.
• Power-up the board and re-check the RGO voltages.
Since RGO is the voltage reference for the on-board A/D
converter, this voltage may be needed in the accuracy
calculations.
• Start the GUI. Execute the program BATTERYPACK.EXE
from the “Software” directory.
• The GUI should power-up with some color. That is, the
FET controls should be red and the indicators should be
green or red. If the GUI is all gray, then there is a
communication problem. If there is a communication
problem, see the troubleshooting guide in the Appendix.
AN1355.0
October 10, 2007
Application Note 1355
Discharge Overcurrent Testing
PC I2C
INTERFACE
ISL9208
PC
• With the e-load output off, connect the positive terminal to
Test Point VC7 (Battery + terminal) and the negative
terminal to test point P- (Battery - terminal).
SCL
J43
SDA
SCL
µCONTROLLER
• Use the GUI “CONFIGURATION” screen to set the
desired discharge overcurrent and short circuit levels and
time delays in the ISL9208.
J51
SDA
SCL1
• To test overcurrent, a pulse load or a continuous load can
be used. A continuous load has the advantage of showing
the load monitor operation (see the following).
SDA1
µC
SCL2
SDA2
FIGURE 6. I2C JUMPERS: PC OR µC CONNECTION TO THE
ISL9208
• Use the GUI to read register 0 from the ISL9208. The
ISL9208 should return the value 20H. This verifies
communication to the device.
• Next, move to the “MONITOR” tab of the GUI.
• Set the ISL9208 to monitor the VCELL1 input by choosing
VCELL1 in the Monitor drop down box. Execute this
command by clicking “refresh.” This operation connects
the VCELL1 input to the AO output (through a level shifter
and divider). Any changes on VCELL1 appear on AO.
• Using a meter, measure the CELL1 voltage (from test
point VC1 to GND) and measure the voltage on the
ISL9208 analog output (from AO to GND). The AO
voltage, times 2, should equal the CELL1 voltage. Any
errors in this measurement are due to the ISL9208. (Note:
make sure that all of the cell balance outputs are off,
because cell balance current will cause inaccurate
measurements).
• Also, read the GUI value for CELL1. In this configuration
(without the µC) the cell voltage is converted to digital
using a 15-bit A/D converter. This A/D converter is an
ADS1100 from Texas Instruments. Its output is determined
by Equation 1:
DigValue D
-------------------------------  3.3 = A2DIN
32768
• Select an E-load that is able to handle up to 30V and sink
1A minimum.
(EQ. 1)
Since, the reference for the A/D converter is supplied by
the ISL9208 RGO voltage, any difference between the
RGO voltage and 3.3V turns up as an accuracy error.
• Proceed (in sequence) to read the AO voltage for each
cell connected to the ISL9208.
• Set the e-load current such that it will exceed the expected
overcurrent threshold for more than the selected time
delay interval.
• Turn on both FETs by clicking on the FET buttons in the
GUI. When the FETs are on, the GUI indicators will turn
green. Periodically click on the “Status Refresh” button on
the lower right of the screen to make sure that the GUI
reflects the latest status of the device. (An automatic scan
can also be started that updates all parameters every 1, 5,
10, or 30 seconds, however, this might cause an update
when not expected).
• Turn on the e-load output. This should cause the FETs to
turn off (see Figure 7).
DFET/CFET
VDSNS
ILOAD
FIGURE 7. DISCHARGE OVERCURRENT TEST (0.1V
THRESHOLD, 160ms TIME DELAY, 0.5 SENSE
• Do a refresh of the GUI and the FET buttons should have
gone to red. Also, the “Discharge Overcurrent” indicator
should now be red.
• Leave the load on and click on the “Enable Load Monitor”
button in the lower right corner of the screen. This turns on
the load monitor output.
• Click on the “Status Refresh” button and the “Load Fail”
indicator should now also be red.
4
AN1355.0
October 10, 2007
Application Note 1355
• Turn off or remove the load and again click on “Status
Refresh”. The “Load Fail” indicator should go to green.
Click on the “Reset Overcurrent” button to reset the
“Discharge Overcurrent” indicator. It should also go to
green. If the indicators are still red, it is because the
remaining resistance on the load keeps the voltage on the
ISL9208 load monitor (VMON) pin above its input
threshold. Try disconnecting the load.
• Note: In the GUI, the discharge overcurrent, discharge
short circuit and charge overcurrent indicators are latched
by the GUI. Internal to the ISL9208, the bits are reset by a
read (if the condition has been resolved). The GUI latch is
provided because the overcurrent condition goes away as
soon as the FETs turn off and the bits in the ISL9208 are
reset by reading the registers. Therefore, without the latch,
the indicator would not stay on long enough for the user to
monitor. Reset the latch by clicking on the “Clear
Overcurrent” button.
ISL9208
P-
GND
+
V
A
FIGURE 8. CHARGE OVERCURRENT TEST CONNECTION
Charge Overcurrent Testing
• Turn off the power to the board.
• Remove any load on the board Pack+ and Pack- pins.
• Turn on the ISL9208 board power supply (or connect the
Li-ion cells to the pack).
• Use the GUI “CONFIGURATION” screen to set the
desired charge overcurrent level and time delay.
• Turn on both FETs by clicking on the FET buttons in the
GUI. When the FETs are on, the GUI indicators will
indicate green. Periodically click on the “Status Refresh”
button on the lower right of the screen to make sure that
the GUI reflects the latest status of the device.
• Use another power supply for charge emulation. With the
output off and not connected to the board, set the output to
just over the chosen overcurrent detect voltage threshold.
(This supply should have a 2.5A limit, but will only need to
provide 1.5V max).
• Connect the charge emulation power supply positive
terminal to the board GND pin and connect the charge
emulation power supply negative terminal to the board
P pin. See Figure 8. A current probe can be used to
monitor the overcurrent details.
• Turn the charge emulation power supply output on. This
causes the ISL9208 to detect an overcurrent condition,
which turns the FETs off. Figure 9 shows a charge
overcurrent condition where the charger turns on with
current too high.
• The charge emulation power supply could have been
connected across the Pack output pins (as in a “real
world” operation). However, doing this requires that both
the “charger” and “battery” power supplies sink current,
that the “charger” supply needs to be floating when turned
off (not shorted), and that the “charger” supply needs to
handle a higher voltage than the input.
5
DFET/CFET
VCSNS
ILOAD
FIGURE 9. CHARGE OVERCURRENT TEST (0.1V
THRESHOLD, 160ms TIME DELAY, 0.5 SENSE
RESISTOR)
Sleep/Wake Testing (Default Setting - WKPOL = 0)
The ISL9208 board can be put to sleep via commands from
the PC. This sequence is described in the following
paragraphs.
• To put the ISL9208 into the sleep mode, use the Register
Access window to write an 80H to the ISL9208 register 4.
This turns off the ISL9208 RGO output and LED.
• To wake-up the ISL9208 requires that the ISL9208 WKUP
pin go below its wakeup threshold. Normally, a charger
would connect to the pack terminals to generate a
wake-up signal. This works because the unloaded charger
voltage is equal to, or greater than, the voltage on a fully
charged pack. This makes the charger voltage higher than
the voltage on the cells in any charge state. So,
connecting the charger forces the WKUP pin low, causing
the part to wake-up. However, in a test set-up, it is not
always desirable to connect the charger. In the test set-up,
it is possible to force a wake-up by connecting a jumper
from GND to the P pin. Alternatively, a jumper can be
connected between GND and the WKUP pin to wake the
ISL9208. When using these techniques, don’t leave the
jumper in place.
AN1355.0
October 10, 2007
Application Note 1355
• When the WKUP pin is pulled low, the ISL9208 wakes up
and turns on the RGO output. This turns on the RGO LED.
– If Li-ion cells are being used, discharge the pack until
one or more of the cells reach the undervoltage limit
and the discharge FET turns off. Then, charge the
pack until the FETs turn on again and continue
charging until a cell overvoltage condition is reached.
Sleep/Wake Testing (WKPOL = 1)
• Set the WKUP jumper to the active high position (shunt on
the side closest to the push-button switch).
– If one power supply is being used, lower the voltage
on the power supply until one or more of the cells
reach the undervoltage limit and the discharge FET
turns off. Then, increase the voltage until the FETs turn
on again and continue increasing the voltage until a
cell overvoltage condition is reached.
• Use the GUI to set the “WKUP Pin Active High” in the
Configure Tab, feature set window.
• Put the ISL9208 in sleep mode as before.
• This time, the device can be awakened by the press of the
WKUP button on the board.
– If 7 power supplies are used, then simply decrease or
increase any individual supply until the thresholds are
reached and the FET turns off (or on).
Testing with the Microcontroller
• To operate the board using the microcontroller, power-down
the board.
• Set the I2C jumpers to the µC position.
• Power-up the board and restart the GUI. Now, the PC will
be communicating with the microcontroller and the
microcontroller will be communicating with the ISL9208.
• The GUI should power-up with some color. In this case,
the FET controls should be green and the indicators
should be green or red. (Note: there is a 5s delay after
power-up before the microcontroller turns on the FETS, so
the indicators may be red when initially powered up.
Clicking on the “refresh button” after 5s should change the
FET indicators to green). If the GUI is all gray, then there
is a communication problem. If there is a communication
problem, see the troubleshooting guide in the Appendix.
• If the FET indicators remain red after 5 seconds, then it is
likely that at least one input voltage is out of range.
With the microcontroller in place, the board performs a
number of automatic functions. These are:
1. The cell inputs are monitored for too high or too low
voltage. If any of the cell voltages go too high, the charge
FET is turned off. If any of the cell voltages go too low, the
discharge FET turns off. When the voltage recovers from
these excursions back into the normal range, the FETs
automatically turn on.
2. After an overcurrent condition, the microcontroller
monitors the load and turns the FETs back on when the
load is released.
3. The microcontroller monitors the temperature and turns
off the cell balance if the temperature is too high or low.
4. The microcontroller performs cell balancing (once it is
enabled through the GUI).
5. The microcontroller monitors the cell voltages and reports
these voltages to the GUI. The microcontroller A/D
converter accuracy is only 10-bits, thus the voltage
readings are not as accurate as when using only the PC
interface.
• Test the overvoltage and undervoltage conditions by:
6
• Test the overcurrent in the same way as before, but this time,
when the load is removed, the FETs should automatically
turn back on. In this case, with the microcontroller operating,
the status indicators in the GUI may not prove to be very
useful because the microcontroller is often doing things too
quickly to display on the screen. To get an indication of the
operation, monitor the voltage at the VMON test point with a
scope.
• Testing the cell balance operation requires the use of
Li-ion cells or requires modifying the board to use 1000
cell balancing resistors. (With 7-cells, a string of 20
voltage divider resistors, and 39 cell balancing resistors,
turning on one cell balance output drops the voltage on
that cell to less than 2.5V. At this voltage, the
microcontroller puts the ISL9208 to sleep).
• Start the cell balance test by first observing if the cell with
the maximum cell voltage exceeds the cell with the
minimum voltage by more than 30mV. If so, note the cell
number of the maximum voltage cell.
• Next, select “CB Max #” to be “1”. This limits the balancing
to only one cell (the one with the maximum voltage).
• Use the CB refresh button (or start auto update) to update
the indicators to see which cell is being balanced (it should
be the maximum voltage cell). Be patient because the
microcontroller will balance for 10s, then turn off balancing
for 2s1, then balance again. Also, if the maximum voltage
cell is very close to the next highest voltage cell, or if there
are many cells within a narrow voltage range, then any of
these cells could be balanced, due to the limited accuracy
of the microcontroller A/D converter.
• Next, select “CB Max #” to be “2”. This limits the balancing
to two cells (the highest two voltage cells). Again, refresh
the CB screen periodically to see the operation of the cell
balance code.
• Open the pack tab in the GUI and change some of the
settings for overvoltage, undervoltage or cell balance and
re-test. Remember to click on “Write” to send the new
parameters to the microcontroller.
1.
If this is too long to wait, go to the “Pack Tab” and change the cell
balance on/off times. Setting 1s on and 1s off is the minimum
setting for cell balancing, but 2s on, 2s off is the recommended
minimum, only because an autoscan of 1s can cause confusion
due to the asynchronous nature of cell balance and autoscan.
AN1355.0
October 10, 2007
Application Note 1355
Further tests on the board will likely follow the lines of battery
pack testing, so they can become quite involved and be very
specific to the application. Therefore, before setting up the
tests, see the “GUI user Manual” for information on using the
interface and see the “Microcode Reference Guide” for
information about how the software works.
Other Board Features/Options
Sense Resistor
The ISL9208EVAL1Z (Rev D) board has three basic sense
resistor “footprints” for different types of sense resistors. The
basic footprint is a standard 2512 surface mount. The board
uses a 0.5 resistor in this form factor as the default.
A second footprint is for an axial lead sense resistor. In this
case, remove the resistor that was shipped with the board.
The third footprint is for a 4-terminal sense resistor with
Kelvin connections. These are higher precision sense
resistor devices, but are more costly.
In summary, in addition to a standard 2512 footprint, the
board is laid out to handle the following resistors:
Isotek:
The PCB provides optional connections for an external
crystal for the microcontroller and brings all microcontroller
terminals out for use in other application modes.
The external, 15-bit, A/D converter is not used by the
microcontroller, but it could be, if changes are made to the
microcontroller code. To use this, refer to the Texas
Instruments ADS1100 data sheet. The version of the A/D
converter used on the ISL9208 board is the ADS1100A2,
which has an I2C address of “1001 010x.”
Use with an External Microcontroller
The ISL9208 board can be used as a platform for developing
code for a microcontroller other than the NXP (formerly
Freescale) microcontroller on the board. To do this, set the
I2C jumpers in the PC mode and use the I2C interface for
communication with the external microcontroller.
To get good communication between the external
microcontroller and the ISL9208, connect the “I2C GND
jumper” to the GND position. However, in this case, make
sure that the external microcontroller is isolated from earth
ground before connecting a load or charger to the pack. This
is because the board GND terminal and the P-terminal are
not the same when the FETs are off.
– SMV-R005-1.0
Charge Detection
– SMR-R005-1.0
The ISL9208EVAL1Z (Rev D) board has an optional circuit
to detect a charge condition. The voltage is monitored on the
ChgSens test point. This voltage should drop as charge
current is applied. This signal connects to one of the
microcontroller A/D inputs, however, the initial release
microcontroller software does not make use of this signal.
– LMSR005-5.0
– BVS-A-R004-1.0
TT Electronics (IRC):
– OAR-5 0.005 5% LF (Mouser 66-OAR5R005JLF)
Additional FETs
EEPROM
The board has extra pads on the top of the board to handle
additional power FETs. As shown in the schematic, these
parallel the ones provided with the board. While this can be
used to test very high discharge current applications, the
primary purpose of adding these optional FETs to the PCB
was to test the performance of the FET drive circuitry in
applications where higher capacitance FETs or multiple
FETs are used.
For applications that require non-volatile storage or require
calibration and the microcontroller flash is no longer
available, the ISL9208EVAL1Z (Rev D) board provides a
serial EEPROM connection to the microcontroller. An
example EEPROM device is the AT24C16 from Atmel. This
is not populated as shipped and there is no code in the
microcontroller to support this device.
If the FETs are added to the board, monitor the FET gate
drive voltage during FET turn-on and turn-off to determine if
the response times are suitable for the application.
From Intersil
No tests have been made to determine if the board traces
can handle the amount of current or power dissipation
supported by the FETs on the board.
Related Documentation
• ISL9208, ISL9216, ISL9217 Microcode Reference Guide
• ISL9208 Data Sheet
• ISL9208 Application Note
• ISL9208, ISL9216 GUI User Guide
Microcontroller Options
• DeVaSys USB-I2C Software Installation
The BKGD connection on the ISL9208 board allows
development of new or modified code for the NXP (formerly
Freescale) MC9S08QG8 microcontroller, which is supplied
on the board.
From Texas Instruments
• ADS1100 Data Sheet
From NXP (formerly Freescale)
• MC9S08QG8 Microcontroller Data Sheet
• HCS08 Microcontrollers Family Reference Manual
7
AN1355.0
October 10, 2007
ISL9208EVAL1Z Schematic
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
R1 187k
J23
RGC
CELL2
S1
SW-PB
1
R23
68k
C7
DIODE
GND
.01uF/50V
1
1
1
DIODE
D8
15V
J3 J2 J1
VC7 VC6 VC5
BANANA RED
WKUP Non-invert
R17 39
CB3
R18 39
CB2 R19
39
CB1
39
R20
1
CB3 CB2 CB1
C5
J22
TMPI
R46
4.7K
RGO
TH1
D9
4.7V
C8
.01uF
J36
RGO LED
Th1
10k Therm
R40 511
J35
1
R8
R35 R4
1M
100
J16
BAT1
R32 R33 R43
0
0
0
B3
~2.5mA
D7
LED
C9
U3
4.7uF
Q2
IRF1404S
1
J39
A2DIN
1000pF
B
A/D Converter
15V
100k
D3
DIODE
J38
Pack-
R39
10k
GND
AO
B4
BANANA BLACK
3
22
3
Q13
IRF1404S
1
Q12
IRF1404S
J30
DGate
J34
CGate
A
Title
ISL9208EVAL1Z REVD AFE
C1
GND
ChgSens
1uF
1
2
J58
GND
4
5
6
Q3
IRF1404S
1
R5
Connect Rs for desired sense R
1k
0.005Ohm application/0.5Ohm test
Sized for 1/100 scale S.C. current
S.C. current = .7A @0.35V setting
O.C. = .2A @0.1V setting
R rated at 5x power for 5sec.
Layout allows 2512, SMR, SMV, axial R
R13
3
1
R30
0.005/3W
BAT-
SCL SDA
GNDVDD
VIN+VIN-
1
BANANA BLACK
3
2
1
C10
J37
AO
D6
22
GND
A2D
GND
R3
1M
3
D4
DIODE
15V
100
D15
HEADER 5
J55
CON3
R37 511
1
R36 D14
CFET
C
GND
VMON
1M
5
4
3
2
1
100
D5
3.6V
R47
4.7K
1
J32 DFET
1
2
1
Notes:
1)Keep wide traces as short as possible
2) Wide trace widths should be 0.4 inches wide or
more
3) Use RoHS approved PCB materials
4) Use immersion gold plating
5) All components used must be RoHS approved
R26 1M
J29
100
R27 1M
1
CON2
A
J25
RGO
Q1
FMMT619
1
J33
DSns
CELL1
0.1uF
1
B
R28
R29
J43
JMP3
WKUP
J31
1
4.7uF
C6
0
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
J57 J17
GND GND
1
R9
511
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
R38
46.4k
O.T. = 55degC
1
1
VC4 VC3 VC2 VC1
J44
CSns
J19 J20
1
J18
1
J14
J13
J15
1
1
1
TH1
GND
1
J12
GND
NC
NC
SCL
SDA
WKUP
RGC
RGO
Temp3V
1
CELL2
CELL1
CB4
VCELL3
CB3
VCELL2
CB2
VCELL1
CB1
VSS
ISL9208
DSREF
DSense
CSense
DFET
CFET
VMON
AO
TempI
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
CELL3
Battery Connect
J24
VCELL4
CB5
VCELL5
CB6
VCELL6
CB7
V7/VCC
NC
CELL4
3
2
1
R16 39
CB4
CELL5
1
CB5
PACKSCL
PACKSDA
J26
PAD
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
1
19
17
15
13
11
9
7
5
3
1
U1
GND
R15 39
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
R14 39
CB6
AFE Schematic
3
4
5
Size
A
Number
ISL9208EVAL1Z
Date:
File:
Jan 18, 2007
ISL9208 EVAL1Z_REVD
Revsion
D
Sheet
2 of
Drawn by: CEM
6
3
Application Note 1355
C
CB7
D2
J42
JMP3
CELL7
CELL6
J40 J41
PSCLPSDA
WKUP invert
GND
J11
CB7
CB6
CB5
CB4
CB3
CB2
CB1
R2
1.2M
D1
1
J56
CON1
J8
JMP3
GND
1
8
4.7V D13
CELL1
B1
CELL4
4.7V D12
CELL3
uCSCL
uCSDA
1
CELL5
TMP3V
D
4.7V D11
1
D
1
1
J5 J6 J7
CB5 CB6 CB7
1
J4
CB4
CELL6
1
4.7V D10
CELL7
1
1
J21 J27 J28
TEMP3V SCL SDA
AN1355.0
October 10, 2007
Microcontroller Schematic
9
J45
1
5
3
1
BKGD
J46
R45
1
10k
J47 uCp5
C13
C15
C14
.1uF
.01uF
U4
RGO
GND
1
J48 uCp6
R41 RESIST
R42
RESIST
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
PTA5/IRQ/TCLK/RESET PTA0/KBIP0/TPMCH0/ADP0/ACMP+
PTA4/ACMPO/BKGD/MS
PTA1/KBIP1/ADP1/ACMPVDD
PTA2/KBIP2/SDA/ADP2
VSS
PTA3/KBIP3/SCL/ADP3
PTB7/SCL/EXTAL
PTB0/KBIP4/RxD/ADP4
PTB6/SDA/XTAL
PTB1/KBIP5/TxD/ADP5
PTB5/PMCH1/SS
PTB2/KBIP6/MSCK/ADP6
PTB4/MISO
PTB3/KBIP7/MOSI/ADP7
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
AO
TMP3V
PACKSDA
PACKSCL
J51 ChgSens
1
J52 WP
uCSCL
uCSDA
1
MC9S08QG8
0
1
ChgSens
uCp1
PAD
.1uF
Application Note 1355
JP1
6
4
2
uCp2
Y1
J49 uCp8
1
CRYSTAL
C11
CAPNP
J50 uCp7
C12
CAPNP
1
U2
1
2
3
SCL WP
GND
SDA VCC
5
4
EEPROM
Microcontroller Schematic
Title
AN1355.0
October 10, 2007
Size
Application Note 1355
TABLE 1. ISL9208EVAL1Z (REV D) BILL OF MATERIALS
QTY
PART TYPE
DESIGNATOR
FOOTPRINT
DESCRIPTION
1
1µF
C1
603
*
*
1
1000pF
C10
603
*
*
1
0.01µF
C15
603
*
*
1
4.7µF
C5
603
*
*
3
0.1µF
C6, C13, C14
603
*
*
1
0.01µF/50V
C7
603
*
*
1
0.01µF
C8
805
*
*
1
4.7µF
C9
805
*
*
4
DIODE
D1, D2, D3, D4
SOD-123
Digikey: B0540WDICT-ND
DIODES: Schottky diode
4
4.7V
D11
SOT23-6
Digikey:
MMBZ5230BS-FDICT-ND
DIODES: MMBZ5230BS
1
DUAL DIODE
D15
SOT23
Digikey: 568-1624-1-ND
Philips: BAV99
1
3.6V
D5
SOT23
Digikey:
AZ23C3V6-FDICT-NDD
DIODES: 3.6V Zener-dual,
common anode
3
15V
D6, D8, D14
SOD-123
Digikey:
MMSZ4702T10SCT-ND
On Semi: 15V Zener
SOD-123
1
LED
D7
LED_GW
Digikey: 490CT-ND
Panasonic: LN1271RTR
1
4.7V
D9
SOD-123
Digikey: BZT52C4V7-FDICT- *
ND
23
VC5, VC4, VC3, VC2,
VC1, VC6, TEMP3V,
TMPI, RGC, RGO,
WKUP, SCL, SDA,
VC7, DFET, CFET,
DSns, VMON, AO,
Pack-, A2DIN, CSns,
ChgSens
J1, J12, J13,
J14, J15, J2,
J21, J22, J23,
J25, J26, J27,
J28, J3, J31,
J32, J33, J35,
J37, J38, J39,
J44, J51
TP
1
Battery-Connect
(Male - On board)
J11
HEADER
10x2 3M
4
BAT-, GND, GND,
GND
J16, J17, J57,
J58
TP SM
2
CON2, RGO_LED
J24, J36
JP_2
1
HEADER 5
J29
4
JMP3, JMP3, CON3,
JMP3
1
PART FIELD 2
Digikey 5000K-ND
*
Digikey MHC20K-ND
*
Connector
Digikey 5011K-ND
*
Connector
*
*
HEADER 5x1
*
*
J42, J43, J55,
J8
JP_3
*
*
BKGD
JP1
HEADER 3x2
*
*
1
FMMT619
Q1
SOT23 - NPN
Digikey: FMMT619CT-ND
ZETEX: NPN 50V
hfe = 100min
2
IRF1404S
Q2, Q3
D2PAK
Digikey: IRF1404S-ND
Or: Philips
PHB222NQ04LT
1
187k
R1
805
*
*
1
100k
R13
805
*
*
7
39
R14, R15, R16,
R17, R18, R19,
R20
2512
*
*
1
1.2M
R2
805
*
*
10
Connector
PART FIELD 1
AN1355.0
October 10, 2007
Application Note 1355
TABLE 1. ISL9208EVAL1Z (REV D) BILL OF MATERIALS (Continued)
QTY
PART TYPE
DESIGNATOR
FOOTPRINT
1
68.1k
R23
805
*
*
4
100
R28, R29, R35,
R36
603
*
*
4
1M
R3, R4, R26,
R27
603
*
*
1
0.51
R30
2512
3
0
R32, R33, R43
603
*
*
1
46.4k
R38
603
*
*
1
10k
R39
805
*
*
1
10k
R45
603
*
*
2
4.7k
R46, R47
603
*
*
1
1k
R5
603
*
*
3
511
R9, R37, R40
603
*
*
1
SW-PB
S1
B3WN-6002
Digikey: SW425TB-ND
Omron: B3WN-6002
1
10k Therm
Th1
603
*
MuRata: NCPxxXH103F
1
ISL9208
U1
QFN32
*
*
1
A2D
U3
SOT23-6
Digikey: 296-14299-1-ND
TI: ADS1100A2
1
MC9S08QG8
U4
QFN16
*
*
CAPNP
C11
603
Not populated
*
CAPNP
C12
603
Not Populated
*
RESIST
R41
603
Not populated
*
RESIST
R42
603
Not populated
*
1M
R8
603
Not Populated
*
IRF1404S
Q13
D2PAK
Not populated
*
IRF1404S
Q12
D2PAK
Not populated
*
EEPROM
U2
SOT23-5
Not populated
Atmel: AT24C16
CB1
J20
TP
Connector
Not populated
*
CB2
J19
TP
Connector
Not populated
*
CB3
J18
TP
Connector
Not populated
*
CB4
J4
TP
Connector
Not populated
*
CB5
J5
TP
Connector
Not populated
*
CB6
J6
TP
Connector
Not populated
*
CB7
J7
TP
Connector
Not populated
*
CGate
J34
TP
Connector
Not populated
*
DGate
J30
TP
Connector
Not populated
*
PSCL
J40
TP
Connector
Not populated
*
PSDA
J41
TP
Connector
Not populated
*
µCp1
J46
TP
Connector
Not populated
*
11
DESCRIPTION
PART FIELD 1
PART FIELD 2
AN1355.0
October 10, 2007
Application Note 1355
TABLE 1. ISL9208EVAL1Z (REV D) BILL OF MATERIALS (Continued)
QTY
PART TYPE
DESIGNATOR
FOOTPRINT
DESCRIPTION
PART FIELD 1
PART FIELD 2
µCp2
J45
TP
Connector
Not populated
*
µCp5
J47
TP
Connector
Not populated
*
µCp6
J48
TP
Connector
Not populated
*
µCp7
J50
TP
Connector
Not populated
*
µCp8
J49
TP
Connector
Not populated
*
WP
J52
TP
Connector
Not populated
*
CON1
J56
TPAD
Connector
Not populated
*
CRYSTAL
Y1
32k XTAL
Crystal
Digikey: 300-8038-1-ND (Not Citizen:
populated)
CM155-32.768KDZFTR
BANANA BLACK
B3
BANANA
Not populated
*
BANANA BLACK
B4
BANANA
Not populated
*
BANANA RED
B1
BANANA
Not populated
*
The following screen will come up:
Appendix 1
Installing the DeVaSys USB to I2C Board Software
Obtain the DeVaSys software along with the GUI code from
the Intersil website on the ISL9208 page. Copy and extract
the files from the “ISL92xx Eval Kit Software Release V1.41”
zip file to the PC at whatever location is desired.
Disconnect the DeVaSys board from the ISL9208/ISL9216
board, then, plug in the DeVaSys board into the USB port.
The following screen should pop up:
Select “Install from a list or specific location” and click “Next.”
A screen like the following will come up:
Select “Yes, this time only” and click “Next”.
12
AN1355.0
October 10, 2007
Application Note 1355
Browse for the “Software” directory in the “ISL9208_16 Eval
Kit SW and docs” folder then click “Next”.
This should install the software, eventually bringing up the
following screen:
ISL9208 Troubleshooting
IF THE AO VOLTAGES ARE READING INCORRECTLY
AT THE AO PIN
1. Make sure that the I2C jumpers are in the “PC” position.
2. Check that all cell balance outputs are off.
3. Make sure that there is no series resistance between the
battery and the input of the ISL9208 and that the input
voltage is between 2.3V and 4.3V.
IF THE AO VOLTAGES ARE READING INCORRECTLY
ON THE GUI
1. Check that the RGO output is 3.3V. GUI and
microcontroller calculations assume the RGO voltage is
3.3V. Any variation translates directly into errors in the
GUI screen value.
2. Power-down the board and stop the GUI. Power-up the
board and restart the GUI. This should clear any
communication problems.
Click “Finish” and you’re done.
3. If operating with the I2C Jumpers in the µC position, make
sure that the “Partition” setting in the Pack Tab matches
the battery connection on the board.
Excessive Current Troubleshooting
Appendix 2
Communication Troubleshooting
IF THE GUI STARTS-UP WITH ALL ITEMS “GRAYED
OUT”
1. Check that the I2C cable is connected properly.
2. Check that the board is powered and that the RGO
voltage is ~3.3V.
3. If the RGO voltage is not powered to the right voltage,
move to the power supply troubleshooting section.
4. Make sure that the board drivers are installed correctly.
On the DeVaSys USB to I2C interface board, there
should be one red LED and one green LED lit.
5. Use a scope to see that the I2C communication is correct
at the board. Monitor the SCL and the SDA lines while
initiating a read of the ISL9208 status register. Set the
scope to single trigger on the falling edge of SCL.
6. Check that the SCL and SDA jumpers (J42 and J43) have
shunts on the “PC” side.
7. Check to see that the “I2C GND” jumper is in place in the
“GND” position.
8. Check that the “I2C GND” jumper (J24) is in place.
Power Supply Troubleshooting
IF RGO DOES NOT HAVE THE CORRECT VOLTAGE
1. Check that the voltage on each of the input terminals are
correct.
2. Check that there is no unexpected load on the RGO
output.
13
Input “Protection” Diodes
Input protection zener diodes are added to the evaluation
board to minimize the chance of exceeding the input voltage
range of the ISL9208 cell monitoring inputs during
experimentation (especially during testing of the cell balance
operation when using a string of resistors to simulate the
batteries). In an actual application, however, when the board
is connected to a string of batteries, these zener diodes
“leak” at higher cell voltages. This may not be a big problem
as the currents are less than 20µA, but over time it could
lead to reduced pack life.
There is excessive current flowing into the
VCELL3 input when both FETs are on and no cells
are being monitored.
When ISL9208 turns both FETs on, there is a current path
from the CFET gate to VSS through the charge FET pull-up
resistor R13. This 100k resistor and a 12V gate voltage
results in about 120µA of current into the VCELL3 input
when no cells are being monitored. This can be reduced by
increasing the value of R13, but this slows down the charge
FET turn-off. The pack can also be designed without the
charge FET. This removed the charge FET current.
Alternatively, when there is no current flow into or out of the
pack, the charge FET can be turned off, removing this
current.
There is excessive current flowing into the VCELL1
input when the discharge FET is off, the charge FET
is on, and no cells are being monitored.
AN1355.0
October 10, 2007
Application Note 1355
There is about 10µA of current flowing into the
VCELL1 input when the both FETs are on and no
cells are being monitored.
When the wake up voltage is below the falling edge
threshold, the WKUP input turns on some ISL9208 internal
circuits that draw current through the VCELL1 input. This
current can be eliminated by increasing the value of R23 to
136k (7-cell operation). This sets the voltage on the WKUP
pin above the falling edge threshold). The consequence of
doing this is that when the cells are fully charged to 29.4V, a
charger with a voltage of 30.9V or more is required to
wake-up the pack.
CFET
DFET
CSENSE
DSENSE
DSREF
ISL9208
VSS
When the discharge FET is off and the charge FET is on and
the pack voltage is sufficiently high, a voltage greater than
the CFET ouput is applied to the CFET pin. This causes
some circuit elements inside the ISL9208 to turn on, causing
current to flow into the VCELL1 input. This current is on the
order of 120µA at a pack voltage of 28V (less at other pack
voltages). The current can be stopped by turning on the
VMON output. This pulls the voltage low enough that the
internal circuits do not turn on. Alternatively, a Schottky
diode can be added in series with the CFET output as shown
in Figure 10. When this diode is added, the zener diode D14
and diode D3 can be removed as they have no functionality.
D14
VSS
D (NEW)
100
100k
REMOVE
D6
D3
FIGURE 10. BLOCKING CELL1 CURRENT WHEN DFET IS OFF
AND CFET IS ON
One also notices about 12µA of current into
VCELL3 when the discharge FET is on and the
charge FET is off and no cells are being
monitored.
This current is caused by the current monitor circuit
consisting of R3, R4, and D15. Disconnect R4 to eliminate
this current. Of course, this also disables the current monitor
feature.
Intersil Corporation reserves the right to make changes in circuit design, software and/or specifications at any time without notice. Accordingly, the reader is cautioned to
verify that the Application Note or Technical Brief is current before proceeding.
For information regarding Intersil Corporation and its products, see www.intersil.com
14
AN1355.0
October 10, 2007
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