an1164

ISL6566EVAL1: Voltage Regulator Down
Solutions for Intel and AMD Designs
®
Application Note
January 7, 2005
AN1164.0
Author: Shawn Evans
Introduction
The Intel and AMD families of microprocessors continue to
increase in size with the addition of their next generation
microprocessors. These new processors are the most
advanced Intel and AMD have developed, requiring
advanced power management solutions that have strict
requirements for core voltage, transient response, and peak
current demands. Responding to the increasing needs of
these new processors, Intersil introduces the ISL6566
controller to enable the next generation of power
management solutions.
customers’ needs. Refer to our web site for updated
information: www.intersil.com.
ISL6566 VRD Reference Design
The evaluation kit consists of the ISL6566EVAL1 evaluation
board, the ISL6566 datasheet, and this application note. The
evaluation board is designed to meet the output voltage and
current specifications shown in Table 1, with the VID DIP
switches (U3 or U4) set to 100101 (1.400V).
TABLE 1. ISL6566EVAL1 DESIGN PARAMETERS
PARAMETER
MAX
TYPICAL
MIN
1.380V
1.360V
Intersil ISL6566
No Load VCORE Regulation
1.400V
With the integration of a controller and drivers into one IC,
the ISL6566 controller is an all-in-one multi-phase power
management solution. This single IC is tailored to
accommodate both Intel and AMD’s next generation
microprocessor specifications with integrated high efficient
single-phase drivers capable of handling the stresses of high
current loads. The ISL6566EVAL1 uses this IC to form a
highly integrated solution for Intel and AMD’s high current,
high slew-rate applications.
VCORE Tolerance
+20mV
The ISL6566 regulates core voltage, balances channel
currents, and provides protective features for one to three
synchronous buck converter channels. The controller uses a
6-bit DAC giving the user a digital interface to select the
output voltage, which is precisely regulated to ±0.5%
accuracy using differential remote voltage sensing. The DAC
can be setup to read VRM9, VRM10, or AMD Hammer VID
codes, allowing the controller to regulate power of any of the
three families of microprocessors. The ISL6566 also has
MOSFET Rds(on) current sensing to balance the channel
currents and Inductor DCR current sensing to give the user
control of the output voltage over load current. Other
features of the controller include overcurrent, overvoltage,
and undervoltage protection, internal overtemperature
protection, programmable output voltage offset, and dynamic
VID circuitry.
Integrated into the ISL6566 are three high efficient MOSFET
drivers, each capable of driving multiple N-channel power
MOSFETs. With a 3A sink current capability, fast rise and fall
times, and short dead times, these integrated drivers can
drive up to three upper and three lower MOSFETs efficiently,
pushing load currents as high as 40A per phase. With the
addition of adaptive shoot through technology, the integrated
drivers allow the ISL6566 controller to create a full power
management solution. For further details on the ISL6566,
consult the data sheet [1].
Load Line Slope
1.0mΩ
Continuous Load Current
5A
Load Current Step
95A
Load Current Transient
-20mV
100A/µs
The evaluation board provides convenient test points, two
types of power supply connectors, a dynamic VID test
circuit, and an on-board transient load generator to facilitate
the evaluation process. An on board LED is present to
indicate the status of the PGOOD signal. The board is
configured for down conversion from 12V to the DAC setting.
The printed circuit board is implemented in 4-layer, 1-ounce
copper. Layout plots and part lists are provided at the end of
the application note for this design.
Quick Start Evaluation
The ISL6566EVAL1 is designed for quick evaluation after
following only a few simple steps. All that is required is a
single ATX power supply. To begin evaluating the
ISL6566EVAL1 follow the steps below.
1. Before doing anything to the evaluation board, make sure
the “Enable” switch (S1) and the “Transient Load
Generator” switch (S2) are both in the OFF position.
2. Using an ATX power supply, connect the 20-pin main
power supply header to the “ATX POWER” connector
(J11) on the board. Next connect the 4-pin 12V header to
the “ATX12V” connector (J9) on the board.
3. Set the “Static VID” DIP switch (U3) and the “Dynamic
VID” DIP switch (U4) to 100101 (VID4 to VID12.5
respectively). Move the “VID Select” switch (S6) to the
STATIC position.
4. Move the “Enable” switch (S1) to the ON position to begin
regulation.
The Intersil multi-phase family controller and driver portfolio
continues to expand with new selections to better fit our
1
CAUTION: These devices are sensitive to electrostatic discharge; follow proper IC Handling Procedures.
1-888-INTERSIL or 321-724-7143 | Intersil (and design) is a registered trademark of Intersil Americas Inc.
Copyright © Intersil Americas Inc. 2005. All Rights Reserved
All other trademarks mentioned are the property of their respective owners.
Application Note 1164
After step 4, the ISL6566EVAL1 should be regulating the
output voltage, at the “VCORE+” and “GND” test points (J5),
within the “No Load VCORE Regulation” parameters in Table
1. The “PGOOD Indicator” LED (D1) should be green to
indicate the regulator is operating correctly.
ISL6566EVAL1 Board Features
Input Power Connections
The ISL6566EVAL1 includes two different methods for
powering up the board. The first method allows for the use of
an ATX power supply. The 20-pin header, J11, allows for the
connection of the main ATX power connector, while the 4-pin
header, J9, connects the 12V AUX power. It is very important
that both connections are secure and the S1 and S2
switches are in the OFF position before switching on the
ATX supply.
The second method of powering the ISL6566EVAL1 board is
with bench-top power supplies. Three female-banana jacks
are provided for connection of bench-top supplies. Connect
the +5V terminal to J6, +12V terminal to J7, and the common
ground to terminal J8. Voltage sequencing is not required
when powering the evaluation board.
Once power is applied to the board, the PGOOD LED
indicator will begin to illuminate red. With S1 in the OFF
position, the ENABLE input of the ISL6566 is held low and
the startup sequence is inhibited.
Output Power Connections
The ISL6566EVAL1 output can be exercised using either
resistive or electronic loads. Copper alloy terminal lugs
provide connection points for loading. Tie the positive load
connection to VCORE, terminals J1 and J2, and the
negative to ground, terminals J3 and J4. A shielded scope
probe test point, J5, allows for inspection of the output
voltage, VCORE.
VID Setup
The Static and Dynamic VID DIP switches would be preset
to 100101 (1.400V). If another output voltage level is
desired, refer to pages 11 to 13 of the ISL6566 data sheet for
the complete DAC table and change the VID switches
accordingly. Note that changing the VID states will
change the dynamics of the load generator
The ISL6566EVAL1 board has two options for VID selection,
a Static VID mode and a Dynamic VID mode. When in static
VID mode, the VID code, set by the “Static VID” DIP switch
(U3), will not change during operation. If the dynamic VID
mode is chosen, the regulator will start up with the VID code
dictated by the “Dynamic VID” DIP switch (U4). This VID
code can then be changed during the operation of the
regulator to test the dynamic VID circuitry of the ISL6566.
Toggling the “VID Select” switch (S6) will change between
the two modes (static and dynamic) of operation.
2
No matter what VID mode is being used (static or dynamic),
all three different DAC tables of the ISL6566 can be
accessed using the ISL6566EVAL1. The resistor R2 sets the
condition of the VRM10 pin. If this resistor is left open
(default), then the VRM10 pin is open and VRM10 DAC
codes can be used. If a 0Ω resistor is used for R2, the
VRM10 pin is grounded and VRM9 and AMD Hammer DAC
codes can be accessed. To use VRM9 codes, set VID12.5
on the “Dynamic VID” and “Static VID” DIP switches to the
“1” position. To use AMD Hammer DAC codes, set VID12.5
to the “0” position. In VRM9 and AMD Hammer DAC modes,
use only VID4 to VID0 on the DIP switches to select the
preferred DAC code.
PVCC Power Options
One unique feature of the ISL6566 is the variable gate drive
bias for the integrated drivers. The gate drive voltage for the
internal drivers can be any voltage from +5V to +12V by
simply connecting the desired voltage to the PVCC1, 2 and 3
pins of the controller. To accommodate the flexibility of the
drivers, the ISL6566EVAL1 has been designed to support a
multitude of options for the PVCC voltage.
Switching between the different PVCC voltages available on
the evaluation board is as simple as populating and
depopulating certain resistors. The eval board has three on
board voltages available: +5V, +12V, and +8V (from an
onboard linear regulator). Refer to Table 2 for what resistors
to populate for each voltage option.
TABLE 2. GATE DRIVE VOLTAGE OPTIONS AND RESISTOR
SETTINGS
UGATE
VOLTAGE
LGATE
VOLTAGE
R48
R68
R71
R72
12.0V
12.0V
OPEN
OPEN
OPEN
0Ω
8.0V
8.0V
OPEN
OPEN
0Ω
OPEN
5.0V
5.0V
0Ω
OPEN
OPEN
OPEN
12.0V
5.0V
0Ω
0Ω
OPEN
OPEN
Enabling the Controller
In order to enable the controller, the board must be powered,
a VID code must be set, and the PVCC voltage must be set.
If these steps have been properly followed, the regulator is
enabled by toggling the “ENABLE” switch (S1) to the ON
position. When S1 is switched, the voltage on the EN pin of
the ISL6566 will rise above the ENLL threshold of 0.66V and
the controller will begin its digital soft start sequence. The
output voltage ramps up to the programmed VID setting, at
which time the PGOOD indicator will switch from red to
green.
On-Board Load Transient Generator
Most bench-top electronic loads are not capable of
producing the current slew rates required to emulate modern
microprocessors. For this reason, a discrete transient load
generator is provided on the evaluation board, see Figure 1.
Application Note 1164
The generator produces a load pulse of 225µs in duration
with a period of 27ms. The pulse magnitude is approximately
95A with rise and fall slew rates of approximately 100A/µs as
configured. The short load current pulse and long duty cycle
is required to limit the power dissipation in the load resistors
(R38-R42) and MOSFETs (Q20, Q21). To engage the load
generator simply place switch S2, in the “ON” position.
If the DAC code is changed from 100101(1.400V), the
transient generator dynamics must be adjusted relative to
the new output voltage level. Place a scope probe in J10 to
measure the voltage across the load resistors and the dV/dt
across them as well. Adjust the load resistors, R38-R40, to
achieve the correct load current level. Change resistors
R34-R37 to increase or decrease the dV/dt as required to
match the desired dI/dt profile.
LI
VDD
C55
1µF
HB
VCC12
HO
HIP2100
R30
46.4kΩ
U2
R33
ON
OFF
402Ω
Q19
2N7002
R35
634Ω
R34
VCORE
BAV99LT1
S4
Q20
SUD50N03
R39
OPEN
R40
0.02Ω
332Ω
R37
634kΩ
R36
Q21
SUD50N03
BAV99LT1
R38
OPEN
S2
C57
22µF
S3
R41
0.02Ω
R42
0.200Ω
332Ω
J10
VLOAD
FIGURE 1. LOAD TRANSIENT GENERATOR
Inductor DCR Static Current Sense Points
A unique feature of the ISL6566EVAL1 is the ability to
measure the voltage drop across the DCR of each channel’s
inductor by multimeter. This is accomplished with the use of
a capacitor and resistor series circuit which is placed in
parallel across each inductor as illustrated in Figure 2. When
current, IL, flows through the inductor, the voltage crop
developed across the DCR will be sensed by the R-C circuit,
3
+ DCR SENSE -
VIN
R
C
L
ISL6566
DCR
INDUCTOR
I
VOUT
COUT
L
FIGURE 2. DCR STATIC CURRENT SENSE CIRCUIT
In order to not affect the rest of the regulator, the time
constant of this R-C circuit is very large, so it can only be
used to measure static current, and not transient currents. To
calculate the current through each inductor measure the
voltage across the “DCR SENSE” points on the
ISL6566EVAL1 and then divide that number by the DCR of
the inductor. This should give you an accurate reading of the
current through each channel during static loads.
Dynamic VID-on-the-Fly Circuitry
LO
HI
HS
VSS
and an equivalent voltage will be developed across the
capacitor C.
Since the ISL6566 supports three different types of DAC
encoding (VRM9, VRM10, and AMD Hammer), the
ISL6566EVAL1 is able to test the dynamic VID-on-the-Fly
circuitry of the IC for each DAC mode of operation. The
evaluation board accomplishes this by offering two options
for performing the VID-on-the-fly change. Before any VID
change is made, the desired starting VID should be set on
the “Dynamic VID” DIP switch (U4), and the “VID Select”
switch (S6) should be set to the DYNAMIC setting.
The first option available to simulate a dynamic VID-on-thefly transition should be used if the ISL6566 is operating in
VRM10 mode, as described in VID Setup. During normal
operation, pressing the DYNAMIC SWITCH (S5) button
begins the VID transition. An on-board circuit is designed to
transition the VID code 450mV below the “Dynamic VID” DIP
switch code in 12.5mV steps that occur every 5µs. This
simulates the method an Intel VRM10 processor would use
to change the VID, allowing the processor to control the VID
change.
The second option available to simulate a dynamic VID-onthe-fly transition should be used if the ISL6566 is operating
in VRM9 or AMD Hammer mode. The starting VID code
should already be set on the “Dynamic VID” DIP switch. Set
the ending VID code on the “Static VID” DIP switch. To
transition between the two VID codes simply toggle the “VID
Select” switch from the DYNAMIC position to the STATIC
position. Doing so will immediately change the VID code that
is read to the ISL6566, and the IC will be begin slewing the
DAC 12.5mV every phase cycle. To switch back to the
beginning VID code, simply toggle the “VID Select” switch
back to the DYNAMIC position.
Application Note 1164
Modifying the ISL6566EVAL1 Design
Current Balance Resistors
The ISL6566 uses lower MOSFET Rds(on) current sensing
to measure the current through each channel and balance
them accordingly. If the lower MOSFETs on the
ISL6566EVAL1 are changed, the current balance resistors,
R18-R20, should also be changed to adjust for the change in
Rds(on). Refer to page 21 in the ISL6566 datasheet to
choose new current sense resistors. R18 adjusts the current
in channel 1, R20 adjusts the currents in channel 2, and R19
adjusts the current in channel 3. These resistors can also be
changed to adjust for any current imbalance due to layout,
which is also explained on page 21 of the ISL6566
datasheet.
Load Line (Droop) Regulation
To create an output voltage change proportional to the total
current in all the active channels (droop), the ISL6566 uses
an inductor DCR sensing R-C network. This network, shown
in Figure 3, is designed not only to precisely control the load
line of the regulator, but also to thermally compensate for
any changes in DCR that may scew the loan line as a result
of increases in temperature.
L2
PHASE1
IOUT
VOUT
R15
L3
PHASE2
R16
L4
PHASE3
R12
R17
ISUM
R9
R14
C7
10nF
R10
ICOMP
RCOMP
IREF
NTC RESISTOR NETWORK
ISL6566
* R15-R17 ARE EQUAL
FIGURE 3. DCR SENSING CONFIGURATION
If the load line impedance needs to be changed, all that is
required is adjusting the values of R15-R17 as explained on
page 22 of the ISL6566 datasheet. If the Inductor is changed
though, the resistance of the NTC resistor network must first
be adjusted so that the new L/DCR time constant is precisely
matched.
The NTC resistor network consists of 3 resistors (R9, R10,
and R14) and a single NTC thermistor (R12), which is placed
close the output inductors. This network is designed to
compensate for any change in DCR that occurs due to
temperature, and keep the time constant of the R-C network
equal to that of the inductor L/DCR time constant. To design
this network properly, a design spreadsheet can be obtained
from Intersil entitled “NTC Design Spreadsheet for
ISL6566.xls”. If a NTC resistor network is not desired, refer
to page 21 and 22 of the ISL6566 datasheet to design the
entire R-C sense network.
Overcurrent Protection Level
The ISL6566 utilizes a single resistor to set the maximum
current level for the IC’s overcurrent protection circuitry.
Please refer to page 19 of the ISL6566 datasheet, and
adjust resistor R11 accordingly to set the desired overcurrent
trip level.
Output Voltage Offset
The ISL6566 allows a designer to accurately offset the
output voltage both negatively and positively. All that is
required is a single resistor between the OFS and VCC pins,
or the OFS pin and GND. The ISL6566EVAL1 has both of
these resistor options available on the board. To positively
offset the output voltage populate resistor R5. To negatively
offset the output voltage populate resistor R7. Please refer to
pages 12 and 13 of the ISL6566 datasheet to accurately
calculate these resistor values.
Switching Frequency
The switching frequency of the ISL6566 can be adjusted
anywhere from 80kHz to 1.5MHz per phase. To change the
switching frequency refer to page 24 of the ISL6566
datasheet and adjust the value of frequency set resistor,
R13, accordingly.
MOSFET Gate Drive Voltage (PVCC)
The gate drive bias voltage of the integrated drivers in the
ISL6566 can be any voltage between +5V and +12V. This
bias voltage is set by connecting the desired voltage to the
PVCC pins of the IC. Please refer to the PVCC Power
Options section to set the desired gate drive voltage.
Number of Active Phases
This sensing technique works off the principle that if the R-C
time constant of C7 * Rcomp (the NTC resistor network) is
equal to the L/DCR time constant of the inductor, the load
line impedance will be equal to Rcomp*DCR/R15 (R15-R17
are equal).
4
The ISL6566 has the option of 1, 2, or 3-phase operation.
The ISL6566EVAL1 is designed to change the number of
active phases by simply populating or depopulating one or
Application Note 1164
two resistors, R45 and R46. Refer to Table 3 for which
resistors to populate for 1,2, or 3-phase operation.
TABLE 3. SETTINGS FOR NUMBER OF ACTIVE PHASES
# OF ACTIVE PHASES
R45
R46
3
0Ω
0Ω
2
0Ω
OPEN
1
OPEN
OPEN
ISL6566 VRD Performance
Soft-Start Interval
The typical start-up waveforms for the ISL6566EVAL1 are
shown in Figure 4. The waveforms represented in this image
show the soft-start sequence of the regulator starting into a
100A load with the DAC set to 1.40V. Before the soft-start
interval begins, VCC and PVCC are above POR and the
DAC is set to 100101. With these two conditions met,
throwing the ENABLE switch into the ON position causes the
voltage on the ENLL pin to rise above the ISL6566’s enable
threshold, beginning the soft-start sequence. For a fixed time
of 1ms, VCORE does not move due to the manner in which
soft-start is implemented within the controller. After this
delay, VCORE begins to ramp linearly toward the DAC
voltage. With the converter running at 250kHz, this ramp
takes approximately 6.5ms, during which time the input
current, ICC12, also ramps slowly due to the controlled
building of the output voltage.
approximately 100A/µs on both the rising and falling edges.
The on-board load transient generator is designed to provide
the specified load step, simulating the actual conditions seen
at the CPU socket on a motherboard.
During the transient, the core voltage is required to be
regulated with a load line of 1mΩ and a tolerance of ±20mV
around this load line. In order to meet these design
parameters the controller VID is programmed to the
maximum no load voltage of 1.400V (100101). An 88.7kΩ
resistor (R7) is placed between the OFS and VCC pins
create a negative 20mV offset, regulating VCORE to the
typical no load voltage of 1.380V specified in Table 1.
The leading edge transient response of the ISL6566EVAL1,
which meets the design specifications of Table 1, is shown in
Figure 5. In order to obtain the load current waveform
shown, a bench-top load is providing a constant 5A, while
the on-board transient generator is pulsing a 95A step for
225µs. When the load step occurs, the output capacitors
provide the initial output current, causing VCORE to drop
suddenly due to the ESR and ESL voltage drops in the
capacitors. The controller immediately responds to this drop
by increasing the PWM duty cycles to as much as 66%. The
duty cycles then decrease to stabilize VCORE and the built
in load line regulation holds the output voltage at the
programmed level of 1.280V.
1.38V
VCORE, 50mV/DIV
VCORE, 500mV/DIV
ICORE, 50A/DIV
1.28V
100A
0V
LOAD CURRENT, 50A/DIV
0A
ICC12, 10A/DIV
0A
0A
PHASE1, 20V/DIV
0V
PGOOD, 5V/DIV
0V
PHASE2, 20V/DIV
0V
ENLL, 2V/DIV
0V
PHASE3, 20V/DIV
1ms/DIV
FIGURE 4. SOFT-START INTERVAL WAVEFORMS
Once VCORE reaches the DAC set point, the internal pulldown on the PGOOD pin is released. This allows a resistor
from PGOOD to VCC to pull PGOOD high and the PGOOD
LED indicator changes from red to green.
Transient Response
The ISL6566EVAL1 design parameters require the regulator
to support a 95A maximum load step to a 5A continuous
load. This load step will have a maximum slew rate of
5
0V
5µs/DIV
FIGURE 5. RISING EDGE TRANSIENT RESPONSE
At the end of the 225µs load pulse, the load current returns
to 5A. The transient response to this falling edge of the load
is shown in Figure 4. When the falling load step occurs, the
output capacitors must absorb the inductor current which
can not fall at the same rate of the load step. This causes
VCORE to rise suddenly due to the ESR and ESL voltage
Application Note 1164
drops in the capacitors. The controller immediately responds
to this rise by decreasing the PWM duty cycles to zero, and
then increasing them accordingly to regulate VCORE to the
programmed 1.375V level.
1.38V
VCORE, 50mV/DIV
holds the UGATE and LGATE signals in this state for a
period of 4096 switching cycles, which at 250kHz is 16.4ms.
The controller then re-initializes the soft-start cycle. If the
load that caused the overcurrent trip remains, another
overcurrent trip will occur before the soft-start cycle
completes. The controller will continue to try to cycle softstart indefinitely until the load current is reduced, or the
controller is disabled. This operation is shown in Figure 7.
Pre-POR Overvoltage Protection
1.28V
100A
LOAD CURRENT, 50A/DIV
0A
PHASE1, 10V/DIV
0V
PHASE2, 10V/DIV
0V
Prior to PVCC and VCC exceeding their POR levels, the
ISL6566 is designed to protect the load from any overvoltage
events that may occur. This is accomplished by means of an
internal 10kΩ resistor tied from PHASE to LGATE, which
turns on the lower MOSFET to control the output voltage
until the input power supply current limits itself and cuts off.
In Figure 8, an artificial per-POR overvoltage event has been
created by shorting the positive 12V input plane to the
PHASE plane. This same 12V input is connected to PVCC
pins of the ISL6566. Figure 8 illustrates how the controller
protects the load from a high output voltage spike, when the
12V input turns on, by tying LGATE to PHASE.
PHASE3, 10V/DIV
0V
5µs/DIV
FIGURE 6. FALLING EDGE TRANSIENT RESPONSE
+12V (PVCC), 1V/DIV
Overcurrent Protection
The ISL6566 is designed to stop all regulation and protect
the CPU if an overcurrent event occurs. This is done by
continuously monitoring the total output current and
comparing it to an overcurrent trip level set by the OCSET
resistor, R11. If the output current ever exceeds the trip level,
the ISL6566 immediately turns the upper and lower
VCORE, 1V/DIV
0V
VCORE, 1V/DIV
0V
LGATE1, 1V/DIV
0V
10ms/DIV
FIGURE 8. PRE-POR OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION
0V
Load Current, 200A/DIV
0A
PHASE1, 10V/DIV
0V
PHASE2, 10V/DIV
0V
PHASE3, 10V/DIV
0V
10ms/DIV
FIGURE 7. OVERCURRENT PROTECTION
MOSFETs off, causing VCORE to fall to 0V. The controller
6
Overvoltage Protection
To protect from an overvoltage event during normal
operation, the ISL6566 continually monitors the output
voltage. If the output voltage exceeds a specific limit (set
internally), the controller commands the LGATE signals high,
turning on the lower MOSFETs to keep the output voltage
below a level that might cause damage to the CPU. As
shown in the overvoltage event in Figure 9, turning on the
lower MOSFETs not only keeps the output voltage from
rising, it also sinks a large amount of current, causing the
input voltage to the power stage to drop. If this causes the
input power supply voltage to fall below the POR level of the
ISL6566, as seen at the end of the waveform in Figure 9, the
controller responds by using the pre-POR overvoltage
protection explained in the previous section. This allows the
Application Note 1164
ISL6566 always keep the output load safe from high voltage
spikes during an entire overvoltage event.
Pressing the DYNAMIC SELECT switch again returns the
VID code to the original setting of 1.40V, as Figure 11
illustrates. This transition is handled smoothly by the
ISL6566 with no overshoot as the final code is reached.
+12V (PVCC), 1V/DIV
1.40V
VCORE, 200mV/DIV
0V
VCORE, 1V/DIV
0V
5V
VID12.5, 5V/DIV
LGATE1, 1V/DIV
0V
2ms/DIV
FIGURE 9. PRE-POR OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION
50µs/DIV
VID on the Fly
To simulate a VID transition, the ISL6566EVAL1 has onboard dynamic VID circuitry which is described in the
Dynamic VID-on-the-Fly Circuitry section. Since the ISL6566
handles VID transitions differently, depending on whether
the controller is operating in the VRM10, VRM9, or AMD
modes of operation, waveforms for each type of transition
are illustrated below.
1.40V
VCORE, 200mV/DIV
FIGURE 11. VRM10 VID-ON-THE-FLY TRANSITION FROM
0.950V TO 1.40V
Figure 12 and 13 both show dynamic VID transitions when
the controller is operating in the VRM9 or AMD Hammer
mode. These modes of operation are similar because once
the VID code changes, the ISL6566 begins slewing the DAC
12.5mV every phase cycle until the new DAC voltage is
reached. Figure 12 illustrates a VID transition from
1.500V(01110) to 1.125V(11101), which begins when the
VID0 signal transitions from 0V to 5V. In Figure 13, the VID
code returns to 1.500V and the output voltage rises smoothly
to this original voltage.
1.50V
VCORE, 200mV/DIV
5V
VID12.5, 5V/DIV
50µs/DIV
FIGURE 10. VRM10 VID-ON-THE-FLY TRANSITION FROM
1.40V TO 0.950V
Figure 10 shows a VRM10 VID transition from 1.40V
(100101) to 0.950V(001011). This transition begins with the
DYNAMIC SWITCH signal switching from 5V to 0V, which
triggers the on-board circuitry to externally change the VID
code once every 5µs. Every time the VID code changes, the
VID12.5 signal transitions between 0V and 5V. During the
VID transition the controller smoothly moving from one code
to the next until the final code of 0.9500V is reached.
7
0V
VID0, 5V/DIV
20µs/DIV
FIGURE 12. VRM9 / AMD HAMMER VID-ON-THE-FLY
TRANSITION FROM 1.500V TO 1.125V
Application Note 1164
temperature (25 °C) and taken at thermal equilibrium with
300LFM OF AIR FLOW.
TABLE 4. THERMAL DATA AT 100A LOAD
1.50V
VCORE, 200mV/DIV
COMPONENT
PHASE 1
PHASE 2
PHASE 3
Upper MOSFETs
78°C
79°C
84°C
Lower MOSFETs
85°C
90°C
94°C
Inductor
57°C
64°C
68°C
ISL6566
83°C
83°C
83°C
5V
VID0, 5V/DIV
Summary
20µs/DIV
FIGURE 13. VRM9 / AMD HAMMER VID-ON-THE-FLY
TRANSITION FROM 1.125V TO 1.500V
Efficiency
The efficiency of the ISL6566EVAL1 board, loaded from 5A
to 100A, is plotted in Figure 14. Measurements were
performed at room temperature and taken at thermal
equilibrium with 300LFM OF AIR FLOW. The efficiency
peaks just below 88% at 40A and then levels off steadily to
approximately 81% at 100A. The use of air flow is
recommended for high power microprocessor designs, with
300LFM as the mean. The addition of air flow keeps the
components cooler and raises the overall efficiency across
the load range.
90%
88%
86%
EFFICIENCY (%)
84%
82%
80%
78%
76%
74%
72%
70%
68%
66%
0
20
40
60
80
100
LOAD CURRENT (A)
FIGURE 14. EFFICIENCY vs LOAD CURRENT
Thermal Performance
Table 2 shows the laboratory measured upper and lower
MOSFET, inductor, and controller temperatures at 100A of
load current. The measurements were performed at room
8
The ISL6566EVAL1 is an adaptable evaluation tool which
showcases the performance of the ISL6566 integrated
controller. Designed to meet the performance requirements
of Intel’s and AMD’s next generation designs, the board
allows the user the flexibility to configure the board for
current as well as future microprocessor offerings. The
following pages provide a board schematic, bill of materials
and layout drawings to support implementation of this
solution.
References
Intersil documents are available on the web at
www.intersil.com.
[1] ISL6566 Data Sheet, Intersil Corporation, File No.
FN9178
Application Note 1164
Schematic
9
Application Note 1164
Schematic (Continued)
10
Application Note 1164
Schematic (Continued)
Bill of Material
Top Layer Components
QTY
REFERENCE
VALUE
1
C1
22pF
1
C2
3
DESCRIPTION
VENDOR
PART NO.
PACKAGE
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V, X7R, 10%
Various
0805
6800pF Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V, X7R, 10%
Various
0805
C3, C66, C67
OPEN
Capacitor, Ceramic
Various
0603
1
C4
OPEN
Capacitor, Ceramic
Various
0805
1
C5
1000pF Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V, X7R, 10%
Various
0805
4
C6, C11-C13
1.0µF
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V, X7R, 10%
Various
0805
1
C7
.01µF
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V, X7R, 10%
Various
0603
4
C8-C10, C64
0.1µF
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V, X7R, 10%
Various
0805
5
C14, C16, C18, C55, C65
1.0µF
Capacitor, Ceramic, 16V, X7R, 10%
Various
1206
3
C15, C17, C19
OPEN
Capacitor, Ceramic
Various
0805
4
C20-C23
1800µF Capacitor, AL Electrolytic, 16V
Rubycon
18
C27, C28, C31, C32, C35,
C36, C38, C39, C42, C43,
C45, C46, C49-C54
22µF
Capacitor, Ceramic, 6.3V, X5R, 20%
2
C29, C30
OPEN
Capacitor
8
C33, C34, C37, C40, C41,
C44, C47, C48
560µF
Capacitor, OS-CON, 4V
11
16MBZ1800M10X23
Various
Thru Hole
1206
Thru Hole
Sanyo
4SEPC560MX
Thru Hole
Application Note 1164
Top Layer Components (Continued)
QTY
REFERENCE
VALUE
1
C57
22µF
1
C68
1
C63
1
DESCRIPTION
VENDOR
PART NO.
PACKAGE
Capacitor, Ceramic, 16V, X5R, 20%
TDK
C3225X5R1C226M
1210
.01µF
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V, X7R, 10%
Various
0603
0.1µF
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V, X7R, 10%
Various
0603
D1
Red/Green LED
Lumex
SLL-LXA3025IGC
SMT
1
D2
Schottky Diode
Fairchild
MBR0520L
SOD-123
4
J1-J4
Burndy
KPA8CTP
Solder Mount
2
J5, J10
Tektronix
1314353-00
Thru Hole
2
J6-J7
Female Banana Connector, Red
Johnson
Components
111-0702-001
Screw On
1
J8
Female Banana Connector, Black
Johnson
Components
111-0703-001
Screw On
1
J9
2x2 Power HDR 1MTG Hole
Molex
39-29-9042
Thru Hole
1
J11
2x10 Power Conn-1MTG Pin
Molex
39-29-9203
Thru Hole
1
L1
Micrometals
T50-8/90
Thru Hole
3
L2-L4
Pulse
PA1513.321
Surface Mount
22
P1-P5, P7-P10, P14-P20,
P22, P26, P28, P29, P30,
P31
Small Test Point
Jolo
SPCJ-123-01
Thru Hole
9
P6, P11-P13, P21, P23P25, P27
Turret Test Point
Keystone
1514-2
Thru Hole
6
Q1, Q2, Q8, Q9, Q13, Q15
Power MOSFET
International
Rectifier
IRLR7833
TO-252AA
6
Q3, Q5-Q7, Q14, Q16
6
Q4, Q10-Q12, Q17, Q18
1
Q19
2
Q20, Q21
1
Q23
1
R1
1
Terminal Connector
Probe Socket
1.0µH
Inductor, T50-8/90 core, 8 turns
AWG16
0.320µH Inductor, 13x13mm
OPEN
Power MOSFET
International
Rectifier
IRLR7821
TO-252AA
General Purpose MOSFET
Various
2N7002
SOT-23
Power MOSFET
Vishay
SUD50N03-07
TO-252AA
General Purpose NPN Transistor
Fairchild
PZT2222A
SOT-223
5.49kΩ
Resistor, 1%, 1/16W
Various
0603
R2
OPEN
Resistor
Various
0603
1
R3
1.0kΩ
Resistor, 1%, 1/16W
Various
0603
1
R4
OPEN
Resistor
Various
0603
1
R5
OPEN
Resistor
Various
0603
5
R6, R45, R46, R50, R73
0Ω
Resistor, 1%, 1/16W
Various
0603
1
R7
88.7kΩ
Resistor
Various
0603
7
R8, R21-R23, R74-R76
0Ω
Resistor, 1%, 1/10W
Various
0805
1
R9
26.1kΩ
Resistor, 1%, 1/16W
Various
0603
1
R10
28.7kΩ
Resistor, 1%, 1/16W
Various
0603
1
R11
1.69kΩ
Resistor, 1%, 1/16W
Various
0603
1
R12
68kΩ
NTC Thermistor
1
R13
100kΩ
Resistor, 1%, 1/16W
Various
0603
1
R14
22.1kΩ
Resistor, 1%, 1/16W
Various
0603
12
Power MOSFET
TO-252AA
Panasonic
ERT-J1VR683J
0603
Application Note 1164
Top Layer Components (Continued)
QTY
REFERENCE
VALUE
DESCRIPTION
3
R15-R17
36.5kΩ
Resistor, 1%, 1/16W
Various
0603
3
R18-R20
806Ω
Resistor, 1%, 1/16W
Various
0603
3
R24-R26
OPEN
Resistor, 1%, 1/8W
Various
1206
1
R30
46.4kΩ
Resistor, 1%, 1/16W
Various
0603
1
R33
402Ω
Resistor, 1%, 1/16W
Various
0603
2
R34, R36
332Ω
Resistor, 1%, 1/16W
Various
0603
2
R35, R37
634Ω
Resistor, 1%, 1/16W
Various
0603
2
R38, R39
OPEN
Thick Film Chip Resistor
Various
2512
2
R40-R41
.020Ω
Thick Film Chip Resistor, 1%, 1W
Various
2512
1
R42
.200Ω
Thick Film Chip Resistor, 1%, 1W
Various
2512
1
R47
OPEN
Resistor
Various
0603
1
R48
OPEN
Resistor
Various
1206
1
R67
301Ω
Resistor, 1%, 1/10W
Various
0805
1
R68
OPEN
Resistor, 1%, 1/8W
Various
1206
1
R69
10Ω
Resistor, 1%, 1/10W
Various
0805
1
R70
909Ω
Resistor, 1%, 1/10W
Various
0805
1
R71
OPEN
Resistor, 1%, 1/8W
Various
1206
1
R72
0.0Ω
Resistor, 1%, 1/8W
Various
1206/2512
3
R79-R81
10Ω
Resistor, 1%, 1/16W
Various
0603
3
S1, S2, S6
2
S3, S4
1
S5
2
S7, S8
1
U1
1
U2
2
U3, U4
1
U5
Switch SPDT, Ultra Mini Toggle
VENDOR
PART NO.
PACKAGE
C&K
Components
GT11MSCKE
SMD
Various
BAV99
SOT-23
Panasonic
SW_EVQ_QWX
SMD
OnSemiconductor
BAS40-06LT1
SOT-23
Endura Multi-phase Controller
Intersil
ISL6566CR
MLFP-40
MOSFET Driver IC
Intersil
HIP2100IB
SO-8
C&K
Components
SD06H0SK
SMT
Citizen
HCM49-8.000MABJT
SMD
PART NO.
PACKAGE
Dual Diode
Momentary Pushbutton Switch
Common Anode Dual Schottky Diode
Low Profile DIP Switch, SPST, 6
Position
8.00MHz Quartz Crystal
Bottom Layer Components
QTY
REFERENCE
VALUE
3
C24-C26
10µF
1
C56
2
C58, C59
2.2pF
1
C60
1
DESCRIPTION
VENDOR
Capacitor, Ceramic, 16V, X7R, 10%
Various
1206
1000pF Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V, X7R, 10%
Various
0603
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V, X7R, 10%
Various
0603
1.0µF
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V, X7R, 10%
Various
0805
C61
.01µF
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V, X7R, 10%
Various
0603
2
C62, C63
0.1µF
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V, X7R, 10%
Various
0603
1
Q22
General Purpose MOSFET
Various
13
2N7002
SOT-23
Application Note 1164
Bottom Layer Components (Continued)
QTY
REFERENCE
VALUE
DESCRIPTION
19
R27-R29, R49, R51-R63,
R65, R66
10kΩ
Resistor, 1%, 1/16W
Various
0603
1
R31
10.7kΩ
Resistor, 1%, 1/16W
Various
0603
1
R32
1.87kΩ
Resistor, 1%, 1/16W
Various
0603
2
R43, R44
2.43kΩ
Resistor, 1%, 1/16W
Various
0603
1
U6
8-bit microcontroller
Microchip
PIC16F873A-SO
SOIC-32W
2
U7, U8
Texas
Instruments
SN74HC157D
SOIC-16
Quad 2-to-1 Line Data
Selector/Multiplexer
14
VENDOR
PART NO.
PACKAGE
Application Note 1164
ISL6566EVAL1 Layout
FIGURE 15. SILK SCREEN TOP
15
Application Note 1164
ISL6566EVAL1 Layout (Continued)
FIGURE 16. LAYER 1: TOP COPPER
16
Application Note 1164
ISL6566EVAL1 Layout (Continued)
FIGURE 17. LAYER 2: GROUND PLANE
17
Application Note 1164
ISL6566EVAL1 Layout (Continued)
FIGURE 18. LAYER 3: POWER PLANE
18
Application Note 1164
ISL6566EVAL1 Layout (Continued)
FIGURE 19. LAYER 4: BOTTOM COPPER
19
Application Note 1164
ISL6566EVAL1 Layout (Continued)
FIGURE 20. SILK SCREEN BOTTOM
All Intersil U.S. products are manufactured, assembled and tested utilizing ISO9000 quality systems.
Intersil Corporation’s quality certifications can be viewed at www.intersil.com/design/quality
Intersil products are sold by description only. Intersil Corporation reserves the right to make changes in circuit design, software and/or specifications at any time without
notice. Accordingly, the reader is cautioned to verify that data sheets are current before placing orders. Information furnished by Intersil is believed to be accurate and
reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed by Intersil or its subsidiaries for its use; nor for any infringements of patents or other rights of third parties which may result
from its use. No license is granted by implication or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of Intersil or its subsidiaries.
For information regarding Intersil Corporation and its products, see www.intersil.com
20
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