Datasheet

PHOTOMULTlPLlER TUBES
R7446
R7446P (For Photon Counting)
High Cathode Sensitivity with Low Noise Photocathode
FEATURES
Spectral Response ..................................... 160 to 680 nm
Cathode Sensitivity
Luminous ........................................................ 60 µA/lm
Radiant at 400nm ............................................ 60 mA/W
Anode Sensitivity (at 1000V)
Luminous ......................................................... 400 A/lm
Radiant at 400nm ..................................... 4.0 × 105 A/W
Low Dark Current .................................................... 0.1 nA
Low Dark Counts (R7446P) .................................... 10 cps
APPLICATIONS
Environmental Monitoring
Atomic Emission Spectrometer
Atomic Absorption Spectrometer
Figure 1: Typical Spectral Response
GENERAL
Spectral Response
Wavelength of Maximum Response
Photocathode
MateriaI
Minimum Effective Area
Window Material
Dynode
Secondary Emitting Surface
Structure
Number of Stages
Direct Interelectrode Capacitances
Anode to Last Dynode
Anode to All Other Electrodes
Base
Weight
Description/Vaiue Unit
160 to 680
nm
400
nm
Low noise bialkali
8 × 24
mm
Fused Silica
Low noise bialkali
Circular-cage
9
4
6
11-pin base
JEDEC No. B11-88
pF
pF
45
g
SuitabIe Socket
E678–11A (option)
SuitabIe Socket Assembly
E717–63 (option)
100
CATODE RADIANT SENSITIVITY (mA/W)
QUANTUM EFFICIENCY (%)
Parameter
TPMSB0193EA
10
CATHODE
RADIANT
SENCITIVITY
1
QUANTUM
EFFICIENCY
0.1
0.01
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
WAVELENGTH (nm)
Subject to local technical requirements and regulations, availability of products included in this promotional material may vary. Please consult with our sales office.
Information furnished by HAMAMATSU is believed to be reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed for possible inaccuracies or omissions. Specifications are
subject to change without notice. No patent rights are granted to any of the circuits described herein. ©1999 Hamamatsu Photonics K.K
PHOTOMULTlPLlER TUBES R7446, R7446P (For Photon Counting)
MAXIMUM RATINGS (Absolute Maximum Values)
Parameter
Value
Unit
Between Anode and Cathode
1250
Vdc
Between Anode and Last Dynode
250
Vdc
0.1
mA
-80 to +50
°C
Supply Voltage
Average Anode Current
Ambient Temperature
CHARACTERISTlCS (at 25 °C)
Parameter
R7446
for General Purpose
R7446P
for Photon Counting
Min.
Min.
Cathode Sensitivity
Quantum Efficiency at 300nm (Peak)
LuminousB
Radiant at 400nm (Peak)
BlueC
40
Anode Sensitivity
LuminousD
Radiant at 400nm
200
Typ.
Max.
20
60
60
6.4
Typ.
200
6.7 × 106
GainE
Unit
20
60
60
6.4
%
µA/lm
mA/W
µA/lm-b
400
4.0 × 105
A/lm
A/W
40
400
4.0 × 105
Max.
6.7 × 106
Current E
Anode Dark
After 30minute Storage in the darkness
Anode Dark CountsF
0.1
2.0
0.1
10
0.5
50
nA
cps
ENI(Equivalent Noise Input)G
3.7 × 10-17
3.7 × 10-17
W
Time ResponseD
Anode Pulse Rise TimeH
Electron Transit TimeJ
Transit Time Spread (TTS)K
2.2
22
1.2
2.2
22
1.2
ns
ns
ns
Anode Current StabilityL
Current Hysteresis
Voltage Hysteresis
0.1
1.0
0.1
1.0
%
%
A: Averaged over any interval of 30 seconds maximum.
B: The light source is a tungsten filament lamp operated at a distribution temperature of 2856K. Supply voltage is 150 volts between the cathode and all
other electrodes connected together as anode.
C: The value is cathode output current when a blue filter(Corning CS-5-58
polished to 1/2 stock thickness) is interposed between the light source and
the tube under the same condition as Note B.
D: Measured with the same light source as Note B and with the anode-tocathode supply voltage and voltage distribution ratio shown in Table 1 below.
E: Measured with the same supply voltage and voltage distribution ratio as
Note D after removal of light.
F: Measured at the voltage producing the gain of 1 × 106.
G:ENI is an indication of the photon-limited signal-to-noise ratio. It refers to
the amount of light in watts to produce a signal-to-noise ratio of unity in the
output of a photomultiplier tube.
ENI =
where
2q.ldb.G. f
S
q = Electronic charge (1.60 × 10-19 coulomb).
ldb = Anode dark current(after 30 minute storage) in amperes.
G = Gain.
f = Bandwidth of the system in hertz. 1 hertz is used.
S = Anode radiant sensitivity in amperes per watt at the wavelength of peak response.
H: The rise time is the time for the output pulse to rise from 10% to 90% of the
peak amplitude when the entire photocathode is illuminated by a delta
function light pulse.
J: The electron transit time is the interval between the arrival of delta function
light pulse at the entrance window of the tube and the time when the anode
output reaches the peak amplitube. In measurement, the whole photocathode is illuminated.
K: Also called transit time jitter. This is the fluctuation in electron transit time
between individual pulses in the signal photoelectron mode, and may be
defined as the FWHM of the frequency distribution of electron transit times.
L: Hysteresis is temporary instability in anode current after light and voltage
are applied.
lmax.
Hysteresis =
lmin.
× 100(%)
li
ANODE
CURRENT
NOTES
l max.
li
l min.
TIME
5
0
6
7 (minutes)
TPMSB0002EA
(1)Current Hysteresis
The tube is operated at 750 volts with an anode current of 1 micro-ampere for
5 minutes. The light is then removed from the tube for a minute. The tube is
then re-illuminated by the previous light level for a minute to measure the
variation.
(2)Voltage Hysteresis
The tube is operated at 300 volts with an anode current of 0.1 micro-ampere
for 5 minutes. The light is then removed from the tube and the supply voltage
is quickly increased to 800 volts. After a minute, the supply voltage is then
reduced to the previous value and the tube is re-illuminated for a minute to
measure the variation.
Table 1:Voltage Distribution Ratio
Electrode
Distribution
Ratio
K
Dy1 Dy2 Dy3 Dy4 Dy5 Dy6 Dy7 Dy8 Dy9
1
1
1
SuppIy Voltage : 1000Vdc
K : Cathode, Dy : Dynode,
1
1
1
P : Anode
1
1
1
P
1
Figure 2: Typical Gain and Anode Dark Current
TPMSB0026EA
10–5
108
10–6
107
10–7
106
Figure 3: Typical Time Response
TPMSB0004EB
100
60
40
TRAN
SIT T
N
AI
10–9
104
T
EN
TIME (ns)
105
10
8
6
R
10–10
K
DE
10–11
R
CU
103
4
102
2
101
1500
1
O
400
500
600
RISE
R
DA
AN
10–12
300
800
1000
500
300
TIME
700
1000
1500
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
Figure 4: Typical ENI vs. Wavelength
Figure 5: Typical EADCI (Equivalent Anode Dark Current
Input) vs. Supply Voltage
TPMSB0194EA
TPMSB0028EA
10-12
10–10
10-13
10–11
10-14
EADCI (lm)
EQUIVALENT NOISE INPUT (W)
IME
20
G
10–8
GAIN
ANODE DARK CURRENT (A)
80
10-15
10–12
10–13
10-16
10-17
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
10–14
300
800
400
500
600
800
1000 1200
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
WAVELENGTH (nm)
Data shown here, which is given from a relation among supply voltage,
anode sensitivity and dark current, serves as a good reference in order
to determine the most suitable supply voltage or its range.
Figure 6: Typical Single Photon Height Distribution
for R7446P
TPMSB0195EA
104
WAVELENGTH OF INCIDENT LIGHT : 450 (nm)
: 870 (V)
SUPPLY VOLTAGE
: 70 (ch)
LOWER LEVEL DISCRI.
: 5612 (cps)
PHOTON + DARK COUNT
: 10 (cps)
DARK COUNT
: 25 (°C)
TEMPERATURE
0.8
0.6
0.4
SIGNAL + DARK
TPMSB0030EA
103
DARK COUNT (cps)
FULL SCALE 104 (PHOTON+DARK)
FULL SCALE 103 (DARK)
COUNT PER CHANNEL
1.0
Figure 7: Typical Temperature Characteristics
of Dark Count for R7446P
102
101
100
0.2
DARK
0
200
400
600
800
1000
10–1
–20
0
+20
TEMPERATURE (°C)
CHANNEL NUMBER (CH)
+40
+60
PHOTOMULTlPLlER TUBES R7446, R7446P (For Photon Counting)
Figure 8: Dimensional Outline and Basing Diagram(Unit: mm)
28.5
Figure 10: Socket E678-11A (Option)
1.5
8MIN.
49
38
PHOTOCATHODE
DY6
6
DY7
7
24MIN.
DY4 4
33
5
8 DY8
3.5
DY5
2
10 P
1
29
11
K
DY1
4
DY2
9 DY9
DIRECTION OF LIGHT
18
94MAX.
80MAX.
49.0
2.5
5
DY3 3
BOTTOM VIEW
(BASING DIAGRAM)
32.2
0.5
TACCA0064EA
11 PIN BASE
JEDEC No. B11-88
TPMSA0001EA
Figure 9: D Type Socket Assembly E717-63 (Option)
PMT
3.5
33.0 ± 0.3
5
SOCKET
PIN No.
SIGNAL GND
SIGNAL OUTPUT
RG-174/U (BLACK)
POWER SUPPLY GND
AWG22 (BLACK)
10
P
38.0 ± 0.3
DY9
9
DY8
8
49.0 ± 0.3
DY7
7
DY6
6
DY5
5
DY4
4
DY3
3
DY2
2
DY1
K
1
R10
C3
R9
C2
R8
C1
R7
4
29
R6 R to R10 : 330 kΩ
C1 to C3 : 0.01 µF
30 +0
-1
R5
31.0 ± 0.5
R4
450 ± 10
HOUSING
(INSULATOR)
POTTING
COMPOUND
R3
R2
R1
11
-HV
AWG22 (VIOLET)
TACCA0002EG
* Hamamatsu also provides C4900 series compact high voltage power
supplies and C6270 series DP type socket assemblies which incorporate a
DC to DC converter type high voltage power supply.
Warning–Personal Safety Hazards
Electrical Shock–Operating voltages applied to this
device present a shock hazard.
HOMEPAGE URL http://www.hamamatsu.com
HAMAMATSU PHOTONICS K.K., Electron Tube Center
314-5, Shimokanzo, Toyooka-village, Iwata-gun, Shizuoka-ken, 438-0193, Japan, Telephone: (81)539/62-5248, Fax: (81)539/62-2205
U.S.A.: Hamamatsu Corporation: 360 Foothill Road, P. O. Box 6910, Bridgewater. N.J. 08807-0910, U.S.A., Telephone: (1)908-231-0960, Fax: (1)908-231-1218
Germany: Hamamatsu Photonics Deutschland GmbH: Arzbergerstr. 10, D-82211 Herrsching am Ammersee, Germany, Telephone: (49)8152-375-0, Fax: (49)8152-2658
France: Hamamatsu Photonics France S.A.R.L.: 8, Rue du Saule Trapu, Parc du Moulin de Massy, 91882 Massy Cedex, France, Telephone: (33)1 69 53 71 00, Fax: (33)1 69 53 71 10
United Kingdom: Hamamatsu Photonics UK Limited: Lough Point, 2 Gladbeck Way, Windmill Hill, Enfield, Middlesex EN2 7JA, United Kingdom, Telephone: 44(20)8-367-3560, Fax: 44(20)8-367-6384
North Europe: Hamamatsu Photonics Norden AB: Smidesvägen 12, SE-171-41 SOLNA, Sweden, Telephone: (46)8-509-031-00, Fax: (46)8-509-031-01
Italy: Hamamatsu Photonics Italia: S.R.L.: Strada della Moia, 1/E, 20020 Arese, (Milano), Italy, Telephone: (39)02-935 81 733, Fax: (39)02-935 81 741
TPMS1068E01
OCT. 1999
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