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ESIGNS
R NE W D NT
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COMME
PL A CEM r a t
N OT R E
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ntact ou SIL or www.inte
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Data
Sheet
October 6, 2008
ER
T
N
-I
8
8
1-8
Halfband Filter
Features
The HSP43216 Halfband Filter addresses a wide variety of
applications by combining fS/4 (fS = sample frequency)
quadrature up/down convert circuitry with a fixed coefficient
halfband filter processor as shown in the block diagram.
These elements may be configured to operate in one of the
four following modes: decimate by 2 filtering of a real input
signal; interpolate by 2 filtering of a real input signal; fS/4
quadrature down conversion of a real input signal followed
by decimate-by-2 filtering to produce a complex analytic
signal; interpolate-by-2 filtering of a complex analytic signal
followed by fS/4 quadrature up conversion to produce a real
valued output.
• Sample Rates to 52MSPS
The frequency response of the HSP43216's halfband filter
has a shape factor, (passband+transition band)/passband, of
1.24:1 with 90dB of stopband attenuation. The passband
has less than 0.0003dB of ripple from 0fS to 0.2fS with
stopband attenuation of greater than 90dB from 0.3fS to
Nyquist. At 0.25fS the filter provides 6dB of attenuation.
The HSP43216 processes data streams with word widths up
to 16-bits and data rates up to 52MSPS. The processing
throughput of the part is easily doubled to rates of up to
104MSPS by using the part together with an external
multiplexer or demultiplexer. Programmable rounding is
provided to support output precisions from 8-bits to 16-bits.
HSP43216
FN3365.10
• Architected to Support Sample Rates to 104MSPS Using
External Multiplexer
• Four Modes of Operation:
- Interpolate by 2 Filtering
- Decimate by 2 Filtering
- Quadrature to Real Signal Conversion
- fS/4 Quadrature Down Conversion Followed by
Decimate by 2 Filtering
• 16-Bit Inputs and Outputs
• 67-Tap Halfband FIR Filter with 20-Bit Coefficients
• Two’s Complement or Offset Binary Outputs
• Programmable Rounding on Outputs
• 1.24:1 Filter Shape Factor
• >90dB Stopband Attenuation
• <0.0003dB Passband Ripple
• Saturation Logic on Output
• Pb-Free Available (RoHS Compliant)
Applications
• Digital Down Conversion
• D/A and A/D pre/post Filtering
• Tuning Bandwidth Expansion for HSP45116 and
HSP45106
Ordering Information
PART NUMBER
PART MARKING
HSP43216JC-52
HSP 43216JC-52
TEMP. RANGE
(°C)
0 to +70
PACKAGE
84 Ld PLCC
PKG.
DWG. #
N84.1.15
HSP43216JC-52Z (Note)
HSP43216JC-52Z
0 to +70
84 Ld PLCC (Pb-free)
N84.1.15
HSP43216VC-52
HSP 43216VC-52
0 to +70
100 Ld MQFP
Q100.14x20
HSP43216VC-52Z (Note)
HSP 43216VC-52Z
0 to +70
100 Ld MQFP (Pb-free)
Q100.14x20
NOTE: These Intersil Pb-free plastic packaged products employ special Pb-free material sets, molding compounds/die attach materials, and 100%
matte tin plate plus anneal (e3 termination finish, which is RoHS compliant and compatible with both SnPb and Pb-free soldering operations). Intersil
Pb-free products are MSL classified at Pb-free peak reflow temperatures that meet or exceed the Pb-free requirements of IPC/JEDEC J STD-020
1
CAUTION: These devices are sensitive to electrostatic discharge; follow proper IC Handling Procedures.
1-888-INTERSIL or 1-888-468-3774 | Intersil (and design) is a registered trademark of Intersil Americas Inc.
Copyright Intersil Americas Inc. 2000, 2007, 2008. All Rights Reserved
All other trademarks mentioned are the property of their respective owners.
HSP43216
Block Diagram
AIN0-15
fS/4
QUADRATURE
DOWN
CONVERT
PROCESSOR
INPUT DATA
FLOW
BIN0-15
CONTROLLER
67-TAP
HALFBAND
FILTER
PROCESSOR
fS/4
OUTPUT DATA
QUADRATURE
UP CONVERT
PROCESSOR
FLOW
CONTROLLER/
FORMATTER
AOUT0-15
BOUT0-15
SYNC
USB/LSB
MODE0-1
INT/EXT
RND0-2
FMT
OEA
OEB
CLK
Pinouts
CLK
GND
MODE1
MODE0
AIN15
AIN14
AIN13
AIN12
AIN11
AIN10
AIN9
AIN8
AIN7
AIN6
AIN5
AIN4
AIN3
AIN2
AIN1
AIN0
HSP43216JC
(100 LD MQFP)
TOP VIEW
100 99 98 97 96 95 94 93 92 91 90 89 88 87 86 85 84 83 82 81
VCC
NC
NC
NC
NC
SYNC
USB/LSB
INT/EXT
BIN0
BIN1
BIN2
BIN3
BIN4
BIN5
BIN6
BIN7
BIN8
BIN9
BIN10
BIN11
BIN12
BIN13
BIN14
BIN15
RND0
RND1
NC
NC
NC
NC
80
79
78
77
76
75
74
73
72
71
70
69
68
67
66
65
64
63
62
61
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
NC
NC
NC
NC
FMT
OEA
VCC
GND
AOUT15
AOUT14
AOUT13
AOUT12
AOUT11
AOUT10
AOUT9
AOUT8
AOUT7
AOUT6
AOUT5
GND
AOUT4
AOUT3
AOUT2
AOUT1
AOUT0
NC
NC
NC
NC
BOUT15
RND2
OEB
GND
VCC
BOUT0
BOUT1
BOUT2
BOUT3
BOUT4
BOUT5
BOUT6
BOUT7
BOUT8
BOUT9
GND
BOUT10
BOUT11
BOUT12
BOUT13
BOUT14
31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
2
FN3365.10
October 6, 2008
HSP43216
Pinouts (Continued)
VCC
CLK
GND
MODE1
MODE0
AIN15
AIN14
AIN13
AIN12
AIN11
AIN10
AIN9
AIN8
AIN7
AIN6
AIN5
AIN4
AIN3
AIN2
AIN1
AIN0
HSP43216
(84 LD PLCC)
TOP VIEW
11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 84 83 82 81 80 79 78 77 76 75
SYNC
USB/LSB
INT/EXT
BIN0
BIN1
BIN2
BIN3
BIN4
BIN5
BIN6
BIN7
BIN8
BIN9
BIN10
BIN11
BIN12
BIN13
BIN14
BIN15
RND0
RND1
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
74
73
72
71
70
69
68
67
66
65
64
63
62
61
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
FMT
OEA
VCC
GND
AOUT15
AOUT14
AOUT13
AOUT12
AOUT11
AOUT10
AOUT9
AOUT8
AOUT7
AOUT6
AOUT5
GND
AOUT4
AOUT3
AOUT2
AOUT1
AOUT0
RND2
OEB
GND
VCC
BOUT0
BOUT1
BOUT2
BOUT3
BOUT4
BOUT5
BOUT6
BOUT7
BOUT8
BOUT9
GND
BOUT10
BOUT11
BOUT12
BOUT13
BOUT14
BOUT15
33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53
Pin Description
NAME
TYPE
VCC
-
DESCRIPTION
GND
-
Ground.
CLK
I
Clock Input. (CMOS LEVEL). fS is the frequency of CLK
AIN0-15
I
Input Data Bus A. AIN0 is the LSB. Input data format is 16-bit Two’s Complement.
+5V Power.
BIN0-15
I
Input Data Bus B. BIN0 is the LSB. Input data format is 16-bit Two’s Complement.
MODE0-1
I
The Mode Select Inputs set one of four operational modes as highlighted in Table 1.
INT/EXT
I
The Internal\External multiplexer select inputs set whether the data multiplex/demultiplex function required in the various
operational modes is performed internally (High State) or externally to the chip (Low State).
SYNC
I
This input is used to synchronize the input sample stream with the zero degree phase of the up or down convert Local
Oscillators. In the straight decimate modes, this input can be use to synchronize the input sample stream with a particular
phase of the halfband filter. (See the Operational Modes Section for additional information).
USB/LSB
I
The Upper and Lower Sideband select line is used to specify the direction of frequency translation imparted on the data
stream in the Down Convert and Decimate Mode and in the Quadrature to Real Convert Mode. (See Operational Modes
Section for additional information).
RND0-2
I
The Round Select inputs set the number of output bits from eight (RND = 000) to sixteen (RND = 110). Least significant
output bits are zeroed. See Table 4.
OEA
I
Three-State Control Output Bus A, OUTA0-15. Active Low.
OEB
I
Three-State Control Output Bus B, OUTB0-15. Active Low.
FMT
I
The Format select input is used to convert the two’s complement output to offset binary (unsigned). When asserted high,
the AOUT15 and BOUT15-bits are inverted from the normal two’s complement representation.
AOUT0-15
O
Output Bus A. AOUT0 is the LSB.
BOUT0-15
O
Output Bus B. BOUT0 is the LSB.
3
FN3365.10
October 6, 2008
HSP43216
fS /4 QUADRATURE
DOWN CONVERT
PROCESSOR
INPUT DATA FLOW
CONTROLLER
67-TAP HALFBAND
FILTER
PROCESSOR
fS /4 QUADRATURE
UP CONVERT
PROCESSOR
OUTPUT DATA FLOW
CONTROLLER
PIPELINE
AIN0-15
R
E
G
R
E
G
†
†
R
E
G
R
E
G
1
1,-1,1,..
-1,1,-1,.
MUX
BIN0-15
R R
E E
G G
M
U
X
EVEN TAP
FILTER
fS/4
L.O.
PIPELINE
†
†
† DELAY 19
R
E
G
R
E
G
ODD TAP
FILTER
R
E
G
†
R
E
G
SYNC
USB/LSB
MUX
1
† DELAY 2 - 35
M
U
X
OEA
MUX
...,2,-2,2
..,-2,2,-2
AOUT0-15
R F R R
N M E E
D T G G
+
1 2
1 2
MUX
†
R
E
G
R F R R
N M E E
D T G G
BOUT0-15
OEB
CLK
MODE0-1
SYNC
INT/EXT
RND0-2
FMT
USB/LSB
† Indicates elements which operate at CLK/2 when the INT/EXT control input is high.
FIGURE 1. HALFBAND BLOCK DIAGRAM
Functional Description
The operation of the HSP43216 centers around a fixed
coefficient, 67-Tap, Halfband Filter Processor as shown in
Figure 1. The Halfband Filter Processor operates stand
alone to provide two fundamental modes of operation:
interpolate or decimate by two filtering of a real signal. In two
other modes, the Quadrature Up/Down Convert circuitry
operates together with the Filter Processor block to provide
fS/4 Down Conversion with decimate by 2 filtering or
Quadrature to Real Conversion.
In Down Convert and Decimate mode, a real input sample
stream is spectrally shifted by fS/4. Each component of the
resulting complex signal is then halfband filtered and
decimated by 2 to produce real and imaginary output
samples at half of the input data rate.
In Quadrature to Real Conversion mode, the real and
imaginary components of a quadrature input are interpolated
by two and halfband filtered. The filtered result is then
spectrally shifted by fS/4 and the real component of this
operation is output at twice the input sample rate.The
HSP43216 is configured for different operational modes by
setting the state of the mode control pins, MODE1-0 as
shown in Table 1.
4
TABLE 1. MODE SELECT TABLE
MODE1-0
MODE
00
Decimate by Two
01
Interpolate by Two
10
Down Convert and Decimate
11
Quadrature to Real Conversion
Input Data Flow Controller
The Input Data Flow Controller routes data samples from the
AIN0-15 and BIN0-15 inputs to the internal processing
elements of the Halfband. The data routing paths are based
on mode of operation and are more fully discussed in the
Operational Modes section.
fS /4 Quadrature Down Convert Processor
The fS /4 Quadrature Down Convert Processor operates as a
Quadrature LO which provides the negative fS /4 spectral
shift required to center the upper sideband of a real input
signal at DC. This operation is equivalent to multiplying the
real sample stream, x(n), by the quadrature components of
the complex exponential e-j(/2)n as given below:
x  n  e –j  n  2  = x  n  cos  n  2  + jx  n  sin  –  n  2 
(EQ. 1)
FN3365.10
October 6, 2008
HSP43216
x  n  e j  n  2  = x  n  cos  n  2  + jx  n  sin  n  2 
(EQ. 2)
The direction of the spectral shift imparted by the Down
Convert Processor is set by the Upper Sideband/ Lower
Sideband control input, USB/LSB. When this input is high, a
-fS /4 spectral shift is used to center the input signal’s upper
sideband at DC. When asserted low, a spectral shift of fS /4
is used to center the lower sideband at DC. The SYNC
control input may be used to synchronize the incoming data
stream with the zero degree phase of the complex
exponential as described in the Operational Modes section.
The real and imaginary sample streams generated by the
down convert operation are passed to the Halfband Filter
block on the upper and lower processing legs respectively.
The Down Convert Processor is only active in Down Convert
and Decimate Mode, MODE1-0 = 10. In the other modes,
the data on the upper and lower processing legs pass
unaltered.
The processing required to implement the 67-Tap Halfband
filter is distributed across two polyphase branches
comprised of even and odd tap filters as shown in Figure 1.
The Even Tap Filter performs a filtering operation using the
even indexed coefficients (even phase) of the halfband filter.
The Odd Tap Filter uses the odd indexed coefficients (odd
phase) of the halfband filter. NOTE: the odd tap filter’s
processing reduces to a delay and scale operation since
the center tap is the only non-zero odd tap for a
halfband filter. Together the polyphase filters perform the
sum of-products required to implement the 67-tap halfband
filter in an architecture capable of supporting a variety of
operational modes. The frequency response of the halfband
filter is given graphically in Figure 2 and in tabular form in
Table 3. Table 2 shows the different modes and the related
frequency with which the spectra in Figure 2 is normalized.
TABLE 2. NORMALIZED FREQUENCY vs MODE
fS
Decimate by Two
CLK
Interpolate by Two
CLK/2
Down Convert and Decimate
0
-20
-40
-60
-80
-100
67-Tap Halfband Filter Processor
MODE
The polyphase implementation of the halfband filter
provides the flexibility to realize a variety of filter
configurations. In Decimate by Two Mode, the outputs of
the each polyphase branch are summed to yield the filter
output. In Interpolate by Two mode, the polyphase filters
produce independent outputs which are multiplexed into a
single sample stream at the interpolated data rate. In the
Up Convert and Down Convert Modes, the polyphase
branches filter the real and imaginary components of a
complex sample stream with the equivalent of identical 67Tap Halfband Filters. For these modes, the real component
is processed by the Even Tap filter and the imaginary
component is processed by the Odd Tap filter. The
Operational Modes Section provides further details
regarding the data flow and operation of the Filter
Processor for the various modes.
MAGNITUDE (DB)
For added flexibility, a spectrally reversed version of the
above process may be realized by configuring the Down
Convert processor to impart a positive fS /4 spectral shift on
the input signal. This has the effect of centering the lower
sideband of the input signal at DC and is achieved by
reversing the sign of the sine term in the quadrature mix as
shown below:
-120
0
fS/8
fS/4
3fS/8
FS/2
NORMALIZED FREQUENCY
FIGURE 2. FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF 67-TAP HALFBAND
FILTER
As a standard DSP term, group delay is defined as the time
it takes to obtain valid filtered data given a certain input
pattern. Both the Even Tap and Odd Tap filters have an
identical group delay of 19 clocks relative to the operating
mode of the halfband. The group delay has been specified in
the data flow diagrams following this section. The delay
clocks equal CLK when INT/EXT = 0 and CLK/2 when
INT/EXT = 1.
NOTE: Pipeline delay specifies the time it takes for bits to
toggle at the output given a certain input pattern. The Odd tap
filter has a pipeline delay of 19 CLKs with respect to the
operating mode because it consists of only the center tap of the
67-tap halfband. The Even tap filter has a pipeline delay of 2-35
CLKs with respect to the operating mode.
CLK
Quadrature to Real
CLK/2
5
FN3365.10
October 6, 2008
TABLE 3. FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF THE 67-TAP HALFBAND FILTER NORMALIZED TO THE MODE SPECIFIC SAMPLE RATE
FREQUENCY
(NORMALIZED)
MAGNITUDE
(dB)
FREQUENCY
(NORMALIZED)
MAGNITUDE
(dB)
FREQUENCY
(NORMALIZED)
MAGNITUDE
(dB)
FREQUENCY
(NORMALIZED)
MAGNITUDE
(dB)
0.000000
-0.000256
0.125000
-0.000278
0.250000
-6.020594
0.375000
-90.469534
0.003906
-0.000143
0.128906
-0.000098
0.253906
-7.989334
0.378906
-91.528735
0.007812
-0.000071
0.132812
0.000001
0.257812
-10.364986
0.382812
-98.960202
0.011719
-0.000013
0.136719
0.000077
0.261719
-13.194719
0.386719
-105.235066
6
-0.000004
0.140625
0.000166
0.265625
-16.533196
0.390625
-97.073218
0.019531
-0.000001
0.144531
0.000106
0.269531
-20.447622
0.394531
-101.790858
0.023438
0.000032
0.148438
0.000015
0.273438
-25.024382
0.398438
-103.660592
0.027344
-0.000000
0.152344
-0.000022
0.277344
-30.379687
0.402344
-96.903272
0.031250
-0.000026
0.156250
-0.000048
0.281250
-36.679477
0.406250
-97.160860
0.035156
0.000002
0.160156
-0.000074
0.285156
-44.169450
0.410156
-106.804655
0.039062
0.000036
0.164062
-0.000022
0.289062
-53.259353
0.414062
-96.213761
0.042969
0.000050
0.167969
0.000005
0.292969
-64.619008
0.417969
-91.368358
0.046875
0.000021
0.171875
0.000009
0.296875
-79.291213
0.421875
-91.202963
0.050781
0.000008
0.175781
0.000041
0.300781
-90.247748
0.425781
-96.903271
0.054688
-0.000012
0.179688
0.000095
0.304688
-91.540418
0.429688
-103.058722
0.058594
-0.000140
0.183594
0.000090
0.308594
-96.987389
0.433594
-92.156508
0.062500
-0.000226
0.187500
-0.000012
0.312500
-97.990997
0.437500
-90.247741
0.066406
-0.000138
0.191406
-0.000037
0.316406
-94.450644
0.441406
-91.623161
0.070312
0.000010
0.195312
-0.000145
0.320312
-94.268681
0.445312
-98.760392
0.074219
0.000036
0.199219
-0.000208
0.324219
-97.250387
0.449219
-103.883238
0.078125
0.000179
0.203125
-0.000927
0.328125
-103.660592
0.453125
-96.861830
0.082031
0.000190
0.207031
-0.005089
0.332031
-105.940671
0.457031
-96.987388
0.085938
0.000064
0.210938
-0.018871
0.335938
-98.212931
0.460938
-100.046559
FN3365.10
October 6, 2008
0.089844
0.000011
0.214844
-0.053894
0.339844
-94.313447
0.464844
-106.804655
0.093750
-0.000064
0.218750
-0.128250
0.343750
-95.354251
0.468750
-104.119091
0.097656
-0.000018
0.222656
-0.266964
0.347656
-98.447393
0.472656
-105.235066
0.101562
-0.000000
0.226562
-0.501238
0.351562
-103.249457
0.476562
-104.637666
0.105469
0.000020
0.230469
-0.866791
0.355469
-93.387604
0.480469
-105.940673
0.109375
0.000053
0.234375
-1.401949
0.359375
-91.390894
0.484375
-107.323099
0.113281
0.000012
0.238281
-2.145948
0.363281
-94.404415
0.488281
-102.375213
0.117188
-0.000022
0.242188
-3.137997
0.367188
-103.883234
0.492188
-94.009640
0.121094
-0.000149
0.246094
-4.416657
0.371094
-93.245384
0.496094
-91.312516
HSP43216
0.015625
HSP43216
fS /4 Quadrature Up Convert Processor
The fS/4 Quadrature Up Convert Processor provides the
fS/4 spectral shift used to construct a real signal from a
complex sample stream. The operation performed is
equivalent to multiplying a quadrature data stream,
i(n)+jq(n), by samples of a complex exponential, e-j(/2)n,
and outputting the real part of that mathematical operation
as given below:
Real { (i (n) + jq(n) ) e j (n/2) }
= Real {[i (n) cos (n/2) - q(n) sin (n/2)]
+ j [i (n) sin (n/2) + q(n) cos (n/2)]}
= i (n) cos (n/2) - q(n) sin (n/2)
= i (n) cos (n/2) + q(n) sin (n/2)
(EQ. 3)
In the above operation, a positive fS/4 spectral shift is
imparted on the quadrature input which causes the upper
sideband of the resulting real output to be defined by the
spectral content of the input signal as shown in Figure 3. For
added flexibility, the Up Convert processor may be
configured to impart a negative fS/4 shift on the quadrature
input which generates a real output whose lower sideband is
defined the spectrum of the quadrature input as shown in
Figure 4. The state of the USB/LSB control input determines
the direction of the spectral shift. If this input is set “High”, a
positive fS/4 shift is introduced by the Up Convert Processor.
If USB/LSB is asserted “Low”, a negative fS/4 spectral shift
is introduced.
-fS/2
-fS/4
0
fS/4
fS/2
-fS/2
-fS/4
0
fS/4
fS/2
FIGURE 3. fS/4 POSITIVE SHIFT: UP CONVERSION
-fS/2
-fS/4
0
fS/4
fS/2
-fS/2
-fS/4
0
fS/4
fS/2
FIGURE 4. fS/4 NEGATIVE SHIFT: DOWN CONVERSION
The Up Convert Processor implements the up convert
operation by multiplying the in-phase and quadrature
samples on the upper and lower processing legs by the
nonzero sine and cosine terms in the above expression. The
resulting data is then multiplexed together in the Output Flow
Controller to yield the real output sample stream. The SYNC
control input may be used to align the zero degree phase of
7
the Up Convert LO with a particular input sample as
described in the Operational Modes Section.
The Up Convert Processor also scales the data streams
output from the Filter Processor as required by the
operational mode. In the modes which employ interpolation,
the Up Convert Processor scales the Filter Processor’s
output by two to compensate for the attenuation of one half
caused by the interpolation process. In down convert and
decimate mode, the filter processor output is also scaled by
two to compensate for the attenuation introduced by the
down covert process. The scaling operations performed are
summarized in Table 4.
TABLE 4. SCALE FACTORS APPLIED BY UP CONVERT
PROCESSOR vs MODE
MODE
SCALE FACTOR
Decimate by Two (MODE1-0 = 00)
1.0
Interpolate by Two (MODE1-0 = 01)
2.0
Down Convert and Decimate (MODE1-0 = 10)
2.0
Quadrature to Real (MODE1-0 = 11)
2.0
Output Data Flow Controller
The Output Flow Controller routes data to the AOUT0-15
and BOUT0-15 output depending on mode of operation. In
decimate by two mode (MODE1-0 = 00), output from the
filter processor’s polyphase branches are summed and
output through AOUT0-15. In Down Convert and Decimate
mode (MODE1-0 = 10), real and imaginary data streams
produced by the down convert process pass are output
directly to AOUT0-15 and BOUT0-15 respectively. In the two
modes using interpolation, MODE1-0 = 01 or 11, with
internal multiplexing enabled, INT/EXT set high, data sam
ples output from the polyphase branches are internally
multiplexed into a single stream and output via AOUT0-15. If
a mode using interpolation is specified together with external
multiplexing, INT/EXT set low, the data stream multiplexing
is performed off chip and the data on the upper and lower
processing legs is output through AOUT0-15 and BOUT0-15.
The Output Data Flow Controller also sets the binary format
and precision of the two 16-bit outputs. The data format is
specified as either two’s complement (FMT input low) or
offset binary (FMT input high). The precision of the output
data is set from 8-bits to 16-bits via the round control inputs,
RND2-0. The RND2-0 inputs round the output data to a
precision ranging from 8-bits to 16-bits as specified in Table
5. Saturation logic is incorporated in the output flow
controller to insure that numerical growth associated with a
worst case signal input or rounding condition saturates to a
16-bit value.
FN3365.10
October 6, 2008
HSP43216
TABLE 5. OUTPUT ROUNDING CONTROL
RND
2-0
ROUND FUNCTION
000
Round output to 8-bits, AOUT15-8 and BOUT15-8, zero
lower bits.
001
Round output to 9-bits, AOUT15-7 and BOUT15-7, zero
lower bits.
010
Round output to 10-bits, AOUT15-6 and BOUT15-6,
zero lower bits.
011
Round output to 11-bits, AOUT15-5 and BOUT15-5,
zero lower bits.
100
Round output to 12-bits, AOUT15-4 and BOUT15-4,
zero lower bits.
101
Round output to 14-bits, AOUT15-2 and BOUT15-2,
zero lower bits.
110
Round output to 16-bits, AOUT15-0 and BOUT15-0.
111
Zero all outputs.
In the polyphase implementation, the input data is broken into
even and odd sample streams which are processed by a set
of polyphase filters running at one half of the input data rate.
These filters are designated as even or odd tap filters
depending upon whether the coefficients were derived from
the even or odd indexed coefficients of the original transversal
filter. This architecture only produces the outputs which are
not discarded by the decimation process. NOTE: Since the
only non-zero tap for a halfband filter is the center tap,
the Odd Tap Filter reduces to a delay and multiply
operation.
The operation of the HSP43216 in Decimate by Two mode is
analogous to the polyphase implementation in Figure 6. In
this mode, the internal data paths are routed as shown in
Figure 7A and Figure 7B. The different data flows depend on
whether internal or external multiplexing has been selected
using the INT/EXT control input. In either case, an input data
stream is decomposed into even and odd sample streams
which are then routed to the even and odd tap polyphase
filters. The output of each polyphase filter is summed and
output via AOUT0-15.
Operational Modes
EVEN TAP FILTER
Decimate By 2 Filter Mode (Mode1-0 = 00)
The concept of operation for Decimate by Two Filter mode is
most easily understood by comparing the 7 tap transversal
filter implementation to the equivalent polyphase
implementation. The transversal implementation is shown in
Figure 5.
...,X4,X2,X0
C0 C2 C4 C6
ODD TAP FILTER
...,X5,X3,X1
..,Y4,Y2,Y0
...,Y1,Y0
X3,X2,X1,X0
2
C0 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6
R
E
G
..,Y2,Y1,Y0
+
C1 C3 C5
Y(0) = X0(C0)+X1(C1)+X2(C2)+X3(C3)+X4(C4)+X5(C5)+X6(C6)
Y(1) = X2(C0)+X3(C1)+X4(C2)+X5(C3)+X6(C4)+X7(C5)+X8(C6)
Y(0) = X0(C0)+X1(C1)+X2(C2)+X3(C3)+X4(C4)+X5(C5)+X6(C6)
† Y(1) = X1(C0)+X2(C1)+X3(C2)+X4(C3)+X5(C4)+X6(C5)+X7(C6)
Y(2) = X2(C0)+X3(C1)+X4(C2)+X5(C3)+X6(C4)+X7(C5)+X8(C6)
†
Y(3) = X3(C0)+X4(C1)+X5(C2)+X6(C3)+X7(C4)+X8(C5)+X9(C6)
FIGURE 6. POLYPHASE IMPLEMENTATION OF DECIMATE
BY 2 HALFBAND FILTER
† Indicates samples discarded by decimation process
FIGURE 5. TRANSVERSAL IMPLEMENTATION OF
DECIMATE BY 2 HALFBAND FILTER
By inspecting the sum-of-products for the decimated output
in Figure 5, it is seen that even indexed input samples are
always multiplied by the even filter coefficients and the odd
samples are always multiplied by the odd coefficients. This
computational partitioning is realized in the polyphase
implementation shown in Figure 6.
8
FN3365.10
October 6, 2008
HSP43216
AIN0-15
R
E
G
R
E
G
†
†
R
E
G
R
E
G
†
† Clocked at CLK/2
1
†
1
R
E
G
R
E
G
† PIPELINE DELAY 2-35
† GROUP DELAY 19
†
EVEN TAP
FILTER
R
E
G
1
† PIPELINE DELAY 19
† GROUP DELAY 19
†
1
R F R R
N M E E
D T G G
+
R
E
G
ODD TAP
FILTER
AOUT0-15
OEA
FIGURE 7A. DATA FLOW DIAGRAM FOR DECIMATE BY 2 FILTER MODE (INT/EXT = 1)
PIPELINE DELAY 2-35
GROUP DELAY 19
AIN0-15
R
E
G
R
E
G
R
E
G
R
E
G
R
E
G
EVEN TAP
FILTER
1
1
BIN0-15
R
E
G
R
E
G
R
E
G
AOUT0-15
1
PIPELINE DELAY 19
GROUP DELAY 19
R
E
G
R F R R
N M E E
D T G G
+
1
R
E
G
ODD TAP
FILTER
OEA
FIGURE 7B. DATA FLOW DIAGRAM FOR DECIMATE BY 2 FILTER MODE (INT/EXT = 0)
If internal multiplexing is selected (INT/EXT = 1), the input data
stream is decomposed into even and odd samples internally by
the processing elements operating at one half of the input CLK
(see elements marked by “†” in Figure 7A). In this mode, the
Data Flow Controller routes data samples input through AIN015 to upper and lower processing legs with a one sample
relative delay. Since a new data sample is clocked into either of
the processing legs at CLK/2, each leg processes a data
stream comprised of every other input sample, and the one
sample relative delay of each leg’s input forces the even
samples to be clocked into one leg while the odd samples are
clocked into the other. The user may choose which sample gets
routed to the upper (even) processing leg by asserting SYNC.
Specifically, a sample input on the CLK following the assertion
of SYNC will be routed to the upper processing leg as shown in
Figure 8. With internal multiplexing, the minimum pipeline delay
on the upper processing leg is 14 CLK’s and the pipeline delay
on the bottom leg is 47 CLK’s. The filtered and decimated data
stream is held on AOUT0-15 for 2 CLK’s.
this mode, SYNC has no effect on part operation.
NOTE: For proper operation, the samples demultiplexed
to the AIN0-15 input must precede those input to the
BIN0-15 input in sample order. For example, given a data
sequence x0, x1, x2 and x3, the demultiplex function would
route x0 and x2 to AIN0-15 and x1 and x3 to BIN0-15.
If external multiplexing is selected (INT/EXT = 0), a
demultiplex function is required off chip to break the input
data into even and odd sample streams for input through
AIN0-15 and BIN0-15. In this mode, the Data Flow Controller
routes the even and odd sample streams directly to the
following processing elements which are all running at the
input CLK rate. This allows the device to perform decimate
by two filtering on signals sampled at up to twice the
maximum CLK rate of the device (104 MSPS). With external
multiplexing, the minimum pipeline delay through the upper
processing leg is 9 CLK’s and the pipeline delay through the
lower processing leg is 26 CLK’s as shown in Figure 7B. In
As with the Decimate by Two mode the concept of operation
for the Interpolate by Two Filter mode is more easily
understood by comparing a 7 tap transversal filter
implementation to the equivalent polyphase implementation.
The transversal implementation is shown in Figure 9.
9
0
1
2
CLK
SYNC
AIN0-15
EVEN
ODD
EVEN
INPUTS DESIGNATED AS EVEN ARE PROCESSED ON THE UPPER
LEG, INPUTS DESIGNATED AS ODD ARE PROCESSED ON THE
LOWER LEG.
FIGURE 8. DATA SYNCHRONIZATION WITH PROCESSING
LEGS (INT/EXT = 1)
Interpolate By 2 Filter Mode (Mode1-0 = 01)
By inspecting filter outputs in Figure 9, it is seen that the
even indexed outputs are the result of the sum-of-products
for the odd coefficients, and the odd indexed outputs are the
result of the sum-of-products for the even coefficients. This
computational partitioning is evident in the polyphase
implementation shown in Figure 10.
FN3365.10
October 6, 2008
HSP43216
In the polyphase implementation, the input data stream
feeds even and odd tap filters running at the input sample
rate. The interpolated sample stream is derived by
multiplexing the output of each polyphase branch into a
single data stream at twice the input sample rate. As in the
Decimate by Two example, the even or odd tap filters are
comprised of the even or odd indexed coefficients from the
original transversal filter.
7 TAP HALFBAND FILTER
...,Y1,Y0
..X1,0,X0,0
..,X2,X1,X0
2
C0 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6
Y(0) = 0(C0)+X0(C1)+0(C2)+X1(C3)+0(C4)+X2(C5)+0(C6)
Y(1) = X0(C0)+0(C1)+X1(C2)+0(C3)+X2(C4)+0(C5)+X3(C6)
Y(2) = 0(C0)+X1(C1)+0(C2)+X2(C3)+0(C4)+X3(C5)+0(C6)
Y(3) = X1(C0)+0(C1)+X2(C2)+0(C3)+X3(C4)+0(C5)+X4(C6)
The operation of the HSP43216 in Interpolate by Two mode
is analogous to the polyphase example above. In this mode
the internal data flow is routed as shown in Figure 11A and
Figure 11B. The different data flows depend on the selection
of internal or external multiplexing via INT/EXT. In this mode,
data input through AIN0-15 is fed to the even and odd
polyphase branches of the filter processor. The output of
each branch is multiplexed together to generate the output
data stream at the interpolated rate. NOTE: The output of
each polyphase branch is scaled by two to compensate
for the attenuation of one half caused by interpolation.
FIGURE 9. TRANSVERSAL IMPLEMENTATION OF
INTERPOLATE BY TWO HALFBAND FILTER
EVEN TAP FILTER
..,Y5,Y3,Y1
...,X2,X1,X0
C0 C2 C4 C6
ODD TAP FILTER
R
E
G
..,Y2,Y1,Y0
M
U
X
..,Y4,Y2,Y0
C1 C3 C5
Y0 = X0(C1)+X1(C3)+X2(C5)
Y1 = X0(C0)+X1(C2)+X2(C4)+X3(C6)
Y2 = X1(C1)+X2(C3)+X3(C5)
FIGURE 10. POLYPHASE IMPLEMENTATION OF
INTERPOLATE BY TWO HALFBAND FILTER
AIN0-15
R
E
G
R
E
G
†
†
R
E
G
R
E
G
1
†
1
R
E
G
† Clocked at CLK/2
† PIPELINE DELAY 2-35
† GROUP DELAY 19
†
EVEN TAP
FILTER
R
E
G
†
† PIPELINE DELAY 19
† GROUP DELAY 19
R
E
G
ODD TAP
FILTER
2
†
2
R
E
G
M R F R R
U N M E E
X D T G G
R
E
G
AOUT0-15
OEA
FIGURE 11A. DATA FLOW DIAGRAM FOR INTERPOLATE BY 2 FILTER MODE (INT/EXT = 1)
PIPELINE DELAY 2-35
GROUP DELAY 19
AIN0-15
R
E
G
R
E
G
R
E
G
R
E
G
EVEN TAP
FILTER
1
PIPELINE DELAY 19
GROUP DELAY 19
1
R
E
G
R
E
G
ODD TAP
FILTER
R
E
G
R F R R
N M E E
D T G G
R
E
G
R F R R
N M E E
D T G G
OEA
AOUT0-15
1
1
OEB
BOUT0-15
FIGURE 11B. DATA FLOW DIAGRAM FOR INTERPOLATE BY 2 FILTER MODE (INT/EXT = 0)
10
FN3365.10
October 6, 2008
HSP43216
If internal multiplexing is selected (INT/EXT = 1), the data
stream input through AIN0-15 is fed to both the upper and lower
processing legs as shown in Figure 11A. The output of each
processing leg is then multiplexed together to produce the
interpolated sample stream at twice the input sample rate. In
this mode the device is clocked at the interpolated data rate to
support the multiplexing of each processing leg’s output into a
single data stream. The upper and lower processing legs each
run at the input data rate of CLK/2 as indicated by the “†”
marking the various registers and processing elements in
Figure 11A. In this mode, data samples are clocked into the part
on every other rising edge of CLK. The SYNC signal is used to
specify which set of CLK cycles are used to register data at the
part’s input. Specifically, every other rising edge of CLK starting
one CLK after the assertion of SYNC will be used to clock data
into the part. With internal multiplexing the minimum pipeline
delay through the upper processing leg is 15 CLK’s and the
pipeline delay through the lower processing leg is 48 CLK’s,
(2[19+3]+4).
If external multiplexing is selected (INT/EXT = 0), the upper
and lower processing legs are output through AOUT0-15
and BOUT0-15 for multiplexing into a single data stream off
chip.This allows the processing legs to run at the maximum
clock rate which coincides with an interpolated output data
rate of 104 MSPS. NOTE: The samples output on
BOUT0-15 precede those on AOUT0-15 in sample order.
This requires a multiplexing scenario in which BOUT0-15 is
selected before AOUT0-15. With external multiplexing, the
minimum pipeline delay through the upper processing leg is
9 CLK’s and the pipeline delay through the lower processing
leg is 26 CLK’s as shown in Figure 11B. In this mode SYNC
has no effect on part operation.
By examining the combination of down conversion, filtering
and decimation, it is seen that the real outputs are only
dependent on the sum-of-products for the even indexed
samples and filter coefficients, and the imaginary outputs are
only a function of the sum-of-products for the odd indexed
samples and filter coefficients. This computational
partitioning allows the quadrature filters required after down
conversion to be realized using the same poly-phase
processing elements used in the previous two modes.
A functional block diagram of the polyphase implementation
is shown in Figure 14. In this implementation, the input data
stream is broken into even and odd sample streams and
processed independently by the even and odd tap filters. By
decomposing the sample stream into even and odd
samples, the zero mix terms produced by the down convert
LO drop out of the data streams, and the output of each of
the filters represent the decimated data streams for both the
real and imaginary outputs.
INPUT SIGNAL SPECTRUM
-fS/2
0
fS/2
fS
DOWN CONVERTED SIGNAL
-fS/2
0
fS/2
fS
FILTERED SIGNAL
FILTER PASSBAND
Down Convert and Decimate Mode (MODE1-0 = 10)
In Down Convert and Decimate Mode a real input signal is
spectrally shifted -fS/4 which centers the upper sideband at
DC. This operation produces real and imaginary
components which are each filtered and decimated by
identical 67-tap halfband filters. For added flexibility, a
positive fS/4 spectral shift may be selected which centers
the lower sideband at DC. The direction of the spectral shift
is selected via USB/LSB as described in the Quadrature
Down Convert section. A spectral representation of the
down convert and decimate operation is shown in Figure
12 (USB/LSB = 1). NOTE: Each of the complex terms
output by the Filter Processor are scaled by two to
compensate for the attenuation of one half introduced
by the down conversion process.
-fS/2
0
fS/2
fS
DECIMATED OUTPUT SIGNAL SPECTRUM
-f’S
0
f’S
2f’S
fS = INPUT SAMPLE RATE
f’S = DECIMATED SAMPLE RATE, fS/2
FIGURE 12. DOWN CONVERT AND DECIMATE OPERATION
The Down Convert and Decimate mode is most easily
understood by first considering the transversal
implementation using a 7 tap filter as shown in Figure 13.
11
FN3365.10
October 6, 2008
HSP43216
HALFBAND FILTER
...X2,X1,X0
...,R2,R0
2
C0 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6
1, 0,-1, 0...
COS(n/2)
HALFBAND FILTER
...,I2,I0
2
C0 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6
0,-1,0,1...
SIN(-n/2)
REAL OUTPUTS
R0 = X0(C0)+0(C1)-X2(C2)+0(C3)+X4(C4)+0(C5)-X6(C6)
† R1 = 0(C0)-X2(C1)+0(C2)+X4(C3)+0(C4)-X6(C5)+0(C6)
R2 = -X2(C0)+0(C1)+X4(C2)+0(C3)-X6(C4)+0(C5)+X4(C6)
† R3 = 0(C0)+X4(C1)+0(C2)-X6(C3)+0(C4)+X4(C5)+0(C6)
IMAGINARY OUTPUTS
†
†
I0 = 0(C0)-X1(C1)+0(C2)+X3(C3)+0(C4)-X5(C5)+0(C6)
I1 = -X1(C0)+0(C1)+X3(C2)+0(C3)-X5(C4)+0(C5)+X7(C6)
I2 = 0(C0)+X3(C1)+0(C2)-X5(C3)+0(C4)+X7(C5)+0(C6)
I3 = X3(C0)+0(C1)-X5(C2)+0(C3)+X7(C4)+0(C5)-X9(C6)
† Indicates samples discarded by decimation process
FIGURE 13. DOWN CONVERT AND DECIMATE FUNCTION
USING TRANSVERSAL FILTERS
EVEN TAP FILTER
...,X4,X2,X0
...,R1,R0
The HSP43216’s implementation of Down Convert and
Decimate mode is analogous to the polyphase solution
shown in Figure 14. The part’s data flow diagram for this
mode is shown in Figure 15A and Figure 15B. As seen in
the figures, the input sample data is broken into even and
odd sample streams which feed the upper and lower
processing legs as described in the Decimate By 2 Mode
section. The data on each processing leg is then
modulated with the nonzero quadrature components of the
complex exponent (see Quadrature Down Convert
Section). Following this operation, the upper leg becomes
the processing chain for the real (In-phase) component of
the quadrature down conversion and the lower leg
processes the complex (Quadrature) component of the
down conversion. The filter processing block implements
the equivalent of a decimate by two Halfband filter on each
of the quadrature legs.
If internal multiplexing is specified (INT/EXT = 1), the upper
and lower processing legs are fed with even and odd
sample streams which are derived from data input through
AIN0-15. The input sample stream may be synchronized
with the zero degree phase term of the down converter LO
by using the SYNC control input. For example, an input
data sample will be fed into the real (upper) processing leg
and mixed with the zero degree cosine term of the
quadrature LO if it is input on the 4th CLK following the
assertion of SYNC as shown in Figure 16. The pipeline
delay through the real processing leg (upper leg) is 14
CLK’s and the delay through the imaginary processing leg
(lower leg) is 47 CLK’s. The complex samples output
through AOUT0-15 and BOUT0-15 are present for 2 CLK’s
since the quadrature streams have been decimated by two
in the filter processor.
C0 C2 C4 C6
1,-1,1,-1,..
COS LO
ODD TAP FILTER
R
E
G
...,X5,X3,X1
...,I1,I0
C1 C3 C5
-1,1,-1,1..
SIN LO
REAL OUTPUTS
IMAGINARY OUTPUTS
R0 = X0(C0)-X2(C2)+X4(C4)-X6(C6)
I0 = -X1(C1)+X3(C3)-X5(C5)
R1 = -X2(C0)+X4(C2)-X6(C4)+X8(C6)
I1 = X3(C1)-X5(C3)+X7(C5)
R2 = X4(C0)-X6(C2)+X8(C4)-X10(C6)
I2 = -X5(C1)+X7(C3)-X9(C5)
FIGURE 14. DOWN CONVERT AND DECIMATE FUNCTION
USING POLYPHASE FILTERS
12
FN3365.10
October 6, 2008
HSP43216
AIN0-15
R
E
G
R
E
G
†
†
R
E
G
R
E
G
† PIPELINE DELAY 2-35
† GROUP DELAY 19
† Clocked at CLK/2
R F R R
N M E E
D T G G
AOUT0-15
R F R R
N M E E
D T G G
BOUT0-15
OEA
2
† PIPELINE DELAY 19
† GROUP DELAY 19
-1,1,-1,1,...
†
R
E
G
R
E
G
EVEN TAP
FILTER
1,-1,1,-1,...
†
†
R
E
G
†
2
R
E
G
ODD TAP
FILTER
OEB
FIGURE 15A. DATA FLOW DIAGRAM FOR DOWN CONVERT AND DECIMATE MODE (INT/EXT = 1)
PIPELINE DELAY 2-35
GROUP DELAY 19
AIN0-15
R
E
G
R
E
G
R
E
G
EVEN TAP
FILTER
R
E
G
1,-1,1,-1,...
-1,1,-1,1,...
BIN0-15
R
E
G
R
E
G
R
E
G
PIPELINE DELAY 19
GROUP DELAY 19
R
E
G
AOUT0-15
R F R R
N M E E
D T G G
R
E
G
2
OEA
2
BOUT0-15
R F R R
N M E E
D T G G
R
E
G
ODD TAP
FILTER
OEB
FIGURE 15B. DATA FLOW DIAGRAM FOR DOWN CONVERT AND DECIMATE MODE (INT/EXT = 0)
0
1
2
the demultiplex function would route x0 and x2 to AIN015 and x1 and x3 to BIN0-15.
3
CLK
SYNC
0
0o
AIN0-15
90o
180o
270o
1
2
CLK
SYNC
THE SAMPLE DESIGNATED BY THE 0o AND 180o LABELS ARE MIXED
WITH THE RESPECTIVE COSINE TERMS ON THE UPPER PROCESSING
LEG, AND THE OTHER SAMPLES, THOSE LABELED BY 90o AND 270o,
ARE MIXED WITH THE RESPECTIVE SINE TERMS ON THE LOWER LEG.
FIGURE 16. DATA SYNCHRONIZATION TO 0o PHASE OF
QUADRATURE LO
If external multiplexing is selected (INT/EXT = 0), a
demultiplex function is required off chip to break the input data
stream into even and odd samples for input through AIN0-15
and BIN0-15. In this mode, the real and imaginary processing
legs run at the input clock rate which allows the device to
perform the down convert and decimate function on real
signals sampled at up to twice the maximum speed grade of
the device (104 MSPS). With external multiplexing, the
minimum pipeline delay through the upper processing leg is 9
CLK’s and the pipeline delay through the lower processing leg
is 26 CLK’s as shown in Figure 15B. To synchronize the even
samples input through AIN0-15 with the zero degree cosine
term of the quadrature LO, SYNC should be asserted on the
same clock that the target sample is present at the input of the
part as shown in Figure 17. NOTE: For proper operation,
the samples demultiplexed to the AIN0-15 input must
precede those input to the BIN0-15 input in sample order.
For example, given a data sequence x0, x1, x2, and x3,
13
AIN0-15
0o
180o
0o
180o
THE 0o AND 180o LABELS INDICATE THE PHASE ALIGNMENT OF
THE SAMPLES INPUT THROUGH AIN0-15 WITH THE COSINE TERM
OF THE QUADRATURE DOWN CONVERT LO.
FIGURE 17. DATA SYNCHRONIZATION WITH PHASE OF
DOWN CONVERT LO
Quadrature to Real Conversion Mode (MODE1-0 = 11)
The Quadrature to Real Conversion mode is used to
construct a real output from a quadrature input. To
accomplish this, the Halfband Filter Processor interpolates
the quadrature components of the complex input signal by
a factor of two. Next, the Quadrature Up-Convert Processor
spectrally shifts the signal by fS/4 and derives the real
output as described in the fS/4 Quadrature Up-Convert
Processor Section. The direction of the spectral shift is
controlled via the USB/LSB input and is used to designate
the frequency content of the complex input as either the
upper or lower sideband of the resulting real output signal.
A spectral representation of quadrature to real conversion
is shown in Figure 18 for USB/LSB = 1. NOTE: The fS/4
Up-Convert Processor uses quadrature mix factors
FN3365.10
October 6, 2008
HSP43216
scaled by two to compensate for the attenuation
introduced by the interpolation process.
HALFBAND FILTER
..R1,R0
INPUT SIGNAL SPECTRUM
COS((n+1)/2)
0,1,0,-1...
..R1,0,R0,0
2
C0 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6
HALFBAND FILTER
-fS
0
2fS
fS
..I1,I0
INTERPOLATED SIGNAL
..I1,0,I0,0
2
C0 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6
FILTER PASSBAND
-f’S/2
f’S/2
0
f’S
..,Y2,Y1,Y0
+
-1,0,1,0...
SIN(-(n+1)/2)
Y(0) = 0(0(C0)+R0(C1)+0(C2)+R1(C3)+0(C4)+R2(C5)+0(C6))+
-1(0(C0)+I0(C1)+0(C2)+I1(C3)+0(C4)+I2(C5)+0(C6))
Y(1) = 1(R0(C0)+0(C1)+R1(C2)+0(C3)+R2(C4)+0(C5)+R3(C6))+
0(I0(C0)+0(C1)+I1(C2)+0(C3)+I2(C4)+0(C5)+I3(C6))
UPCONVERTED SIGNAL
Y(2) = 0(0(C0)+R1(C1)+0(C2)+R2(C3)+0(C4)+R3(C5)+0(C6))+
1(0(C0)+I1(C1)+0(C2)+I2(C3)+0(C4)+I3(C5)+0(C6))
-f’S/2
f’S/2
0
f’S
Y(3) = -1(R1(C0)+0(C1)+R2(C2)+0(C3)+R3(C4)+0(C5)+R4(C6))+
0(I1(C0)+0(C1)+I2(C2)+0(C3)+I3(C4)+0(C5)+I4(C6))
REAL OUTPUT
FIGURE 19. QUADRATURE TO REAL CONVERTER USING
TRANSVERSAL FILTERS
-f’S/2
0
f’S/2
f’S
EVEN TAP FILTER
fS = INPUT SAMPLE RATE
f’S = INTERPOLATED SAMPLE RATE, 2fS
..R1,R0
FIGURE 18. QUADRATURE TO REAL CONVERSION
C0 C2 C4 C6
The Quadrature to Real Conversion mode is most easily
understood by first considering an implementation using a
7 tap transversal filter as shown in Figure 19. By examining
the combination of interpolation, filtering, and up
conversion it is seen that a particular output is only
dependent on the sum-of-products for the even indexed
samples and coefficients or the sum-of-products for the odd
indexed samples and coefficients. This computational
partitioning allows the dual interpolation filters required in
this mode to be realized using the same polyphase filter
structure used in the other modes. A functional block
diagram of the polyphase implementation for Quadrature to
Real Conversion mode is shown in Figure 20. In this
implementation, the real and imaginary components of a
complex input stream drive the even and odd tap filters.
The output of each filter is then modulated by the non-zero
mix factors and multiplexed into a single real output stream.
14
ODD TAP FILTER
..I1,I0
R
E
G
1,-1,1,-1,..
COS LO
M
U
X
..,Y2,Y1,Y0
C1 C3 C5
-1,1,-1,1..
SIN LO
Y(0) = -1(I0(C1)+I1(C3))+I2(C5))
Y(1) = 1(R0(C0)+R1(C2)+R2(C4))+R3(C6))
Y(2) = 1(I1(C1)+I2(C3)+I3(C5))
Y(3) = -1(R1(C0)+R2(C2)+R3(C4)+R4(C6))
FIGURE 20. POLYPHASE IMPLEMENTATION OF
QUADRATURE TO REAL CONVERTER
FN3365.10
October 6, 2008
HSP43216
AIN0-15
R
E
G
R
E
G
†
†
R
E
G
R
E
G
† PIPELINE DELAY 2-35
† GROUP DELAY 19
EVEN TAP
FILTER
1
†
BIN0-15
R
E
G
†
1
R
E
G
R
E
G
† PIPELINE DELAY 19
† GROUP DELAY 19
R
E
G
ODD TAP
FILTER
†
R
E
G
2,-2,2,-2,...
R
E
G
M R F R R
U N M E E
X D T G G
-2,2,-2,2,...
R
E
G
AOUT0-15
OEA
†
† Clock at Input data rate, CLK/2
FIGURE 21A. DATA FLOW DIAGRAM FOR QUADRATURE TO REAL CONVERSION MODE (INT/EXT = 1)
PIPELINE DELAY 2-32
GROUP DELAY 19
AIN0-15
R
E
G
R
E
G
R
E
G
R
E
G
1
PIPELINE DELAY 19
GROUP DELAY 19
1
BIN0-15
R
E
G
R
E
G
R
E
G
EVEN TAP
FILTER
R
E
G
R F R R
N M E E
D T G G
R
E
G
AOUT0-15
OEA
2,-2,2,-2,...
-2,2,-2,2,...
R F R R
N M E E
D T G G
R
E
G
ODD TAP
FILTER
BOUT0-15
OEB
FIGURE 21B. DATA FLOW DIAGRAM FOR QUADRATURE TO REAL CONVERSION MODE (INT/EXT = 0)
As in the other modes, the operation of the HSP43216 in
Quadrature to real Conversion mode is analogous to that of
the polyphase solution described above. The data flow
diagrams for this particular mode are shown in Figures 21A
and 21B.
If Internal Multiplexing is specified (INT/EXT = 1), the real
and imaginary components of the quadrature input are fed
through AIN0-15 and BIN0-15 and processed on the upper
and lower legs respectively (see Figure 21A). Each
component of the complex input is interpolated, mixed with
the non-zero sine and cosine terms of the quadrature LO,
and multiplexed together into a real output sample stream
through AOUT0-15. Prior to the output multiplexer, the upper
and lower processing legs each run at the input data rate of
CLK/2 as indicated by the “†” marking the various registers
and processing elements in Figure 21A. The complex input
sample stream may be synchronized with the zero degree
phase of the up converters quadrature LO by asserting the
SYNC control input one cycle prior to the targeted data
sample as shown in Figure 22. This ensures that the real
sample input on the upper processing leg will be mixed with
the zero degree cosine term. The minimum pipeline delay
through the real processing leg (upper leg) is 15 CLK’s and
the delay through the imaginary processing leg (lower leg) is
48 CLK’s.
15
0
CLK/2
SYNC
AIN0-15
BIN0-15
FIGURE 22. DATA SYNCHRONIZATION WITH PROCESSING
LEGS (INT/EXT = 1)
If external multiplexing is selected (INT/EXT = 0), output
from the upper and lower processing legs exit through
AOUT0-15 and BOUT0-15 for multiplexing into a single data
stream off chip (see Figure 21B).This allows the processing
legs to run at the maximum CLK rate which coincides with
an interpolated output data rate of up to 104 MSPS.
NOTE: The output on BOUT0-15 precedes that on
AOUT0-15 in sample order. This requires a multiplexing
scenario which selects BOUT0-15 then AOUT0-15 on each
CLK of the HSP43216. With external multiplexing, the
minimum pipeline delay through the upper processing leg is
9 CLK’s and the pipeline delay through the lower processing
leg is 26 CLK’s as shown in Figure 21B. The SYNC control
input is used as described in the preceding paragraph.
FN3365.10
October 6, 2008
HSP43216
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Thermal Information
Supply Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +7.0V
Input, Output or I/O Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . GND -0.5V to VCC +0.5V
ESD Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Class 1
Thermal Resistance (Typical, Note 1)
JA (°C/W)
JC (°C/W)
PLCC Package. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23.0
N/A
MQFP Package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35.0
N/A
Maximum Junction Temperature
PLCC and MQFP Packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +150°C
Maximum Storage Temperature Range . . . . . . . . . .-65°C to +150°C
Maximum Lead Temperature (Soldering 10s) . . . . . . . . . . . . +300°C
Operating Conditions
Voltage Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +4.75V to +5.25V
Temperature Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0°C to +70°C
Die Characteristics
Gate Count . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35469 Gates
CAUTION: Stresses above those listed in “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress only rating and operation of the
device at these or any other conditions above those indicated in the operational sections of this specification is not implied.
NOTE:
1. JA is measured with the component mounted on an evaluation PC board in free air.
DC Electrical Specifications
PARAMETER
VCC = 5.0V 5%, TA = 0° to +70°C
SYMBOL
Power Supply Current
ICCOP
Standby Power Supply Current
ICCSB
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
MAX
UNITS
VCC = Max, CLK Frequency 52MHz
INT/EXT = ‘1’, Notes 2, 4
-
468
mA
VCC = Max, CLK Frequency 52MHz
INT/EXT = ‘0’, Notes 3, 4
-
572
mA
VCC = Max, Outputs Not Loaded
-
500
A
Input Leakage Current
II
VCC = Max, Input = 0V or VCC
-10
10
A
Output Leakage Current
IO
VCC = Max, Input = 0V or VCC
-10
10
A
Clock Input High
VIHC
VCC = Max
3.0
-
V
Clock Input Low
VILC
VCC = Min
-
0.8
V
Logical One Input Voltage
VIH
VCC = Max
2.0
-
V
Logical Zero Input Voltage
VIL
VCC = Min
-
0.8
V
Logical One Output Voltage
VOH
IOH = -3mA, VCC = Min
2.6
-
V
Logical Zero Output Voltage
VOL
IOL = 5mA, VCC = Min
-
0.4
V
Input Capacitance
CIN
CLK Frequency 1MHz, All measurements
referenced to GND. TA = +25°C, Note 5
-
12
pF
-
12
pF
Output Capacitance
COUT
NOTES:
2. Power supply current is proportional to frequency. Typical rating is 9mA/MHz when Internal Multiplexing is selected, INT/EXT = 1.
3. Power supply current is proportional to frequency. Typical rating is 11mA/MHz when External Multiplexing is selected, INT/EXT = 0.
4. Output load per test circuit and CL = 40pF.
5. Not tested, but characterized at initial design and at major process/design changes.
6. Maximum junction temperature must be considered when operating part at high clock frequencies.
16
FN3365.10
October 6, 2008
HSP43216
AC Electrical Specifications
(Note 7)
52MHz
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
NOTES
MIN
MAX
UNITS
CLK Period
tCP
19
-
ns
CLK High
tCH
7
-
ns
CLK Low
tCL
7
-
ns
Setup Time AIN0-15, BIN0-15 to CLK
tDS
7
-
ns
Hold Time AIN0-15, BIN0-15 from CLK
tDH
0
-
ns
MODE0-1, RND0-2, INT/EXT, SYNC, USB/LSB Setup Time to CLK
tRS
7
-
ns
MODE0-1, RND0-2, INT/EXT, SYNC, USB/LSB Hold Time to CLK
tRH
0
-
ns
CLK to AOUT0-15, BOUT0-15 Delay
tDO
-
9
ns
Output Enable Time
tOE
-
9
ns
Output Disable Time
tOD
Note 8
-
9
ns
Output Rise, Output Fall Times
tr, tf
Note 8
-
5
ns
NOTES:
7. AC tests performed with CL = 40pF, IOL = 5mA, and IOH = -3mA. Input reference level for CLK is 2.0V, all other inputs 1.5V.
Test VIH = 3.0V, VIHC = 4.0V, VIL = 0V.
8. Controlled via design or process parameters and not directly tested. Characterized upon initial design and after major process and/or changes.
AC Test Load Circuit
DUT
S1
CL (NOTE)
SWITCH S1 OPEN FOR ICCSB AND ICCOP
IOH

1.5V
IOL
EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT
NOTE: Test head capacitance.
17
FN3365.10
October 6, 2008
HSP43216
Waveforms
tCP
tCH
tCL
CLK
tDS
tDH
tRS
tRH
AIN0-15, BIN-15
MODE0-1, RND0-2,
INT/EXT, SYNC,
USB/LSB
tDO
AOUT0-15, BOUT0-15
tOD
tOE
OE
FIGURE 23. TIMING RELATIVE TO CLK
tr
tf
2.0V
0.8V
FIGURE 24. OUTPUT RISE AND FALL TIMES
18
FN3365.10
October 6, 2008
HSP43216
Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier Packages (PLCC)
0.042 (1.07)
0.048 (1.22)
PIN (1) IDENTIFIER
N84.1.15 (JEDEC MS-018AF ISSUE A)
0.042 (1.07)
0.056 (1.42)
0.004 (0.10)
C
0.025 (0.64)
R
0.045 (1.14)
0.050 (1.27) TP
C
L
D2/E2
E1 E
C
L
D2/E2
VIEW “A”
0.020 (0.51)
MIN
A1
A
D1
D
84 LEAD PLASTIC LEADED CHIP CARRIER PACKAGE
INCHES
MILLIMETERS
SYMBOL
MIN
MAX
MIN
MAX
NOTES
A
0.165
0.180
4.20
4.57
-
A1
0.090
0.120
2.29
3.04
-
D
1.185
1.195
30.10
30.35
-
D1
1.150
1.158
29.21
29.41
3
D2
0.541
0.569
13.75
14.45
4, 5
E
1.185
1.195
30.10
30.35
-
E1
1.150
1.158
29.21
29.41
3
E2
0.541
0.569
13.75
14.45
4, 5
N
84
84
6
Rev. 2 11/97
SEATING
-C- PLANE
0.020 (0.51) MAX
3 PLCS
0.026 (0.66)
0.032 (0.81)
0.013 (0.33)
0.021 (0.53)
0.025 (0.64)
MIN
0.045 (1.14)
MIN
VIEW “A” TYP.
NOTES:
1. Controlling dimension: INCH. Converted millimeter dimensions are
not necessarily exact.
2. Dimensions and tolerancing per ANSI Y14.5M-1982.
3. Dimensions D1 and E1 do not include mold protrusions. Allowable
mold protrusion is 0.010 inch (0.25mm) per side. Dimensions D1
and E1 include mold mismatch and are measured at the extreme
material condition at the body parting line.
4. To be measured at seating plane -C- contact point.
5. Centerline to be determined where center leads exit plastic body.
6. “N” is the number of terminal positions.
19
FN3365.10
October 6, 2008
HSP43216
Metric Plastic Quad Flatpack Packages (MQFP)
Q100.14x20 (JEDEC MS-022GC-1 ISSUE B)
D
100 LEAD METRIC PLASTIC QUAD FLATPACK PACKAGE
D1
-D-
INCHES
-A-
-B-
E E1
e
PIN 1
SEATING
A PLANE
-H-
0.076
0.003
-C-
12o-16o
0.40
0.016 MIN
0.20
M
0.008
C A-B S
0o MIN
A2 A1
0o-7o
L
MIN
MAX
MIN
MAX
NOTES
A
-
0.134
-
3.40
-
A1
0.010
-
0.25
-
-
A2
0.101
0.113
2.57
2.87
-
b
0.009
0.015
0.22
0.38
6
b1
0.009
0.013
0.22
0.33
-
D
0.908
0.918
23.08
23.32
3
D1
0.782
0.792
19.88
20.12
4, 5
E
0.673
0.681
17.10
17.30
3
E1
0.547
0.555
13.90
14.10
4, 5
L
0.029
0.040
0.73
1.03
N
100
100
7
e
0.026 BSC
0.65 BSC
-
ND
30
30
-
NE
20
20
Rev. 1 4/99
NOTES:
1. Controlling dimension: MILLIMETER. Converted inch
dimensions are not necessarily exact.
b
2. All dimensions and tolerances per ANSI Y14.5M-1982.
b1
3. Dimensions D and E to be determined at seating plane -C- .
4. Dimensions D1 and E1 to be determined at datum plane
-H- .
5. Dimensions D1 and E1 do not include mold protrusion.
Allowable protrusion is 0.25mm (0.010 inch) per side.
BASE METAL
WITH PLATING
SYMBOL
D S
0.13/0.17
0.005/0.007
12o-16o
MILLIMETERS
0.13/0.23
0.005/0.009
6. Dimension b does not include dambar protrusion. Allowable
dambar protrusion shall be 0.08mm (0.003 inch) total.
7. “N” is the number of terminal positions.
All Intersil U.S. products are manufactured, assembled and tested utilizing ISO9001 quality systems.
Intersil Corporation’s quality certifications can be viewed at www.intersil.com/design/quality
Intersil products are sold by description only. Intersil Corporation reserves the right to make changes in circuit design, software and/or specifications at any time without
notice. Accordingly, the reader is cautioned to verify that data sheets are current before placing orders. Information furnished by Intersil is believed to be accurate and
reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed by Intersil or its subsidiaries for its use; nor for any infringements of patents or other rights of third parties which may result
from its use. No license is granted by implication or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of Intersil or its subsidiaries.
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20
FN3365.10
October 6, 2008
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