cd00203025

AN2798
Application note
Complete DDR2/3 memory power supply
controller based on the PM6670AS
Introduction
The PM6670AS device is a complete DDR2/3 power supply regulator for portable
applications designed to meet JEDEC specifications. It integrates a constant on-time (COT)
buck controller, a 2 A peak sink/source low dropout regulator and a 15 mA low-noise
buffered reference.
The COT architecture assures fast transient response supporting both polymeric and
ceramic output capacitors. An embedded integrator control loop compensates the DC
voltage error due to the output ripple. The 2 A peak sink/source linear regulator provides the
memory termination voltage with fast load transient response.
The device is fully compliant with system sleep states S3 and S4/S5, setting the LDO output
to high impedance in suspend-to-RAM state and performing the tracking discharge of all
outputs in suspend-to-disk state.
Figure 1.
November 2008
PM6670AS demonstration board
Rev 1
1/38
www.st.com
38
Contents
AN2798
Contents
1
2
Main features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.1
Switching section (VDDQ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2
Reference and termination voltages (VTTREF and VTT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Demonstration kit schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.1
Component list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3
Component assembly and layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4
I/O interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4.1
5
Recommended equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.1
JP3 fixed or adjustable output voltage (MODE pin) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.2
JP1 DDR2/DDR3 or power-saving mode (DDRSEL pin) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.3
JP2 output discharge (DSCG pin) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.4
JP5 compensation network (COMP pin) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
6
Test setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
7
Getting started . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
8
2/38
7.1
Power-up sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
7.2
Power-down sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
PM6670AS evaluation tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
8.1
VDDQ, VTT and VTTREF turn-on (soft-start) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
8.2
VDDQ working modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
8.2.1
VDDQ forced PWM mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
8.2.2
VDDQ pulse-skip mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
8.2.3
VDDQ non-audible pulse-skip mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
8.3
VDDQ, VTT and VTTREF load regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
8.4
VDDQ and VTT load transient responses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
8.5
VDDQ efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
8.6
VDDQ gate drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
AN2798
9
Contents
8.7
VDDQ, VTT and VTTREF turnoff (soft-end) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
8.8
UV, OV and thermal protections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
8.9
VDDQ current limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
8.10
VTT current limit (foldback) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
8.11
Switching frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
8.12
Thermal behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Revision history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3/38
List of figures
AN2798
List of figures
Figure 1.
Figure 2.
Figure 3.
Figure 4.
Figure 5.
Figure 6.
Figure 7.
Figure 8.
Figure 9.
Figure 10.
Figure 11.
Figure 12.
Figure 13.
Figure 14.
Figure 15.
Figure 16.
Figure 17.
Figure 18.
Figure 19.
Figure 20.
Figure 21.
Figure 22.
Figure 23.
Figure 24.
Figure 25.
Figure 26.
Figure 27.
Figure 28.
Figure 29.
Figure 30.
Figure 31.
Figure 32.
Figure 33.
Figure 34.
Figure 35.
Figure 36.
Figure 37.
Figure 38.
Figure 39.
4/38
PM6670AS demonstration board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
PM6670AS demonstration board schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Topside component placement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Topside view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Layer 2 view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Layer 3 view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Bottomside view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Bottomside component placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
JP3 (MODE) setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
JP1 (DDRSEL) setting (change to “non-audible” in graphic) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
JP2 (DSCG) setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
JP5 (COMP) setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
PM6670AS test setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
VDDQ soft-start at 180 mW load, pulse-skip mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
VTT turn-on (S0), pulse-skip mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
VDDQ = 1.8 V, VIN = 24 V, IVDDQ = 0 A, forced PWM mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
VDDQ = 1.8 V, VIN = 24 V, IVDDQ = 0 A, pulse-skip mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
VDDQ = 1.8 V, VIN = 24 V, no load, non-audible pulse-skip mode (33 kHz) . . . . . . . . . . . 20
VDDQ load regulation - VIN = 24 V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
VTT load regulation - LDOIN = VDDQ (VDDQ in forced PWM mode) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
VTTREF load regulation (VDDQ in forced PWM mode) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
VDDQ load transient (VIN = 24 V, LOAD = 0 A to 8 A at 2.5 A/µs) (pulse-skip mode). . . . 22
VTT load transient (VIN = 24 V, LOAD = – 2 A to 2 A at 2.5 A/µs) (pulse-skip mode) . . . . 22
Forced PWM (blue), non-audible pulse-skip (green), pulse-skip (red) VDDQ efficiency vs. .
output current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
External MOS gate signals (VIN = 24 V, LOAD = 0 A) (pulse-skip mode) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
External MOS gate signals (VIN = 24 V, LOAD = 8 A) (pulse-skip mode) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
VDDQ, VTTREF, VTT output voltages and LDO input current, tracking discharge,
no load on any rail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
VDDQ, VTTREF and VTT, non-tracking discharge, no load on any output . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
UV protection, pulse-skip mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
OV protection, pulse-skip mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
VDDQ, VTT, VTTREF and inductor current, thermal shutdown, pulse-skip mode . . . . . . . 28
VDDQ current limit protection during a load transient (0 A to 10 A at 2.5 A/µs) . . . . . . . . . 29
VTT current limit during an output short . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Switching frequency vs. input voltage, VDDQ = 1.8 V, IVDDQ = 4 A, forced PWM mode . 31
Forced PWM (blue), non-audible pulse-skip (green) and pulse-skip (red), switching
frequency vs. output current, VDDQ = 1.8 V, VIN = 24 V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
IVTT = 0 A, average IC temperature = 37.5 °C, max internal IC temperature = 40.1 °C . . 33
IVTT = 0.5 A, average IC temperature = 48.8 °C, max internal IC temperature = 54.3 °C. 34
IVTT = 1 A, average IC temperature = 60.5 °C, max internal IC temperature = 72.7 °C . . 35
IVTT = 1.5 A, average IC temperature = 73.8 °C, max internal IC temperature = 95.6 °C. 36
AN2798
Main features
1
Main features
1.1
Switching section (VDDQ)
1.2
■
4.5 V to 36 V input voltage range
■
0.9 V, ± 1 % voltage reference
■
1.8 V (DDR2) or 1.5 V (DDR3) fixed output voltages
■
0.9 V to 2.6 V adjustable output voltage
■
1.237 V ± 1 % reference voltage available
■
Very fast load transient response constant on-time loop control
■
No-RSENSE current sensing using low-side MOSFETs' RDSON
■
Negative current limit
■
Latched OVP, UVP and thermal shutdown
■
Fixed 3 ms soft-start
■
Selectable pulse-skipping at light load
■
Selectable non-audible (33 kHz) pulse-skip mode
■
All ceramic output capacitor applications supported
■
Output voltage ripple compensation
Reference and termination voltages (VTTREF and VTT)
■
2 A peak LDO with foldback for VTT
■
Remote VTT output sensing
■
High-Z VTT output in S3
■
All ceramic output capacitor applications supported
■
±15 mA low-noise buffered reference for VTTREF
5/38
J11
1
0
0
C8
33n
10u
10
C6
0
DRSEL
DDR
JP1
10u
10
C7
0
2
C9
100n
10
C10
C19
10u
1
0
10u
C20
1
2
1
2
0
R8
27
27k
R9
18k
18
1
2
3
4
5
6
25
VTTGND
VTTSNS
DDR SEL
DDRSEL
VTTREF
EF
SGND
AVCC
THPD
PD
U1
0
R10
0
6670AS
AS
PM66
VCC
LGATE
PGND
PG
S3
S5
MODE
JP3
C12
100n
18
17
16
15
14
13
2
R3 1k5
JP2
P2
DSCG
VCC
1
0
C21
100p
100
C22
100p
1
0
2
R13
100k
10
2
100k
10
SW1
C14
00n
100
VCC
R12
1
0
C13
100
00n
0
100k
10
2
0
R11
1
2
1
2
1
R2
18
18k
1
R17
R4 3R3
0
2
C17
0
Q2
0
C16
1
STS7NF60L
4
4
Q1
STS5NF60
60L
2
680
80p
0
D2
C1
10u
C18
1n
R16
4R7
R14
TP1
GND
ND_TP
INT_CER
JP5
0
1
7.5k
L1
0
2
1
47n
2
R15 6.8k
C15
1u
C2
10u
R6
0
20u
220
C3
20u
220
C4
D3
1
1
1
1
PG
J4
PGND
J3
DDQ
VDD
J2
VIN
J1
PM6670AS demonstration board schematic
1
1
1
0
D1
BAT41J
BA
2
Figure 2.
AGND
J10
J8
J7
1
1
R7
3R9
R1 33
330k
Demonstration kit schematic
AGND
TTREF
EF
VTT
VTT
LDOIN
J6
J9
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
24
23
22
21
20
19
VTT
LDOIN
BOOT
HGATE
PHASE
ASE
CSNS
VREF
EF
VOSC
SC
VSNS
VS
MODE
COMP
DSCG
7
8
9
10
11
12
CCGND
VCC
C5
1u
2
4
6
1
3
5
2
1
1
1
1
2
VCC
2
4
6
1
3
5
2
1
C11
10u
4
3
1
2
5
6
7
8
1
2
3
5
6
7
8
1
2
3
1
2
VCC
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
STPS
PS1L
1L60A
1
2
J5
2
2
1
2
1
2
6/38
STPS
PS1L
1L60A
VCC
Demonstration kit schematic
AN2798
AM00655v1
AN2798
Demonstration kit schematic
2.1
Component list
Table 1.
PM6670AS demonstration board bill of materials
Qty
Component
Description
Package
Part number
MFR
Value
2
C1, C2
Ceramic, 50 V, X5R, 20%
SMD 1210
UMK325BJ106KM-T
Taiyo Yuden
10 µ
2
C3, C4
POSCAP, 4 V, 15 m, 20%
SMD 7343 (D)
4TPE220MF
Sanyo
220 µ
1
C5
Ceramic, 6.3 V, X5R, 10%
SMD 3216-12
Standard
1µ
Taiyo Yuden
10 µ
3
C6, C7, C11 Ceramic, 6.3 V, X5R, 10%
SMD 0805
JMK212BJ106KG-T
1
C8
Ceramic, 50 V,X7R, 20%
SMD 0603
Standard
33 n
4
C9, C10,
C13, C14
Ceramic, 50 V, X7R, 20%
SMD 0603
Standard
100 n
1
C12
Ceramic, 50 V, X7R, 10%
SMD 0805
Standard
100 n
1
C15
Ceramic, 50 V, X7R, 10%
SMD 0603
Standard
6n8
1
C16
Ceramic, 50 V, X7R, 10%
SMD 0603
Standard
680 p
1
C17
Ceramic, 20%
SMD 0603
Standard
N.M.
1
C18
Ceramic, 50 V, X7R, 10%
SMD 0805
Standard
1n
2
C19, C20
Ceramic, 6.3 V, X5R, 10%
SMD 0805
Taiyo Yuden
N.M.
1
R1
Chip Resistor, 0.1 W, 1%
SMD 0603
Standard
330 k
1
R2
Chip Resistor, 0.1 W, 1%
SMD 0603
Standard
18 k
1
R3
Chip Resistor, 0.1 W, 1%
SMD 0603
Standard
1.5 k
1
R4
Chip Resistor, 0.1 W, 1%
SMD 0603
Standard
3R3
1
R6
Chip Resistor, 0.1 W, 1%
SMD 0805
Standard
0
1
R7
Chip Resistor, 0.1 W, 1%
SMD 0603
Standard
3R9
1
R8
Chip Resistor, 0.1 W, 1%
SMD 0603
Standard
39 k
1
R9
Chip Resistor, 0.1 W, 1%
SMD 0603
Standard
39 k
1
R10
Chip Resistor, 0.1 W, 1%
SMD 0603
Standard
0
3
R11, R12,
R13
Chip Resistor, 0.1 W, 1%
SMD 0603
Standard
100 k
1
R14
Chip Resistor, 0.1 W, 1%
SMD 0805
Standard
7k5
1
R15
Chip Resistor, 0.1 W, 1%
SMD 0603
Standard
6k8
1
R16
Chip Resistor, 0.1 W, 1%
SMD 0805
Standard
4R7
1
R17
Chip Resistor, 0.1 W, 1%
SMD 0603
Standard
0
1
L1
SMT, 10.6 Arms, 4.36 mΩ 13.8 x 13.2 mm
MLC1538-152ML
Coilcraft
1.5 µ
1
Q1
N-Channel, 60 V
SO-8
STS7NF60L
ST
1
Q2
N-Channel, 60 V
SO-8
STS7NF60L
ST
1
D1
Schottky, 100 V, 0.2 A
SOD-323
BAT41J
ST
1
D2
Schottky, 60 V, 1 A
DO214-AC
STPS1L60A
ST
1
D3
1
U1
JMK212BJ106KG-T
N.M.
Controller
VFQFPN-24
PM6670AS
ST
7/38
Demonstration kit schematic
Table 1.
PM6670AS demonstration board bill of materials (continued)
Qty
Component
11
J1, J2, J3,
J4, J5, J6,
J7, J8, J9,
J10,J11
Header, single pin
3
JP1, JP2,
JP3
Jumper, 2 x 3, 100 mils
1
JP5
PCB pads selector
1
TP6
Test point
1
SW1
Dip switch 2
8/38
AN2798
Description
Package
DIP-2
Part number
MFR
Standard
Value
AN2798
Component assembly and layout
3
Component assembly and layout
Figure 3.
Topside component placement
Figure 4.
Topside view
9/38
Component assembly and layout
Figure 5.
Layer 2 view
Figure 6.
Layer 3 view
10/38
AN2798
AN2798
Component assembly and layout
Figure 7.
Bottomside view
Figure 8.
Bottomside component placement
11/38
I/O interface
4
AN2798
I/O interface
The PM6670AS demonstration board has the following test points as given in Table 2.
Table 2.
PM6670AS demonstration board input and output interface
Test point
VIN
Battery input voltage positive terminal
PGND
Battery input and VDDQ output common return
VDDQ
VDDQ output
LDOIN
LDO linear regulator input
VTT
AGND
VTTREF
VCC
VCCGND
4.1
Description
VTT output (LDO)
VTT and VTTREF outputs common return
VTTREF output
+ 5 V supply, positive terminal
Signal ground and VCC supply return
PG
VDDQ output Power Good signal
TP1
Connection point between power and signal grounds
Recommended equipment
4 V to 36 V, 30 W power supply
Active loads
Digital multimeters
200 MHz four-trace oscilloscope
12/38
AN2798
5
Configuration
Configuration
The PM6670AS board allows the user to choose the desired mode of operation using four
jumpers (JP1, JP2, JP3 and JP5) and two resistors. Refer to the following configuration
description.
5.1
JP3 fixed or adjustable output voltage (MODE pin)
The JP3 jumper is used to choose between fixed output voltage (1.5 V or 1.8 V) and a userdefined output voltage in the range 0.9 V to 2.6 V. When connected in the lower position, the
fixed output voltage is selected and the voltage depends on the setting of the DDRSEL pin
(see Section 5.2).
If JP3 is in the upper position, the output voltage is given by:
VDDQ ADJ = 0.9 ×
Figure 9.
R8 + R9
R8
JP3 (MODE) setting
Adjustable Output Voltage
Fixed Output Voltage
(default position)
Both the R8 and R9 resistors are set to 39 kΩ (1.8 V by default) and can be changed by the
user.
5.2
JP1 DDR2/DDR3 or power-saving mode (DDRSEL pin)
The JP1 jumper allows different options depending on the JP3 configuration. If the fixed
output voltage is selected (JP3 in the lower position), the user can choose between 1.8 V
(DDR2) or 1.5 V (DDR3), connecting JP1 as shown in Figure 10, and the pulse-skip mode is
set by default.
When the adjustable output voltage is selected (JP3 in the upper position), the same jumper
allows choosing between forced PWM, pulse-skip and non-audible pulse-skip modes as
shown in Figure 10 on page 14.
13/38
Configuration
AN2798
Figure 10. JP1 (DDRSEL) setting
Forced PWM
(default position)
1.8 V output voltage
(default position)
1.5 V output voltage
Non Audible Pulse-Skip
1.5 V output voltage
Pulse-Skip
JP1 options when JP3 is in the lower position
5.3
JP1 options when JP3 is in the upper position
JP2 output discharge (DSCG pin)
The JP2 jumper is used to select the desired output discharge when both S3 and S5 signals
are tied low. In the upper position the outputs are not discharged at all, while in the lower
position the outputs are independently discharged using the internal MOSFETs (22 Ω for
VDDQ and VTT, 1.5 kΩ for VTTREF).
The tracking discharge is programmed by putting JP2 in the central position. This discharge
mode relies on the connection of the LDOIN pin to the VDDQ output, see Section 6: Test
setup on page 16 for details. If an external rail is used to supply the LDO, the tracking
discharge cannot be used because the device can be damaged while attempting to sink 1 A
from the LDO input.
Figure 11. JP2 (DSCG) setting
No Discharge
(default position)
Tracking Discharge
Non-Tracking Discharge
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5.4
Configuration
JP5 compensation network (COMP pin)
The JP5 jumper is located on the bottom side of the PM6670AS board and allows
connecting the integrator input (COMP pin) to the output through a simple capacitor
(integrative compensation) or using the "virtual ESR" network for very low ESR output
capacitor applications (e.g. all ceramic output capacitor applications). The integrative
compensation is set by default.
Refer to the PM6670AS datasheet for details about ceramic output capacitor applications
and the virtual ESR design.
Figure 12. JP5 (COMP) setting
Integrative Compensation
(default position)
Virtual ESR Network
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Test setup
6
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Test setup
Figure 13 shows the suggested setup connections between the PM6670AS demonstration
board, the loads and the external supply. The LDO input (LDOIN) is connected to VDDQ by
default (R6 = 0 Ω).
Figure 13. PM6670AS test setup
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7
Getting started
Getting started
The following step-by-step power-up and power-down sequences are provided in order to
correctly evaluate the PM6670AS board performance.
7.1
Power-up sequence
Working in an ESD-protected environment is highly recommended. Check all wrist straps
and mat-earth connections before handling the PM6670AS board.
1.
Connect power supplies as shown in the PM6670AS test setup (Figure 13) and insert
the meters in order to perform the desired performance evaluation. Connect the scopeprobes as desired.
2.
Set the JP1 through JP5 jumpers in order to properly configure the PM6670AS board.
Set the S3-S5 switches to the on position (upper position). Do not change any of the
jumper settings when the board is powered.
3.
Set the VCC supply to 5 V ± 5 % and the current limit to 100 mA.
4.
Set the VIN supply to a voltage in the range 4.5 V to 36 V. An initial test at 24 V and 3 A
current limit is suggested.
5.
Set all loads to 0 A.
6.
Turn on the VIN supply.
7.
Turn on the VCC supply.
8.
Vary the VDDQ load from 0 A to 8 A.
9.
Vary the VTT load from 0 A to 2 A to test source capability. To test sink capability use
the dashed VTT load shown in Figure 13.
10. Vary the VTTREF load to test source capability.
11. Vary the VIN supply from 4.5 V to 36 V.
7.2
Power-down sequence
1.
Decrease the VTTREF and VTT loads to 0 A.
2.
Reduce the VDDQ load to 0.
3.
Decrease the VCC supply from 5 V to 3.8 V in order to test the UVLO.
4.
Increase the VCC supply from 3.8 V to 5 V to restart the device.
5.
Use the S3-S5 switches to enter/exit the S0-S3-S5 states.
6.
Turn off the VDDQ load.
7.
Turn off the VCC supply.
8.
Turn off the VIN supply.
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8
PM6670AS evaluation tests
8.1
VDDQ, VTT and VTTREF turn-on (soft-start)
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The VDDQ soft-start is divided in 4 steps. In each step the current limit is increased by ¼ of
the nominal value. This behavior is well understood by loading the rail, as performed in the
test. VTT and VTTREF soft-starts are performed at their maximum available current.
Figure 14. VDDQ soft-start at 180 mΩ load, pulse-skip mode
Figure 15. VTT turn-on (S0), pulse-skip mode
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PM6670AS evaluation tests
8.2
VDDQ working modes
8.2.1
VDDQ forced PWM mode
When the forced PWM working mode is selected (JP3 and JP1 in the upper position), the
inductor current is allowed to become negative and the following waveform can be captured.
Figure 16. VDDQ = 1.8 V, VIN = 24 V, IVDDQ = 0 A, forced PWM mode
8.2.2
VDDQ pulse-skip mode
The default working mode is the pulse-skip algorithm, in which the low-side MOSFET is
turned off when the inductor current becomes equal to zero. This behavior allows reaching
maximum efficiency.
Figure 17. VDDQ = 1.8 V, VIN = 24 V, IVDDQ = 0 A, pulse-skip mode
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8.2.3
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VDDQ non-audible pulse-skip mode
In order to avoid an insufficient switching frequency, the non-audible pulse-skip mode can be
selected (JP3 in the upper position and JP1 in the middle). So doing, the minimum switching
frequency allowed is 33 kHz as depicted in the following picture.
Figure 18. VDDQ = 1.8 V, VIN = 24 V, no load, non-audible pulse-skip mode (33 kHz)
8.3
VDDQ, VTT and VTTREF load regulation
Figure 19 through 21 refer to VDDQ, VTT and VTTREF output voltage versus load current.
The switching section works in pulse-skip mode and directly supplies VTT LDO.
Figure 19. VDDQ load regulation - VIN = 24 V
1.840
Forced PWM
Pulse Skip
1.830
Voltage [V]
Non Audible PS
1.820
1.810
1.800
1.790
0.001
0.010
0.100
Current [A]
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1.000
10.000
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PM6670AS evaluation tests
Figure 20. VTT load regulation - LDOIN = VDDQ (VDDQ in forced PWM mode)
0.930
Voltage [V]
0.920
0.910
0.900
0.890
0.880
0.870
-2.000
-1.500
-1.000
-0.500
0.000
0.500
1.000
1.500
2.000
Current [A]
Figure 21. VTTREF load regulation (VDDQ in forced PWM mode)
0.920
Voltage [V]
0.915
0.910
0.905
0.900
0.895
0.890
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
Current [mA]
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8.4
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VDDQ and VTT load transient responses
Load transient responses are evaluated by loading VDDQ and VTT output rails with a
current slew rate of 2.5 A/µs.
Figure 22. VDDQ load transient (VIN = 24 V, LOAD = 0 A to 8 A at 2.5 A/µs) (pulse-skip mode)
Figure 23. VTT load transient (VIN = 24 V, LOAD = – 2 A to 2 A at 2.5 A/µs) (pulse-skip mode)
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8.5
PM6670AS evaluation tests
VDDQ efficiency
The three working modes lead to different power efficiency. The test setup is VIN = 24 V,
FSW = 330 kHz, VDDQ = 1.8 V. The following graph summarizes the results.
Figure 24. Forced PWM (blue), non-audible pulse-skip (green), pulse-skip (red) VDDQ efficiency
vs. output current
100
90
Efficiency [%]
80
70
60
50
40
30
Forced PWM
20
Pulse Skip
10
0
0.001
Non Audible PS
0.010
0.100
1.000
10.000
Current [A]
8.6
VDDQ gate drivers
The PM6670 internal MOS driver turns on and off the high-side and low-side external
MOSFET, avoiding cross-conduction. In Figure 24 and 25 the gates signals are depicted
without load and with load.
Figure 25. External MOS gate signals (VIN = 24 V, LOAD = 0 A) (pulse-skip mode)
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Figure 26. External MOS gate signals (VIN = 24 V, LOAD = 8 A) (pulse-skip mode)
8.7
VDDQ, VTT and VTTREF turnoff (soft-end)
Tracking discharge
The jumper JP2, if placed in the middle, allows the output tracking discharge. When S3 and
S5 are pulled down, VTT discharges VDDQ by sinking 1 A and, at the same time, tracks the
VDDQ remaining half. When VDDQ reaches about 400 mV, the output discharge MOSFETs
are all closed and each rail is finally discharged.
Figure 27. VDDQ, VTTREF, VTT output voltages and LDO input current, tracking discharge, no
load on any rail
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Table 3.
PM6670AS evaluation tests
Measured discharge resistance in soft-discharge mode
VDDQ output
VTTREF output
VTT output
25 Ω
1.5 kΩ
23 Ω
Measured N.T.D. discharge
MOSFET’s RDSon
Non-tracking discharge
When the non-tracking discharge is programmed (JP2 in the lower position) and S3-S5 are
both tied to GND, each output rail is discharged through its discharge MOSFET, as depicted
in the following picture.
Figure 28. VDDQ, VTTREF and VTT, non-tracking discharge, no load on any output
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PM6670AS evaluation tests
8.8
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UV, OV and thermal protections
Latched UV protection
If the output voltage is lower than the 70 % nominal value, the undervoltage state is entered
and the discharge MOSFETs are turned on (as in the non-tracking soft-end).
Figure 29. UV protection, pulse-skip mode
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PM6670AS evaluation tests
Latched OV protection
If the output voltage is higher than the 115 % nominal value, the overvoltage state is entered
and the low-side MOSFET is turned on. VTT and VTTREF are discharged through their
discharge MOSFETs.
Figure 30. OV protection, pulse-skip mode
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Latched thermal shutdown
If the junction temperature rises up to 150 deg, the thermal protection circuit turns off the
device and discharges the output rails by performing the non-tracking discharge soft-end.
Figure 31. VDDQ, VTT, VTTREF and inductor current, thermal shutdown, pulse-skip mode
8.9
VDDQ current limit
The valley current limit avoids any high side turning on if the inductor current is higher than
the programmed value. This current limit can be designed with the following equation:
I CL =
100µA x R ILIM
R LS,DSon
The current sensing is performed by comparing the voltage drop in the low-side MOSFET,
during the TOFF period, with the voltage drop given by an injected current and the current
limit resistor.
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PM6670AS evaluation tests
Figure 32. VDDQ current limit protection during a load transient (0 A to 10 A at 2.5 A/µs)
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PM6670AS evaluation tests
8.10
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VTT current limit (foldback)
VTT LDO has a foldback protection feature which reduces the current limit to 1 A when the
VTT output voltage is outside the ± 10 % Power Good window. The current limit is restored
to 2 A when the output voltage re-enters the Power Good window.
Figure 33. VTT current limit during an output short
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8.11
PM6670AS evaluation tests
Switching frequency
Switching frequency vs. input voltage
The constant on-time controller leads to a quasi-constant switching frequency, slightly
following the input voltage.
Figure 34. Switching frequency vs. input voltage, VDDQ = 1.8 V, IVDDQ = 4 A, forced PWM mode
500
Frequency [kHz]
450
400
350
300
4
14
24
34
Voltage [V]
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PM6670AS evaluation tests
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Switching frequency vs. output current
The switching frequency can decrease to very low values in pulse-skip mode instead in nonaudible pulse-skip there is a lower limit (about 33 kHz). With increasing load, however, the
switching frequency increases a bit, as a consequence of conduction and switching losses.
Figure 35. Forced PWM (blue), non-audible pulse-skip (green) and pulse-skip (red), switching
frequency vs. output current, VDDQ = 1.8 V, VIN = 24 V
500
Frequency [kHz]
400
300
200
Forced PWM
Pulse Skip
Non Audible PS
100
0
0.001
0.010
0.100
Current [A]
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1.000
10.000
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8.12
PM6670AS evaluation tests
Thermal behavior
The IC internal maximum and average temperature can be monitored by an IR camera. For
the measurements in Figure 36 through 39 the test setup is:
●
VIN = 24 V
●
FSW = 360 kHz
●
Pulse-skip mode
●
IVDDQ = 4 A
●
VTT rail powered by VDDQ
●
TAMB = 25 °C
By increasing the VTT current, the IC temperature changes as depicted in the following
pictures.
Figure 36. IVTT = 0 A, average IC temperature = 37.5 °C, max internal IC temperature = 40.1 °C
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Figure 37. IVTT = 0.5 A, average IC temperature = 48.8 °C, max internal IC temperature = 54.3 °C
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PM6670AS evaluation tests
Figure 38. IVTT = 1 A, average IC temperature = 60.5 °C, max internal IC temperature = 72.7 °C
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PM6670AS evaluation tests
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Figure 39. IVTT = 1.5 A, average IC temperature = 73.8 °C, max internal IC temperature = 95.6 °C
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Revision history
9
Revision history
Table 4.
Document revision history
Date
Revision
04-Nov-2008
1
Changes
Initial release.
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