AN3398 Application note Fast digital calibration procedure for STPMC1 based energy meters Introduction The STPMC1 device functions as an energy calculator and is an ASSP designed for effective energy measurement in power line systems utilizing Rogowski coil, current transformer, and Shunt or Hall current sensors. Used in combination with one or more STPMSx ICs, it implements all the functions needed in a 1, 2, or 3-phase energy meter. Due to its internal structure and features, STPMC1 allows a more effective and innovative calibration procedure, which is explained in this document. Advantages of this procedure are: ■ reduced calibration time ■ no need for re-calibration (calibration parameter can be written in a permanent way). For further information about the device please refer to the STPMC1 datasheet. This application note integrates the AN2299 application note for the STPMC1 metering chip. Sections 1, 2, and 3.1 of the AN2299 application note can be considered valid also for the STPMC1 device, sharing the same architecture as STPM01 and STPM10 devices, whilst the calibration calculations shown in section 3.2 of AN2299 and in this document are slightly different and are reported below. November 2011 Doc ID 018812 Rev 1 1/11 www.st.com Contents AN3398 Contents 1 Calibration flow chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1 2 2/11 Calibration procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1.1 Working point setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1.2 Algorithm choice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.1.3 Offline parameter calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.1.4 Online procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.1.5 Coherency check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Revision history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Doc ID 018812 Rev 1 AN3398 Calibration flow chart 1 Calibration flow chart The calibration procedure can be summarized in the following steps, which are examined in Section 1.1. Figure 1. Calibration flow chart Start S ttaarrtt Start S Working W oorrkkiinngg point ppoint Working W pooiinntt 1. Working point setting R1 R 11 or oor SV VV R1 R orr S S SV 2. Algorithm choice Offline Off O fffflline Offline O liinnee Decrease LED frequency Online O nnlliinnee Online O 3. Offline parameters calculations K? K ?? K? K 4. Online procedure (for each phase) 5. Coherency check (for each phase) End E nndd End E AM09391v1 1.1 Calibration procedure 1.1.1 Working point setting According to the information contained in AN2299, the STPMC1 device can also be calibrated in a single point for each phase. Therefore, voltage and current nominal values of the selected phase must be defined before running the calibration procedure, for example: Doc ID 018812 Rev 1 3/11 Calibration flow chart Table 1. AN3398 Working point setting Parameter Value Vn 230 V In 5A Description Phase to neutral RMS voltage Phase RMS current The other parameters, which follow, and the constants of the STPMC1 metering device (and relative tolerances) are also known: Table 2. STPMC1 internal parameters Parameter KV KI Value Description 0.875 Voltage calibrator ideal value if PM = 0(1) 0.9375 Voltage calibrator ideal value if PM = 1 0.875 Current calibrator ideal value if PM = 0 0.9375 Current calibrator ideal value if PM = 1 len_i 2^16 Current register length len_u 2^12 Voltage register length Kint_comp 1.004 Gain of decimation filter π 3.14159 FM 4 * 10^6 If oscillator frequency is 4.000 or 8.000 MHz 2^22 If oscillator frequency is 4.194 or 8.388 MHz 4915200 If oscillator frequency is 4.915 or 9.830 MHz DUD 2^17 Internal parameter Vref 1.23 Internal voltage reference 4 Amplification of voltage ADC for STPMS1 2 Amplification of voltage ADC for STPMS2 Au 8 Amplification of current ADC for STPMS1 32 Ai 2 Amplification of current ADC for STPMS2 16 0.815 Gain of integrator @ line frequency = 50 Hz 0.679 Gain of integrator @ line frequency = 60 Hz 0.6135 Gain of differentiator @ line frequency = 50 Hz 0.7359 Gain of differentiator @ line frequency = 60 Hz Kint Kdif 1. PM is CFG 21, which sets the meter precision (Class 1 or Class 0.1). 4/11 Doc ID 018812 Rev 1 AN3398 Calibration flow chart Only analog parameters are objects of calibration because they introduce a certain error. Voltage ADC amplification Av is constant, while Ai is chosen according to the used sensors. The calibration procedure has, as a final result, correction parameters called KVR, KVS, KVT and KIR, KIS, KIT and KIN (if used) which, applied to STPMC1 voltage and current measurements, compensate small tolerances of analog components that affect energy calculations. As KVR, KVS, KVT and KIR, KIS, KIT and KIN calibration parameters are the decimal representation of the corresponding configuration bytes CVR, CVS, CVT and CIR, CIS, CIT, CIN, the values of those bits are obtained at the end of calibration. In the following procedure CVR, CVS, and CVT are indicated as Cv; CIR, CIS, CIT, and CIN are indicated as Ci; KVR, KVS, and KVT are indicated as Kv, and KIR, KIS, KIT, and KIN are indicated as Ki. Through hardwired formulas, Kv and Ki tune measured values varying from 0.75 to 1 in 256 steps, according to the value of Cv and Ci (from 0 to 255). If PM=1, two bits are appended to each Cv and Ci (see the STPMC1 datasheet for details), and the corresponding tunings vary from 0.875 to 1 in 1024 steps. To initially obtain the greatest correction dynamic, calibrators are set in the middle of the range, therefore obtaining a calibration range of ± 12.5% (± 6.25% when PM is set) per voltage or current channel: Table 3. Calibrator value according to PM PM Calibrator value 0 Kv = Ki = 0.875 Ci = Cv = 128 1 Kv = Ki = 0.9375 Ci = Cv = 512 In this way it is possible to tune Kv and Ki having a precise measurement: for example, with PM=0, Cv=0 generates a correction factor of -12.5% (Kv=0.75) and Cv=255 determines a correction factor of +12.5% (Kv=1), and so on. According to the information above, the following formulas, which relate Kv,i and Cv,i to each other are obtained: Equation 1 Kv,i = (Cv,i/128) * 0.125 + 0.75 Equation 2 Cv,i = 1024 * Kv,i - 768 or when PM = 1 Equation 3 Kv,i = (Cv,i/512) * 0.0625 + 0.875 Equation 4 Doc ID 018812 Rev 1 5/11 Calibration flow chart AN3398 Cv,i = 8192 * Kv,i - 7168 Indicating, with AvI and AvV, the average values read from the device and with XI and XV the ideal values of RMS current and voltage readings, the following can be reported: PM = 0: Equation 5 XV = (Kv * AvV) / 0.875 Equation 6 XI = (Ki * AvI) / 0.875 PM = 1: Equation 7 XV = (Kv * AvV) / 0.9375 Equation 8 XI = (Ki * AvI) / 0.9375 1.1.2 Algorithm choice It is possible to use two different algorithms to calculate the parameters to be used during calibration: 1. R1 and R2 constant in order to carry out the sensor sensitivity KS 2. Current sensor sensitivity and R2 constant in order to carry out R1. The methods are the same and the choice is left to the designer. According to the chosen algorithm, the next calibration step produces the value of sensor KS or resistor R1 to be mounted on the measurement board to achieve calibration. Algorithm formulas are reported below for both current transformer/Shunt and Rogowski coil current sensors. 1.1.3 Offline parameter calculations First of all, it is necessary to determine the target power sensitivity (from the LED pin) to be achieved with the calibration process, for example: C = 128000 pulses/kWh The calibration procedure outputs Cv and Ci values that allow the above power sensitivity of the meter. This sensitivity is used to calculate target frequency at the LED pin for nominal voltage and current values: Equation 9 XF = f * 64 with: Equation 10 6/11 Doc ID 018812 Rev 1 AN3398 Calibration flow chart f = (C/64 * In * Vn) / 3600000 Current transformer or Shunt - Constant R1 In this algorithm voltage divider sensitivity is fixed, therefore, resistor values R1 and R2 are the known values of the voltage divider resistor. From the values above and for both the given amplification factor Ai and the initial calibration data, the following target values can be calculated: Voltage divider output: Equation 11 VDIV = Vn * R2 / (R1 + R2) Target RMS reading for given Vn: Equation 12 XV = (VDIV / VREF) * 2 * Kdif * Av * Kv * Kint_comp* Kint * len_u Target RMS reading for given In: Equation 13 XI = f * len_u * len_i * DUD / (FM * XV) From which current sensor sensitivity KS is obtained: Equation 14 KS = XI * VREF * 1000 / (In * Ai * Ki * Kint_comp * Kint * Kdif * len_i) [mV/A] Current transformer or Shunt - Constant KS In this case the type of current sensor and its nominal value of sensitivity must be known and is equal to KS. From the values above and for both the given amplification factor Ai and the initial calibration data, the following target values can be calculated: Target RMS reading for given In: Equation 15 XI = In * KS * Ai * Ki * Kint * Kint_comp * Kdif * len_i / (VREF * 1000) Target RMS reading for given Vn: Equation 16 XV = f * len_u * len_i * DUD / (FM * XI) Voltage divider output: Equation 17 VDIV = XV * VREF / (2 * Kdif * Av * Kv * Kint_comp * Kint * len_u) From which R1 resistor value is obtained: Equation 18 Doc ID 018812 Rev 1 7/11 Calibration flow chart AN3398 R1 = R2 * (Vn - VDIV) / VDIV [Ohm] Rogowski coil - Constant R1 As before, the voltage divider sensitivity is fixed, therefore, resistor values R1 and R2 are the known values of the voltage divider resistor. From the values above and for both the given amplification factor Ai and the initial calibration data, the following target values can be calculated: Voltage divider output: Equation 19 VDIV = Vn * R2 / (R1 + R2) Target RMS reading for given Vn: Equation 20 XV = (VDIV / VREF) * Av * Kv * Kint_comp * len_u Target RMS reading for given In: Equation 21 XI = f * len_u * len_i * DUD / (FM * XV) From which current sensor sensitivity KS is obtained: Equation 22 KS = XI * VREF * 1000 / (In * Ai * Ki * Kint_comp * Kint * len_i) [mV/A] Rogowski coil - Constant KS The sensor’s nominal value of sensitivity must again be known, for example, it is KS. From the values above and for both the given amplification factor Ai and the initial calibration data, the following target values can be calculated: Target RMS reading for given In: Equation 23 XI = In * KS * Ai * Ki * Kint * Kint_comp * len_i / (VREF * 1000) Target RMS reading for given Vn: Equation 24 XV = f * len_u * len_i * DUD / (FM * XI) Voltage divider output: Equation 25 VDIV = XV * VREF / (Av * Kv * Kint_comp * len_u) From which R1 resistor value is obtained: Equation 26 8/11 Doc ID 018812 Rev 1 AN3398 Calibration flow chart R1 = R2 * (Vn - VDIV) / VDIV [Ohm] 1.1.4 Online procedure According to the used current sensor and the chosen algorithm, a component (resistor or current sensor) of the value calculated through the formulas above must be mounted on the board. To start the online calibration procedure, the following must be verified: ● EM is connected to the calibration system and is properly configured according to the chosen application ● EM calibrator parameters are preset to initial data ● Target values of line signals are stable. A 3-phase voltage signal must be provided to all phases and current signal only to the phase under calibration. When the system is connected and powered on, a certain number of readings of the RMS values must be performed. Due to the fact that 0.4% of ripple is present in the measured RMS values, more than ten readings of these values should be gathered each cycle (20 ms at 50 Hz) and the average values of RMS current and voltage readings AvI and AvV should be computed. Consequently, having the average values AvI and AvV, a pair of final 8-bit (or 10-bit if PM = 1) calibration data can be calculated as shown below: Equation 27 Ci,v = 896 * XI,V / AvI, V - 768; (PM = 0) Equation 28 Ci,v = 8192 * XI,V / AvI, V - 7168; (PM = 1) where XV and XI are those calculated in one of the four previous cases. 1.1.5 Coherency check We can assume that the EM works correctly and that built-in voltage and current sensors allow the target power sensitivity constant to be achieved, because the correction parameters Ki and Kv can tune measured values within the calibration range of ±12.5% or ±6.25% if PM =1 per voltage or current channel. If, after the calibration, calculated values for Cv or Ci are out of their 8 or 10-bit range, it may mean that the application cannot reach the target value of power sensitivity. In this case, steps 3 and 4 must be repeated choosing a smaller power sensitivity value. If the values of Cv or Ci are out of range even for small values of PM, it may mean that the energy meter board is not good enough to perform such measurements, possibly because the tolerance of the components is too big, or no care has been taken in the layout phase, so the application must be re-designed. Otherwise, if the final calibrator data is written into STPMC1, the average RMS readings are very close to target values XI and XV and the frequency of the LED output are very close to the target value f. Doc ID 018812 Rev 1 9/11 Revision history AN3398 2 Revision history Table 4. Document revision history Date Revision 16-Nov-2011 1 10/11 Changes First release Doc ID 018812 Rev 1 AN3398 Please Read Carefully: Information in this document is provided solely in connection with ST products. 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