cd00293110

AN3322
Application note
Watt-hour meter based on the STM32F101 microcontroller
By Ludek Holoubek
Introduction
This document describes, in detail, the hardware and software implementation of a watthour meter using the STM32F101 microcontroller. This cost effective watt-hour meter uses
shunt with an operational amplifier as a current sensor, an embedded 12-bit ADC for current
and voltage measurement, GPIO for LCD management, and a lot of other peripherals for
communication, tamper detection, keyboard, and power disconnection. Powerful
architecture of the STM32™ microcontroller allows sampling at 1 Msps. The high sampling
rate makes it possible to use methods for ADC resolution enhancement.
Main features
 Metrological parts
– Microcontroller and external op amp only
– Compliant with EN 50470-1:2006 Class B, precision better than 1%
– Starting current 20 mA, nominal current 5 A, maximum current 100 A
– Reads the voltage and the current signal up to the 21st harmonic
– Shunt as a current sensor. CT and Rogowski coil is optional
 Additional parts included in reference design
– LCD driven directly by microcontroller
– Keyboard driven directly by microcontroller
– An extra external EEPROM for user data
– Bi-stable relay, IR communication, serial communication
– Backup battery, complete power meter power management
May 2013
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www.st.com
Contents
AN3322
Contents
1
Watt-hour meter using the STM32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.1
STM32 ADC parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.2
Requirements for meter in Class B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Definitions of the power meter parameters (according to EN 50407-1:2006) . . . . . 7
1.3
STM32 ADC dynamic measurement range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.3.1
Voltage measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.3.2
There are two current ranges in the meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.4
Error sources on the STM32 meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.5
Linearity of STM32 ADC and its INL reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.6
Thermal noise present on STM32 meter platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.7
Crosstalk between subsequent multiplexed channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
1.8
Power and energy measurement by STM32 embedded ADC . . . . . . . . . 13
1.9
ADC enhancement by oversampling technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.10
Output values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Some reference values and constants are defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2
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1.10.1
RMS voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1.10.2
RMS current - high gained . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.10.3
RMS current - low gained . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
1.10.4
Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
1.10.5
Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
1.10.6
Pulse output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Computational issues and compensation algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.1
Non-coherent sampling issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.2
Timer evaluation for coherent sampling triggering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.3
Timer setting constraints for coherent sampling triggering . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.4
Precise timer setting for coherent sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2.5
Frequency measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2.6
Filtering of input signal for proper zero crossing detection . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
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Contents
2.7
Phase shift correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2.7.1
Phase shift measured for the STM32 meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2.7.2
Phase shift correction - error evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2.7.3
Phase shift correction - filter implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.8
Calibration procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.9
Reactive and apparent power computation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2.10
Analog part schematic - part 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2.11
Analog part schematic - part 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
3
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
4
Revision history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
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List of tables
AN3322
List of tables
Table 1.
Table 2.
Table 3.
Table 4.
Table 5.
Table 6.
Table 7.
4/38
STM32 ADC parameter specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
STM32 ADC input characteristics specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Crosstalk between subsequent multiplexed channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Precision vs. timer setting. Simulated on signal u (t) = sin (2 x pi x 50 x t). . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
High speed internal (HSI) RC oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Error of instant power caused by phase shift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Document revision history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
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List of figures
List of figures
Figure 1.
Figure 2.
Figure 3.
Figure 4.
Figure 5.
Figure 6.
Figure 7.
Figure 8.
Figure 9.
Figure 10.
Figure 11.
Figure 12.
Figure 13.
Figure 14.
Figure 15.
Figure 16.
Figure 17.
Figure 18.
Figure 19.
Figure 20.
Figure 21.
Figure 22.
Figure 23.
Requirements for Class B power meter precision, three ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Template used to check meter accuracy (up to Imax) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Typical thermal noise present on STM32 meter platform. Histogram shows noise
equivalent to white Gaussian noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Internal and external analog input pin capacitors and resistors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Complete block diagram of the algorithm used in STM32 power meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Voltage circuitry of STM32 meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Current circuitry of STM32 meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Current circuitry of STM32 meter, op amp saturation marked by red circle . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Voltage circuitry - calibration CU constant computation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Current circuitry - calibration CI constant computation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Instant power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Parasitic frequency FH in detail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Error of URMS vs. the timer error in timer ticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Error of URMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Finer calculation of zero crossing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Voltage signal crossing zero voltage line twice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Voltage signal used for correct zero crossing after proper filtering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Zero crossing for green - U, blue - ILG, red- IHG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Error of instant power for PF = 1 and PF = 0.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Error of instant power caused by phase shift for PF = 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Error of instant power caused by phase shift for PF = 0.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Analog part schematic - part 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Analog part schematic - part 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
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Watt-hour meter using the STM32
1
AN3322
Watt-hour meter using the STM32
The following sections describe the necessary feasibility study, theory and computation for
the STM32 power meter implementation. The system design, STM32 parameter evaluation,
ADC feature enhancement, and international standards are also covered here.
1.1
STM32 ADC parameters
The most important part of the power meter and its microcontroller used in metering
applications is the embedded ADC. Its parameters are the key to deciding if the
requirements for precision of the implemented meter can be fulfilled (international standards
mentioned in these sections). The first step is to evaluate the parameters given in the ADC
specifications:
Table 1. STM32 ADC parameter specifications
Symbol
Parameter
Test conditions
ET
Total unadjusted error
EO
Offset error
EG
Gain error
ED
Differential linearity error
EL
Integral linearity error
fPCLK2 = 24 MHz,
fADC = 12 MHz, RAIN < 10 k,
VDDA = 3 to 3.6 V
TA = 25 °C
Measurements made after ADC
calibration
VREF+ = VDDA
Typ.
Max.
±1.3
±2
±1
±1.5
±0.5
±1.5
±0.7
±1
±0.8
±1.5
Unit
LSB
For the given STM32 ADC, the specifications and tests show:
Equation 1
12 – bit
Integral non-linearity error is EINL
= 0,8LSB 12 – bit .
Equation 2
1
The resolution of the 12-bit ADC is ------12 = 0.02% of the full scale ADC range.
2
Equation 3
12 – bit
If E INL
 1LSB , then the accuracy = resolution of given ADC.
Equation 4
1
The accuracy of the 12-bit ADC is ------12 = 0.02% of the full scale ADC range.
2
1.2
Requirements for meter in Class B
The European standard defining the requirements for electricity metering equipment should
be the source of constraints and limits for the design presented in this application note.
EN 50470-1:2006 and EN 50470-3:2006 are referenced in this case. All the computation is
directed to the precision of Class B.
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Definitions of the power meter parameters (according to EN 50407-1:2006)
RMS values indicated
I - current - the electrical current flowing through the meter.
Ist - starting current - the lowest value of the current at which the meter is declared to
register active electrical energy at unity power factor.
Imin - minimum current - the lowest value of the current at which the European standard
specifies accuracy requirements. At and above Imin, up to Itr, relaxed accuracy requirements
apply.
Itr - transitional current - the value of the current at, and above which, up to Imax, full
accuracy requirements of the European standard apply.
Iref - reference current - for direct meters, 10 times the transitional current. (This value is
the same as the basic current, Ib defined in the EN 62052-11, chapter 3.5.1.2.) For current
transformer operated meters, 20 times the transitional current. (The value is the same as
rated current In.)
Imax - maximum current - the highest value of current at which the meter purports to meet
the accuracy requirements of this European standard (EN 62052-11, chapter 3.5.2.).
Itr - can be chosen (for Class B) from the set of values: 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 A
Example 1
Example of one setup for a meter
Itr - chosen 0.5 A
Ist
= 0.04 Itr = 20 mA
Imin = 0.5 Itr = 250 mA
Imax > 50 Itr, Imax > 25 A
Figure 1 shows the prescribed precision in given current intervals.
Figure 1. Requirements for Class B power meter precision, three ranges
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Figure 2. Template used to check meter accuracy (up to Imax)
1.3
STM32 ADC dynamic measurement range
The precision and resolution of the ADC determines the dynamic range of measured
voltage and current. This section analyses whether the given ADC is capable of covering,
with its precision and resolution, the whole range for requested maximum current and
voltage.
The input current and voltage are scaled to the full scale of the STM32 ADC:
1.3.1

By a voltage divider for voltage measurement

By a shunt and external operational amplifier for a low current measurement

By a shunt and external operational amplifier for a high current measurement.
Voltage measurement
One voltage channel, nominal voltage 230 V RMS is used
Upeak-to-peak = 230 x 2 x 2 x 120% = 780 V (120% means a safety margin)
Resolution for 780 V: ULSB:peak-to-peak = 780 V x 0.02% = 0.16 V
Resolution for 230 V: ULSB:RMS = 230 V x 0.02% = 0.055 VRMS
Value 0.02% represents resolution and precision of the ADC and is defined in Section 1.1:
STM32 ADC parameters.
The range where it is necessary to take care of the precision is between 80% to 115%
(extended operating range) of the nominal voltage:
UMAX = 230 VRMS x 115% = 253 VRMS
UMIN = 230 VRMS x 80% = 184 VRMS
For the lowest and highest voltage value the precision of the voltage measurement is:
Error of UMAX = 0.055 VRMS / 184 VRMS = 0.030%
Error UMIN = 0.055 VRMS/ 253 VRMS = 0.022%
Error values are much lower than prescribed by standards: 1% >> 0.030%.
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1.3.2
Watt-hour meter using the STM32
There are two current ranges in the meter
Low gain range (LG): for 100 A range a resolution and accuracy with the
12-bit ADC are:
Imax = 100 x 2 x 1.414 = 300 Apeak-peak
Resolution in A for maximum value: 300A x 0.02% = 60 mA
Resolution in A for RMS value: 100 ARMS x 0.02% = 20 mARMS
Minimal error of measurement of current about:

Starting current:
Ist: 20 mARMS / 20 mARMS = 100% (no precision prescribed)

Minimum current:
Imin: 20 mARMS / 250 mARMS = 8% (1,5% prescribed)

Transition current:
Itr: 20 mARMS / 500 mARMS = 4% (1% prescribed)

Reference current: Iref: 20 mARMS / 5 ARMS = 0.4% (1% prescribed)
Maximum current: Imax: 20 mARMS / 100 ARMS = 0.02% (1% prescribed).

Error values are lower than prescribed standards in case of Iref and Imax. Lower currents Imin
and Itr cannot be measured within this LG range.
High gain range (HG): for 10 A range a resolution and accuracy with the
12-bit ADC are:
Imax = 10 x 2 x 1.414 = 28 Apeak-peak
Resolution in A for maximum value: 28 A x 0.02% = 5.8 mA
Resolution in A for RMS value: 10 ARMSx 0.02% = 2.4 mARMS
Minimal error of measurement of current about:

Starting current:
Ist: 2.4 mARMS / 20 mARMS = 12% (no precision prescribed)

Minimum current:
Imin: 2.4 mARMS / 0.5 ARMS = 0.48% (1,5% prescribed)

Transition current: Itr: 2.4 mARMS / 1 ARMS= 0.24% (1% prescribed)

Reference current: Iref: 2.4 mARMS / 5 ARMS = 0.048% (1% prescribed)

Maximum current: Imax: 2.4 mARMS / 10 ARMS = 0.024% (1% prescribed).
Error values are lower than prescribed standards in the case of Ist, Imin, Itr, and Iref. Higher
current Imax cannot be measured within this HG range due to ADC saturation.
From the analysis performed in this section it can be seen that a system using one range for
voltage and two ranges for current measurement can fulfill requirements for the prescribed
precision of the system.
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Watt-hour meter using the STM32
1.4
AN3322
Error sources on the STM32 meter
There are a lot of sources of error when measuring current and voltage. They can be
compensated in mostly all cases.
1.
1.5
ADC linearity: it limits total accuracy compensated by ADC symmetry, see Section 1.5.
2.
Temperature: external voltage reference keeps ADC conversion stable.
3.
Op amp and ADC offsets: they are removed by AC coupling, calibration and digital
filtering.
4.
ADC gain: it is compensated by calibration of the meter.
5.
Thermal noise present on the STM32 meter PCB board: see Section 1.6.
6.
Crosstalk between subsequent channel measurement: compensation is discussed in
Section 1.7.
7.
Linearity of op amps: it is present, not compensated. Selection of a good op amp is
made.
8.
Phase shift between channels; the compensation is shown in Section 2.7.
Linearity of STM32 ADC and its INL reduction
Increasing the ADC resolution does not result in higher accuracy since the techniques for
obtaining higher resolution can reduce DNL (differential non-linearity) but not INL (integral
non-linearity), see Section 1.9: ADC enhancement by oversampling technique.
The linearity can be enhanced (INL reduction) from 0.7 to 0.17 LSB by the application of
a simple technique to the HW and SW design. Good knowledge of the ADC is assumed for
this technique, described in a separate document supplied on request.
1.6
Thermal noise present on STM32 meter platform
The number of effective bits of a given ADC depends on the presence of noise in the
system, namely on the PCB and microcontroller itself. If the noise is white Gaussian noise
(or similar), the number of effective bits can be recovered by oversampling and decimation
mentioned in Section 1.9. Figure 3 brings a direct noise measurement of the system. The
single voltage level was connected to an input of the ADC on the STM32 power meter board
and a thousand samples were collected. Figure 3 shows a histogram of the values taken.
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Figure 3. Typical thermal noise present on STM32 meter platform. Histogram shows
noise equivalent to white Gaussian noise
Measured thermal noise (overall on the board) degrades the ADC resolution and accuracy
by 2 to 5 LSB. This means that the number of effective bits drops from 12 to less than 10.
To recover from this situation it is necessary to use techniques for NOEB (number of
effective bits) enhancement, see Section 1.9. Using oversampling requires, in some cases,
the addition of the dithering signal. According to the noise level found in this system, it is not
necessary to add the dithering signal. It's addition does not bring any enhancement in the
performance.
1.7
Crosstalk between subsequent multiplexed channels
When reading more channels subsequently with maximum speed, values sampled from the
subsequent channel may be influenced by the reading of the previous channel. This is
called crosstalk between subsequent multiplexed channels.
It is caused by the balance of external impedance and capacitance of a signal source and
an internal impedance and capacitance of the sample and hold circuit in the given ADC. The
longer the sample and hold phase, the lower the correlation between subsequent samples.
The technique to overcome this phenomenon presented in this section is based on reading
every channel in the sequence twice and only the second value is taken as the valid one.
The error is reduced from 0.07% of ADC full range to less than 0.0001%.
The total conversion time is calculated as follows:
Equation 5
Tconv = sampling time + 12.5 cycles
Example 2
With an ADCCLK = 14 MHz and a sampling time of 1.5 cycles:
Tconv_14MHz = 1.5 + 12.5 = 14 cycles = 1 µs
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Example 3
With the setting used in this application ADCCLK = 9 MHz and a sampling time of 1.5
cycles:
Tconv_9MHz = 1.5 + 12.5 = 14 cycles = 1.56 µs
TSampling_time = (1.5 cycles / 14 cycles) x 1.56 µs = 167 ns
Table 2. STM32 ADC input characteristics specifications
Symbol
Parameter
Conditions
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
RADC
Sampling switch resistance
1
k
CADC
Internal sample and hold capacitor
12
pF
Figure 4. Internal and external analog input pin capacitors and resistors
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R129 = 820  and R137 = 820  (resistors between an output of op amp and an ADC input)
RAIN = R129 = R137 = 820 
ROpAmp = 80 
= RC = (RADC + RAIN) + ROpAmp) C = 1900  x 12 pF = 22.8 ns
Error % = 100 x exp. [-1 x (TSampling_time/ )]
Table 3. Crosstalk between subsequent multiplexed channels
Number of the same channel readings [-]
Tconv [cycle / µs]
TSampling_time [ns] Error [%]
1
1.5 / 1.55
167
0.07
2
3.0 / 3.10
334
0.00
3
4.5 / 4.65
501
0.00
4
6.0 / 6.20
668
0.00
From Table 3 it is recommended to use every second value sampled on the same channel.
This approach renders an error caused by this phenomenon negligible.
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1.8
Watt-hour meter using the STM32
Power and energy measurement by STM32 embedded ADC
This section gives a complete overview of the whole hardware and firmware of the STM32
power meter design. Figure 5 shows a block diagram of the firmware, Figure 6 and Figure 7
show the physical realization of the current and voltage path.
Figure 5. Complete block diagram of the algorithm used in STM32 power meter
Figure 5 shows the algorithm flow measurement.

A fast measurement of the current and voltage with injected noise from surrounding
environment triggered by network synchronized timer

Decimation of measured samples

RMS values computation

Use of a precise RTC clock source for energy computation.
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Figure 6 shows the connectors of the power meter (circles with the numbers 1, 2, 3, and 4)
and its connection to the network and load on the left side and voltage and current
measurement circuit on the right side. Voltage circuitry depicted in this image shows that the
voltage divider consists of resistors and a capacitor and it is referenced to Um (Vmid) voltage,
which is half of +VREF (2.5 V). The voltage divider has a gain of 0.0027. Um (Vmid) voltage is
also measured by the system.
Figure 6. Voltage circuitry of STM32 meter
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Watt-hour meter using the STM32
A current circuit is depicted in Figure 7. The circuit consists of two stages:

The first stage which amplifies 50 times the voltage across the shunt connected to the
current terminals (circles with numbers 2 and 3)

The second stage which amplifies the signal coming from the first stage.
The second stage has two paths with different gain: 1 and 10. Both the second stage
outputs (for gain of 1 and for gain of 10) are connected to the STM32 ADC (ADC in2 and
ADC in3).
Figure 7. Current circuitry of STM32 meter
The introduction of two parallel paths within the second stage with the different gain allows
the user to measure with higher resolution at the low current part of the measured current
range. Even with the two range measurements, an ADC enhancement must be employed in
order to cover both ranges with desired precision. Section 1.9 describes, in detail,
a technique for ADC enhancement.
1.9
ADC enhancement by oversampling technique
In order to reach the required precision and resolution of the system, it is necessary to
maintain the number of effective bits (NOEB) higher than that offered by the embedded
ADC. After the improvement of the linearity and INL reduction in Section 1.5, it is possible to
increase the number of effective bits from 10 bits (see Section 1.6: Thermal noise present
on STM32 meter platform) up to the 14 bits necessary to reach the required precision of the
whole system. The theory and implementation of the resolution enhancement by
oversampling is described in a separate document supplied on request.
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1.10
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Output values
This section and its subsections theoretically compute output values as URMS, IRMS,
P (instant power), E (energy) and pulse output. These values must be calibrated later on by
a gain and an offset constant in order to compensate an imprecision in the analog circuitry.
Some reference values and constants are defined
ADC reference circuit TL431 gives a voltage of 2.5 V
UADCref = 2.5 V
DC offset value Umid is delivered from UADCref: using voltage divider R116, R117, and
R120
Umid = UADCref x R116||R117 / (R116||R117 + R120) = 2.5 x 0.498 = 1.245 V
One LSB of the 12-bit ADC is equal to:
LSB12-bit = 2.5 V / 4096 = 0.00061 V [V / LSB]
Conversion constant from I to U for RSHUNT = 400 µ is:
SHUNT400 = 2500 [1/] (1 / Uout/IIN = R x I/I = RSHUNT = 0.0004)
Conversion constant from I to U for RSHUNT = 200 µ is:
SHUNT200 = 5000 [1/] (1 / Uout/IIN = R x I/I = RSHUNT = 0.0002)
Figure 8 shows experimental measurements of the maximum output signal from an
operational amplifier used in the current analog circuitry. It can be seen that the signal with
peak value (amplitude of the sinus signal with DC value in the middle) higher than 1.245 V is
clamped due to the limitation given by Umid, UADCref.
Figure 8. Current circuitry of STM32 meter, op amp saturation marked by red circle
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Watt-hour meter using the STM32
RMS voltage
The voltage analog circuitry is described in detail in this section. Main phase voltage is
reduced by a voltage divider directly connected to the phase voltage. The voltage divider
consists of a parallel and serial connection of these components:
L1 + R1 + C1||C2 + 12 x R2 and R14
The output voltage from the voltage divider is given by the VOLTDIVIDER that is
computed from:
Equation 7
Rall = R1 + 12 x R2 + R14 = 100 R + 12 x 47 k + 1.5 k = 565.6 k
Equation 8
R
1,5k
14
= ----------------------- = 0,002652 [-]
Voltage division is: VOLTDIVIDER = --------R all
565,6k
VOLTDIVIDER constant means that the input voltage is divided by number 377.
Voltage represented in volts is computed by:
Equation 9
ULSB in LSB - actual output of ADC channel
UV in volts - output from METER
UV = CU x ULSB
The calibration constant for the voltage circuitry consists of:
Equation 10
CU = VOLTDIVIDER x LSB12-BIT x V_IMPRECISION
where LSB12-BIT is defined in Section 1.1: STM32 ADC parameters, V_IMPRECISION is
the imprecision and tolerance of the components used in analog circuitry, mainly resistors
and soldering.
Since we want the smallest value to be 1 µV, we must multiply everything by 1.000.000
additionally. This also helps to maintain the preservation of the precision.
In order to save the microcontroller computational power and to keep precision as high as
possible, it is beneficial to avoid division operation during all the computations during
a period and do it as the last step after every period computation.
According to Section 1.9: ADC enhancement by oversampling technique, during
oversampling, the sum of 18 samples from ADC results as the VSUM value representing
measured voltage with higher precision.
Computation of the voltage RMS value takes 44 VSUM values. They may only be squared,
then summed, and finally they can be divided by common decimation and RMS constant.
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A standard computation of the decimation and RMS value computation
Equation 11
V (i) = 1/18 x SUM [U (i)]
URMS = 1/44 sqrt [V (i)]2
Computation with delayed division saving the computational power and the precision
Equation 12
VSUM = SUM [U (i)]
URMS = 1/÷44 x 1/÷18 x sqrt (SUM {SUM [U (i)] (y)}2)
The final value must be divided by 28.1424 (or 28142 if the values are in millivolts) or
multiplied by 0.035533 (or 0.000035533 if the values are in millivolts).
Figure 9. Voltage circuitry - calibration CU constant computation
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1.10.2
RMS current - high gained
Current analog circuitry is described in detail in this section. Main phase current is
measured as a voltage on small resistance - shunt. The shunt (R142) converting current to
the voltage to be measured has a value of:
1.
200 µ
2.
400 µ
The voltage from the shunt is amplified by the first stage of the current amplification with
a gain of 50. For current that needs further gain, an additional gain of 10 is added.
If a path with the additional multiplication 10 is used, all the variables have index HG (high
gain). The complete gain is 50 x 10 = 500 times. The value obtained after the amplification
must be multiplied by OPAMPGAINHG in order to get the original value.
Equation 13
OPAMPGAINHG = 0.002
IAHG = CIHG x ILSBHG
where ILSB is the value in LSB from ADC and IA is the current in amperes.
CIHG = SHUNT400 x OPAMPGAINHG x LSB12-BIT x HG_IMPRECISION [A / LSB]
Where SHUNT400 and LSB12-BIT were defined in Section 1.1: STM32 ADC parameters.
HG_IMPRECISION is the imprecision and tolerance of the components used in the HG path
of analog circuitry; mainly resistors and soldering.
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Since we want the smallest value to be 1 µA, we must multiply everything by 1.000.000
additionally.
No decimation, shifts or division are performed during computation in order to preserve
precision and reduce microcontroller computation. The correct multiplication or division is
done at the end of the whole computational chain.
The final value must be divided by 28.1424 (or 28142 if the values are in milliamperes) or
multiplied by 0.035533 (or 0.000035533 if the values are in milliamperes).
Figure 10. Current circuitry - calibration CI constant computation
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1.10.3
RMS current - low gained
The basic gain of the current input is 50. There is an additional gain of 1. If the path with the
additional multiplication 1 is used, all the variables have index LG (low gain). The complete
gain is:
Equation 14
OPAMPGAINLG = 0.02
IALG = CILG x ILSBLG
[A] = [A/LSB] x [LSB]
where ILSB is the value in LSB from ADC and IA is the current in amperes.
Equation 15
CILG = SHUNT400 x OPAMPGAINLG x LSB12-BIT x LG_IMPRECISION
where SHUNT400 and LSB12-BIT were defined in Section 1.1: STM32 ADC parameters.
LG_IMPRECISION is the imprecision and tolerance of the components used in the LG path
of analog circuitry; mainly resistors and soldering.
The final computation is described in Section 1.10.4: Power, Section 1.10.5: Energy, and
Section 1.10.6: Pulse output.
1.10.4
Power
Instant power is computed by:
Equation 16
p = i (t) x u (t)
PW = (CI x CU) x IIN x UIN
PW = CP x IIN x UIN
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Even the CP is theoretically equal to (CI x CU); CP is set during the calibration process as
a constant between a supplied instant power PTheor and the instant power PW measured by
the STM32 power meter.
Equation 17
PTheor = CP x PW
The difference between CP given by the calibration process and (CI x CU) is given by the
phase shift that, even when carefully compensated, does still not have a negligible influence
on the computation of the power.
The instant power over one period of mains PW can be computed also from the energy E
taken over one period of mains equal to 20 ms:
Equation 18
t
E = u  t   i  t   t s = t s  u  t   i  t  = ------   u  t   i  t  
44
Equation 19
E
1 t
1
P W = -------- = -----  ------  u  t   i  t  = ------  u  t   i  t 
t
t 44
44
where tS is the sampling period for u (t) and i (t).t is the period of mains equal to 20 ms. In
order to reach the desired precision in the pulse generation, PW and all the energy values
are computed in µW.
1.10.5
Energy
Energy is calculated as a product of current IIN, voltage UIN, time Ttimer and power
calibration constant CP (Ttimer - time in seconds).
Equation 20
EWh = CP x IIN x UIN x Ttimer
In order to save the microcontroller computational power, the previously computed instant
power PW can be used to get energy.
Equation 21
EWh = PW x Ttimer
Equation 22
1
1 t
1
E fragment = ------  u  t   i  t   t s = ------  t s  u  t   i  t  = ------  ------  u  t   i  t  =
44
44 44
44
1 t
= ------  ------  u  t   i  t 
44 44
Equation 23
1
E fragment = ------  t  P
44
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To keep energy resolution up to 1 mW, we need power to be specified by 25 bits or more. In
order to reach desired precision in the pulse generation, Efragment and all the energy values
are computed in µWs.
1.10.6
Pulse output
In order to reduce jitter when generating the pulse output signal, the following algorithm is
used:

The energy is computed once per period of mains (i.e. every 0.02 s) EWh

The energy computed is divided by 44. EfragmentWh = EWh / 44

This fragment is added to the accumulator every time the ADC is triggered (44 times
per one period of mains) that is equal to 2.2 kHz

Whenever the accumulator surpasses a certain level, ETHR, impulse threshold, the
pulse LED is toggled and the ETHR is distracted from the accumulator

In order to reach desired precision in the pulse generation, ETHR and all the energy
values are computed in µWs.
The pulse constant (the number of pulses generated per consumed kWh) is set by the
manufacturer.
Example 4
Impulse constant K is set by the manufacturer to:
K = 3200 impulses / kWh
Relation between joules and watts per second is the following:
Wxs=J
W x h = 3600 J
kW x h = 3.600.000 J
1 kW x h = 3.600.000.000.000 µW x s
In order to be able to set correctly ETHR, it is necessary to know that 1 impulse means:
3200 impl. ...........................1 kWh
1 impl. ...........................X kWh
3200 impulses = 1 kWh = 3.600.000 J
The energy of one impulse EIMPL is:
x = EIMPL = 1 kWh / K [imp / impl/kWh] = 3.600.000.000.000 / K [µWs]
EIMPL = 1125 J = 1125 Ws
EIMPL= 1.125.000.000 µWs
Because the LED is toggled by reaching the ETHR value (impulse-threshold), the generation
of one complete pulse (rising and falling edge) requires two events (two times reaching
ETHR within EIMPL step). It is necessary to divide the threshold constant for 1impl EIMPL by
two:
ETHR = EIMPL/ 2 = 1.125.000.000 / 2 = 562.500.000 µWs
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2
AN3322
Computational issues and compensation algorithms
This section deals with issues that can influence measurements and computation and were
not mentioned in Section 1.4: Error sources on the STM32 meter. The topics covered in this
section deal with coherent sampling, precise frequency measurement, proper zero crossing
detection and phase shift correction. The correct approach used when dealing with this topic
leads to the precision improvement and makes it possible to keep precision in the required
range.
Coherent sampling is the sampling of the periodical signal where the number of the samples
per period of the signal is still the same. The sampling time of the first sample is still in the
same time position in relation to the phase of the sampled signal. The timing of the following
samples is still the same and constant. In this case, 44 samples per period of the mains
(50 Hz, period 20 ms) are always kept.
Non-coherent sampling is, on the contrary, the sampling of the periodical signal where the
number of the sample per period of the signal is not the integer number. The sampling does
not need to start in the same position in relation to the phase of the sampled signal. The
timing of the subsequent samples can vary. For example, 44.76 samples per period of
mains are acquired. It means that the sample rate is a bit higher than required in the case of
coherent sampling.
2.1
Non-coherent sampling issues
If non-coherent sampling is present (it means no integer number of samples per period of
mains is taken), it is possible to observe an additional disrupting signal in the graph of
computed instant power from such sampled current and voltage. The additional disrupting
signal consists of two frequencies: a high frequency FH and a low frequency FL.
Figure 11. Instant power(1)
1. Y-axis: voltage, X-axis: cycles of mains/100 (50 Hz).
When using the non-coherent sampling, the measured period of the signal is not completely
covered and every period and this coverage differs from period to period. The amount of the
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power computed from these samples is not the same for every period of mains. This causes
the parasitic signal with the frequency FH. After some time (Tx) the coverage of the period is
the same as it was at the beginning (in relation to the phase of the measured signal). This
time Tx is the period of the frequency FH.
Figure 12. Parasitic frequency FH in detail(1)
1. Y-axis: voltage, X-axis: cycles of 50 Hz.
In this example, the sampling of 44 samples per period is synchronized with a frequency of
49.93785 Hz. During every period of the mains, the last sample is displaced by time
Tdiff_sample.
Equation 24
Tdiff_sample = 1/50Hz - 1/49.93785Hz = 0.00002489 s
In every cycle of the mains, all the samples are shifted by Tdiff_sample. They again pass their
initial position in the time Tshift.
Equation 25
Tshift = (1/ 50 Hz) / Tdiff_sample = 803.5 cycles (of 50 Hz)
Since the computed instant active power is a function with double the frequency of the input
voltage and current (negative instant voltage and negative instant current again give instant
positive power), the Tshift should be divided by two:
Equation 26
1/FH = (803.5 / 2) * 0.020 s = 8.035 s
That the specific sample again passes its initial position does not mean that it is exactly in
the same position. This happens after even more cycles of mains. This causes the
fluctuation of the instant power by additional disruption of signal with FL. The period of FL is,
in this example, 17,500 cycles of mains that is equal to 350 s (obtained by a simulation).
The jitter in instant power brings jitter to the accumulated energy value that brings the jitter
to the LED pulse output generation.
In order to obtain correct instant power, during every period of the mains, or over a short
period of time, it is necessary to provide coherent sampling.
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2.2
AN3322
Timer evaluation for coherent sampling triggering
In order to introduce coherent sampling into the system, it must be evaluated, if the timer
and its resolution is precise enough to ensure precise outputs (instant power, RMS voltage
and current). This section evaluates the quality of the synchronization with the network
which is possible with the given system. It evaluates errors in respect to the distance from
ideal synchronization to the network.
Sampling frequency for 44 samples per 20 ms (per one cycle of mains 50 Hz) results in the
ADC sample time of 454.5 s.
The STM32 timer used for synchronization with the network and for triggering of the ADC
sampling is a 16-bit timer. This timer has a time stamp generation resolution: 27.777 ns
when the STM32 is running on 36 MHz.
Precision of sampling frequency generation
One cycle of 50 Hz can be divided exactly into 720.000 steps when using the given timer.
The timer generates 16363 time stamp events within two subsequent sampling triggers out
of 44.
The error of the trigger generation for one sample position is:
Equation 27
1 / 16363 = 0.000061 = 0.0061% ~ 0.01%
Experimental results in Figure 13 show the influence of the sampling instant generation
correctness on the instant power error.
Table 4. Precision vs. timer setting. Simulated on signal u (t) = sin (2 x pi x 50 x t)
Distance from
ideal sampling
(timer steps)
Sample time error
(%)
URMS
(V)
Error URMS
(%)
P at 1 
(W)
Error P (%)
1
0.0089
0.707075
0.004
0.499956
0.009
10
0.0889
0.706794
0.044
0.499557
0.089
100
0.8889
0.703984
0.443
0.467189
0.881
500
4.4444
0.692307
2.093
0.479290
4.142
1000
8.8888
0.681974
3.554
0.465089
6.982
1406
12.4965
0.678874
3.993
0.460870
7.826
2812
24.9956
0.701548
0.786
0.492170
1.566
4218
37.4895
0.724468
-2.455
0.524853
-4.971
50.0000
0.707107
0.000
0.500000
0.000
(1)
5625
1. 5625 = 11250/2 is exactly half of the sampling period, so the error is zero. Table 4 was computed for the
same setting taking 64 samples per period instead of 44. For 44 samples per second, the errors indicated
are even lower, see the text above Table 4.
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Figure 13. Error of URMS vs. the timer error in timer ticks
Sample time precision (steps of 16-bit timer at the 36 MHz STM32 device)
Figure 14. Error of URMS(1)
Sample time precision (steps of 16-bit timer at the 36 MHz STM32 device)
1. Detail of Figure 13 (zoom in x-axis).
Table 4 shows that the precision of the timer resolution is enough to make coherent
sampling in order to reach the requirements for precision. There is no need for additional
correction or approximation of the samples, unless the future requirements for the higher
accuracy class of the meter appear. The system is always able to synchronize to the
network frequency with the error of the three steps of the timer constants. This leads to the
error of URMS three times 0.004% (according to Table 4) (that means an error URMS value of
0.012%). This is still ten times lower than other influences to the system that can affect
overall precision.
2.3
Timer setting constraints for coherent sampling triggering
The automatic system that is implemented to synchronize sampling with the network
(negative feedback introduced in Section 2.4) sets one parameter. This parameter is the
reload constant of the timer for sampling triggering. Allowed values of this constant should
be limited to an interval avoiding incorrect system behavior in case it is set to a very different
value from the ideal one.
The limits of the timer reload constant are computed from variation of the STM32
microcontroller main system clock and from allowed variation of the network frequency
prescribed by international standards.
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Table 5. High speed internal (HSI) RC oscillator
Symbol
fHSI
Parameter
Conditions
Min. Typ. Max.
Unit
8
MHz
Frequency
User-trimmed with the RCC_CR register
ACCHSI
Accuracy of the
HSI oscillator
Factory calibrated
1
%
TA = –40 to 105 °C
–2
2.5
%
TA = –10 to 85 °C
–1.5
2.2
%
TA = 0 to 70 °C
–1.3
2
%
TA = 25 °C
–1.1
1.8
%
To set the correct limits, it is necessary to combine the maximum error of HSI and network
frequency variation:
Max. HSI error = ± 3%
Max. 50 Hz variation = ± 2%
The max. deviation from correct frequency is ± 5%.
The mains signal is sampled 44 times per period of mains, this results in the sample
frequency FS:
Equation 28
FS = 50 Hz x 44 samples = 2200 Hz
FS equal to timer constant CTimer that is derived from main system clock.
CTimer = 36.000.000 Hz / 2200 Hz = 16363
The maximum and minimum values for the timer constant are:
CTimer-MAX = CTimer x 105% = 17182
CTimer-MIN = CTimer x 95% = 15545
The timer constant can be set from one border (CTimer-MAX or CTimer-MIN) to the center value
(CTimer) after 818 steps when updating the constant by one every cycle of mains. That is
818 x 0,02 s = 16 seconds (correction is done every second period of the signal, so, in fact,
the PLL takes 32 seconds to get from total border to center). This is too long, so it is
necessary to implement faster iteration.
Section 2.4 shows a fast locking algorithm for synchronization with the mains.
2.4
Precise timer setting for coherent sampling
All the computation (RMS current, RMS voltage, instant power) and the conversion of the
instant power into energy needs correct timing and the influence of the STM32 main clock
must be taken in account.
The high speed internal RC oscillator (HSI) inaccuracy (over a long period) is not an issue,
since the frequency is measured and updated every period of mains and the timer is set
accordingly.
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The meter should be able to measure and correct the mains frequency fluctuation of ± 2%;
it means from 49 to 51 Hz according to the international standard. The HSI RC oscillator has
a frequency fluctuation ± 3% (even the internal HSI can be calibrated by RTC to accuracy ±
1%) over the whole temperature range (the value ± 3% is used for computation as the worst
case). If the combination of the maximum network frequency variation and maximum HSI
frequency variation is ± 5%, it means from 47.5 to 52.5 Hz. The meter must be able to adapt
to this variation and measure correctly in this range of values.
All the computation for precise timing is updated only when input voltage is higher than 50 V.
A possible voltage drop over some periods can bring a frequency detection error. The
international standards allow incorrect measurement during the period of the time when
voltage is under 80% of its nominal value.
The algorithm for the precise timer setting uses the mains zero crossing information. In
order to keep the whole number of the samples per period of the mains, the positive zero
crossing of the mains must still appear in the same position in the sampled data array (for
example: if we detect zero crossing at the 4th sample out of 44, in the next period of mains
the zero crossing must appear in the same position, it means the 4th sample out of 44). The
sample triggering timer constant must be updated to keep the zero crossing at the same
sample index. The timer constant is updated only if the zero crossing is different from the
previous one. If the difference is positive, the timer constant is updated by -1, if the
difference is negative, the timer constant is updated by +1. This negative feedback locks the
sampling frequency to the frequency of mains.
The sampling frequency difference represented by one sample (44 samples per period
of 50 Hz) is 1.16 Hz (which is 2%). If the timer setting differs from mains by less than 2%,
the difference in zero crossing position appears after many cycles of mains (the lower the
difference, the more cycles there are). If we react only by adding or subtracting value 1 from
the timer constant only when the difference is one whole sample, the frequency locking lasts
for 225 steps (over the whole range - see the beginning of this section). More than
5 s is needed to stabilize the zero crossing sample index value to less than one between
directly subsequent periods of mains. Furthermore, after that synchronization period, if the
difference is lower than one whole sample index, the update of the timer is done after the
difference appears over more periods and reaches one sample index. Typically, the lock-in
time is about 30 seconds additionally.
Reduction of the necessary time for zero crossing stabilization (synchronizes the sampling
with the mains frequency) can be done by introducing a sample index division in order to get
finer and faster zero crossing stabilization. Using this technique, the lock-in algorithm needs
1-2 seconds to fully synchronize sampling with the network.
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After detection of the zero crossing position i, the finer zero crossing is computed according
to Figure 15, Equation 29 and Equation 30.
Figure 15. Finer calculation of zero crossing
F
G
D
E
$0
Equation 29
di = bi / (abs. ai + abs. bi)
Equation 30
c+d=1
where ai is the amplitude of the signal prior to a zero crossing, and bi is the amplitude
of the signal after the zero crossing. The sub index position di computed is in the range from
0 to 1. The difference of the two subsequent zero crossings is di - di+1.
The value Tupdate that can be added or subtracted from the trigger timer reload constant
must be an integer number bigger that one. The difference can be divided into 20 steps by
the rounding of Tupdate = [20 x (di - di+1)]. This leads to a division of the position index of the
zero crossing to 20 sub values.
The trigger timer reload constant is updated by this difference to stabilize the zero crossing
in this finer position. This makes initial locking faster (by factor 20).
As described in Section 2.6, the signal used for zero crossing detection is filtered so that
only fundamental frequency is preset. This avoids errors when computing the zero crossing
position finer that one sample index.
2.5
Frequency measurement
The frequency value is derived from the coherent sampling trigger period. The sampling
trigger period is measured using a precise external low speed oscillator (LSE). From that
value the frequency is computed.
In order to get a higher resolution of the measured frequency value, more values must be
accumulated and averaged. The accumulation of ten values brings the resolution that is
sufficient and can be displayed.
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2.6
Computational issues and compensation algorithms
Filtering of input signal for proper zero crossing detection
Proper detection of the zero crossing is the key parameter in order to measure and compute
all the values correctly. Possible problems are caused when the voltage channel contains
more harmonics and such a signal with these harmonics crosses the zero voltage line more
times. Figure 16 shows the voltage signal that is crossing the zero line twice. The same
situation can be caused not only by higher harmonics but also by noise present in all the
circuitry.
Figure 16. Voltage signal crossing zero voltage line twice
In order to avoid an incorrect zero crossing detection, a filter was introduced. The filter is the
simple moving average. The length of the filter is 18. Since the number of the samples per
period of mains is 44, the filter removes all the harmonics starting at 50 Hz with growing
attenuation. Figure 17 shows the signal after the filtering that allows for failure-less zero
crossing detection.
Figure 17. Voltage signal used for correct zero crossing after proper filtering
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Since the voltage signal with very low amplitude can lead to incorrect zero crossing
detection, the zero crossing detection is not performed on the voltage signal with an
amplitude lower that 50 V. The measured frequency and locking to the zero crossing is not
updated in this case.
2.7
Phase shift correction
This section describes how to deal with phase shift in the analog circuitry of the STM32
power meter. The evaluation of the error caused by phase shift and the levels of its
correction is computed in Section 2.7.1, Section 2.7.2, and Section 2.7.3.
2.7.1
Phase shift measured for the STM32 meter
The phase shift that needs to be compensated was measured directly in the STM32 meter.
These values help to set the limits and resolution of the phase shift compensation method.
Figure 18. Zero crossing for green - U, blue - ILG, red- IHG
Figure 18 shows that there is a delay between voltage U and currents ILG and IHG. This
delay between U and ILG or between U and IHG is in the same range for both ranges and it
is 5 - 8 µs. This delay is mainly caused by the capacitance and inductance in the signal path
of the input voltage divider (see Section 2.10).
2.7.2
Phase shift correction - error evaluation
The phase shift between voltage and current is also caused by non-simultaneous sampling
of these values, see Section 1.9.
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Computational issues and compensation algorithms
The voltage and IL are shifted by two samples:
Equation 31
Tshift_I_L ~ 2 samples ~3 µs ~ 0.05 deg.
The voltage and IH are shifted by four samples:
Equation 32
Tshift_I_H ~ 4 samples ~ 6 µs ~ 0.1 deg.
Table 6 shows what level of the phase shift correction is necessary to be reached in order to
lower the error caused by the phase shift to an acceptable value. It can be seen that we
need to correct the phase shift to a value lower than 0.1 deg. This value can be easily
reached by the phase shift compensation filter introduced in Section 2.7.3, compensating
with the step of 0.013 deg. The value 0.013 deg. allows negligible error of the instant power
caused by the phase shift to be reached.
Table 6. Error of instant power caused by phase shift
Sampling time trigger shifted
by [deg.]
Error of instant power [%]
for PF = 1
Error of instant power [%]
for PF = 0.5
0.01
0.000002
0.030232
0.02
0.000006
0.060466
0.05
0.000038
0.151200
0.1
0.000152
0.302500
0.2
0.000609
0.605200
0.5
0.003808
1.515300
1
0.015230
3.038100
2
0.060917
6.105700
5
0.380500
15.476300
Data from Table 6 are depicted in Figure 19, Figure 20, and Figure 21.
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Figure 19. Error of instant power for PF = 1 and PF = 0.5
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Figure 20. Error of instant power caused by phase shift for PF = 1
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Computational issues and compensation algorithms
Figure 21. Error of instant power caused by phase shift for PF = 0.5
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2.7.3
Phase shift correction - filter implementation
The phase shift in the time domain is not as simple as in the frequency domain or in
a system where more ADC are employed for current and voltage measurements. In this HW
implementation we need to use an approach that allows us effectively interpolate values of
the voltage so that they are correctly aligned to current. This approach is described in
a separate document supplied on request.
The phase compensation range that may be reached with this approach is:
With the step of 0.73 µs (0.013 deg.)
Maximum positive shift = -6.2 µs (0.11 deg.)
Maximum negative shift = +6.2 µs (0.11 deg.)
With the step of 0.77 µs (0.014 deg.)
Maximum positive shift = -12.4 µs (0.22 deg.)
Maximum negative shift = +12.4 µs(0.22 deg.)
When a higher value of the phase shift needs to be compensated, an extension to the
method used is introduced.
2.8
Calibration procedure
Calibration (computation of the correction factor between measured and expected output) is
a very important process and its correct performance results in the overall desired precision.
Even when the power meter measures the current and voltage with the maximum error
0.5%, we need to perform calibration on an even higher level of accuracy. If this is not done,
calibrate the meter with the error of 0.5%, in the worst case (over the whole measured
range) the maximum error may be an additional 0.5%, which results in an error of 1%
(0.5 + 0.5) in total. This means that the measured value should be used for calibration after
its error is the lowest possible. This happens after averaging the value over a longer period
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of time. Calibration is performed, in this case, after the collection of data (RMS voltage, RMS
current, instant active and reactive power) over 64 periods of mains (a bit more than one
second or 50 Hz). If the error during the calibration process reduces to 0.1%, in the worst
case there is an error of 0.6%, (0.1 + 0.5) in total over all the tests.
The calibration procedure consists of these steps:
2.9
1.
Connecting the STM32 meter to precise power supply.
2.
Setting nominal current for lower range (5 A) current and nominal voltage (230 V).
3.
After the power supply stabilizes (refer to the voltage and current source
specifications), wait for an additional two seconds at least (in order to collect enough
calibration data).
4.
Pressing the button (number 4) on the meter keyboard.
5.
Setting nominal current for higher meter range (40 A) and nominal voltage (230 V).
6.
After the power supply stabilizes (refer to the voltage and current source specification),
wait for an additional two seconds at least (in order to collect enough calibration data).
7.
Pressing the button (number 4) on the meter keyboard.
8.
After this procedure, all the calibrations are written into EEPROM and loaded after
every power-up of the power meter.
Reactive and apparent power computation
The reactive power can be computed simply by Q = S2 + P2 or by using a filtering method.
Since the first method has its limitations, the filtering approach is introduced. This approach
is described in a separate document supplied on request.
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Computational issues and compensation algorithms
2.10
Analog part schematic - part 1
Figure 22. Analog part schematic - part 1
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Computational issues and compensation algorithms
2.11
AN3322
Analog part schematic - part 2
Figure 23. Analog part schematic - part 2
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3
References
References
Improving ADC Results Through Oversampling and Post-Processing of Data. (n.d.).
Retrieved 2009, from Actel: www.actel.com/documents/Improve_ADC_WP.pdf.
AN2668 - application note.
4
Revision history
Table 7. Document revision history
Date
Revision
13-May-2013
1
Changes
Initial release.
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