cd00252782

AN3090
Application note
Power saving and LED status detection
using the STP16DPPS05 device
Introduction
Today, the use of LEDs is growing in many market segments, including portable
applications, due to their improving performance and lower cost.
This new scenario requires that LED drivers be capable of providing good performance at
low current, and include power saving capabilities.To address these requirements,
STMicroelectronics has introduced the STP16xPPx05 family of LED drivers.
This application note describes the STP16DPPS05 low voltage 16-bit constant current LED
sink driver, with particular focus on two important features: output error detection and auto
power-saving.
December 2009
Doc ID 16496 Rev 1
1/19
www.st.com
Contents
AN3090
Contents
1
Device description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2
Normal mode functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3
Error detection feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4
Error detection output test circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5
Auto power-saving feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.1
Value added by the auto power-saving feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
6
Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
7
Revision history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2/19
Doc ID 16496 Rev 1
AN3090
List of tables
List of tables
Table 1.
Table 2.
Table 3.
Output error detection sequence after OE/DM2 acquisition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Error threshold test results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Document revision history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Doc ID 16496 Rev 1
3/19
List of figures
AN3090
List of figures
Figure 1.
Figure 2.
Figure 3.
Figure 4.
Figure 5.
Figure 6.
Figure 7.
Figure 8.
Figure 9.
Figure 10.
4/19
STP16DPPS05 block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Typical data transfer from SDI to SDO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Typical output_n functionality in normal mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Typical application of the STP16DPPS05 device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Error detection sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Typical error detection results. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Entering output error detection timing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resuming normal mode timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IDD consumption in normal mode and auto power-saving condition.
First out “ON” after resuming normal mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Doc ID 16496 Rev 1
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
......
......
......
......
......
......
......
......
......
......
.....5
.....6
.....7
.....8
.....9
. . . . 11
. . . . 12
. . . . 12
. . . . 14
. . . . 15
AN3090
1
Device description
Device description
The STP16DPPS05 device is a monolithic, low voltage, low current power shift register.
It contains a 16-bit serial IN, parallel OUT shift register that feeds a 16-bit D-type storage
register. Sixteen regulated currents are present in the output stage, which is capable of
providing 3-40 mA of constant current to drive the LEDs. Figure 1 shows the application
block diagram of the STP16DPPS05 device.
Figure 1.
STP16DPPS05 block diagram
&0'!
-#5
,%$DRIVERS
,%$DRIVERS
,%$DRIVERS
,%$DRIVERS
,%$DRIVERS
,%$DRIVERS
,%$DRIVERS
,%$DRIVERS
,%$DRIVERS
0OWER
MANAGEMENT
6IDEO
PROCESSOR
&0'!
-#5
,%$DRIVERS
,%$DRIVERS
,%$DRIVERS
!-
Two important features of STP16DPPS05 are output status checking to detect LED errors
during driving (error detection), and power saving when the device is not managing data
(auto power safe).
Doc ID16496 Rev 1
5/19
Normal mode functionality
2
AN3090
Normal mode functionality
During normal operation, the serial data present on the SDI pin is transferred to the shift
register in synchronization with the CLK rising edge. After 16 CLK pulses, the data loaded
on the SDI pin is shifted to the SDO pin with a typical delay of 22 ns, as shown on the plot in
Figure 2.
This delay guarantees the correct synchronization of the CLK and SDI signals if two or more
STP16DPPS05 devices are cascaded.
Figure 2.
Typical data transfer from SDI to SDO
The data present in any register is transferred to the respective latch when the latch-enable
(LE/DM1) signal is high (serial-to-parallel conversion).
After this step, the data is transferred to the outputs via the output-enable pin (OE/DM2),
which turns on the LEDs at the current set by the external resistor.
By changing the OE/DM2 duty cycle, it is possible to set the output dimming if the
application requires slow or fast frame visualization.
6/19
Doc ID16496 Rev 1
AN3090
Normal mode functionality
The plot in Figure 3 shows typical output switching in normal mode at VDD = 3.3 V.
Figure 3.
Typical output_n functionality in normal mode
The following signals are shown on the plot above:
●
Ch1 (yellow) = OE/DM2 signal
●
Ch2 (blue) = SDI signal
●
Ch3 (purple) = VOUT
●
Ch4 (green) = OUPUT signal
It should be highlighted that the LE/DM1 and OE/DM2 signals are NOT synchronized with
the rising or falling edges of the CLK signal. This mechanism is useful in all applications,
especially where it is necessary to stop the CLK switching. For example, after the frame
loading, it is necessary to stop the CLK switching to reduce noise between the lines.
Doc ID16496 Rev 1
7/19
Error detection feature
3
AN3090
Error detection feature
The output error detection feature allows LED functionality checks by means of output status
detection. This feature covers two types of detection: open-circuit and short-circuit
detection.
The schematic in Figure 4 shows a typical application where multiple STP16DPPS05
devices are cascaded.
Figure 4.
Typical application of the STP16DPPS05 device
#ASEONE
OPENLINE
6/,%$VOLTAGE
SUPPLY
#ASETWO
SHORTED,%$
.ORMALOPERATING
MODE
OR
%NTERINGDIAGNOSTIC
MODE
SERIALDATA
#ASETHREE
SHORTTO'.$OR6/
340$003
3$/3$)
340$003
3$/3$)
340$003
3$/
3$)
#,+
,%$-
/%$-
2%84
2%84
2%84
.ORMALOPERATING
MODE
SERIALDATAOUTPUT
OR
$IAGNOSTICMODE
SERIALDATAOUTPUT
!-
From “normal mode”, the device is switched to “error detection mode” (EDM) by a logic
sequence on the LE/DM1 and OE/DM2 pins. In order to switch on all the outputs during the
detection time, the sixteen data bits must be set to “1”.
The data are latched by the LE/DM1, after which the outputs are ready for the detection
process.
When the microcontroller switches the OE/DM2 to low, the device drives the LEDs to check
if an open or short condition has occurred. The acquisition time (OE/DM2 to low) necessary
to allow for correct LED feedback is typically 1 µs. Two CLK pulses must be sent after the
minimum detection time (typical: 500-600 ns), in order to set the SDO pin to the correct
output error detection value. In this way, the data loaded in the shift register is updated
(rewritten) with the error detection data when the OE/DM2 signal goes high.
In synchronization with the rising edge of the CLK signal, the LED status is provided by the
SDO pin: a “1” logic level signals a good output, while a “0” logic level signals an output fault
condition (short or open condition).
8/19
Doc ID16496 Rev 1
AN3090
Error detection feature
The plot in Figure 5 shows all the steps required to perform the EDM test.
Figure 5.
Error detection sequence
)HHGLQJ&/.VLJQDOELWVDI WHUHQWHULQJ
('0WKH6',VLJQDOVHWWRLVORDGHG
LQVLGHWKHVKLI WUHJLVWHU
2('0DQG
/('0
VHTXHQFHVLJQDO
WRVWDUWWKHHUURU
GHWHFWLRQ
VHTXHQFH
7KLV/('0SXOVHODWFKHV
WKHGDWDYVWKHRXWSXWV
'RQ¶WFDUH
$I WHUWKH('0WHVWWKLV
2('0SXOVHSXWVWKH GHYLFH
LQQRUPDOPRG HFRQGLWLRQ
6\QFKHGZLWKWKHULVLQJHGJ HRI WKHI LUVW&/.SXOVHDI WHUGHWHFWLRQWKH
6'2VKRZVWKHRXWSXWVWDWXVI ROORZLQJWKHVHTXHQFH2XW2XW
«2XW
,QWKLVFDVHDOOWKHRXWSXWVDUH%$'RS HQRUVKRUWFRQGLWLRQ
7XUQ RQWKHRXWSXWE\WKH2('0SLQDQGZDLW—VI RUFRUUHFW
RXWSXWVWDWXVDFTXLVLWLRQ'XULQJWKLVWLPHDPLQLPXP RI WKUHH
&/.SXOVHVDUH UHTXLUHG DWWKHEHJLQQLQJDQGDWWKHHQG
WRUHZULWHWKHVKLI WUHJLVWHU
As described above, the output status detection sequence is synchronized with the rising
edge of the CLK signal after OE/DM2 changes to high. An overview of the output results is
shown in Table 1.
Doc ID16496 Rev 1
9/19
Error detection feature
Table 1.
AN3090
Output error detection sequence after OE/DM2 acquisition
CLK pulse after OE turns to high level
Output results
1st CLK rising edge
Output 16
nd
CLK rising edge
Output 15
3rd
CLK rising edge
Output 14
4th CLK rising edge
Output 13
5th
CLK rising edge
Output 12
6th
CLK rising edge
Output 11
7th
CLK rising edge
Output 10
8th CLK rising edge
Output 9
9th
CLK rising edge
Output 8
10th
CLK rising edge
Output 7
11th
CLK rising edge
Output 6
12th CLK rising edge
Output 5
13th
CLK rising edge
Output 4
14 CLK rising edge
Output 3
15th
CLK rising edge
Output 2
16th CLK rising edge
Output 1
2
th
To resume normal mode functionality, it is mandatory to apply another OE/DM2 pulse after
16 CLK pulses.
The plot in Figure 6 shows a typical example of error detection feedback. Observing the
SDO (green signal) and OE/DM2 (purple signal) it is possible to verify, respectively, the
output status and how the device returns to normal mode.
10/19
Doc ID16496 Rev 1
AN3090
Error detection feature
Figure 6.
Typical error detection results
The following signals are shown on the plot above:
●
Ch1 (yellow) = CLK signal
●
Ch2 (blue) = LE/DM1 signal
●
Ch3 (purple) = OE/DM2 signal
●
Ch4 (green) = SDO signal
Doc ID16496 Rev 1
11/19
Error detection feature
AN3090
Figure 7 shows the OE/DM2 and LE/DM1 digital key combination necessary to start the
EDM test. If this sequence is incorrect, the EDM test does not start.
Figure 7.
Entering output error detection timing
/%$-
(
,
(
(
(
,%$-
,
,
,
(
,
#,+
!-
Figure 8 shows the timing sequence necessary to resume normal operation after the LED
status acquisition is completed.
Figure 8.
Resuming normal mode timing
/%$-
(
,
(
(
(
,%$-
,
,
,
,
,
#,+
6OLTAGELOW
!-
12/19
Doc ID16496 Rev 1
AN3090
4
Error detection output test circuit
Error detection output test circuit
During the error detection time, the internal structure of the device allows a single output
current test. Specifically, the test is performed by comparing the current flowing from the
output, to the current set by the REXT programming resistor.
If the current detected is less than 50% (typ) of the current set by the REXT resistor, the
device marks the output as malfunctioning, and converts the previous data loaded into the
shift register from “1” to “0”. Subsequently, these results are transferred as feedback by the
SDO pin.
Table 2 shows a typical example of the measured error detection threshold for several
output current levels set by the REXT resistor.
Table 2.
Error threshold test results
VDD (V)
3.3
5.0
ISET (mA)
Measured error threshold (mA)
1
0.359
2
0.841
3
1.36
5
2.10
10
4.80
20
10.2
40
19.68
1
0.355
2
0.831
3
1.21
5
2.40
10
5.00
20
9.90
40
19.55
For output error detection to function correctly, all the signals must be synchronized with the
falling edge of the CLK signal. This is necessary to avoid any setup\hold time violations.
In some cases, due to application conditions, this cannot be applied (i.e.: data generated by
an MCU). To address this, it is possible to switch all of the other signals by applying a 15 ns
delay after the rising edge of the CLK signal.
Only one error detection reading can be made within the acquisition time window. For this
reason, if two or more readings are required it is necessary the complete the error detection
sequence, then repeat each step again.
Doc ID16496 Rev 1
13/19
Auto power-saving feature
5
AN3090
Auto power-saving feature
This section explains the benefits of the auto power-saving feature of the STP16DPPS05
device.
The plot in Figure 9 shows the IDD supply voltage consumption during normal mode and in
the auto power-saving condition.
Figure 9.
IDD consumption in normal mode and auto power-saving condition
In the plot above, IDD consumption (Ch4 green) falls after 16 CLK pulses (Ch2 blue) if no
SDI data (Ch1 yellow) were latched by the LE/DM1 signal (Ch3 purple). When the first
active data is available on the SDI pin (Ch1) and is latched by the LE/DM1 signal (Ch3), the
device switches from auto power-saving mode to normal mode and IDD consumption rises to
typical values.
14/19
Doc ID16496 Rev 1
AN3090
Auto power-saving feature
Figure 10 shows the typical shape of the first output turn-on when the device switches from
auto power-saving to normal mode.
Figure 10. First out “ON” after resuming normal mode
The following signals are shown on the plot above:
5.1
●
Ch1 (yellow) = SDI signal
●
Ch2 (blue) = CLK signal
●
Ch3 (purple) = LE/DM1
●
Ch4 (green) = first output switched on after return from auto power-saving to normal
mode
Value added by the auto power-saving feature
To demonstrate the added benefits provided by the auto power-saving feature, consider
a typical application, such as an LED display panel supplied by battery cell, where 100
STP16DPPS05 devices are used.
If the outputs of each device are driven with a 40 mA current capability (REXT = 497 Ω), the
IDD supply current of each device is typically 8 mA.
The LED display supply current (IDD) is:
Total IDD = IDD x n
(Where n is the number of STP16DPPS05 devices used).
Doc ID16496 Rev 1
15/19
Auto power-saving feature
AN3090
In this case:
Total IDD (mA) = 0.008 x 100 = 800 mA
Using the power-saving feature, considering that the IDD of one device in shutdown
condition is typically 140 µA, the LED display supply current (IDD) is:
Total IDD (mA) = 0.00014 x 100 = 14 mA
As a result:
With all devices in auto-shutdown, the power supply consumption is 1.75% versus normal
operating conditions, resulting in power savings of 98.25%.
Usually, when an LED panel is used in standard mode, it is common to have from 15% to
40% of the drivers with no active outputs. Also, in this condition the devices switching from
auto power-up to auto-shutdown are able to save power to increase battery time span.
16/19
Doc ID16496 Rev 1
AN3090
6
Conclusion
Conclusion
The two highlighted features of the STP16DPPS05 generate benefits for a wide range of
applications.
The device can provide the MCU with feedback of the overall LED system via the EDM test,
which can be managed either locally or remotely through a network.
The STP16DPPS05 is suitable for all applications where power saving is important, such as
in traffic panels or electronic advertising, where it is possible to switch off parts of the
panels, when not necessary, to increase the battery time span.
Doc ID16496 Rev 1
17/19
Revision history
7
AN3090
Revision history
Table 3.
18/19
Document revision history
Date
Revision
03-Dec-2009
1
Changes
Initial release.
Doc ID16496 Rev 1
AN3090
Please Read Carefully:
Information in this document is provided solely in connection with ST products. STMicroelectronics NV and its subsidiaries (“ST”) reserve the
right to make changes, corrections, modifications or improvements, to this document, and the products and services described herein at any
time, without notice.
All ST products are sold pursuant to ST’s terms and conditions of sale.
Purchasers are solely responsible for the choice, selection and use of the ST products and services described herein, and ST assumes no
liability whatsoever relating to the choice, selection or use of the ST products and services described herein.
No license, express or implied, by estoppel or otherwise, to any intellectual property rights is granted under this document. If any part of this
document refers to any third party products or services it shall not be deemed a license grant by ST for the use of such third party products
or services, or any intellectual property contained therein or considered as a warranty covering the use in any manner whatsoever of such
third party products or services or any intellectual property contained therein.
UNLESS OTHERWISE SET FORTH IN ST’S TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF SALE ST DISCLAIMS ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED
WARRANTY WITH RESPECT TO THE USE AND/OR SALE OF ST PRODUCTS INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE (AND THEIR EQUIVALENTS UNDER THE LAWS
OF ANY JURISDICTION), OR INFRINGEMENT OF ANY PATENT, COPYRIGHT OR OTHER INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHT.
UNLESS EXPRESSLY APPROVED IN WRITING BY AN AUTHORIZED ST REPRESENTATIVE, ST PRODUCTS ARE NOT
RECOMMENDED, AUTHORIZED OR WARRANTED FOR USE IN MILITARY, AIR CRAFT, SPACE, LIFE SAVING, OR LIFE SUSTAINING
APPLICATIONS, NOR IN PRODUCTS OR SYSTEMS WHERE FAILURE OR MALFUNCTION MAY RESULT IN PERSONAL INJURY,
DEATH, OR SEVERE PROPERTY OR ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE. ST PRODUCTS WHICH ARE NOT SPECIFIED AS "AUTOMOTIVE
GRADE" MAY ONLY BE USED IN AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS AT USER’S OWN RISK.
Resale of ST products with provisions different from the statements and/or technical features set forth in this document shall immediately void
any warranty granted by ST for the ST product or service described herein and shall not create or extend in any manner whatsoever, any
liability of ST.
ST and the ST logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of ST in various countries.
Information in this document supersedes and replaces all information previously supplied.
The ST logo is a registered trademark of STMicroelectronics. All other names are the property of their respective owners.
© 2009 STMicroelectronics - All rights reserved
STMicroelectronics group of companies
Australia - Belgium - Brazil - Canada - China - Czech Republic - Finland - France - Germany - Hong Kong - India - Israel - Italy - Japan Malaysia - Malta - Morocco - Philippines - Singapore - Spain - Sweden - Switzerland - United Kingdom - United States of America
www.st.com
Doc ID16496 Rev 1
19/19
Similar pages