cd00233820

AN2983
Application note
Constant current inverse buck LED driver using L6562A
Introduction
Whenever a lighting application, such as street lighting for example, requires an elevated
number of LEDs, there are basically two solutions: the first is to connect all the diodes in
series in a single "string"; the second is to place several strings in parallel with fewer
elements in each one.
The first solution, even if simpler, poses stringent safety requirements due to the high supply
voltage. The latter needs a lower input voltage but the current through each string has to be
independently controlled.
Since, from a system point of view, the second solution seems more viable, we have
developed an application to investigate the possibility of employing an L6562A to implement
such a constant current controller. This document describes the EVL6562A-LED
demonstration board and summarizes the relevant results obtained.
Figure 1.
EVL6562A-LED: L6562A constant current inverse buck driver module
!-V
December 2009
Doc ID 15679 Rev 1
1/32
www.st.com
Contents
AN2983
Contents
1
2
3
Main characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.1
System configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.2
Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.3
Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Circuit description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.1
Power section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.2
L6562A controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.3
FOT (fixed off time) delay circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.4
Current setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.5
LED number compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.6
Shutdown/dimming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.7
Auxiliary power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.8
Open-/short-circuit protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
3.1
LED voltage dependency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
3.2
Input voltage dependency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
4
Electrical schematic and bill of materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
5
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
6
Revision history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
2/32
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AN2983
List of figures
List of figures
Figure 1.
Figure 2.
Figure 3.
Figure 4.
Figure 5.
Figure 6.
Figure 7.
Figure 8.
Figure 9.
Figure 10.
Figure 11.
Figure 12.
Figure 13.
Figure 14.
Figure 15.
Figure 16.
Figure 17.
Figure 18.
Figure 19.
Figure 20.
Figure 21.
Figure 22.
Figure 23.
Figure 24.
Figure 25.
Figure 26.
Figure 27.
Figure 28.
Figure 29.
Figure 30.
Figure 31.
Figure 32.
Figure 33.
Figure 34.
EVL6562A-LED: L6562A constant current inverse buck driver module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
System configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Module schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Standard buck converter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Inverse buck converter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Controller diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Simulated waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
FOT net. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
toff delay (actual) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
toff delay (nominal) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Current setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
I_Led/V_trim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
I_Led/VLed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Enable/dimming detailed view (turn-on) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Enable/dimming detailed view (turn-off) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Dimming 1% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Dimming 10% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Dimming 50% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Dimming 90% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Dimming 99% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Auxiliary power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Short-circuit protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Short-circuit application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Short-circuit removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Short-circuit detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Load current decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
LED current (average, maximum, minimum) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
LED current (ripple) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Switching frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Efficiency [%] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
LED current (average) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Switching frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Efficiency [%] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
EVL6562A-LED electrical schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Doc ID 15679 Rev 1
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Main characteristics
AN2983
1
Main characteristics
1.1
System configuration
Figure 2 shows a possible system configuration, in which the key modules are:
●
the main power supply, which converts the AC input voltage to an internal power bus.
●
the CC drivers, which are the modules that implement the constant current sources.
●
the controller that configures the CC current drivers through a dedicated bus.
●
the LEDs strings.
The CC drivers are the modules considered in this application note and implemented in the
EVL6562A-LED demonstration board.
Figure 2.
System configuration
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1.2
Requirements
The board’s design takes into account the following key points.
●
Input voltage: 48 V (+/- 20%)
●
Output current (average): 0.35 A
●
Output ripple current < 140 mA (+/- 20%)
●
Output current setting/calibration
●
Digital dimming
●
Open-/short-circuit protection
●
Absence of electrolytic capacitors
The design can be easily changed to adapt to different needs.
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AN2983
1.3
Main characteristics
Interface
Ideally the module should have only two pins and behave as a constant current sink, but for
practical reasons, and in order to gain a higher degree of flexibility, its connector has the
following pinout.
Table 1.
EVL6562A-LED interface
Pin number
Signal name
Connection
Notes
1
D_Dimm
Shutdown / digital dimming
Digital input
2
C_Set
Load current setting
0.. 12 V input
3
Gnd
Auxiliary power (Gnd)
4
Gnd
Auxiliary power (Gnd)
5
Vcc
Auxiliary power (Vcc)
6
n.c.
7
Vin_Gnd
Main power (Gnd)
8
Vin
Main power (Vin)
(48 V nom.) input
9
LEDs_A
LEDs anode Interconnection
Output
10
LEDs_K
LEDs cathode interconnection
Output
(18 V) input/output
●
D_Dimm is a digital (TTL) input for the module. A high level shuts off the circuit. A low
level enables the nominal load current and a square wave with variable duty cycle can
be used as a dimming control
●
C_Set is an analog input (0...12 V). A voltage applied to this pin is used to set the load
current to the required value
●
Gnd pins 3 and 4 are the ground return for the controller’s power supply (Vcc). D_Dimm
and C_set are referred to this ground
●
Vcc is the connection to the controller’s power supply input
●
Vin_Gnd is the main power supply return, internally connected to the Gnd pins
●
Vin is the main power supply input (48 V)
●
LEDs_A is the connection to the anode of the diode string
●
LEDs_K is the connection to the cathode of the diode string
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Circuit description
2
AN2983
Circuit description
The following is a list of the main components that form the module EVL6562A-LED.
●
Power section
●
L6562A controller
●
Fixed off time (FOT) delay
●
Current setting
●
LED number compensation
●
Shutdown/dimming
●
Auxiliary power
●
Open-/short-circuit protection
Figure 3.
6IN
Module schematic
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2.1
Power section
The topology of this stage is the so-called inverse buck (also referred to as modified or lowside buck). Simply stated, it is a standard buck converter with the power and ground
connections interchanged, as shown in Figure 4 and Figure 5.
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Doc ID 15679 Rev 1
AN2983
Figure 4.
9
Circuit description
Standard buck converter
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Figure 5.
9
6
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Inverse buck converter
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Other than the power and ground connections being exchanged, there are no differences
between the two configurations; the behavior and dimensioning of the inverse buck are the
same as that of the standard buck. Refer to application note AN2928(a) for a detailed
description and design rules. The following are a reminder of the fundamental applicable
equations.
Inductor current variation (charging period)
Equation 1
⎡ Vin − VLed ⎤
ΔI _ ton = ⎢
⎥ ∗ ton
L
⎣
⎦
Inductor current variation (discharging period)
Equation 2
⎡ VLed ⎤
ΔI _ toff = ⎢
⎥ ∗ toff
⎣ L ⎦
The circuit works in continuous conduction mode, then in steady-state the current variations
during ton and toff are the same (in module) and equivalent to the ripple current I_rip.
Ripple current
Equation 3
I _ rip = ΔI _ ton = ΔI _ toff
Duty cycle
Equation 4
⎡ ton ⎤ ⎡ VLed ⎤
D=⎢
⎥=⎢
⎥
⎣ T ⎦ ⎣ Vin ⎦
Additionally, the average current of the LED can be expressed as:
a. See Chapter 5: References on page 30.
Doc ID 15679 Rev 1
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Circuit description
AN2983
Equation 5
I _ Led _ avg = I _ Led _ pk − 1 I _ rip
2
Equation 6
⎡ VLed ⎤
I _ Led _ avg = I _ Led _ pk − 1 ⎢
∗ toff
2 ⎣ L ⎥⎦
2.2
L6562A controller
The L6562A is used in a "fixed off time" and "peak current mode" topology. Figure 6
represents the controller with its main functional blocks, the FOT_Delay circuitry and the
power section.
Figure 6.
Controller diagram
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At power-on, the "starter" sets the flip-flop, whose output (Q) goes high activating the gate
driver (GD).
The power MOSFET transistor is turned on and the load current (I_Led) flows through the
LED diodes, inductor, power MOSFET transistor and sense resistor.
The load current develops a voltage on the sense resistor: VS = I_Led * RSense.
This voltage is applied to the CS input of the controller where it is compared to the reference
voltage Vth = 1.08 V (nom.)
When Vs becomes higher than Vth, the comparator's output goes high, activating the reset
input of the FF.
The FF Q output is set to low and the gate driver output voltage goes to gnd.
The power MOSFET is turned off, Vs goes to zero and the I_Led current decreases, flowing
through the LEDs, inductor and Flywheel diode.
8/32
Doc ID 15679 Rev 1
AN2983
Circuit description
The falling edge of the gate driver starts the toff delay (see Section 2.3 on page 9). At the
end of the toff delay the set input of the FF is activated and a new cycle begins.
Figure 7.
Simulated waveforms
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FOT (fixed off time) delay circuit
Figure 8.
FOT net
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The fixed off time delay circuit is implemented by connecting the gate drive (GD) output to
the ZCD input by means of a diode D5 in series with R11 and C7 (in parallel), and ZCD to
ground with R18 and C8 in parallel.
There is a clamp circuit behind the ZCD pin of the controller that limits the maximum voltage
to 5.7 V, and a comparator whose output goes high if the input voltage falls below the
threshold level of 0.7 V.
Hence when GD is high (10 V nominal), ZCD is forced to the clamp level of 5.7 V, but as
soon as the gate driver goes low, the diode D5 turns off and the capacitor C8 discharges
through R18 until the voltage reaches 0.7 V.
At this point the comparator switches on and triggers the set input of the flip-flop, whose
output goes high.
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Circuit description
AN2983
This causes the gate driver to go high again and then the power MOSFET to conduct.
The time delay toff is simply governed by the equation of the discharge of the capacitor C8
through the resistor R18 with the boundary conditions V (t0) = 5.7 V, V (t1) = 0.7 V.
Equation 7
V(t1) = V(t 0
⎡ (toff) ⎤
−⎢
⎥
) * e ⎣ R18 *C8 ⎦
Equation 8
⎡ V(t1) ⎤
⎡ toff ⎤
ln⎢
⎥ = −⎢
⎥
⎣ V(t 0 ) ⎦
⎣ R18 * C 8 ⎦
Equation 9
⎡ V(t ) ⎤
toff = (R18 * C 8 ) * ln⎢ 0 ⎥
⎣ V(t1) ⎦
With our values this gives:
Equation 10
⎡ 5 .7 ⎤
toff = (R18 * C 8 ) * ln⎢
⎥ = 2.1 * (R18 * C 8 ) = 1.17μS
⎣ 0 .7 ⎦
Refer to AN2782(b) for a detailed description of the FOT controller. Figure 9 shows the key
waveforms with the LEDs’ current (I_LED), capacitor (C8) voltage (V_C8) and gate drive
output voltage (V_GD).
Figure 9.
toff delay (actual)
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It is worth noting that the real toff time is 1.57 µS and that the low threshold is 0.44 V. This is
due to the components’ tolerance and to the propagation delay from the comparator input to
the gate driver output.
b. See Chapter 5: References on page 30.
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AN2983
Circuit description
If we consider the time at which the capacitor voltage crosses the 0.7 V threshold, the
equivalent toff time is 1.32 µS (+150 nS compared to the nominal value, due to the tolerance
of C8 and stray capacitance) while the remaining 250 nS are related to the propagation
delay (during which the voltage falls from 0.7 V to 0.44 V).
Figure 10. toff delay (nominal)
Traces:
CH(4) green=I_LED;
CH(2) blue=V_C8;
CH(1) red=V_GD;
AM04261v1
2.4
Current setting
As already indicated, the CS pin of the L6562A controller is internally connected to the noninverting input of the CS comparator, whose threshold (Vth) is fixed to 1.08 V (nom.)
Tying it to the sense resistor forces the comparator’s output high when I_Led = Vth / RS.
This is a very simple way to detect – and limit – the peak load current to a fixed value.
In order to make this value adjustable, we can introduce an auxiliary voltage source (Va),
connected to the CS pin through a resistor (Ra) and another resistor (Rb) between CS and
the sense resistor, as indicated in Figure 11. In this way the auxiliary source can be used to
modify the threshold at which the (peak) load current triggers the comparator.
Figure 11. Current setting
!-V
Doc ID 15679 Rev 1
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Circuit description
AN2983
Equation 11
Vth = Vs − Ib * Rb
Equation 12
Vth = Va − Ia * Ra
Neglecting the current that flows though the CS pin (1 µA max):
Equation 13
Ib = −Ia
And then:
Equation 14
Vth = Vs − Ib * Rb
Equation 15
Vth = Va + Ib*Ra
Then:
Equation 16
Vs = Vth + Ib*Rb
and:
Equation 17
⎛ 1 ⎞
Ib = ⎜
⎟ * (Vth − Va)
⎝ Ra ⎠
Equation 18
⎛ 1 ⎞
Vs = Vth + ⎜
⎟ * (Vth − Va) * Rb
⎝ Ra ⎠
Equation 19
⎛ Rb ⎞
⎛ Rb ⎞
Vs = Vth + ⎜
⎟ * Vth − ⎜
⎟ * Va
⎝ Ra ⎠
⎝ Ra ⎠
Equation 20
⎛ Ra + Rb ⎞
⎛ Rb ⎞
Vs = Vth * ⎜
⎟ − Va * ⎜
⎟
⎝ Ra ⎠
⎝ Ra ⎠
Equation 21
⎛ Ra + Rb ⎞
⎛ Rb ⎞⎤
⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎡
I _ Led _ pk = ⎜
⎟ − Va * ⎜
⎟⎥
⎟ * ⎢Vth * ⎜
Rs
Ra
⎝
⎠
⎝ Ra ⎠⎦
⎝
⎠ ⎣
If we consider the limit condition Va = 0, which is equivalent to connecting Ra directly to
ground, the maximum peak LED current I_Led_pk (max) can be obtained by:
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AN2983
Circuit description
Equation 22
⎛ Ra + Rb ⎞
I _ Led _ pk(max) = I _ Led _ pk(nom) * ⎜
⎟
⎝ Ra ⎠
Doc ID 15679 Rev 1
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Circuit description
AN2983
Where, as already seen, the (nominal) LED peak current is:
Equation 23
⎛ 1 ⎞
I _ Led _ pk(nom) = ⎜
⎟ * Vth
⎝ Rs ⎠
On the other hand, if we fix I_Led_pk = 0 we can estimate the value of Va for which the LED
current is reduced to zero.
Equation 24
⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎡
⎛ Ra + Rb ⎞
⎛ Rb ⎞⎤
0=⎜
⎟ * ⎢Vth * ⎜
⎟ − Va * ⎜
⎟⎥
Rs
Ra
⎝
⎠ ⎣
⎝ Ra ⎠⎦
⎝
⎠
Equation 25
⎛ Rb ⎞
⎛ Ra + Rb ⎞
Va * ⎜
⎟ = Vth * ⎜
⎟
⎝ Ra ⎠
⎝ Ra ⎠
Equation 26
⎛ Ra + Rb ⎞
Va = Vth * ⎜
⎟
⎝ Rb ⎠
With our values of Ra = R19 = 10 kΩ, and Rb = R14 = 1 kΩ, Equation 21 can be rewritten
as:
Equation 27
⎛ 1 ⎞
I _ Led _ pk = ⎜
⎟ * [(1.1) * Vth − (0.1) * Va ]
⎝ Rs ⎠
Equation 22 becomes:
Equation 28
I _ Led _ pk(max) = I _ Led _ pk(nom) * (1.1)
And Equation 25:
Equation 29
Va = Vth * (11)
In the plot shown in Figure 12 the LED current (I_Led) is expressed as a function of the trim
voltage V_trim (= Va) applied at the C_set module input, with the supply voltage (Vin) as
parameter (fixed at 36, 48 and 60 V).
As you can see, the linearity is quite good for currents in the range of 400 to 75 mA and
voltages in the range 0... 10 V, while with V_trim from 10 to 12 V the current still decreases
down to zero, but with some non-linearity.
This is due to the fact that the LED diodes are a non-linear load and their behavior at low
current levels may change from one device to another.
Another point that has to be taken into account is that when the average current is reduced,
the minimum LED current is reduced to zero, causing the converter to change from
continuous conduction mode (CCM) to discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) operation.
14/32
Doc ID 15679 Rev 1
AN2983
Circuit description
Figure 12. I_Led/V_trim
!-V
2.5
LED number compensation
The average output current depends on the number of LEDs connected to the module, or to
be more precise, on the voltage (VLed) developed across them. This is due to the fact that:
Equation 30
I _ Led _ avg = I _ Led _ pk − 1 I _ rip
2
and:
Equation 31
⎛ toff ⎞
I _ rip = ⎜
⎟ * VLed
⎝ L ⎠
and then:
Equation 32
⎛ toff ⎞
I _ Led _ avg = I _ Led _ pk − 1 ⎜
* VLed
2 ⎝ L ⎟⎠
With a constant I_Led_pk, toff and L, it appears that if VLed increases, the average current
decreases, and vice versa.
Usually the number of LEDs is determined in the early stages of the design phase, but if
required, it is possible to make the load current almost independent of the number of LEDs
employed by connecting two resistors (R17 and R20) from the LEDs’ cathode to the CS pin
of the controller.
With a technique similar to that of the current setting, the circuit senses the voltage
[Vin - VLed] that depends on the number of LEDs and corrects the voltage applied to the
current sense pin.
In this way the circuit behaves as if the internal comparator triggers when the average
current – instead of the peak current – exceeds the threshold value.
Doc ID 15679 Rev 1
15/32
Circuit description
AN2983
The drawback of this configuration is that since the circuit is now more sensitive to input
voltage variations, Vin has to be more tightly regulated.
The following equations demonstrate what has been previously asserted.
Equation 33
⎛ toff ⎞
I _ Led _ avg = I _ Led _ pk − 1 ⎜
* VLed
2 ⎝ L ⎟⎠
Equation 34
⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎡
⎛ Ra + Rb ⎞
⎛ Rb ⎞⎤
I _ Led _ pk = ⎜
⎟ * ⎢Vth * ⎜
⎟ − Va * ⎜
⎟⎥
⎝ Rs ⎠ ⎣
⎝ Ra ⎠⎦
⎝ Ra ⎠
Where: I_Led_avg is the LEDs’ average current, I_Led_pk is the LEDs’ peak current and
Va = (Vin - VLed) is the LEDs’ cathode voltage.
Equation 35
⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎡
⎛ Ra + Rb ⎞
⎛ Rb ⎞⎤ 1 ⎛ toff ⎞
I _ Led _ avg = ⎜
⎟ * ⎢Vth * ⎜
⎟ − (Vin − VLed ) * ⎜
⎟⎥ − 2 ⎜
⎟ * VLed
⎝ Rs ⎠ ⎣
⎝ Ra ⎠
⎝ Ra ⎠⎦
⎝ L ⎠
Equation 36
⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎡
⎛ Ra + Rb ⎞
⎛ Rb ⎞⎤
I _ Led _ avg = ⎜
⎟ * ⎢Vth * ⎜
⎟ − Vin * ⎜
⎟⎥ +
⎝ Rs ⎠ ⎣
⎝ Ra ⎠
⎝ Ra ⎠⎦
⎡⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ Rb ⎞ 1 ⎛ toff ⎞⎤
+ VLed * ⎢⎜
⎟*⎜
⎟ − 2⎜
⎟⎥
⎝ L ⎠⎦
⎣⎝ Rs ⎠ ⎝ Ra ⎠
To make I_Led_avg independent of VLed, the VLed coefficient has to be reduced to zero.
Equation 37
1 ⎛ Rb ⎞ 1 ⎛ toff ⎞
*⎜
⎟ − 2⎜
⎟=0
Rs ⎝ Ra ⎠
⎝ L ⎠
That is to say, setting:
Equation 38
⎛ Rb ⎞ 1 ⎛ toff ⎞
⎜
⎟ = 2⎜
⎟=0
⎝ Ra ⎠
⎝ L / Rs ⎠
reduces Equation 36 to:
Equation 39
⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎡
⎛ Ra + Rb ⎞
⎛ Rb ⎞⎤
I _ Led _ avg = ⎜
⎟ * ⎢Vth * ⎜
⎟ − (Vin) * ⎜
⎟⎥
⎝ Rs ⎠ ⎣
⎝ Ra ⎠
⎝ Ra ⎠⎦
In other words, connecting Ra to the cathode of the LEDs’ string, the average LED current
depends only on Vth and Vin.
16/32
Doc ID 15679 Rev 1
AN2983
Circuit description
Going into further detail, we also have to consider the delay of the current sense comparator
(tdel) and modify Equation 33 as follows.
Equation 40
I _ Led _ avg = I _ Led _ pk − 1 I _ rip + I _ del
2
With:
Equation 41
⎛ tdel ⎞
I _ del = ⎜
⎟ * (Vin − VLed )
⎝ L ⎠
Equation 42
⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎡
⎛ Ra + Rb ⎞
⎛ Rb ⎞⎤
⎛ tdel ⎞
I _ Led _ avg = ⎜
⎟ * ⎢Vth * ⎜
⎟ − Vin * ⎜
⎟⎥ + Vin * ⎜
⎟+
Rs
Ra
Ra
⎝
⎠ ⎣
⎝
⎠
⎝
⎠⎦
⎝ L ⎠
⎡⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ Rb ⎞ 1 ⎛ toff ⎞⎤
⎛ tdel ⎞
+ VLed * ⎢⎜
⎟*⎜
⎟ − 2⎜
⎟⎥ − VLed * ⎜
⎟
Rs
Ra
L
⎠ ⎝
⎠
⎝
⎠⎦
⎝ L ⎠
⎣⎝
Equation 43
⎡⎛ Rb ⎞ ⎛ tdel ⎞⎤ ⎤
⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎡
⎛ Ra + Rb ⎞
I _ Led _ avg = ⎜
⎟ * ⎢Vth * ⎜
⎟ − Vin * ⎢⎜
⎟−⎜
⎟⎥ ⎥ +
⎝ Rs ⎠ ⎢⎣
⎝ Ra ⎠
⎣⎝ Ra ⎠ ⎝ L / Rs ⎠⎦ ⎥⎦
⎡⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ Rb ⎞ 1 ⎛ toff ⎞ ⎛ tdel ⎞⎤
+ VLed * ⎢⎜
⎟*⎜
⎟ − 2⎜
⎟−⎜
⎟⎥
⎝ L ⎠ ⎝ L ⎠⎦
⎣⎝ Rs ⎠ ⎝ Ra ⎠
And with Equation 38 that now becomes:
Equation 44
⎛ Rb ⎞ 1 ⎛ toff ⎞ ⎛ tdel ⎞
⎜
⎟ = 2⎜
⎟+⎜
⎟
⎝ Ra ⎠
⎝ L / Rs ⎠ ⎝ L / Rs ⎠
And Equation 40:
Equation 45
⎡⎛ Rb ⎞ ⎛ tdel ⎞⎤ ⎤
⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎡
⎛ Ra + Rb ⎞
I _ Led _ avg = ⎜
⎟ * ⎢Vth * ⎜
⎟ − Vin * ⎢⎜
⎟−⎜
⎟⎥ ⎥
⎝ Rs ⎠ ⎣⎢
⎝ Ra ⎠
⎣⎝ Ra ⎠ ⎝ L / Rs ⎠⎦ ⎦⎥
With the values of our application:
Equation 46
toff = 1.57 μ S, tdel = 0.2 μ S, L = 470 μ H, Rs = 2.8 Ω
Equation 47
⎛ L ⎞ ⎛⎜ 470 * 10 −6
⎜
⎟=
2 .8
⎝ Rs ⎠ ⎜⎝
(
)
⎞
⎟ = 1.68 * 10 − 4 S
⎟
⎠
Equation 48
1 (toff ) + (tdel) = (0.985 * 10 −6 )S
2
Doc ID 15679 Rev 1
17/32
Circuit description
AN2983
And then:
Equation 49
(
)
1.68 * 10 −4
⎛ Ra ⎞
= 170
⎜
⎟=
⎝ Rb ⎠ 0.985 * 10 −6
(
)
On the demonstration board several measures have been taken with Vin = 48 V, and
Rb = 1 kΩ.
Figure 13 is the plot of the LED current as a function of the voltage on the LED string (VLed)
with Ra (actually R17 + R20) as a parameter.
Figure 13. I_Led/VLed
!-V
2.6
Shutdown/dimming
The D_Dim input (pin 1 of the J1 connector) has a dual function.
●
Module enable
●
Digital (PWM) dimming
Forcing it low, or leaving it floating, enables the controller's normal activity (current sink),
while pulling it high (> 2.7 V) causes the module to shut down. Therefore, this input can be
used to switch the load on and off.
Figure 14 and Figure 15 highlight the turn-on and turn-off with an input voltage (Vin) of 48 V
and an equivalent output voltage (VLed) of 20 V. In these conditions, the rise and fall times
of the load current are lower than 10 µS.
Applying a square wave to this pin forces the module to 'work and stop' at the input signal
frequency; in this way the average load current can be modified by simply changing the duty
cycle of the PWM control.
Supposing a dimming frequency of 200 Hz is used, and taking into account the 10 µS of
rise/fall time of the LED current, we can estimate the minimum dimming as
(20 uS)*(200 Hz) = 0.4%.
Figure 16, 17, 18, 19, and 20 show the LED current for different dimming factors between
1% and 99%.
18/32
Doc ID 15679 Rev 1
AN2983
Note:
Circuit description
R1 = 10 kΩ, C9 = 100 pF, and D1= 5.6 V Zener diode. All these devices have been
introduced to protect the controller from excessive input voltages or noise; in a complete
system, with a driver directly connected, they can be avoided.
Figure 14. Enable/dimming detailed view (turn-on)
#(GREEN)?,%$#(REDGATEDRIVE#(PURPLE$?$)--
!-V
Figure 15. Enable/dimming detailed view (turn-off)
#(GREEN)?,%$#(REDGATEDRIVE#(PURPLE$?$)--
Doc ID 15679 Rev 1
!-V
19/32
Circuit description
AN2983
Figure 16. Dimming 1%
Figure 17. Dimming 10%
!-V
!-V
CH(4) green: LED current [mA]
CH(1) red: gate drive output [V]
CH(3) purple: D_Dimm input [V]
CH(4) green: LED current [mA]
CH(1) red: gate drive output [V]
CH(3) purple: D_Dimm input [V]
Figure 18. Dimming 50%
!-V
CH(4) green: LED current [mA]
CH(1) red: gate drive output [V]
CH(3) purple: D_Dimm input [V]
20/32
Doc ID 15679 Rev 1
AN2983
Circuit description
Figure 19. Dimming 90%
Figure 20. Dimming 99%
!-V
!-V
CH(4) green: LED current [mA]
CH(1) red: gate drive output [V]
CH(3) purple: D_Dimm input [V]
2.7
CH(4) green: LED current [mA]
CH(1) red: gate drive output [V]
CH(3) purple: D_Dimm input [V]
Auxiliary power
The components for the auxiliary power supply are Q1, D2, C2, R2, R3, and R5.
This section is included as a commodity to reduce the main voltage (48 V nominal) to the
18 V required from the Vcc input of the L6562A controller, thus avoiding the use of another
power supply. It has been designed to work with input voltages in the range of 33 to 65 V, but
can be easily resized for different ranges.
Note that it is a linear regulator and that its efficiency is not very good. For this reason, in
real applications where multiple modules are employed, it is better to consider a solution
with an external supply common to all the modules.
Simply removing R2 and R5 disconnects the entire block and allows the power supply (Vcc)
to be provided from pin 5 of the header connector.
Figure 21. Auxiliary power
6IN
2
2
1
2
#
6CC
Doc ID 15679 Rev 1
$
!-V
21/32
Circuit description
2.8
AN2983
Open-/short-circuit protection
As indicated, one of the requirements is that the module can sustain open and short circuits
indefinitely and restart the correct functionality as soon as the fault is removed.
From the "open circuit" point of view the module is intrinsically safe: if the load is
disconnected, no current runs through the sense resistor and the controller drives the power
MOSFET transistor in conduction and pin 10 of the J1 connector to ground. Whenever the
load is reconnected, the current restarts to flow and normal operation is resumed.
The short-circuit condition is more critical. At the end of the toff delay, the power MOSFET is
turned on, the current starts to flow and charges the inductor, and the voltage on the sense
resistor quickly reaches the threshold level. However, because of the controller’s internal
delay (175 nS nom.) the power MOSFET does not shut down immediately; as such, a
minimal amount of energy is still transferred to the inductor, but during the toff time – since
the load is a short-circuit – this energy is NOT dissipated.
The result is that the load current rises abnormally, leading to catastrophic failure unless the
cycle is blocked.
For this reason the circuit outlined in Figure 22 has been introduced.
Figure 22. Short-circuit protection
6CC
2
2
$
$
).6
1
#
23ENSE
2
!-V
In normal conditions the voltage developed across the sense resistor is not sufficient to turn
on Q3. The INV pin of the controller is then at:
Equation 50
⎛
⎞
22K
R9
⎛
⎞
⎟⎟ = 1.44V
(Vcc) * ⎜
⎟ = (18V) * ⎜⎜
+
+
(
220
K
33
K
22
K
)
R
6
R
7
R
9
+
+
⎝
⎠
⎝
⎠
On the other hand, in the case of a short-circuit, the load current increases until Q3 goes in
conduction, C5 is discharged and the INV pin goes to:
Equation 51
⎛
⎞
22K
⎛ R9 ⎞
⎟⎟ = (0.25) * (0.4)V = 0.1V
(Q3 _ Vce _ sat) * ⎜
⎟ = (0.25V) * ⎜⎜
⎝ R7 + R9 ⎠
⎝ (33K + 22K ) ⎠
The controller then shuts down, the power MOSFET stops conducting, the inductor
discharges and the load current decays to zero. Since no current flows through the sense
22/32
Doc ID 15679 Rev 1
AN2983
Circuit description
resistor, Q3 turns off allowing C5 to charge through R6, and the voltage of the INV pin rises
again. When it reaches 0.45 V the disable condition is removed and the controller restarts.
If the short-circuit condition is removed, the circuit restores its normal functionality. If the
short-circuit condition persists, the hiccup cycle is repeated.
Figure 23. Short-circuit application
Figure 24. Short-circuit removal
#('REEN)?,ED#("LUE6CE?1
#(2ED62SENSE
!-V
#('REEN)?,ED#("LUE6CE?1
#(2ED62SENSE
!-V
Figure 25. Short-circuit detection
Figure 26. Load current decay
#('REEN)?,ED
#(2ED62SENSE
&+*UHHQ,B/HG
&+5HG95VHQVH
!-V
Doc ID 15679 Rev 1
!-V
23/32
Measurements
AN2983
3
Measurements
3.1
LED voltage dependency
The first set of measures was taken at a nominal input voltage with Vin = 48 V and with the
output voltage (Vled) as a parameter.
Figure 27. LED current (average, maximum, minimum)
!-V
Figure 28. LED current (ripple)
!-V
24/32
Doc ID 15679 Rev 1
AN2983
Measurements
Figure 29. Switching frequency
!-V
Figure 30. Efficiency [%]
!-V
Doc ID 15679 Rev 1
25/32
Measurements
3.2
AN2983
Input voltage dependency
A second set of measures was taken varying the input voltage from 36 to 60 V with several
load conditions as parameters (VLed from 15 to 45 V).
M!
Figure 31. LED current (average)
;6=
!-V
Figure 32. Switching frequency
;6=
!-V
Figure 33. Efficiency [%]
;6=
!-V
26/32
Doc ID 15679 Rev 1
Doc ID 15679 Rev 1
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AN2983
Electrical schematic and bill of materials
Electrical schematic and bill of materials
Figure 34. EVL6562A-LED electrical schematic
!-V
27/32
Electrical schematic and bill of materials
Table 2.
Item Qty
AN2983
EVL6562A-LED BOM
Reference
Part
PCB footprint
Notes
1
1
C1
0.22 µF 100VL
1812
2
3
C2,C3,C5
220 nF
805
3
1
C4
Not mounted
4
3
C6,C8,C9
100 pF
805
5
1
C7
220 pF
805
6
1
C10
820 pF
7
1
D1
MMSZ4690T1G
SOD-123
8
1
D2
MMSZ18T1G
SOD-123
9
1
D3
STPS2H100A
SMA
10
6
D4,D5,D6,D7, D8,D9
BAS316
SOD-323
11
1
EXT C
0.22 µF
External jig
12
1
EXT LEDs
MLEDs
LEDs string
13
1
EXT P
POT 10 kΩ multiturns
External jig
14
1
J1
Strip header, 10-pin,
90°, 2.54 mm pitch
15
1
L1
470 µH
16
1
Q1
BCX56
SOT-89
17
1
Q2
STN3NF06
SOT-223
18
1
Q3
BC846C
SOT-23
19
3
R1,R12,R19
10 kΩ
805
20
1
R2
1 kΩ
1206
21
1
R3
18 kΩ
1206
22
3
R4,R5,R13
0Ω
805
23
1
R6
220 kΩ
805
24
1
R7
33 kΩ
805
25
1
R8
1Ω
805
26
1
R9
22 kΩ
805
27
1
R10
10 Ω
805
28
1
R11
1.5 kΩ
805
29
1
R14
1.0 kΩ
805
30
2
R15,R16
5.6 Ω
1210
31
1
R17
100 kΩ
805
32
1
R18
5.6 kΩ
805
33
1
R20
68 kΩ
805
28/32
Doc ID 15679 Rev 1
STMicroelectronics
Coilcraft MMS1260-474KLB
STMicroelectronics
AN2983
Table 2.
Item Qty
Electrical schematic and bill of materials
EVL6562A-LED BOM (continued)
Reference
Part
PCB footprint
34
1
R21
470
805
35
1
U1
L6562A
SO-8
Doc ID 15679 Rev 1
Notes
STMicroelectronics
29/32
References
5
Note:
30/32
AN2983
References
1.
AN2928
2.
AN2782
3.
L6562A datasheet
These references are available on the STMicroelectronics web site at www.st.com.
Doc ID 15679 Rev 1
AN2983
6
Revision history
Revision history
Table 3.
Document revision history
Date
Revision
16-Dec-2009
1
Changes
Initial release.
Doc ID 15679 Rev 1
31/32
AN2983
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