PHILIPS TDA8924

INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
DATA SHEET
TDA8924
2 × 120 W class-D power amplifier
Objective specification
2003 Jul 28
Philips Semiconductors
Objective specification
2 × 120 W class-D power amplifier
TDA8924
CONTENTS
15
DYNAMIC AC CHARACTERISTICS (MONO
BTL APPLICATION)
16
APPLICATION INFORMATION
16.1
16.2
16.3
16.4
16.5
16.6
16.7
16.8
16.9
16.10
16.11
16.12
BTL application
Pin MODE
Output power estimation
External clock
Heatsink requirements
Output current limiting
Pumping effects
Reference design
PCB information for HSOP24 encapsulation
Classification
Reference design: bill of materials
Curves measured in the reference design
17
PACKAGE OUTLINE
18
SOLDERING
18.1
Introduction to soldering surface mount
packages
Reflow soldering
Wave soldering
Manual soldering
Suitability of surface mount IC packages for
wave and reflow soldering methods
1
FEATURES
2
APPLICATIONS
3
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
4
QUICK REFERENCE DATA
5
ORDERING INFORMATION
6
BLOCK DIAGRAM
7
PINNING
8
FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.3.1
8.3.2
8.3.3
8.3.4
8.4
General
Pulse width modulation frequency
Protections
Over-temperature
Short-circuit across the loudspeaker terminals
and to supply lines
Start-up safety test
Supply voltage alarm
Differential audio inputs
9
LIMITING VALUES
10
THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS
11
QUALITY SPECIFICATION
12
STATIC CHARACTERISTICS
19
DATA SHEET STATUS
13
SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS
20
DEFINITIONS
14
DYNAMIC AC CHARACTERISTICS (STEREO
AND DUAL SE APPLICATION)
21
DISCLAIMERS
2003 Jul 28
18.2
18.3
18.4
18.5
2
Philips Semiconductors
Objective specification
2 × 120 W class-D power amplifier
1
TDA8924
FEATURES
2
APPLICATIONS
• High efficiency (∼90 %)
• Television sets
• Operating voltage from ±12.5 V to ±30 V
• Home-sound sets
• Very low quiescent current
• Multimedia systems
• Low distortion
• All mains fed audio systems
• Usable as a stereo Single-Ended (SE) amplifier or as a
mono amplifier in Bridge-Tied Load (BTL)
• Car audio (boosters).
• Fixed gain of 28 dB in SE and 34 dB in BTL
3
• High output power
The TDA8924 is a high efficiency class-D audio power
amplifier with very low dissipation. The typical output
power is 2 × 120 W.
• Good ripple rejection
• Internal switching frequency can be overruled by an
external clock
The device comes in a HSOP24 power package with a
small internal heatsink. Depending on supply voltage and
load conditions a very small or even no external heatsink
is required. The amplifier operates over a wide supply
voltage range from ±12.5 V to ±30 V and consumes a very
low quiescent current.
• No switch-on or switch-off plop noise
• Short-circuit proof across the load and to the supply
lines
• Electrostatic discharge protection
• Thermally protected.
4
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
QUICK REFERENCE DATA
SYMBOL
PARAMETER
CONDITIONS
MIN.
TYP.
MAX.
UNIT
General; VP = ±24 V
VP
supply voltage
±12.5
±24
±30
V
Iq(tot)
total quiescent current
no load connected; note 1
−
100
−
mA
η
efficiency
Po = 240 W BTL mode
−
83
−
%
120
−
W
Stereo single-ended configuration
RL = 2 Ω; THD = 10 %; VP = ±24 V; note 2 −
output power
Po
Mono bridge-tied load configuration
RL = 4 Ω; THD = 10 %; note 2
output power
Po
VP = ±24 V
−
240
−
W
VP = ±20 V
−
175
−
W
Notes
1. Quiescent current in application; value strongly depends on circuitry connected to the output pin. This also means
that quiescent dissipation of the chip is lower than the VP × Iq.
2. Output power is measured indirectly; based on RDSon measurement.
5
ORDERING INFORMATION
TYPE
NUMBER
TDA8924TH
2003 Jul 28
PACKAGE
NAME
HSOP24
DESCRIPTION
plastic thermal enhanced small outline package; 24 leads; low
stand-off height; heatsink
3
VERSION
SOT566-3
Philips Semiconductors
Objective specification
2 × 120 W class-D power amplifier
6
TDA8924
BLOCK DIAGRAM
handbook, full pagewidth V
DDA2
VDDA1
3
IN1−
IN1+
SGND1
OSC
MODE
VDDP2
STABI PROT
10
18
13
23
VDDP1
14
15
INPUT
STAGE
8
PWM
MODULATOR
SWITCH1
CONTROL
AND
ENABLE1 HANDSHAKE
mute
11
DRIVER
HIGH
16
STABI
VSSP1
7
6
OSCILLATOR
MANAGER
MODE
TEMPERATURE SENSOR
CURRENT PROTECTION
TDA8924
VDDP2
IN2−
ENABLE2
CONTROL
SWITCH2
AND
HANDSHAKE
RELEASE2
5
4
INPUT
STAGE
1
PWM
MODULATOR
12
24
VSSA2 VSSA1
VSSD
19
HW
Pin 19 should be connected to pin 24 in the application.
Fig.1 Block diagram.
2003 Jul 28
BOOT2
2
mute
IN2+
OUT1
DRIVER
LOW
22
SGND2
BOOT1
RELEASE1
9
4
DRIVER
HIGH
21
OUT2
DRIVER
LOW
17
20
VSSP1
VSSP2
MDB569
Philips Semiconductors
Objective specification
2 × 120 W class-D power amplifier
7
TDA8924
PINNING
SYMBOL
PIN
DESCRIPTION
VSSA2
1
negative analog supply voltage for
channel 2
SGND2
2
signal ground channel 2
VDDA2
3
positive analog supply voltage for
channel 2
IN2−
4
negative audio input for channel 2
IN2+
5
positive audio input for channel 2
MODE
6
mode select input
(standby/mute/operating)
OSC
7
handbook, halfpage
VSSD 24
1
oscillator frequency adjustment or
tracking input
VSSA2
VDDP2 23
2
SGND2
BOOT2 22
3
VDDA2
IN1+
8
positive audio input for channel 1
IN1−
9
negative audio input for channel 1
OUT2 21
4
IN2−
VDDA1
10
positive analog supply voltage for
channel 1
VSSP2 20
5
IN2+
SGND1
11
signal ground for channel 1
6
MODE
VSSA1
12
negative analog supply voltage for
channel 1
STABI 18
7
OSC
VSSP1 17
8
IN1+
OUT1 16
9
IN1−
PROT
13
time constant capacitor for
protection delay
VDDP1
14
positive power supply for
channel 1
BOOT1
15
bootstrap capacitor for channel 1
OUT1
16
PWM output from channel 1
VSSP1
17
negative power supply voltage for
channel 1
STABI
18
decoupling internal stabilizer for
logic supply
HW
19
handle wafer; must be connected
to pin 24
VSSP2
20
negative power supply voltage for
channel 2
OUT2
21
PWM output from channel 2
BOOT2
22
bootstrap capacitor for channel 2
VDDP2
23
positive power supply voltage for
channel 2
VSSD
24
negative digital supply voltage
2003 Jul 28
HW 19
TDA8924TH
BOOT1 15
10 VDDA1
VDDP1 14
11 SGND1
PROT 13
12 VSSA1
MDB568
Pin 19 should be connected to pin 24 in the application.
Fig.2 Pin configuration.
5
Philips Semiconductors
Objective specification
2 × 120 W class-D power amplifier
8
8.1
TDA8924
The amplifier system can be switched in three operating
modes with pin MODE:
FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
General
• Standby mode; with a very low supply current
The TDA8924 is a two channel audio power amplifier using
class-D technology. A typical application diagram is
illustrated in Fig.38. A detailed application reference
design is given in Section 16.8.
• Mute mode; the amplifiers are operational, but the audio
signal at the output is suppressed
• Operating mode; the amplifiers are fully operational with
output signal.
The audio input signal is converted into a digital Pulse
Width Modulated (PWM) signal via an analog input stage
and PWM modulator. To enable the output power
transistors to be driven, this digital PWM signal is applied
to a control and handshake block and driver circuits for
both the high side and low side. In this way a level shift is
performed from the low power digital PWM signal (at logic
levels) to a high power PWM signal which switches
between the main supply lines.
An example of a switching circuit for driving pin MODE is
illustrated in Fig.3.
For suppressing plop noise the amplifier will remain
automatically in the mute mode for approximately 150 ms
before switching to the operating mode (see Fig.4).
During this time, the coupling capacitors at the input are
fully charged.
A 2nd-order low-pass filter converts the PWM signal to an
analog audio signal across the loudspeaker.
The TDA8924 one-chip class-D amplifier contains high
power D-MOS switches, drivers, timing and handshaking
between the power switches and some control logic. For
protection a temperature sensor and a maximum current
detector are built-in.
handbook, halfpage
mute/on
R
Each of the two audio channels of the TDA8924 contains
a PWM, an analog feedback loop and a differential input
stage. The TDA8924 also contains circuits common to
both channels such as the oscillator, all reference sources,
the mode functionality and a digital timing manager.
MODE pin
R
SGND
MBL463
The TDA8924 contains two independent amplifier
channels with high output power, high efficiency (90 %),
low distortion and a low quiescent current. The amplifier
channels can be connected in the following configurations:
• Mono Bridge-Tied Load (BTL) amplifier
Fig.3 Example of mode select circuit.
• Stereo Single-Ended (SE) amplifiers.
2003 Jul 28
+5 V
standby/
mute
6
Philips Semiconductors
Objective specification
2 × 120 W class-D power amplifier
TDA8924
audio
handbook, full pagewidth
switching
Vmode
When switching from standby
to mute, there is a delay of
100 ms before the output
starts switching. The audio
signal is available after Vmode
has been set to operating, but
not earlier than 150 ms after
switching to mute.
operating
4V
mute
2V
0 V (SGND)
standby
100 ms
time
>50 ms
audio
switching
Vmode
When switching from standby
to operating, there is a first
delay of 100 ms before the
outputs starts switching. The
audio signal is available after
a second delay of 50 ms.
operating
4V
0 V (SGND)
standby
100 ms
50 ms
time
MBL465
Fig.4 Timing on mode select input.
8.2
If two or more class-D amplifiers are used in the same
audio application, it is advisable to have all devices
operating at the same switching frequency.
Pulse width modulation frequency
The output signal of the amplifier is a PWM signal with a
carrier frequency of approximately 350 kHz. Using a
2nd-order LC demodulation filter in the application results
in an analog audio signal across the loudspeaker.
This switching frequency is fixed by an external resistor
ROSC connected between pin OSC and VSSA. With the
resistor value given in the schematic diagram of the
reference design, the carrier frequency is typical 350 kHz.
The carrier frequency can be calculated using the
This can be realized by connecting all OSC pins together
and feed them from an external central oscillator. Using an
external oscillator it is necessary to force pin OSC to a
DC-level above SGND for switching from internal to an
external oscillator. In this case the internal oscillator is
disabled and the PWM will be switched to the external
frequency. The frequency range of the external oscillator
must be in the range as specified in the switching
characteristics; see Chapter 13.
9
9 × 10
following equation: f osc = ------------------- Hz
R OSC
2003 Jul 28
7
Philips Semiconductors
Objective specification
2 × 120 W class-D power amplifier
TDA8924
Remark: This test is only operational prior to or during the
start-up sequence, and not during normal operation.
In an application circuit:
• Internal oscillator: ROSC connected from pin OSC to VSS
• External oscillator: connect oscillator signal between pin
OSC and SGND; delete ROSC and COSC.
8.3
During normal operation the maximum current protection
is used to detect short-circuits across the load and with
respect to the supply lines.
Protections
8.3.4
Temperature, supply voltage and short-circuit protection
sensors are included on the chip. In the event that the
maximum current or maximum temperature is exceeded
the system will shut down.
8.3.1
If the supply voltage falls below ±12.5 V the undervoltage
protection is activated and the system shuts down
correctly. If the internal clock is used, this switch-off will be
silent and without plop noise. When the supply voltage
rises above the threshold level the system is restarted
again after 100 ms. If the supply voltage exceeds ±32 V
the overvoltage protection is activated and the power
stages shut down. They are re-enabled as soon as the
supply voltage drops below the threshold level.
OVER-TEMPERATURE
If the junction temperature (Tj) exceeds 150 °C, then the
power stage will shut down immediately. The power stage
will start switching again if the temperature drops to
approximately 130 °C, thus there is a hysteresis of
approximately 20 °C.
8.3.2
It has to be stressed that the overvoltage protection only
protects against damage due to supply pumping effects;
see Section 16.7. Apart from the power stages, the rest of
the circuitry remains connected to the power supply. This
means, that the supply itself should never exceed 30 V.
SHORT-CIRCUIT ACROSS THE LOUDSPEAKER
TERMINALS AND TO SUPPLY LINES
When the loudspeaker terminals are short-circuited or if
one of the demodulated outputs of the amplifier is
short-circuited to one of the supply lines this will be
detected by the current protection. If the output current
exceeds the maximum output current of 12 A, then the
power stage will shut down within less than 1 µs and the
high-current will be switched off. In this state the
dissipation is very low. Every 100 ms the system tries to
restart again. If there is still a short-circuit across the
loudspeaker load or to one of the supply lines, the system
is switched off again as soon as the maximum current is
exceeded. The average dissipation will be low because of
this low duty cycle.
8.3.3
An additional balance protection circuit compares the
positive (VDD) and the negative (VSS) supply voltages and
is triggered if the voltage difference between them
exceeds a certain level. This level depends on the sum of
both supply voltages. An expression for the unbalanced
threshold level is as follows: Vth(unb) ~ 0.15 × (VDD + VSS).
Example: With a symmetrical supply of ±30 V the
protection circuit will be triggered if the unbalance exceeds
approximately 9 V; see also Section 16.7.
8.4
Differential audio inputs
For a high common mode rejection ratio and a maximum
of flexibility in the application, the audio inputs are fully
differential. By connecting the inputs anti-parallel the
phase of one of the channels can be inverted, so that a
load can be connected between the two output filters.
In this case the system operates as a mono BTL amplifier
and with the same loudspeaker impedance an
approximately four times higher output power can be
obtained.
START-UP SAFETY TEST
During the start-up sequence, when the mode pin is
switched from standby to mute, the condition at the output
terminals of the power stage are checked. In the event of
a short-circuit at one of the output terminals to VDD or VSS
the start-up procedure is interrupted and the systems waits
for open-circuit outputs. Because the test is done before
enabling the power stages, no large currents will flow in the
event of a short-circuit. This system protects for
short-circuits at both sides of the output filter to both supply
lines. When there is a short-circuit from the power PWM
output of the power stage to one of the supply lines (before
the demodulation filter) it will also be detected by the
start-up safety test. Practical use of this test feature can be
found in detection of short-circuits on the printed-circuit
board.
2003 Jul 28
SUPPLY VOLTAGE ALARM
The input configuration for mono BTL application is
illustrated in Fig.5; for more information see Chapter 16.
In the stereo single-ended configuration it is also
recommended to connect the two differential inputs in
anti-phase. This has advantages for the current handling
of the power supply at low signal frequencies.
8
Philips Semiconductors
Objective specification
2 × 120 W class-D power amplifier
TDA8924
handbook, full pagewidth
OUT1
IN1+
IN1−
Vin
SGND
IN2+
IN2−
OUT2
power stage
MBL466
Fig.5 Input configuration for mono BTL application.
2003 Jul 28
9
Philips Semiconductors
Objective specification
2 × 120 W class-D power amplifier
TDA8924
9 LIMITING VALUES
In accordance with the Absolute Maximum Rating System (IEC 60134).
SYMBOL
PARAMETER
CONDITIONS
MIN.
MAX.
UNIT
−
±30
V
−
5.5
V
−
±30
V
−
11.3
A
VP
supply voltage
VMODE
input voltage on pin MODE
Vsc
short-circuit voltage on output pins
IORM
repetitive peak current in output pin
Tstg
storage temperature
−55
+150
°C
Tamb
ambient temperature
−40
+85
°C
Tvj
virtual junction temperature
−
150
°C
with respect to SGND
note 1
Note
1. See also Section 16.6.
10 THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS
SYMBOL
PARAMETER
CONDITIONS
VALUE
UNIT
Rth(j-a)
thermal resistance from junction to
ambient
in free air; note 1
35
K/W
Rth(j-c)
thermal resistance from junction to
case
note 1
1.3
K/W
Note
1. See also Section 16.5.
11 QUALITY SPECIFICATION
In accordance with “SNW-FQ611-part D” if this type is used as an audio amplifier.
2003 Jul 28
10
Philips Semiconductors
Objective specification
2 × 120 W class-D power amplifier
TDA8924
12 STATIC CHARACTERISTICS
VP = ±24 V; Tamb = 25 °C; measured in Fig.9; unless otherwise specified.
SYMBOL
PARAMETER
CONDITIONS
MIN.
TYP.
MAX.
UNIT
Supply
VP
supply voltage
note 1
±12.5
±24
±30
V
Iq(tot)
total quiescent current
no load connected
−
100
−
mA
Istb
standby supply current
−
100
500
µA
Mode select input: pin MODE
VMODE
input voltage
note 2
0
−
5.5
V
IMODE
input current
VMODE = 5.5 V
−
−
1000
µA
Vstb
input voltage for standby mode
notes 2 and 3
0
−
0.8
V
Vmute
input voltage for mute mode
notes 2 and 3
2.2
−
3.0
V
Von
input voltage for operating mode
notes 2 and 3
4.2
−
5.5
V
note 2
−
0
−
V
Audio inputs: pins IN2−, IN2+, IN1+ and IN1−
VI
DC input voltage
Amplifier outputs: pins OUT1 and OUT2
VOO(SE)
SE output offset voltage
operating and mute
−
−
150
mV
∆VOO(SE)
SE variation of output offset
voltage
operating ↔ mute
−
−
80
mV
VOO(BTL)
BTL output offset voltage
operating and mute
−
−
215
mV
∆VOO(BTL)
BTL variation of output offset
voltage
operating ↔ mute
−
−
115
mV
operating and mute; note 4
11
13
15
V
Stabilizer: pin STABI
Vo(stab)
stabilizer output voltage
Temperature protection
Tprot
temperature protection activation
150
−
−
°C
Thys
hysteresis on temperature
protection
−
20
−
°C
Notes
1. The circuit is DC adjusted at VP = ±12.5 V to ±30 V.
2. With respect to SGND (0 V).
3. The transition regions between standby, mute and operating mode contain hysteresis (see Fig.6).
4. With respect to VSSP1.
2003 Jul 28
11
Philips Semiconductors
Objective specification
2 × 120 W class-D power amplifier
TDA8924
MBL467
handbook, full pagewidth
STBY
0
MUTE
0.8
2.2
ON
3.0
4.2
5.5
VMODE (V)
Fig.6 Behaviour of mode selection pin MODE.
13 SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS
VDD = ±24 V; Tamb = 25 °C; measured in Fig.9; unless otherwise specified.
SYMBOL
PARAMETER
CONDITIONS
MIN.
TYP.
MAX.
UNIT
Internal oscillator; note 1
fosc(typ)
typical oscillator frequency
fosc
oscillator frequency
ROSC = 30.0 kΩ
290
317
344
kHz
210
−
600
kHz
External oscillator or frequency tracking
VOSC
voltage on pin OSC
SGND + 4.5 SGND + 5
VOSC(trip)
trip level for tracking at pin
OSC
−
SGND + 2.5 −
V
ftrack
frequency range for tracking
210
−
600
kHz
VP(OSC)(ext)
minimum symmetrical
supply voltage for external
oscillator application
15
−
−
V
Note
1. Frequency set with ROSC, according to the formula in Section 8.2.
2003 Jul 28
12
SGND + 6
V
Philips Semiconductors
Objective specification
2 × 120 W class-D power amplifier
TDA8924
14 DYNAMIC AC CHARACTERISTICS (STEREO AND DUAL SE APPLICATION)
VP = ±24 V; RL = 2 Ω; fi = 1 kHz; fosc = 310 kHz; RsL < 0.1 Ω (note 1); Tamb = 25 °C; measured in Fig.9; unless
otherwise specified.
SYMBOL
Po
THD
PARAMETER
output power
total harmonic distortion
CONDITIONS
MIN.
TYP.
MAX.
UNIT
RL = 4 Ω; VP = ±27 V; THD = 0.5 %; note 2
−
70
−
W
RL = 4 Ω; VP = ±27 V; THD = 10 %; note 2
−
90
−
W
RL = 3 Ω; VP = ±27 V; THD = 0.5 %; note 2
−
93
−
W
RL = 3 Ω; VP = ±27 V; THD = 10 %; note 2
−
115
−
W
RL = 2 Ω; VP = ±24 V; THD = 0.5 %; note 2
−
95
−
W
RL = 2 Ω; VP = ±24 V; THD = 10 %; note 2
−
120
−
W
fi = 1 kHz
−
0.05
−
%
fi = 10 kHz
−
0.07
−
%
Po = 1 W; note 3
Gv(cl)
closed loop voltage gain
−
28
−
dB
η
efficiency
Po = 125 W; note 4
−
83
−
%
SVRR
supply voltage ripple
rejection
operating; fi = 100 Hz; note 5
−
55
−
dB
operating; fi = 1 kHz; note 6
40
50
−
dB
Zi
input impedance
Vn(o)
noise output voltage
αcs
channel separation
∆Gv
channel unbalance
Vo(mute)
output signal in mute
CMRR
common mode rejection
ratio
mute; fi = 100 Hz; note 5
−
55
−
dB
standby; fi = 100 Hz; note 5
−
80
−
dB
45
68
−
kΩ
operating; Rs = 0 Ω; note 7
−
200
400
µV
operating; Rs = 10 kΩ; note 8
−
230
−
µV
mute; note 9
−
220
−
µV
−
70
−
dB
−
−
1
dB
note 11
−
−
400
µV
Vi(CM) = 1 V (RMS)
−
75
−
dB
note 10
Notes
1. RsL = series resistance of inductor of low-pass LC filter in the application.
2. Output power is measured indirectly; based on RDSon measurement.
3. Total harmonic distortion is measured in a bandwidth of 22 Hz to 22 kHz. When distortion is measured using a lower
order low-pass filter a significantly higher value is found, due to the switching frequency outside the audio band.
Maximum limit is guaranteed but may not be 100 % tested.
4. Output power measured across the loudspeaker load.
5. Vripple = Vripple(max) = 2 V (p-p); fi = 100 Hz; Rs = 0 Ω.
6. Vripple = Vripple(max) = 2 V (p-p); fi = 1 kHz; Rs = 0 Ω.
7. B = 22 Hz to 22 kHz; Rs = 0 Ω; maximum limit is guaranteed but may not be 100 % tested.
8. B = 22 Hz to 22 kHz; Rs = 10 kΩ.
9. B = 22 Hz to 22 kHz; independent of Rs.
10. Po = 1 W; Rs = 0 Ω; fi = 1 kHz.
11. Vi = Vi(max) = 1 V (RMS); maximum limit is guaranteed but may not be 100 % tested.
2003 Jul 28
13
Philips Semiconductors
Objective specification
2 × 120 W class-D power amplifier
TDA8924
15 DYNAMIC AC CHARACTERISTICS (MONO BTL APPLICATION)
VP = ±24 V; RL = 4 Ω; fi = 1 kHz; fosc = 310 kHz; RsL < 0.1 Ω (note 1); Tamb = 25 °C; measured in Fig.9; unless
otherwise specified.
SYMBOL
Po
THD
PARAMETER
output power
total harmonic distortion
CONDITIONS
closed loop voltage gain
η
efficiency
SVRR
supply voltage ripple
rejection
Zi
input impedance
Vn(o)
noise output voltage
TYP.
MAX.
UNIT
RL = 3 Ω; VP = ±20 V; THD = 0.5 %; note 2
−
160
−
W
RL = 3 Ω; VP = ±20 V; THD = 10 %; note 2
−
205
−
W
RL = 4 Ω; VP = ±20 V; THD = 0.5 %; note 2
−
135
−
W
RL = 4 Ω; VP = ±20 V; THD = 10 %; note 2
−
175
−
W
RL = 4 Ω; VP = ±24 V; THD = 0.5 %; note 2
−
200
−
W
RL = 4 Ω; VP = ±24 V; THD = 10 %; note 2
−
240
−
W
fi = 100 Hz
−
0.015
−
%
fi = 1 kHz
−
0.015
0.05
%
Po = 1 W; note 3
−
0.015
−
%
−
34
−
dB
Po = 240 W; note 4
−
83
−
%
operating; fi = 100 Hz; note 5
−
49
−
dB
fi = 10 kHz
Gv(cl)
MIN.
operating; fi = 1 kHz; note 6
36
44
−
dB
mute; fi = 100 Hz; note 5
−
49
−
dB
standby; fi = 100 Hz; note 5
−
80
−
dB
22
34
−
kΩ
operating; Rs = 0 Ω; note 7
−
280
560
µV
operating; Rs = 10 kΩ; note 8
−
300
−
µV
mute; note 9
−
280
−
µV
Vo(mute)
output signal in mute
note 10
−
−
500
µV
CMRR
common mode rejection
ratio
Vi(CM) = 1 V (RMS)
−
75
−
dB
Notes
1. RsL = series resistance of inductor of low-pass LC filter in the application.
2. Output power is measured indirectly; based on RDSon measurement.
3. Total harmonic distortion is measured in a bandwidth of 22 Hz to 22 kHz. When distortion is measured using a low
order low-pass filter a significant higher value will be found, due to the switching frequency outside the audio band.
Maximum limit is guaranteed but may not be 100 % tested.
4. Output power measured across the loudspeaker load.
5. Vripple = Vripple(max) = 2 V (p-p); fi = 100 Hz; Rs = 0 Ω.
6. Vripple = Vripple(max) = 2 V (p-p); fi = 1 kHz; Rs = 0 Ω.
7. B = 22 Hz to 22 kHz; Rs = 0 Ω; maximum limit is guaranteed but may not be 100 % tested.
8. B = 22 Hz to 22 kHz; Rs = 10 kΩ.
9. B = 22 Hz to 22 kHz; independent of Rs.
10. Vi = Vi(max) = 1 V (RMS); fi = 1 kHz; maximum limit is guaranteed but may not be 100 % tested.
2003 Jul 28
14
Philips Semiconductors
Objective specification
2 × 120 W class-D power amplifier
TDA8924
16 APPLICATION INFORMATION
16.1
BTL application
BTL: P o(1%)
When using the power amplifier in a mono BTL application
(for more output power), the inputs of both channels must
be connected in parallel; the phase of one of the inputs
must be inverted; see Fig.5. In principle the loudspeaker
can be connected between the outputs of the two
single-ended demodulation filters.
2
RL
--------------------- × 2V P × ( 1 – t min × f osc )
R L + 1.2
= --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 × RL
Maximum current:
2V P × ( 1 – t min × f osc )
I o(peak) = -------------------------------------------------------- should not exceed 12 A.
R L + 1.2
Legend:
16.2
Pin MODE
RL = load impedance
For correct operation the switching voltage at pin MODE
should be debounced. If pin MODE is driven by a
mechanical switch an appropriate debouncing low-pass
filter should be used. If pin MODE is driven by an electronic
circuit or microcontroller then it should remain at the mute
voltage level for at least 100 ms before switching back to
the standby voltage level.
16.3
fosc = oscillator frequency
tmin = minimum pulse width (typical 190 ns)
VP = single-sided supply voltage (so if supply ±30 V
symmetrical, then VP = 30 V)
Po(1%) = output power just at clipping
Po(10%) = output power at THD = 10 %
Po(10%) = 1.25 × Po(1%).
Output power estimation
The output power in several applications (SE and BTL)
can be estimated using the following expressions:
SE: P o(1%)
16.4
External clock
The minimum required symmetrical supply voltage for
external clock application is ±15 V (equally, the minimum
asymmetrical supply voltage for applications with an
external clock is 30 V).
2
RL
--------------------- × V P × ( 1 – t min × f osc )
R L + 0.6
= ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 × RL
Maximum current:
When using an external clock the duty cycle of the external
clock has to be between 47.5 % and 52.5 %.
V P × ( 1 – t min × f osc )
I o(peak) = ---------------------------------------------------- should not exceed 12 A.
R L + 0.6
A possible solution for an external clock oscillator circuit is
illustrated in Fig.7.
VDDA
handbook, full pagewidth
2 kΩ
0−
0+
11
10
CTC
ASTAB−
4
−TRIGGER
ASTAB+
5
6
1
14
120 pF
RTC
HEF4047BT
2
9.1 kΩ
7
RCTC
3
360 kHz 320 kHz
VDD
VSS
HOP
220
nF
5.6 V
4.3 V
13
8
+TRIGGER
9
12
MR
RETRIGGER
GND
CLOCK
MBL468
Fig.7 External oscillator circuit.
2003 Jul 28
15
Philips Semiconductors
Objective specification
2 × 120 W class-D power amplifier
16.5
TDA8924
Heatsink requirements
Although the TDA8924 is a class-D amplifier a heatsink is
required. Reason is that though efficiency is high, the
output power is high as well, resulting in heating up of the
device. The relation between temperatures, dissipation
and thermal behaviour is given below.
MBL469
30
handbook, halfpage
Pdiss
(W)
(1)
20
R th(j-a)
T j(max) – T A
= ---------------------------P diss
(2)
Pdiss is determined by the efficiency (η) of the TDA8924.
The efficiency measured in the TDA8924 as a function of
output power is given in Figs. 17 and 18. The power
dissipation can be derived as function of output power; see
Figs. 15 and 16.
10
(3)
(4)
(5)
0
The derating curves (given for several values of the Rth(j-a))
are illustrated in Fig.8. A maximum junction temperature
Tj = 150 °C is taken into account. From Fig.8 the maximum
allowable power dissipation for a given heatsink size can
be derived or the required heatsink size can be determined
at a required dissipation level.
0
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
Example:
Po = 2 × 100 W into 2 Ω
Tamb = 60 °C
40
60
100
80
Tamb (°C)
Rth(j-a) = 5 K/W.
Rth(j-a) = 10 K/W.
Rth(j-a) = 15 K/W.
Rth(j-a) = 20 K/W.
Rth(j-a) = 35 K/W.
Fig.8
Tj(max) = 150 °C
20
Derating curves for power dissipation as a
function of maximum ambient temperature.
Pdiss(tot) = 37 W (see Fig.15).
The required Rth(j-a) = 2.43 K/W can be calculated.
16.6
The Rth(j-a) of the TDA8924 in free air is 35 K/W; the Rth(j-c)
of the TDA8924 is 1.3 K/W, thus a heatsink of 1.13 K/W is
required for this example.
Output current limiting
To guarantee the robustness of the class-D amplifier the
maximum output current which can be delivered by the
output stage is limited. An overcurrent protection is
included for each output power switch. When the current
flowing through any of the power switches exceeds a
defined internal threshold (e.g. in case of a short-circuit to
the supply lines or a short-circuit across the load), the
amplifier will shut down immediately and an internal timer
will be started. After a fixed time (e.g. 100 ms) the amplifier
is switched on again. If the requested output current is still
too high the amplifier will switch-off again. Thus the
amplifier will try to switch to the operating mode every
100 ms. The average dissipation will be low in this
situation because of this low duty cycle. If the overcurrent
condition is removed the amplifier will remain operating.
This example demonstrates that one might end up with
unrealistically low Rth(j-a) figure. It has to be kept in mind
that in actual applications, other factors such as the
average power dissipation with a music source (as
opposed to a continuous sine wave) will determine the size
of the heatsink required.
Because the duty cycle is low the amplifier will be switched
off for a relatively long period of time, which will be noticed
as a so-called audio-hole; an audible interruption in the
output signal.
2003 Jul 28
16
Philips Semiconductors
Objective specification
2 × 120 W class-D power amplifier
TDA8924
To trigger the maximum current protection in the
TDA8924, the required output current must exceed 12 A.
This situation occurs in case of:
This signal could be used by a signal processor. In order
to filter the protection signal a capacitor can be connected
between pin PROT and VSS. However, this capacitor
slows down the protective action as well as it filters the
signal. Therefore, the value of the capacitor should be
limited to a maximum value of 47 pF.
• Short-circuits from any output terminal to the supply
lines (VDD or VSS)
• Short-circuit across the load or speaker impedances or
a load impedance below the specified values of
2 Ω and 4 Ω.
For a more detailed description of the implications of
output current limiting see also the application notes (tbf).
Even if load impedances are connected to the amplifier
outputs which have an impedance rating of 4 Ω, this
impedance can be lower due to the frequency
characteristic of the loudspeaker; practical loudspeaker
impedances can be modelled as an RLC network which
will have a specific frequency characteristic: the
impedance at the output of the amplifier will vary with the
input frequency. A high supply voltage in combination with
a low impedance will result in large current requirements.
16.7
Pumping effects
The TDA8924 class-D amplifier is supplied by a
symmetrical voltage (e.g VDD = +24 V, VSS = −24 V).
When the amplifier is used in a SE configuration, a
so-called ‘pumping effect’ can occur. During one switching
interval energy is taken from one supply (e.g. VDD), while
a part of that energy is delivered back to the other supply
line (e.g. VSS) and visa versa. When the voltage supply
source cannot sink energy the voltage across the output
capacitors of that voltage supply source will increase: the
supply voltage is pumped to higher levels.
Another factor which must be taken into account is the
ripple current which will also flow through the output power
switches. This ripple current depends on the inductor
values which are used, supply voltage, oscillator
frequency, duty factor and minimum pulse width. The
maximum available output current to drive the load
impedance can be calculated by subtracting the ripple
current from the maximum repetitive peak current in the
output pin, which is 11.3 A for the TDA8924.
The voltage increase caused by the pumping effect
depends on:
• Speaker impedance
• Supply voltage
• Audio signal frequency
• Capacitor value present on supply lines
As a rule of thumb the following expressions can be used
to determine the minimum allowed load impedance
without generating audio holes:
• Source and sink currents of other channels.
The pumping effect should not cause a malfunction of
either the audio amplifier and/or the voltage supply source.
For instance, this malfunction can be caused by triggering
of the undervoltage or overvoltage protection or unbalance
protection of the amplifier. The overvoltage protection is
only meant to prevent the amplifier from supply pumping
effects.
V P ( 1 – t min f osc )
Z L ≥ --------------------------------------- – 0.6 for SE application.
I ORM – I ripple
2V P ( 1 – t min f osc )
Z L ≥ ------------------------------------------- – 1.2 for BTL application.
I ORM – I ripple
Legend:
ZL = load impedance
For a more detailed description of this phenomenon see
the application notes (tbf).
fosc = oscillator frequency
16.8
tmin = minimum pulse width (typical 190 ns)
The reference design for the single-chip class-D audio
amplifier using the TDA8924 is illustrated in Fig.9. The
Printed-Circuit Board (PCB) layout is shown in Fig.10. The
Bill Of Materials (BOM) is given in Table 1.
VP = single-sided supply voltage (if the supply = ±30 V
symmetrical, then VP = 30 V)
IORM = maximum repetitive peak current in output pin;
see also Chapter 9
Iripple = ripple current.
Output current limiting goes with a signal on the protection
pin (pin PROT). This pin is HIGH under normal operation.
It goes LOW when current protection takes place.
2003 Jul 28
Reference design
17
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+25 V
VDD
L1
BEAD
100 nF
VDDP
C1
470 µF
R1(3)
10 kΩ
GND
C3
47 µF
GND
R2(3)
9.1 kΩ
−25 V
VSS
C7
BTL: remove IN2, R8, R9, C18, C19, C21 and close J3 and J4.
BTL: connect loudspeaker between OUT1+ and OUT2−.
BTL: R1 and R2 are only required when an asymmetrical supply is used (VSS = 0 V).
In case of hum close J1 and J2.
L2
BEAD
C2
470 µF
R3
39 kΩ
VSSP
L3
BEAD
100 nF
VDDA
R4 39 kΩ
GND
VDDA
C4
47 µF
mute
C8
220 nF
GND
L4
BEAD
on
S1
C5
47 µF
Z1
5.6 V
off
VSSA
VSSA
VDDA
C10
100 nF
GND
VSSA
C11
220 nF
C12
100 nF
VDDA1
VSSA1
GND
C9
220 nF
VDDP
R5
30 kΩ
C13
100 nF
GND
VSSP
C14
220 nF
C15
100 nF
VDDP1
VSSP1
GND
GND
GND
18
R6
C16
5.6 kΩ 470 nF
IN1+
in 1
C20
330 pF
(4)
R7
C17
5.6 kΩ 470 nF
IN1−
SGND
J3(1)
7
6
14
GND
C24
560 pF
17
BOOT1
C22
15 nF
9
16
R10
4.7 Ω
C26
1 µF
C28
220 nF
SGND
OUT1−
R12
22 Ω
OUT1
C30
15 nF
L5
10 µH
11
J4(1)
(4)
R8
C18
5.6 kΩ 470 nF
C21
330 pF
in 2
L6
10 µH
OUT2
C23
15 nF
5
22
R11
4.7 Ω
BOOT2
IN2−
4
R9
C19
5.6 kΩ 470 nF
1
3
VSSA2
24
VDDA2
VSSD
GND
C34
100 nF
C35
220 nF
STABI
C33
47 pF
23
VSSP
20
VDDP2
PROT HW
C29
220 nF
SE 2 Ω
OUT2+
SGND
VSSP2
GND
GND
GND
MDB570
GND
C37
100 nF
C36
100 nF
VDDA
19
C27
1 µF
R13
22 Ω
C38
220 nF
VDDP
C39
100 nF
VSSP
Fig.9 Single-chip class-D audio amplifier application diagram.
TDA8924
VSSA
C32
220 nF
13
C25
560 pF
OUT2−
C31
15 nF
Objective specification
GND
18
BTL 4 Ω
(2)
2
21
IN2+
SE 2 Ω
OUT1+
TDA8924
SGND2
J2
12
MODE
15
SGND1
J1
GND
10
8
OSC
Philips Semiconductors
GND
C6
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
2 × 120 W class-D power amplifier
handbook, full pagewidth
2003 Jul 28
Every decoupling to ground (plane) must be made as close as possible to the pin.
To handle 20 Hz under all conditions in stereo SE mode, the external power supply
needs to have a capacitance of at least 4700 µF per supply line; VP = ±27 V (max).
Philips Semiconductors
Objective specification
2 × 120 W class-D power amplifier
16.9
TDA8924
PCB information for HSOP24 encapsulation
It is possible to use several different output filter inductors
such as 16RHBP or EP13 types to evaluate the
performance against the price or size.
The size of the printed-circuit board is 74.3 × 59.10 mm,
dual-sided 35 µm copper with 121 metallized through
holes.
16.10 Classification
The standard configuration is a symmetrical supply (typical
±24 V) with stereo SE outputs (typical 2 × 4 Ω).
The application shows optimized signal and EMI
performance.
The printed-circuit board is also suitable for mono BTL
configuration (1 × 8 Ω) also for symmetrical supply and for
asymmetrical supply.
2003 Jul 28
19
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C35
C21
U1
C8
C20
C14
L5
C27
C11
C33
J4
J3
Z1
C26
On
− Out2 +
− Out1+
S1
VDD GND VSS
TDA8920/21/22/23/24TH
state of D art
In1
In2
Off
Top silk screen
Top copper
Philips Semiconductors
2 × 120 W class-D power amplifier
1-2002
C38
L6
dbook, full pagewidth
2003 Jul 28
PCB version 4
20
C25
C34
C1
R11
C23
C37
C9 C36 C39
C32
C10 C15
R5
C13
C12
C5
L4
R3
C19
C16
R8
R9
J2
R7
R6
J1
L2 L1
C7
L3
C30
C6
R2
R1
PHILIPS SEMICONDUCTORS
C28
C31
R13
C29
Bottom copper
MDB567
Fig.10 Printed-circuit board layout for the TDA8924TH (some of the components showed on the top silk side have to be mounted on the bottom
side for a proper heatsink fitting).
TDA8924
Bottom silk screen
R12
Objective specification
R4
C2
C24 R10
C17 C4
C18
C3
C22
Philips Semiconductors
Objective specification
2 × 120 W class-D power amplifier
TDA8924
16.11 Reference design: bill of materials
Table 1
Single-chip class-D audio amplifier printed-circuit board (version 4; 01-2002) for TDA8924TH
(see Figs 9 and 10)
BOM
ITEM
QUANTITY
1
1
U1
TDA8924TH
Philips Semiconductors B.V.
2
2
in1 and in2
cinch inputs
Farnell 152-396
3
2
out1 and out2
output connector
Augat 5KEV-02
4
1
VDD, GND and VSS
supply connector
Augat 5KEV-03
5
2
L5 and L6
10 µH
EP13 or 16RHBP (TOKO);
note 1
6
4
L1, L2, L3 and L4
BEAD
Murata BL01RN1-A62
7
1
S1
PCB switch
Knitter ATE1E M-O-M
8
1
Z1
5V6
BZX 79C5V6 DO-35
9
2
C1 and C2
470 µF; 35 V
Panasonic M series
ECA1VM471
10
3
C3, C4 and C5
47 µF; 63 V
Panasonic NHG series
ECA1JHG470
11
6
C16, C17, C18 and C19
470 nF; 63 V
MKT EPCOS B32529- 0474- K
12
9
C8, C9, C11, C14, C28,
C29, C32, C35 and C38
220 nF; 63 V
SMD 1206
13
10
C6, C7, C10, C12, C13,
C15, C34, C36, C37 and
C39
100 nF; 50 V
SMD 0805
14
2
C20 and C21
330 pF; 50 V
SMD 0805
15
4
C22, C23, C30 and C31
15 nF; 50 V
SMD 0805
16
2
C24, C25
560 pF; 100 V
SMD 0805
17
1
C33
47 pF; 25V
SMD 0805
18
2
R3 and R4
39 kΩ; 0.1 W
SMD 0805
19
1
R5
30 kΩ; 0.1 W
SMD 1206
20
1
R1
10 kΩ; 0.1 W; optional
SMD 0805
21
1
R2
9.1 kΩ; 0.1 W; optional
SMD 0805
22
4
R6, R7, R8 and R9
5.6 kΩ; 0.1 W
SMD 0805
23
2
R12 and R13
22 Ω; 1 W
SMD 2512
24
2
R10 and R11
4.7 Ω; 0.25 W
SMD 1206
25
2
C26 and C27
1 µF; 63V
MKT
26
1
heatsink
SK 174 50 mm (5 K/W) Fisher elektronik
27
1
printed-circuit board
material
1.6 mm thick epoxy FR4 material, dual-sided 35 µm copper;
clearances 300 µm; minimum copper track 400 µm
REFERENCE
PART
DESCRIPTION
Note
1. EP13 or 16RHBP inductors have been used in the first demo boards. In these boards, they functioned properly.
However current rating basically is too low. A better choice is the new TOKO DASM 998AM-105 inductor.
2003 Jul 28
21
Philips Semiconductors
Objective specification
2 × 120 W class-D power amplifier
TDA8924
16.12 Curves measured in the reference design
The curves illustrated in Figs 29 and 30 show the effects
of supply pumping when only one single-ended channel is
driven with a low frequency signal; see Section 16.7.
The curves illustrated in Figs 19 and 20 are measured with
a restive load impedance. Spread in RL (e.g. due to the
frequency characteristics of the loudspeaker) can trigger
the maximum current protection circuit; see Section 16.6.
MDB541
102
handbook, halfpage
MDB542
102
handbook, halfpage
THD + N
(%)
THD + N
(%)
10
10
1
1
10−1
10−1
(1)
(1)
(2)
(2)
10−2
10−3
10−2
10−2
(3)
10−1
1
10
102
Po (W)
10−3
103
10
103
104
105
fi (Hz)
2 × 2 Ω SE; VP = ±24 V.
(1) fi = 10 kHz.
(2) fi = 1 kHz.
2 × 2 Ω SE; VP = ±24 V.
(1) Po = 10 W.
(2) Po = 1 W.
(3) fi = 100 Hz.
Fig.11 THD + N as a function of output power.
2003 Jul 28
102
Fig.12 THD + N as a function of input frequency.
22
Philips Semiconductors
Objective specification
2 × 120 W class-D power amplifier
TDA8924
MDB543
102
handbook, halfpage
MDB544
102
handbook, halfpage
THD + N
(%)
THD + N
(%)
10
10
1
1
10−1
10−1
(1)
(1)
(2)
(2)
10−2
10−2
(3)
10−3
10−2
10−1
1
10
102
Po (W)
10−3
103
10
102
103
104
105
fi (Hz)
1 × 4 Ω BTL; VP = ±24 V.
(1) fi = 10 kHz.
1 × 4 Ω BTL; VP = ±24 V.
(1) Po = 10 W.
(2) Po = 1 W.
(2) fi = 1 kHz.
(3) fi = 100 Hz.
Fig.13 THD + N as a function of output power.
Fig.14 THD + N as a function of input frequency.
MDB546
50
MDB548
60
handbook, halfpage
handbook, halfpage
Pdiss
(1)
(W)
40
Pdiss
(2)
(W)
(1)
(2)
(3)
40
30
(4)
(3)
20
20
10
0
10−2
10−1
1
10
0
10−2
102
103
Po (W)
VP = ±25 V.
VP = ±24 V.
(3)
(4)
VP = ±22 V.
VP = ±20 V.
Fig.15 Total power dissipation as function of output
power.
2003 Jul 28
1
10
102
103
Po (W)
1 × 4 Ω BTL.
(1) VP = ±25 V.
(2) VP = ±24 V.
(3) VP = ±20 V.
1 × 2 Ω SE; dissipation per channel.
(1)
(2)
10−1
Fig.16 Total power dissipation as function of output
power.
23
Philips Semiconductors
Objective specification
2 × 120 W class-D power amplifier
TDA8924
MDB547
100
handbook, halfpage
η
(%)
80
η
(1)
(2)
(3)
(%)
80
60
60
40
40
20
20
0
0
0
50
100
Po (W)
0
150
VP = ±20 V.
VP = ±22 V.
(3)
(4)
100
200
Po (W)
300
1 × 4 Ω BTL; 2 × 10 µH; 2 × 1 µF.
(1) VP = ±20 V.
2 × 2 Ω SE; 10 µH; 1 µF.
(1)
(2)
MDB549
100
handbook, halfpage
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
VP = ±24 V.
VP = ±25 V.
(2)
(3)
Fig.17 Efficiency as a function of output power.
VP = ±24 V.
VP = ±25 V.
Fig.18 Efficiency as a function of output power.
MDB553
300
handbook, halfpage
MDB552
250
Po
handbook, halfpage
(W)
Po
(W)
200
(1)
250
(1)
200
150
150
(2)
(2)
100
100
50
50
0
0
10
20
0
30
VDD (V)
0
10
20
VDD (V)
30
THD + N = 10 %; fi = 1 kHz.
(1) 1 × 4 Ω BTL.
(2) 2 × 2 Ω SE.
THD + N = 0.5 %; fi = 1 kHz.
(1) 1 × 4 Ω BTL.
(2) 2 × 2 Ω SE.
Fig.19 Output power as a function of supply
voltage.
Fig.20 Output power as a function of supply
voltage.
2003 Jul 28
24
Philips Semiconductors
Objective specification
2 × 120 W class-D power amplifier
TDA8924
MDB545
0
MDB556
45
handbook, halfpage
handbook, halfpage
(dB)
Gv
(dB)
40
αcs
−20
−40
35
(1)
(1)
(2)
−60
30
−80
(2)
(3)
25
−100
20
10
102
103
104
105
10
102
103
104
105
fi (Hz)
fi (Hz)
2 × 2 Ω SE; VP = ±24 V.
(1) Po = 10 W.
(2) Po = 1 W.
Vi = 100 mV; Rs = 5.6 kΩ Ci = 330pF.
(1) 1 × 8 Ω BTL; Vp = ±15 V.
(2) 2 × 8 Ω SE; Vp = ±20 V.
(3) 2 × 4 Ω SE; Vp = ±15 V.
Fig.21 Channel separation as a function of input
frequency.
Fig.22 Gain as a function of input frequency.
MDB549
100
MDB557
45
handbook, halfpage
handbook, halfpage
η
Gv
(dB)
40
(1)
(2)
(3)
(%)
80
(1)
60
35
40
30
(2)
(3)
20
25
0
0
100
200
Po (W)
20
300
10
103
104
105
fi (Hz)
1 × 4 Ω BTL; 2 × 10 µH; 2 × 1 µF.
(1) VP = ±20 V.
(2) VP = ±24 V.
(3) VP = ±25 V.
Vi = 100 mV; Rs = 0.
(1) 1 × 8 Ω BTL; Vp = ±15 V.
(2) 2 × 8 Ω SE; Vp = ±20 V.
(3) 2 × 4 Ω SE; Vp = ±15 V.
Fig.23 Efficiency as a function of output power.
2003 Jul 28
102
Fig.24 Gain as a function of input frequency.
25
Philips Semiconductors
Objective specification
2 × 120 W class-D power amplifier
TDA8924
MDB554
120
Iq
MDB555
330
handbook, halfpage
handbook, halfpage
(mA)
100
fclk
(kHz)
320
80
60
310
40
300
20
0
0
10
20
30
VDD (V)
290
40
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
VDD (V)
RL is open-circuit.
RL is open-circuit.
Fig.25 Quiescent current as a function of supply
voltage.
Fig.26 Clock frequency as a function of supply
voltage.
MDB562
0
MDB563
0
handbook, halfpage
handbook, halfpage
SVRR
(dB)
SVRR
(dB)
−20
−20
−40
−40
(1)
−60
(2)
(1)
−60
(2)
(3)
(3)
−80
−80
−100
10
102
103
104
−100
105
fi (Hz)
VP = ±20 V; Vripple = 2 V (p-p) with respect to ground.
(1) Both supply lines in phase.
1
2
3
4
5
Vripple(p-p)
VP = ±20 V; Vripple = 2 V (p-p) with respect to ground.
(1) fripple = 1 kHz.
(2) fripple = 100 Hz.
(3) fripple = 10 Hz.
(2) Both supply lines in anti-phase.
(3) One supply line rippled.
Fig.27 SVRR as a function of input frequency.
2003 Jul 28
0
Fig.28 SVRR as a function of Vripple(p-p).
26
Philips Semiconductors
Objective specification
2 × 120 W class-D power amplifier
TDA8924
MDB550
10
MDB551
10
handbook, halfpage
handbook, halfpage
Vripple(p-p)
(V)
8
Vripple(p-p)
(V)
8
6
6
4
4
2
2
0
10−2
0
10−1
1
102
10
102
10
103
Po (W)
fi (Hz)
104
1 × 2 Ω SE; VP = ±24 V; fi = 10 Hz; 6300 µF per supply line.
VP = ±24 V; Po = 40 W into 1 × 2 Ω SE; 6300 µF per supply line.
Fig.29 Supply voltage ripple as a function of output
power.
Fig.30 Supply voltage ripple as a function of input
frequency.
MDB559
10
MDB558
10
handbook, halfpage
handbook, halfpage
THD + N
(%)
THD + N
(%)
1
1
(1)
10−1
(1)
10−1
(2)
(3)
(2)
10−2
10−3
100
200
300
400
10−3
100
500
600
fclk (kHz)
VP = ±24 V; Po = 10 W into 2 Ω.
(1) fi = 10 kHz.
(2) fi = 100 Hz.
(3) fi = 1 kHz.
200
300
400
500
600
fclk (kHz)
VP = ±24 V; Po = 1 W into 2 Ω.
(1) fi = 10 kHz.
(2) fi = 1 KHz.
(3) fi = 100 Hz.
Fig.31 THD + N as a function of clock frequency.
2003 Jul 28
(3)
10−2
Fig.32 THD +N as a function of clock frequency.
27
Philips Semiconductors
Objective specification
2 × 120 W class-D power amplifier
TDA8924
MDB561
250
Iq
MDB564
1500
handbook, halfpage
handbook, halfpage
(mA)
Vres
(mV)
200
1000
150
100
500
50
0
100
200
300
400
0
100
500
600
fclk (kHz)
200
300
400
500
600
fclk (kHz)
VP = ±24 V; RL = open-circuit.
VP = ±24 V; RL = 2 Ω.
Fig.33 Quiescent current as a function of clock
frequency.
Fig.34 PWM residual voltage as a function of clock
frequency.
MDB560
150
MDB565
10
handbook, halfpage
handbook, halfpage
Vo
(V) 1
Po
(W)
10−1
100
10−2
10−3
50
10−4
10−5
0
100
10−6
200
300
400
500
600
fclk (kHz)
0
2
4
6
Vmode (V)
VP = ±24 V; RL = 2 Ω; fi = 1 kHz; THD + N = 10 %.
Vi = 100 mV; fi = 1 kHz.
Fig.35 Output power as a function of clock
frequency.
Fig.36 Output voltage as a function of mode
voltage.
2003 Jul 28
28
Philips Semiconductors
Objective specification
2 × 120 W class-D power amplifier
TDA8924
MDB566
120
S/N
(dB)
100
handbook, halfpage
(1)
80
(2)
60
40
20
0
10−2
10−1
1
10
102
Po (W)
103
VP = ±20 V; Rs = 5.6 kΩ; 20 kHz AES17 filter.
(1) 2 × 8 Ω SE.
(2) 1 × 8 Ω BTL.
Fig.37 Signal-to-noise ratio as a function of output
power.
2003 Jul 28
29
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3
+25 V
STABI PROT
VDDA2 VDDA1
10
18
13
VDDP2
VDDP1
23
14
15 BOOT1
RFB
IN1− 9
Vin1
RELEASE1
INPUT
STAGE
IN1+ 8
SGND1 11
SGND
PWM
MODULATOR
SWITCH1
CONTROL
AND
ENABLE1 HANDSHAKE
mute
COSC
DRIVER
HIGH
16
OUT1
DRIVER
LOW
STABI
VSSP1
Philips Semiconductors
VDDA
2 × 120 W class-D power amplifier
handbook, full pagewidth
2003 Jul 28
VDDP
VDDA
OSC 7
30
VSSA
ROSC
Vmode
OSCILLATOR
MODE 6
SGND2 2
SGND
MANAGER
IN2− 4
TDA8924
VDDP2
MODE
22 BOOT2
ENABLE2
mute
IN2+ 5
Vin2
TEMPERATURE SENSOR
CURRENT PROTECTION
INPUT
STAGE
1
12
VSSA2 VSSA1
PWM
MODULATOR
RFB
CONTROL
SWITCH2
AND
HANDSHAKE
RELEASE2
24
VSSD
SGND
0V
DRIVER
HIGH
21
OUT2
DRIVER
LOW
19
HW
17
VSSP1
20
VSSP2
−25 V
VSSA
MDB571
TDA8924
Fig.38 Typical application schematic of TDA8924.
VSSP
Objective specification
VSSA
VSSA
Philips Semiconductors
Objective specification
2 × 120 W class-D power amplifier
TDA8924
17 PACKAGE OUTLINE
HSOP24: plastic, heatsink small outline package; 24 leads; low stand-off height
SOT566-3
E
D
A
x
X
c
E2
y
HE
v M A
D1
D2
12
1
pin 1 index
Q
A
A2
E1
(A3)
A4
θ
Lp
detail X
24
13
Z
w M
bp
e
0
5
10 mm
scale
DIMENSIONS (mm are the original dimensions)
UNIT
mm
A
A2
max.
3.5
3.5
3.2
A3
0.35
A4(1)
D1
D2
E(2)
E1
E2
e
HE
Lp
Q
+0.08 0.53 0.32 16.0 13.0
−0.04 0.40 0.23 15.8 12.6
1.1
0.9
11.1
10.9
6.2
5.8
2.9
2.5
1
14.5
13.9
1.1
0.8
1.7
1.5
bp
c
D(2)
v
w
x
y
0.25 0.25 0.03 0.07
Z
θ
2.7
2.2
8°
0°
Notes
1. Limits per individual lead.
2. Plastic or metal protrusions of 0.25 mm maximum per side are not included.
OUTLINE
VERSION
REFERENCES
IEC
JEDEC
JEITA
ISSUE DATE
03-02-18
03-07-23
SOT566-3
2003 Jul 28
EUROPEAN
PROJECTION
31
Philips Semiconductors
Objective specification
2 × 120 W class-D power amplifier
TDA8924
To overcome these problems the double-wave soldering
method was specifically developed.
18 SOLDERING
18.1
Introduction to soldering surface mount
packages
If wave soldering is used the following conditions must be
observed for optimal results:
This text gives a very brief insight to a complex technology.
A more in-depth account of soldering ICs can be found in
our “Data Handbook IC26; Integrated Circuit Packages”
(document order number 9398 652 90011).
• Use a double-wave soldering method comprising a
turbulent wave with high upward pressure followed by a
smooth laminar wave.
• For packages with leads on two sides and a pitch (e):
There is no soldering method that is ideal for all surface
mount IC packages. Wave soldering can still be used for
certain surface mount ICs, but it is not suitable for fine pitch
SMDs. In these situations reflow soldering is
recommended.
18.2
– larger than or equal to 1.27 mm, the footprint
longitudinal axis is preferred to be parallel to the
transport direction of the printed-circuit board;
– smaller than 1.27 mm, the footprint longitudinal axis
must be parallel to the transport direction of the
printed-circuit board.
Reflow soldering
The footprint must incorporate solder thieves at the
downstream end.
Reflow soldering requires solder paste (a suspension of
fine solder particles, flux and binding agent) to be applied
to the printed-circuit board by screen printing, stencilling or
pressure-syringe dispensing before package placement.
Driven by legislation and environmental forces the
worldwide use of lead-free solder pastes is increasing.
• For packages with leads on four sides, the footprint must
be placed at a 45° angle to the transport direction of the
printed-circuit board. The footprint must incorporate
solder thieves downstream and at the side corners.
Several methods exist for reflowing; for example,
convection or convection/infrared heating in a conveyor
type oven. Throughput times (preheating, soldering and
cooling) vary between 100 and 200 seconds depending
on heating method.
During placement and before soldering, the package must
be fixed with a droplet of adhesive. The adhesive can be
applied by screen printing, pin transfer or syringe
dispensing. The package can be soldered after the
adhesive is cured.
Typical reflow peak temperatures range from
215 to 270 °C depending on solder paste material. The
top-surface temperature of the packages should
preferably be kept:
Typical dwell time of the leads in the wave ranges from
3 to 4 seconds at 250 °C or 265 °C, depending on solder
material applied, SnPb or Pb-free respectively.
• below 220 °C (SnPb process) or below 245 °C (Pb-free
process)
A mildly-activated flux will eliminate the need for removal
of corrosive residues in most applications.
– for all BGA and SSOP-T packages
18.4
– for packages with a thickness ≥ 2.5 mm
Fix the component by first soldering two
diagonally-opposite end leads. Use a low voltage (24 V or
less) soldering iron applied to the flat part of the lead.
Contact time must be limited to 10 seconds at up to
300 °C.
– for packages with a thickness < 2.5 mm and a
volume ≥ 350 mm3 so called thick/large packages.
• below 235 °C (SnPb process) or below 260 °C (Pb-free
process) for packages with a thickness < 2.5 mm and a
volume < 350 mm3 so called small/thin packages.
When using a dedicated tool, all other leads can be
soldered in one operation within 2 to 5 seconds between
270 and 320 °C.
Moisture sensitivity precautions, as indicated on packing,
must be respected at all times.
18.3
Wave soldering
Conventional single wave soldering is not recommended
for surface mount devices (SMDs) or printed-circuit boards
with a high component density, as solder bridging and
non-wetting can present major problems.
2003 Jul 28
Manual soldering
32
Philips Semiconductors
Objective specification
2 × 120 W class-D power amplifier
18.5
TDA8924
Suitability of surface mount IC packages for wave and reflow soldering methods
SOLDERING METHOD
PACKAGE(1)
WAVE
BGA, LBGA, LFBGA, SQFP, SSOP-T(3), TFBGA, VFBGA
not suitable
suitable(4)
DHVQFN, HBCC, HBGA, HLQFP, HSQFP, HSOP, HTQFP,
HTSSOP, HVQFN, HVSON, SMS
not
PLCC(5), SO, SOJ
suitable
LQFP, QFP, TQFP
SSOP, TSSOP, VSO, VSSOP
REFLOW(2)
suitable
suitable
suitable
not
recommended(5)(6)
suitable
not
recommended(7)
suitable
Notes
1. For more detailed information on the BGA packages refer to the “(LF)BGA Application Note” (AN01026); order a copy
from your Philips Semiconductors sales office.
2. All surface mount (SMD) packages are moisture sensitive. Depending upon the moisture content, the maximum
temperature (with respect to time) and body size of the package, there is a risk that internal or external package
cracks may occur due to vaporization of the moisture in them (the so called popcorn effect). For details, refer to the
Drypack information in the “Data Handbook IC26; Integrated Circuit Packages; Section: Packing Methods”.
3. These transparent plastic packages are extremely sensitive to reflow soldering conditions and must on no account
be processed through more than one soldering cycle or subjected to infrared reflow soldering with peak temperature
exceeding 217 °C ± 10 °C measured in the atmosphere of the reflow oven. The package body peak temperature
must be kept as low as possible.
4. These packages are not suitable for wave soldering. On versions with the heatsink on the bottom side, the solder
cannot penetrate between the printed-circuit board and the heatsink. On versions with the heatsink on the top side,
the solder might be deposited on the heatsink surface.
5. If wave soldering is considered, then the package must be placed at a 45° angle to the solder wave direction.
The package footprint must incorporate solder thieves downstream and at the side corners.
6. Wave soldering is suitable for LQFP, TQFP and QFP packages with a pitch (e) larger than 0.8 mm; it is definitely not
suitable for packages with a pitch (e) equal to or smaller than 0.65 mm.
7. Wave soldering is suitable for SSOP, TSSOP, VSO and VSSOP packages with a pitch (e) equal to or larger than
0.65 mm; it is definitely not suitable for packages with a pitch (e) equal to or smaller than 0.5 mm.
2003 Jul 28
33
Philips Semiconductors
Objective specification
2 × 120 W class-D power amplifier
TDA8924
19 DATA SHEET STATUS
LEVEL
DATA SHEET
STATUS(1)
PRODUCT
STATUS(2)(3)
Development
DEFINITION
I
Objective data
II
Preliminary data Qualification
This data sheet contains data from the preliminary specification.
Supplementary data will be published at a later date. Philips
Semiconductors reserves the right to change the specification without
notice, in order to improve the design and supply the best possible
product.
III
Product data
This data sheet contains data from the product specification. Philips
Semiconductors reserves the right to make changes at any time in order
to improve the design, manufacturing and supply. Relevant changes will
be communicated via a Customer Product/Process Change Notification
(CPCN).
Production
This data sheet contains data from the objective specification for product
development. Philips Semiconductors reserves the right to change the
specification in any manner without notice.
Notes
1. Please consult the most recently issued data sheet before initiating or completing a design.
2. The product status of the device(s) described in this data sheet may have changed since this data sheet was
published. The latest information is available on the Internet at URL http://www.semiconductors.philips.com.
3. For data sheets describing multiple type numbers, the highest-level product status determines the data sheet status.
20 DEFINITIONS
21 DISCLAIMERS
Short-form specification  The data in a short-form
specification is extracted from a full data sheet with the
same type number and title. For detailed information see
the relevant data sheet or data handbook.
Life support applications  These products are not
designed for use in life support appliances, devices, or
systems where malfunction of these products can
reasonably be expected to result in personal injury. Philips
Semiconductors customers using or selling these products
for use in such applications do so at their own risk and
agree to fully indemnify Philips Semiconductors for any
damages resulting from such application.
Limiting values definition  Limiting values given are in
accordance with the Absolute Maximum Rating System
(IEC 60134). Stress above one or more of the limiting
values may cause permanent damage to the device.
These are stress ratings only and operation of the device
at these or at any other conditions above those given in the
Characteristics sections of the specification is not implied.
Exposure to limiting values for extended periods may
affect device reliability.
Right to make changes  Philips Semiconductors
reserves the right to make changes in the products including circuits, standard cells, and/or software described or contained herein in order to improve design
and/or performance. When the product is in full production
(status ‘Production’), relevant changes will be
communicated via a Customer Product/Process Change
Notification (CPCN). Philips Semiconductors assumes no
responsibility or liability for the use of any of these
products, conveys no licence or title under any patent,
copyright, or mask work right to these products, and
makes no representations or warranties that these
products are free from patent, copyright, or mask work
right infringement, unless otherwise specified.
Application information  Applications that are
described herein for any of these products are for
illustrative purposes only. Philips Semiconductors make
no representation or warranty that such applications will be
suitable for the specified use without further testing or
modification.
2003 Jul 28
34
Philips Semiconductors – a worldwide company
Contact information
For additional information please visit http://www.semiconductors.philips.com.
Fax: +31 40 27 24825
For sales offices addresses send e-mail to: [email protected]
SCA75
© Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. 2003
All rights are reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part is prohibited without the prior written consent of the copyright owner.
The information presented in this document does not form part of any quotation or contract, is believed to be accurate and reliable and may be changed
without notice. No liability will be accepted by the publisher for any consequence of its use. Publication thereof does not convey nor imply any license
under patent- or other industrial or intellectual property rights.
Printed in The Netherlands
753503/01/pp35
Date of release: 2003
Jul 28
Document order number:
9397 750 11493