Application Notes

AN11496
Agile I/O Input / Output Characteristics
Rev. 1.0 — 15 August 2014
Application note
Document information
Info
Content
Keywords
GPIO, Agile I/O, Input / Output Expanders,
Abstract
I C -bus GPIO devices are widely used and expand a control processor’s
pins to 8-, 16- or 24-bits of general-purpose input or output. The
characteristic of these I/O needs to be accurately known to efficiently use
them in a system. This application note will explore the actual electrical
characteristics of Agile I/O GPIO pins.
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Agile I/O Characteristics
Revision history
Rev
Date
Description
1.0
Initial Release
20140815
Contact information
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For sales office addresses, please send an email to: [email protected]
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1. Introduction
2
The I C-bus has been used for many years to communicate between chips using only
two pins and a standard serial protocol. This is particularly useful in today’s systems
using microprocessors as the control element. Many times, the application outstrips the
microprocessor’s GPIO (general purpose input output) pins. An easy solution uses only
2
2
two I C -bus pins and an I C I/O Expander to increase the number of input /output pins
by 8, 16, or 24.
2
NXP has recently introduced a new family of I C Input / Output Expanders called Agile
I/O GPIO which operate down to 1.65V power supply and have increased I/O
functionality. This application note will explore the I/O pins capabilities and give
information on the most efficient usage models.
2. Low Voltage I/O Device Overview
Devices in the LV GPIO family are differentiated by the number of I/O pins: eight or16.
Other differences come from features like Reset and Interrupt. To aid in PCB layout, the
device pinouts are similar. This lets the designer select the family and delay feature
selection until later in the process. Low-voltage operation (1.65 to 5.5 V) and low current
consumption make these devices ideal for a wide range of applications in portable,
industrial, and automotive segments.
Table 1.
Low Voltage Agile I/O Part Numbers
8-bit
16-bit
NXP LV device
(1.65 to 5.5 V)
NXP LV device with NXP LV device with dual
Agile I/O (1.65 to 5.5 V) VCC for level translation
Features
Industry-standard
device (2.3 to 5.5 V)
Interrupt
PCA9534
Interrupt & reset
PCA9538
PCA9538A
PCAL9538A
Interrupt & pull-up
PCA9554
PCA9554A
PCA9554B
PCA9554C
PCAL9554B
PCAL9554C
Interrupt
PCA9535
PCA9535A
PCAL9535A
Interrupt & reset
PCA9539
PCA9539A
PCAL9539A
Interrupt & pull-up
PCA9555
PCA9555A
PCAL9555A
PCA(L)6408A
PCA(L)6416A
2.1 Agile I/O Features
2.1.1 Selectable output drive strength
Drive strength control allows one to modify the current drive capability of the output pin
from 25%, 50% or 75% to 100%. Reducing the current drive capability may be desirable
to reduce system noise. When the output switches (transitions from H/L), there is a peak
current that is a function of the output drive selection. Switching many outputs at the
same time will create ground and supply noise. The output drive strength control allows
the user to minimize simultaneous switching noise issues without any additional external
components.
2.1.2 Output configuration
The output configuration customizes the outputs for optimum performance in the
application. Previously, separate part numbers were needed for open-drain output
versions or push-pull versions. With Agile I/O, outputs can be configured to either
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arrangement, which minimizes stocking levels and changes with a simple software
configuration.
2.1.3 Input pull-up/pull-down resistors
Input pull-up/pull-down resistors are needed to guarantee that inputs are at a valid logic
level. This usually involves external discrete components that complicate routing and
take up PCB area. The internal pull-up or pull-down resistors are integrated, minimizing
the bill of materials, and can be enabled with a simple software command.
2.1.4 Interrupt mask
The interrupt mask selects which inputs can cause an interrupt event on the output pin.
Normally, any input transition will cause the pin to trigger an alert to the microprocessor.
If one pin is connected to a signal that switches abnormally, this initiates a lot of
unnecessary interrupt service software traffic on the microprocessor. By simply masking
the abnormal input from generating an event on the pin, a large amount of software
performance is saved with no extra hardware.
2.1.5 Interrupt status
The interrupt status register shows which input caused an event on the pin, simplifying
the interrupt service routine software and minimizing software development and
verification, and system testing.
2.1.6 Input latch
The input latch feature eliminates external hardware by implementing latches on all input
pins. These lets the microprocessor sample inputs at a reduced rate and still determine
which ones have changed states. This is important for interrupt service routines. Inputs
can change states quickly, yet still require attention from the microprocessor software.
The latch holds the input state until the software can read the input pins, putting fewer
real-time demands on the microprocessor. This increases system reliability without
additional hardware.
3. Physical Attributes of the Low Voltage Agile I/O Input & Output Pins
3.1 Input Structure
The input of a typical CMOS circuit is shown in Figure_1. Note the ESD (Electro Static
Discharge) diodes connected from the package pin to VDD and VSS, limiting the input
voltage swing to a diode drop away from these voltages.
2
The I C-bus should operate correctly even if a device on the bus is powered down, or
VDD = 0V. If the input structures are constructed like the typical case, the bus would be
held at ground in a power down situation.
Luckily, the input structure of the low voltage Agile I/O devices allow for overvoltage
conditions – up to 5.5V as specified in the Limiting Conditions table of their datasheets.
2
This overvoltage circuitry is proprietary to NXP and ensures maximum reliability of I Cbus systems. A curve tracer plot in Figure_2, shows a forward biased diode
(approximately 0.6V) connected to ground and approximately a 10V breakdown voltage
to VDD on the SCL pin.
Besides presenting no load in a power down state, this overvoltage tolerance allows one
2
to easily connect I C -bus devices operating at different power supply levels with no
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additional voltage level translators. Of course, a careful analysis of the input and output
levels is required and this analysis is best left to another application note.
Fig 1.
Typical CMOS Input Structure
Fig 2.
Curve Tracer Characteristic of Low Voltage Agile I/O Input (positive and negative direction
3.2 Input Voltage Levels
An important characteristic is the switching points of the input. The datasheet specifies
VIH (or the high level switch point) as 0.7 x VDD and VIL (or the low level switch point) as
0.3 x VDD. These are guaranteed values. You can be assured that an input level above or
below these points will be recognized as a high or low logic level.
We know, however, that the input structure is basically a CMOS inverter with a switching
point around 0.5 x VDD. The actual switch points of the general-purpose I/O is easy to
measure, since any change on the input pin will trigger the INT Figure_3 shows a ramp
connected to the I/O pin and the INT output. The switch point on the falling edge of the
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input ramp is approximately 1.7V (at a 3.3V VDD) and 1.37V on the rising edge of the
input ramp.
Fig 3.
Input Voltage Level (channel 1 is the input voltage ramp, channel 2 is INT output)
The difference between the two switching levels is known as hysteresis – in this case
approximately 350mV – and is useful to prevent false triggering when slowly varying
signals are applied. The switching points and the hysteresis vary linearly with the power
supply as shown in Table_2 .
Table 2.
Typical Switching Points vs. Power Supply
Typical Values at 25°C
AN11496
Application note
VDD = 1.65V
VDD = 3.3V
VDD = 5.5V
VIH
0.87
1.78
2.97
VIL
0.75
1.43
2.3
Hysteresis
0.116
0.35
0.67
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4. Output Structures
The standard totem pole or push-pull output structure of a CMOS device is show in
Fig_4. A large p-channel transistor connects between VDD and the output pin, while a
large n-channel transistor connects between VSS and the output pin. When the internal
logic drive signal goes toward VDD, the n-channel transistor turns on and sinks current
from the output pin to VSS. When the internal logic drive signal moves toward VSS, the pchannel device turns on and it sources current out of the output pin.
There are parasitic connections to each power supply rail thru diodes that are integral to
the physical construction of the output transistor. These diodes limit any external voltage
applied to the output pin to a diode drop (approximately 0.6V) above VDD and below VSS.
There are some cases where you would like the voltage on the output pin to be higher
than VDD of the driving circuit. An example would be an LED drive application Figure_6.
The forward voltage drop of a simple LED is approximately 2V which would be
impossible to drive correctly if the IC operating voltage is 1.8V. In fact, there can be
significant current flow through the parasitic diode of the p-channel transistor to the 1.8V
VDD pin upsetting any low power applications.
In this case, an open-drain driver Figure_5 has no diode to VDD since there is no pchannel transistor. In the LED application case noted above, one could use a 3.3V
supply connected to the LED current limit resistor and drive it correctly with the driver
chip operating at 1.8V.
4.1 Output Characteristics
The pertinent specifications for an output, which are very clearly defined in the datasheet,
are the output voltage (VOH and VOL) when sinking or sourcing a certain current and the
output current (IOH and IOH) at a certain voltage. These specifications are holdovers from
logic days and are very useful to determine the number of logic gates that can be
connected to an output pin and still be reliably triggered.
Today’s I/O requirements are much more complex and more analog oriented. The
previous LED example is a good example. If the current capacity of the n-channel output
transistor is too low, it will be impossible to generate enough voltage drop across the
LED to light it or light it bright enough. The rest of this section will discuss the analog
output characteristics of Agile I/O GPIO Expander devices.
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Fig 4.
Standard CMOS totem pole or push-pull output
External
Package Pin
Internal
Logic Drive
VSS
Fig 5.
Standard CMOS open-drain output (no diode to VDD)
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3.3V
1.8V
V DD
Push-Pull
Output
Current from a higher voltage
node thru the parasitic output
diode to the chip VDD
V SS
Fig 6.
LED drive application showing large current flow caused by LED voltage at 3.3V due to Vf of the LED
(approx. 2V) flowing to the lower VDD of the driving device through the parasitic diode of the P-channel
transistor
4.2 CMOS FET Principles
The output drivers of the Agile I/O devices are simply large n-channel and p-channel
MOSFET devices and they behave exactly like generic MOSFET devices Figure_7 . The
drain current is limited in the saturation region and is somewhat linear, like a gate voltage
controlled resistor, in the linear region. The main difference between the drain current vs.
drain voltage graph in Figure_7 and the Agile I/O device is the gate voltage – the Agile
I/O device only has two gate voltage states: 0V and VDD.
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Fig 7.
Generic n-channel MOSFET Drain Current vs. Drain Voltage at various Gate Voltages
In the 0V gate voltage state, the n-channel device passes no current from drain to source
no matter the drain voltage. In the VDD gate voltage state, the drain current is only
limited by the saturation current for that gate voltage – essentially a short circuit at low
VDS. An interesting point is the term RDSON or on resistance of the MOSFET. It can be
easily calculated graphically by looking at the slope of the device in the linear region. The
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example device shown in Figure_7, with a gate voltage (VGS) of 7V, the IDS = 20mA at a
VDS = 4V which is an RDSON of 200 ohms.
4.3 Actual Agile I/O Output Characteristics
PCAL6416 Output Transistor Characteristics
Vdd = 3.3V & 5.0V
250
200
Ids mA
150
Ids mA @ 3.3V
Ids mA @ 5V
100
50
0
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
Vds
Fig 8.
Agile I/O Output Current with VDD (and VGS) at 3.3V and 5V
As stated in the previous section, the output current is only dependent on VDD since VGS
is always the same as VDD. Figure_8 shows the n-channel IDS vs VDS curves for an actual
Agile I/O device. The saturation current difference is over 50mA, but the RDSON is
hardly different in the linear region. Notice the slight decrease in saturation current
around 2V to 3.3V. You would expect the saturation current to be constant, but in
practice, the current decreases due to self heating of the silicon die from power
dissipation across the output transistor – almost 700mW.
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4.3.1 Output Drive Strength Control
A novel feature of the Agile I/O devices is the ability to program the size of the output
transistors, thereby decreasing their saturation current. Figure_9 shows the p-channel
output characteristics and Figure_10 shows an n-channel device of an actual Agile I/O
output. The four curves correspond to the four programmable drive levels.
P-channel Characteristics @ 3.3V
VERT 20mA
Output Drive Strength 03, 100%
HORIZ 500mV
Output Drive Strength 02, 75%
Output Drive Strength 01, 25%
Output Drive Strength 00, 25%
Fig 9.
Agile I/O p-channel output transistor with drive strength control
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N-channel Output Characteristic @ 3.3V
VERT 20mA
HORIZ 500mV
Output Drive Strength 03, 100%
Output Drive Strength 02, 75%
Output Drive Strength 01, 25%
Output Drive Strength 00, 25%
Fig 10. Agile I/O n-channel output transistor with drive strength control
All of this discussion about output drive strength may leave one wondering “why?” But,
there is an easy, graphical way to plot the load onto the characteristics and determine the
voltage and current delivered to the load and ensure the output transistors are not
overtaxed.
First, one must calculate the I-V curve of the load. To simplify this discussion, we’ll use a
resistor. This is a linear load with a straight line as a characteristic. A certain voltage
across the resistor will draw a current specified by Ohm’s law ( I = V / R ).
Figure_11 shows a load connected to VDD and switched by the n-channel output
transistor. The I – V characteristics are shown next to each component, however there is
a twist. Since the resistor is connected between VDD and VDS, the load line is not exactly
correct. Zero current flows when VDS equals VDD and maximum current flows when VDS
equals VSS. The resistor load line then must be reversed to correctly overlay on the
transistor characteristic curve as shown in Figure_12 .
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VDD
Load
Resistance
VDS
N-channel Output Characteristic @ 3.3V
VERT 20mA
HORIZ 500mV
VSS
Fig 11. Graphical method for output load design
Figure_12 shows two load lines for this output configuration with resistance of 20 and
200 ohms and completely defines the voltage and current for each resistive load. This
graphical method is an easy way to design output drives for complex loads if you have a
well behaved and repeatable load line.
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PCAL6416 Output n-channel Transistor Characteristics
Vdd = 3.3V & various output drive strength
180
160
140
Ids mA
120
Ids mA drive strength 03 - 100%
Ids mA drive strength 02 - 75%
Ids mA drive strength 01 - 50%
Ids mA drive strength 00 - 25%
Resistor 20 ohms
Resistor 100 ohms
100
80
60
40
20
0
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
Vds
Fig 12. Agile I/O Output transistor characteristic with a resistor load line
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5. Legal information
5.1 Definitions
Draft — The document is a draft version only. The content is still under
internal review and subject to formal approval, which may result in
modifications or additions. NXP Semiconductors does not give any
representations or warranties as to the accuracy or completeness of
information included herein and shall have no liability for the consequences
of use of such information.
5.2 Disclaimers
Limited warranty and liability — Information in this document is believed to
be accurate and reliable. However, NXP Semiconductors does not give any
representations or warranties, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy or
completeness of such information and shall have no liability for the
consequences of use of such information.
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or replacement of any products or rework charges) whether or not such
damages are based on tort (including negligence), warranty, breach of
contract or any other legal theory.
Notwithstanding any damages that customer might incur for any reason
whatsoever, NXP Semiconductors’ aggregate and cumulative liability
towards customer for the products described herein shall be limited in
accordance with the Terms and conditions of commercial sale of NXP
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Right to make changes — NXP Semiconductors reserves the right to make
changes to information published in this document, including without
limitation specifications and product descriptions, at any time and without
notice. This document supersedes and replaces all information supplied prior
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damage. NXP Semiconductors accepts no liability for inclusion and/or use of
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Applications — Applications that are described herein for any of these
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specified use without further testing or modification.
Customers are responsible for the design and operation of their applications
and products using NXP Semiconductors products, and NXP
Semiconductors accepts no liability for any assistance with applications or
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customer product design. It is customer’s sole responsibility to determine
whether the NXP Semiconductors product is suitable and fit for the
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risk as to the quality, or arising out of the use or performance, of this product
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Notwithstanding any damages that customer might incur for any reason
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5.3 Trademarks
Notice: All referenced brands, product names, service names and
trademarks are property of their respective owners.
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6. List of figures
Fig 1.
Fig 2.
Fig 3.
Fig 4.
Fig 5.
Fig 6.
Fig 7.
Fig 8.
Fig 9.
Fig 10.
Fig 11.
Fig 12.
Typical CMOS Input Structure .......................... 5
Curve Tracer Characteristic of Low Voltage
Agile I/O Input (positive and negative direction . 5
Input Voltage Level (channel 1 is the input
voltage ramp, channel 2 is INT output) ............. 6
Standard CMOS totem pole or push-pull output8
Standard CMOS open-drain output (no diode to
VDD) ................................................................... 8
LED drive application showing large current flow
caused by LED voltage at 3.3V due to Vf of the
LED (approx. 2V) flowing to the lower VDD of
the driving device through the parasitic diode of
the P-channel transistor .................................... 9
Generic n-channel MOSFET Drain Current vs.
Drain Voltage at various Gate Voltages .......... 10
Agile I/O Output Current with VDD (and VGS) at
3.3V and 5V .................................................... 11
Agile I/O p-channel output transistor with drive
strength control ............................................... 12
Agile I/O n-channel output transistor with drive
strength control ............................................... 13
Graphical method for output load design ........ 14
Agile I/O Output transistor characteristic with a
resistor load line .............................................. 15
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7. List of tables
Table 1.
Table 2.
Low Voltage Agile I/O Part Numbers ................ 3
Typical Switching Points vs. Power Supply ....... 6
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8. Contents
1.
2.
2.1
2.1.1
2.1.2
2.1.3
2.1.4
2.1.5
2.1.6
3.
3.1
3.2
4.
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.3.1
5.
5.1
5.2
5.3
6.
7.
8.
Introduction ......................................................... 3
Low Voltage I/O Device Overview ...................... 3
Agile I/O Features .............................................. 3
Selectable output drive strength ......................... 3
Output configuration ........................................... 3
Input pull-up/pull-down resistors......................... 4
Interrupt mask .................................................... 4
Interrupt status ................................................... 4
Input latch........................................................... 4
Physical Attributes of the Low Voltage Agile I/O
Input & Output Pins ............................................. 4
Input Structure.................................................... 4
Input Voltage Levels........................................... 5
Output Structures................................................ 7
Output Characteristics ........................................ 7
CMOS FET Principles ........................................ 9
Actual Agile I/O Output Characteristics ............ 11
Output Drive Strength Control .......................... 12
Legal information .............................................. 16
Definitions ........................................................ 16
Disclaimers....................................................... 16
Trademarks ...................................................... 16
List of figures..................................................... 17
List of tables ...................................................... 18
Contents ............................................................. 19
Please be aware that important notices concerning this document and the product(s)
described herein, have been included in the section 'Legal information'.
© NXP B.V. 2014.
All rights reserved.
For more information, visit: http://www.nxp.com
For sales office addresses, please send an email to: [email protected]
Date of release: 15 August 2014
Document identifier: AN11496
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