cd00221444

AN2865
Application note
STUSBCD01B configuration and operation
Introduction
With the ever-increasing number of mobile devices adopting the USB bus as the standard
communication port and source for recharging, a standardization of the characteristics of
the charging devices and methods to detect them is required to optimize the performance of
the charging process and reduce the risks of damaging standard USB ports.
The new USB battery charging specification provides rules and guidelines to follow when
designing new USB architectures capable of battery charging and when defining new
charging host ports. The specification also extends the range of current which can be drawn
from a USB port.
In order to be able to distinguish between this new class of USB ports, standard USB host
ports and dedicated chargers, the new specification also defines detection methods which
must be used to determine the right amount of current the portable device can draw from the
USB bus. This also guarantees backward compatibility with standard USB ports.
The STUSBCD01B is a USB charging detection IC developed on the base of the USB
battery charging specification which can be easily added in new platforms to provide them
with charging detection capability.
September 2009
Doc ID 15283 Rev 1
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www.st.com
Contents
AN2865
Contents
1
STUSBCD01B description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2
Application circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3
Interface and control pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.1
Status/method pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.2
Detect pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.3
Default method pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4
Current sink detection method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
5
Dedicated charger detection method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
6
Software detection and hardware detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
7
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
8
Revision history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
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1
STUSBCD01B description
STUSBCD01B description
The STUSBCD01B is the ideal solution for all mobile products using the USB bus for battery
charging. It can be used in all USB architectures (low-, full- or high-speed) where the
transceiver or the battery charger does not have smart charger detection. The
STUSBCD01B implements two different detection methods to distinguish between
dedicated chargers, charging host ports and standard host ports.
The device can be fully controlled through digital inputs (software detection mode) and is
also able to perform the charger detection automatically when the battery voltage is too low
to allow the application controller to be operative (hardware detection mode). A VBATreferred open-drain output (detect) is available for direct control over the USB charging
controller.
The STUSBCD01B also provides a clamping circuit which can be used to protect each USB
IC connected to the USB VBUS against overvoltage. The device requires few external
components and its power consumption is extremely low.
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Application circuit
2
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Application circuit
The STUSBCD01B requires only five external components:
●
two capacitors to bypass the power supplies to ground
●
one resistor for the VBUS clamping circuit
●
two series resistors on the DP/DM data lines
Figure 1 shows the typical application circuit for the STUSBCD01B.
Figure 1.
STUSBCD01B application circuit
USB CHARGING
CONTROLLER
USB PHY
(Transceiver)
DM DP VBUS
VBAT
VIO
C1
CONTROLLER
VI/O
C2
100nF
1V8V
DETECT
VIO
100nF
VBAT
SHUTDOWN
STATUS/METHOD
/OE
DEF. METHOD
VBUS
STUSBCD01
DM
A
B
R3 = 470Ω
DP
R1 = 470Ω
R2 = 470Ω
USB
Receptacle
VBUS
D+
DGND
GND
The STUSBCD01B can operate in two different modes: hardware detection mode, which
does not require external control, and software detection mode. The user can choose
between two different detection methods: dedicated method and current sink method. More
details on each operating mode are provided in the following paragraphs. The operating
mode is defined by the status of the digital I/Os, VBAT voltage, VIO voltage and default
method input. See Table 1 for a summary of all operating conditions.
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Table 1.
Application circuit
STUSBCD01B operating modes
VBAT
VIO
VBUS
Shutdown
Status/method
pin
Default method
pin
Operating mode
< 2.2 V
-
-
-
-
-
Power down
> 2.2 V
Not
present
Not
present
-
-
-
Standby (no SW control)
> 2.2 V
Not
present
Present
-
-
VBAT
Active, HW detection,
current sink method
> 2.2 V
Not
present
Present
-
-
GND
Active, HW detection,
dedicated method
> 2.2 V
Present
Present
VIO
-
-
Standby (SW control)
> 2.2 V
Present
Not
present
-
-
-
Standby (SW control)
> 2.2 V
Present
Present
GND
VIO(1)
-
Active, SW detection,
current sink method
> 2.2 V
Present
Present
GND
GND(1)
-
Active, SW detection,
dedicated method
1. The level of the Status/Method pin is read and latched on the falling edge of the shutdown input signal. When detection is
finished, this pin becomes output.
SW = Software: HW = Hardware; “-” = Don't Care
The external resistors are very important to guarantee proper operation:
– The R1 and R2 series resistors are needed to mask the DP/DM pins’ parasitic
capacitance which is seen on the bus during high-speed USB communication.
Removing these resistors might lead to degradation of USB high-speed signal quality
and eye pattern failure. A value of 470 Ω is suggested in order to have optimal
performance;
– The R3 resistor is required for the VBUS clamping feature. If a value of 470 Ω is used,
the VBUS pin voltage (node A) never exceeds 6 V when USB VBUS voltages up to 10 V
are applied (node B). Every device needing overvoltage protection must be
connected to the VBUS pin of the STUSBCD01B as shown in Figure 1: STUSBCD01B
application circuit (node A). Bus-powered devices cannot take advantage of this
clamping feature because high currents drawn from the USB VBUS voltage would
cause a voltage drop over the R3 resistor. If this voltage drop is too high, the device's
VBUS comparators would read a false VBUS level which might lead to malfunctioning.
It is therefore strongly recommended to connect bus-powered USB devices directly to
the USB receptacle's VBUS line (node B).
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Interface and control pins
3
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Interface and control pins
The STUSBCD01B is controlled and communicates with the controller using 5 I/Os. While
shutdown and OE are standard VIO referred CMOS inputs, the remaining pins
(Status/Method, default method and detect) have different characteristics.
3.1
Status/method pin
This pin is either input or output depending on the operating conditions. It is input before the
start of the detection process (used to set the detection method) and is output at the end of
the detection process (it outputs the result of the detection). The application designer should
program the application controller so that it sets the level of this pin (VIO or GND) before the
detection starts and maintains it during the falling edge of the shutdown signal (when the
value is internally latched). The STUSBCD01B then outputs the detection result (at the end
of detection) on this pin and therefore the application should read it after the maximum
detection time has passed (see parameters TVBUS_DET_CS and TVBUS_DET_DC on the
STUSBCD01B datasheet). The output structure is not a standard CMOS output but consists
of a weak pull-up or a weak pull-down (~10 kΩ) connected to the pin depending on the
detection result as shown in figure 2.
Figure 2.
Status/method pin I/O
VIO
Closed at detection end if
charger detected
STATUS/
METHOD
Closed at detection end if
charger not detected
GND
3.2
Detect pin
This pin is an open-drain output which can be used as a VBAT referred signal for the
detection result. It is always enabled in hardware detection mode, while in software
detection mode it is enabled/disabled by the OE (active low) digital input. When enabled, the
open-drain structure (see Figure 3) uses a PMOS transistor to pull the pin high (VBAT) when
the detection is successful, otherwise an internal pull-down resistor (~ 300 kΩ) keeps the
output low.
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Figure 3.
Interface and control pins
Detect pin output
VBAT
DETECT
GND
3.3
Default method pin
This pin is a VBAT referred digital input. It is used to choose the detection method in
hardware detection mode. Its level is ignored in software detection mode. It has to be driven
high for the current sink method, low for the dedicated method.
Note:
This pin must never be left floating to avoid increased power consumption.
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Current sink detection method
4
AN2865
Current sink detection method
The STUSBCD01B's current sink detection method is suitable to detect both dedicated USB
chargers (e.g. wall chargers) and charging host ports and distinguish them from standard
USB host ports. See figure 4 for a simplified schematic description of these devices.
A dedicated charger typically shorts the USB DP/DM lines with a resistance not greater than
200 Ω, while standard USB host ports have pull-down resistors connected to DP and DM
(14.25 - 24.80 kΩ).
A charging host port is normally not distinguishable from standard host ports but if it detects
that an external device connected to its DP/DM lines is attempting to perform a detection,
then it simulates a short between DP/DM, applying a voltage source to DM
(VDM_SRC = 0.5 - 0.7 V) and a current sink to DP (IDP_SINK = 50 - 150 µA).
Figure 4.
USB ports
Dedicated
Charging Port
DP
DM
Standard Host
Port
DP
Charging Host
Port
DP
RPD
RDCHG_DAT
Max
200Ω
RPD
VDAT_REF
IDP_SINK
DM
DM
RPD
RPD
VDM_SRC
After a stable VBUS voltage has been detected, if the STUSBCD01B is enabled, the state
machine starts the detection procedure which consists of the following steps:
– Phase 1: a current sink is connected to the DM pin (IDAT_SINK = 50 - 100 µA);
– Phase 2: 5 ms (min) after DM current sink is connected, a voltage source
(VDAT_SRC = 0.615 - 0.7 V) is applied to the DP pin and maintained for at least 100
ms;
– When the detection finishes, both the current sink and the voltage source are
disconnected from the DP/DM pins. If the detection is successful, 40 ms (min.) after
the end of the detection process, the detect and/or Status/Method outputs are pulled
high.
The detection process can be interrupted if one of the following conditions is satisfied:
– VBUS voltage goes low;
– Shutdown input is pulled high (only in SW detection mode);
– Voltage levels on the DP/DM pins are different than expected.
The detection is successful if the DM pin is low during phase 1 and it goes high for at least
20 ms during phase 2.
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Current sink detection method
The DM check during phase 1 is needed to ensure that PS2 to USB adapters, pulling the
DM line high, are not recognized as chargers. If a PS2 port is recognized as a charger, the
high current drawn during the charging process could damage old PC motherboards which
is why the detection is stopped if the DM line is high during this phase.
On the other hand, if DM is low during phase 1, phase 2 is entered. If a dedicated charging
port is connected to the DP/DM lines, the voltage source connected to the DP line pulls the
DM line over the VDAT_REF threshold because of the short-circuit between DP and DM inside
the charging port. The same happens when a charging host port is connected. After
detecting the VDAT_SRC voltage on the DP line, the charging host port connects a voltage
source to the DM line which exceeds the VDAT_REF threshold.
Both ports allow the detection to be successful.
On the other hand, if a standard host port is connected to the DP-DM lines, the DM voltage
during phase 2 is always low because of the pull-down resistor connected to it. This causes
the detection to fail.
STUSBCD01B current sink method applied to a dedicated charger
Phase 1
Phase 2
STUSBCD01
R1
LOW
RDCHG_DAT
VDAT_REF
DP
VDAT_SRC
I=0
VDAT_REF
R2
DM
IDAT_SINK
R1
HIGH
DP
VDAT_SRC
LOW
STUSBCD01
RDCHG_DAT
Figure 5.
HIGH
Dedicated
Charger
I=
IDAT_SINK
R2
DM
IDAT_SINK
Dedicated
Charger
The maximum value of RDCHG_DAT recognized as a charger can be easily calculated:
VDAT_SRC minus the voltage drop on the series R1+R2+ RDCHG_DAT must not go below
VDAT_REF. The worst-case conditions are obtained using the minimum value of VDAT_SRC
and (R1+R2) and the maximum value for VDAT_REF and IDAT_SINK:
Equation 1
VDAT_SRC(min) - IDAT_SINK(max)(R1+R2+RDCHG_DAT) > VDAT_REF(max)
Therefore,
Equation 2
RDCHG_DAT < [(VDAT_SRC(min) - VDAT_REF(max))/IDAT_SINK(max)]- (R1+R2)(max)
Considering 1% tolerance for R1 and R2 (470 Ω nominal) and min/max values taken from
the USB battery charging specification and the STUSBCD01B datasheet, we obtain:
Equation 3
RDCHG_DAT < [(0.615-0.34)/(100*10-6)]-(470*2*1.01) = 1800.6 Ω
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Current sink detection method
AN2865
This shows that even by adding R1 and R2 series resistors there is still enough margin over
the dedicated charger’s detection (RDCHG_DAT(max) = 200 Ω according to USB specs).
In the case of charging host ports, VDM_SRC is applied directly to R2 as shown in figure 6.
The maximum value for R2 which allows a charging host port to be recognized as the
charger after it applies VDM_SRC and IDP_SINK to DM and DP can be calculated as follows:
Equation 4
VDM_SRC(min) - R2*(IDAT_SRC(max)) > VDAT_REF(max)
Equation 5
R2 < (VDM_SRC(min) - VDAT_REF(max))/IDAT_SINK(max)
That is:
Equation 6
R2 < (0.5-0.34)/(100*10-6) = 1600 Ω
A value of 470 Ω (1%) is therefore well within limits.
Figure 6.
STUSBCD01B current sink method applied to a charging host port
STUSBCD01
R1
Charging Host Port
DP
RPD
VDAT_SRC
VDAT_REF
IDP_SINK
VDAT_REF
R2
DM
IDAT_SINK
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5
Dedicated charger detection method
Dedicated charger detection method
The STUSBCD01B's current sink detection method is not able to distinguish between a
charging host port and a dedicated charger. If the result of the current sink method detection
is positive, the user may want to perform a new detection to understand what kind of charger
is connected. The dedicated charger detection method is successful only if a dedicated
charger is connected to the DP/DM lines. If the STUSBCD01B is enabled and configured to
use this method, after a stable VBUS voltage is detected, the state machine starts the
following operations:
– Phase 1: a current source (IDCH_SRC = 15 - 30 µA) is connected to the DP line. If at
the end of this phase (100 ms min), both DP and DM lines are high, the detection
proceeds to phase 2;
– Phase 2: IDAT_SINK current sink (same as in current sink method, 50 - 100 µA) is
connected to the DM line for at least 40 ms.
If at the end of phase 2 both DP and DM are low, the detection is successful and detect
and/or Status/Method outputs are pulled high.
If a standard host port is connected, the dedicated charger detection method stops at phase
1 because the pull-down resistor on the host side pulls the DM line low.
The case of a charging host port (CHP) is a little bit more complex. During phase 1, the CHP
connects the IDP_SINK current sink to the DP line. This current sink is stronger than
IDCH_SRC and therefore pulls the DP line low, causing the detection to fail (the voltage drop
over the R1 resistor is negligible because of the low current flowing in it). If for some reason
the voltage drop over IDP_SINK or R1 is higher than expected and the voltage at the
STUSBCD01B's DP pin exceeds the VDAT_REF threshold, the state machine proceeds to
phase 2 which fails because the DM line is driven high by VDM_SRC connected inside the
HCP (the DM line is expected to be low during phase 2). This scenario is shown in figure 7.
Figure 7.
STUSBCD01B dedicated charger detection method applied to a charging host port
STUSBCD01 1.8 V
R1
Charging Host Port
DP
IDCH_SRC
RPD
VDAT_REF
IDP_SINK
VTHDPL
VDAT_REF
IDAT_SINK
R2
DM
RPD
(Connected
only during
phase 2)
VDM_SRC
The maximum value for the R2 resistor can be easily calculated:
Equation 7
VDM_SRC(min) - R2*(IDAT_SINK(max)) > VDAT_REF(max)
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Dedicated charger detection method
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Equation 8
R2 < (VDM_SRC(min) - VDAT_REF(max))/(IDAT_SINK(max))
Equation 9
R2(max) = (0.5 - 0.34)/(100*10-6) = 1600 Ω
This result is consistent with the value in Equation 6 on page 10.
In the case of a dedicated charger, the maximum DP/DM short resistance which is detected
as a charger can be calculated as follows. During phase 1, the value is not significant as
IDAT_SINK is off, therefore the resistor series (R1 + RDCHG_DAT + R2) is connected to a high
voltage on the DP side and is floating on the DM side. The voltage is high on both sides.
During phase one, the DM voltage is equal to the voltage drop over IDAT_SINK. This current
sink is designed to have a maximum voltage drop, while in operation, of 150 mV. This value
is lower than VDAT_REF so it is not critical. In order for the detection to be successful, the DP
line must also be low during phase 2:
Equation 10
VIDAT_SINK(max) + IDAT_SINK(max)*[RDCHG_DAT + (R1 + R2)(max)] < VTHDPL(min)
Equation 11
RDCHG_DAT < [(VTHDPL(min) - VIDAT_SINK(max))/IDAT_SINK(max)] - (R1 + R2)(max)
Considering 1% tolerance for R1 and R2 (470 Ω nominal) we obtain:
Equation 12
RDCHG_DAT(max) = [0.6 - 0.15)/ (100*10-6)] - (470*2*1.01) = 3550.6 Ω
This result is higher than the one found in Equation 3 on page 9 for the current sink method.
The actual result is even higher than this because in the above calculation we have
considered a maximum value for the current flowing in the resistors higher than the real one.
In fact, having two different current sources on the same branch causes the current to be set
to the value of the weak current source (max 30 µA).
This shows that both methods are quite robust and there is sufficient margin in the choice of
the R1 and R2 resistor values.
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STUSBCD01B dedicated charger detection method applied to a dedicated charger
STUSBCD01
1.8V
R1
DP
IDCH_SRC
RDCHG_DAT
Figure 8.
Dedicated charger detection method
VTHDPL
VDAT_REF
R2
DM
IDAT_SINK
(Connected only
during phase 2)
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Dedicated
Charger
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Software detection and hardware detection
6
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Software detection and hardware detection
If the battery voltage is not high enough to wake up the application controller but is higher
than 2.2 V, the STUSBCD01B can perform an automatic detection to allow the user to start
charging the battery and make its voltage reach a value which will wake up the ASIC. This
automatic detection is called hardware detection while the ASIC controlled detection is
referred to as software detection.
When the ASIC wakes up, the result of the hardware detection is available until the
STUSBCD01B is reset.
The hardware detection mode is automatically entered when the VIO voltage is not available.
In this mode of operation all VIO referred inputs are ignored and the detection method is set
using the default method pin as described in Table 1 on page 5.
As in the software detection mode, the start of the detection process is triggered by the
VBUS voltage going high. If the detection fails but the VBUS voltage is still present, a new
detection is performed once per second in an infinite loop as shown in the simplified
flowchart in figure 9. This periodic detection is stopped only if:
– the detection result is positive;
– the VBUS voltage drops under the VTH_VBUS threshold;
– the VIO voltage goes high.
Figure 9.
HW/SW detection flowchart
VBUS goes
HIGH
Is VIO High?
Yes
SW
detection
End
No
Yes
HW
detection
Timer expired
Or VIO high?
No
Start
1s timer
Yes
Is DET(*)
High?
Yes
(*)
DET = Detect. High if charger detected
End
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7
References
References
–
STUSBCD01B datasheet
–
USB battery charging draft specification rel.1.1.
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Revision history
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8
Revision history
Table 2.
Document revision history
Date
Revision
21-Sep-2009
1
16/17
Changes
Initial release.
Doc ID 15283 Rev 1
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