dm00048561

AN4050
Application note
STEVAL-ISV012V1: lithium-ion solar battery charger
By Domenico Ragonese, Alessandro Nicosia and Giovanni Conti
Introduction
The STEVAL-ISV012V1 is a demonstration board that mounts the SPV1040 (solar energy
harvester) as the input stage and the L6924D (Li-Ion battery charger) as the output stage. It
targets any portable application powered by lithium-ion batteries and merges the capability
of the SPV1040 to maximize the power extraction from the solar module with the linear
regulation of the L6924D, to optimize the battery charge and to protect the load while
reducing the power dissipation at the bottom. It is shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1. STEVAL-ISV012V1 demonstration board
The board has been designed to charge lithium-ion and lithium-polymer batteries with
VBATT_max = 4.1 or 4.2 V and it includes a 400 mWpk polycrystalline PV panel
(SZGD6060-4P from NBSZGD) with Voc = 2.2 V and Isc = 220 mA.
According to specific application requirements, some components may be replaced as per
the following guidelines:
•
•
•
•
The PV panel can be replaced by a different one as long as Voc < VBATT_max and Isc
< 1.65 A.
The inductor L1 can be replaced by considering that it affects the maximum peak
current and that an input overcurrent limit must not be triggered.
The maximum output current can be limited by replacing the current sensing resistor
Rs (0 Ω by default).
The resistor R14, which limits the charge current threshold, by default is set to 500 mA.
For further details on component selection, please refer to the section “external component
selection” of the AN3319 application note. For details about SPV1040 and L6924D features
please refer to the related datasheets.
March 2013
DocID022816 Rev 2
1/19
www.st.com
Contents
AN4050
Contents
1
SPV1040 operation description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2
L6924D operation description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3
L6924D operation in solar powered applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4
Reference design description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
5
Schematic and bill of material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
6
Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
7
Revision history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2/19
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AN4050
List of figures
List of figures
Figure 1.
Figure 2.
Figure 3.
Figure 4.
Figure 5.
Figure 6.
Figure 7.
Figure 8.
Figure 9.
Figure 10.
Figure 11.
Figure 12.
Figure 13.
Figure 14.
Figure 15.
Figure 16.
Figure 17.
Figure 18.
Figure 19.
STEVAL-ISV012V1 demonstration board. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Typical application circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
SPV1040 equivalent circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
MPPT working principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
SPV1040 internal block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Basic application schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Typical charge curve in Quasi-pulse mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Battery charging at low irradiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Battery charging at low irradiation, zoomed in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Maximum available current vs. Pin, 200 mW peak PV panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Maximum available current vs. Pin, 2 W peak PV panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Application set-up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
V-I and P-V plot diagrams. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Partial charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Full charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
STEVAL-ISV012V1 schematic, battery charge section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
STEVAL-ISV012V1 schematic, solar power optimizer section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
STEVAL-ISV012V1 PCB top view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
STEVAL-ISV012V1 PCB bottom view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
DocID022816 Rev 2
3/19
SPV1040 operation description
1
AN4050
SPV1040 operation description
The SPV1040 is a high efficiency, low power and low voltage DC-DC converter that provides
a single output voltage up to 5.2 V. If combined with the L6924D, it provides the ideal
solution for charging lithium battery packs by harvesting energy from a very small solar
panel.
The SPV1040 is a 100 kHz fixed frequency PWM step-up converter able to maximize the
energy harvested by few solar cells. thanks to the embedded MPPT algorithm which
maximizes the power generated from the panel by continuously tracking its output voltage
and current. The converter guarantees the safety of the overall application and its own by
stopping the PWM switching in case of an overvoltage, overcurrent or overtemperature
condition. The IC integrates a 120 mΩ N-channel MOSFET power switch and a 140 mΩ Pchannel MOSFET synchronous rectifier.
Figure 2. Typical application circuit
L
VPV
XSHUT
I CTRL_PLUS
GND
I CTRL_MINUS
R3
RF1
CF
RF2
R1
COUT
VCTRL
SET
MPP- SET
MPP
CIN
VBATT
RS
VOUT
Lx
CINsns
D OUT
R2
COUTsns
AM11733v1
The SPV1040 acts as an impedance adapter between the PV module and the output load.
In fact, the equivalent circuit can be seen below:
Figure 3. SPV1040 equivalent circuit
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The MPPT algorithm properly sets up the DC working point by guaranteeing Zin = Zm
(assuming Zm is the impedance of the supply source). In this way, the power extracted from
the supply source (Pin = Vin * Iin) is maximum (Pm = Vm * Im).
The voltage-current curve shows all the available working points of the PV panel at a given
solar irradiation. The voltage-power curve is derived from the voltage-current curve by
4/19
DocID022816 Rev 2
AN4050
SPV1040 operation description
plotting the product V*I for each voltage generated. For further details of the MPPT
algorithm, please refer to the SPV1040 datasheet.
Figure 4. MPPT working principle
PMAX
I MP
Power [W]
Current [A]
0
Voltage [V]
VMP
VOC
AM11735v1
Figure 5. SPV1040 internal block diagram
V OUT
Lx
START SIGNAL
ANALOG BLOCK
ZERO CROSSING
DETECTOR
VREF
+
I CTRL_PLUS
VMPP-REF
OVER TEMPERATURE
REVERSE POLARITY
MPP BLOCK
I CTRL_MINUS
PWM
CLOCK
MPP-SET
+
DRIVERS
CONTROL
OVER CURRENT
CLOCK
Burst Ref
XSHUT
BURST MODE
+
DIGITAL
CORE
-
DAC CODE
Iout Reg
Vin Reg
Vout Reg
GND
V MPP-REF
MPP-SET
V CTRL
+
-
VREF
AM11736v1
The duty cycle set by the MPPT algorithm can be overwritten if one of the following
conditions is triggered:
•
Input overcurrent protection (OVC): inductor peak current ≤ 1.65 A
•
Overtemperature protection (OVT): internal temperature ≤ 155 °C
•
Output voltage regulation: VCTRL pin triggers the 1.25 V internal reference
•
Output current limitation: Rs * (ICTRL_PLUS - ICTRL_MINUS) ≤ 50 mV
•
MPP-SET voltage VMPP-SET ≤ 300 mV at the startup and VMPP-SET ≤ 450 mV in running
mode.
Application components must be carefully selected to avoid any undesired trigger of the
above thresholds.
DocID022816 Rev 2
5/19
L6924D operation description
2
AN4050
L6924D operation description
The L6924D is a fully monolithic battery charger dedicated to single-cell Li-Ion/polymer
battery packs. It is designed with BCD6 technology and integrates all of the power elements
(the Power MOSFET, reverse blocking diode and the sense resistor) in a small VFQFPN16
3 mm x 3 mm package.
It normally works as a linear charger when powered from an external voltage regulated
adapter. However, thanks to its very low minimum input voltage (down to 2.5 V) the L6924D
can also work as a quasi-pulse charger when powered from a current limited adapter,
dramatically reducing the power dissipation.
The L6924D charges the battery in three phases:
•
•
•
Pre-charge constant current: a deeply discharged battery is charged with a low current.
Fast-charge constant current: the device charges the battery with the maximum
current.
Constant voltage: when the battery voltage is close to the selected output voltage, the
device starts to reduce the current, until the charge termination is completed.
Regardless of the charging approach, a closed loop thermal control avoids device
overheating. The L6924D allows the user to program many parameters, such as pre-charge
current, fast-charge current, pre-charge voltage threshold, end-of-charge current threshold,
and charge timer. The L6924D offers two open collector outputs for diagnostic purposes,
which can be used to either drive two external LEDs or communicate with a host
microcontroller. Finally, the L6924D also provides other battery related functions, such as
checking for battery presence, monitoring, and protection from unsafe thermal conditions.
Figure 6. Basic application schematic
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DocID022816 Rev 2
AN4050
3
L6924D operation in solar powered applications
L6924D operation in solar powered applications
Thanks to its very low minimum input voltage (down to 2.5 V), the L6924D can also work as
a quasi-pulse charger when powered from a current limited adapter such as a PV panel or a
current limit device such as the SPV1040 step-up.
To work in this condition, it is enough to set the device's charging current (by R14) higher
than the maximum peak current of the PV panel. During the fast-charge phase, the output
voltage of the SPV1040 that supplies the L6924D goes down to the battery voltage plus the
voltage drop across the power MOSFET of the charger.
In this mode, the L6924D charges the battery with the same three phases as in linear mode,
but the power dissipation is greatly reduced, as shown in Figure 7.
Figure 7. Typical charge curve in Quasi-pulse mode
DocID022816 Rev 2
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L6924D operation in solar powered applications
AN4050
During the fast-charge phase, the output voltage of the SPV1040 (VIN of L6924D) goes
down to the battery voltage (VBAT) plus the voltage drop across the Power MOSFET
(ΔVMOS) of the charger.
Consequently, the internal MOSFET works in saturation mode with a voltage drop given by
the following formula:
Equation 1
V IN = V ADP = V BAT + ΔV MOS
where
Equation 2
ΔV MOS = R DS ( on ) × I LIM
ILIM is the current limit of the SPV1040, which depends on solar irradiation.
Neglecting the voltage drop across the charger (ΔVMOS) when the device operates in this
condition, its input voltage is equal to the battery one, and so a very low operating input
voltage (down to 2.5 V) is required. The power dissipated by the device during this phase is:
Equation 3
P CH = R DS ( on ) × ILIM
2
The advantage of the quasi-pulse charging method allows the energy harvested by few
solar cells to be maximized.
Note that the STEVAL-ISV0012V1 mounts two LEDs, D1 and D2, which indicate (when ON)
whether the charge is in progress or is completed, respectively.
R14, and consequently ILIM, must be set up according to the power provided by the PV
panel at the maximum irradiation, but it is possible that at lower irradiations D1 starts
flickering (or appearing ON), while D2 is ON as well.
This is due to the battery charger which tries to charge the battery at 4.2 V (or 4.1 V,
depending on the VOPRG setting) and ILIM, but the required power can be sustained only if
enough irradiation is available at the PV panel side. If the irradiation is not sufficient, the
input voltage of the L6924D drops down to the battery voltage, causing the battery charging
to stop and D1 turns ON. Shortly after, the voltage rises back to 4.2 V (or 4.1 V) and the
battery charge starts again (D1 turns OFF).
In these low irradiation conditions the battery is charged by current packets anyway.
The plots below show behavior in the case of low irradiation:
8/19
DocID022816 Rev 2
AN4050
L6924D operation in solar powered applications
Figure 8. Battery charging at low irradiation
Figure 9. Battery charging at low irradiation,
zoomed in
The plots below show the maximum available current that can be provided to the battery
charger according to the input power.
Figure 10. Maximum available current vs. Pin, 200 mW peak PV panel
80
70
Iout max [mA]
60
50
40
Vout = 4.5V
30
20
10
0
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
Pin [mW]
AM12667V1
DocID022816 Rev 2
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L6924D operation in solar powered applications
AN4050
Figure 11. Maximum available current vs. Pin, 2 W peak PV panel
350
Iout max [mA]
300
250
200
150
Vout = 4.5V
100
50
0
0
200
400
600
800
1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000
Pin [mW]
AM12668V1
10/19
DocID022816 Rev 2
AN4050
4
Reference design description
Reference design description
The set-up environment used for the measurement campaign is shown below.
Figure 12. Application set-up
A solar array simulator (SAS, SAS-FL05/01 from CBL Electronics) to simulate the PV
module with Voc = 2.5 V, Isc = 210 mA, Vmp = 2.0 V, Imp = 200 mA (@ 1000 W/m2
irradiance) and a Li-Ion battery 3.7 V-700 mAh, are used. Figure 13 shows the I-V and P-V
curves generated by the SAS, obtained using a PV module analyzer (ISM490 from ISOTECH):
Figure 13. V-I and P-V plot diagrams
Figure 14 and 15 show the partial and full charge curves respectively. The “partial charge”
curve shows charge current and voltage within a one hour time frame at full irradiation
starting from 3.4 V condition. The “full charge” curve shows charge current and voltage until
the fully charged status is triggered, starting from a 3.4 V condition. After the one hour
charge period time, the battery voltage reaches 3.8 V.
Different results can be obtained if a different PV panel and/or battery are used. If any help
is required regarding the use of different PV panels and/or batteries, please go to the
support area at www.st.com.
The average overall power efficiency is ~85% (94% for SPV1040 and 90% for L6924D).
DocID022816 Rev 2
11/19
Reference design description
AN4050
Figure 14. Partial charge
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Figure 15. Full charge
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12/19
DocID022816 Rev 2
AN4050
5
Schematic and bill of material
Schematic and bill of material
The schematic, bill of material and Gerber files can be downloaded from www.st.com.
Figure 16. STEVAL-ISV012V1 schematic, battery charge section
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Schematic and bill of material
AN4050
Figure 17. STEVAL-ISV012V1 schematic, solar power optimizer section
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DocID022816 Rev 2
AN4050
Schematic and bill of material
Table 1 shows the STEVAL-ISV012V1 list of components.
Table 1. BOM
Item Quantity Reference
Value
Voltage
current
400 mW
Vmp:1.92 V;
Imp:200 mA;
Voc:2.2 V;
Isc:220 mA
Package
Manufacturer
Manufacturer code
NBSZGD
SZGD6060-4P
1
1
PV1(1)
2
1
Cin1
47 μF
6.3 V
0805
KEMET
C0805C476M9PAC7800
3
1
C2
1 nF
50 V
0805
KEMET
C0805C102K5RAC
4
1
C4
1 nF
50 V
0805
KEMET
C0805C102K5RAC
5
1
Cout1
10 μF
16 V
0805
KEMET
C0805C106K4PAC7800
6
1
R3
1 kΩ
0805
VISHAY
CRCW08051K00FKEA
7
1
R4
DNM (3.3
MΩ)
63M
8
1
L1
10 μH
Isat > 1.5 A
@vmp =2 V
2220(EIA)
Coilcraft
EPCOS
MSS7341-103ML_
B82442T1103K050
9
1
VRS
0
50 mV
@Iout_max
0805
VISHAY
CRCW08050000Z0EA
10
1
R1
2.2 MΩ
0805
MULTICOMP
MCHV05WAJ0225T5E
11
1
R2
820 kΩ
0805
VISHAY
CRCW0805820KFKEA
12
1
R5
0
0805
VISHAY
CRCW08050000Z0EA
13
1
J26
SPV1040
TSSOP8
STM
SPV1040T
14
1
Dout1
SMM4F5.0
STmite flat
STM
SMM4F5.0
15
1
J28
L6924D
MLPD
4x4
STM
L6934D
15
2
RF1, RF2
1 kΩ
0805
VISHAY
CRCW08051K00FKEA
17
1
CF1
1 μF
10 V
0805
Murata
GRM21BR71C105KA01L
18
2
D1, D2
SMD LED
2.5 V,
25 mA
0805
Kingbright
KP-2012SGC
20
3
R6, R7, R8
1 kΩ
0805
VISHAY
CRCW08051K00FKEA
23
1
C6
47 μF
6.3 V
0805
KEMET
C0805C476M9PAC7800
24
1
C7
10 nF
50 V
0805
KEMET
C0805C103K5RAC
25
1
C8
1 nF
50 V
0805
KEMET
C0805C102K5RAC
26
1
C9
4.7 μF
0805
Murata
GRM21BF51A475ZA01L
27
1
R10
3.3 kΩ
0805
BOURNS
CR0805-FX-3301GLF
28
1
R9
470 Ω
0805
BOURNS
CR0805-FX-4700GLF
29
1
R14
24 kΩ
0805
MULTICOMP
MC 0.1W 0805 1% 24K
Vbr = 5 V, Vcl
=9V
DocID022816 Rev 2
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Schematic and bill of material
AN4050
Table 1. BOM (continued)
Item Quantity Reference
Value
Voltage
current
Package
Manufacturer
Manufacturer code
CRCW08050000Z0EA
30
3
J1, J2, J3
Jumper100
33
2
SW3; SW4
0 Ohm
0805
VISHAY
34
1
J29
3-pole
connectors
Phoenix
Contact
1935174
1. Polycrystalline.
16/19
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AN4050
6
Layout
Layout
Figure 18. STEVAL-ISV012V1 PCB top view
Figure 19. STEVAL-ISV012V1 PCB bottom view
DocID022816 Rev 2
17/19
Revision history
7
AN4050
Revision history
Table 2. Document revision history
18/19
Date
Revision
Changes
11-Jun-2012
1
Initial release.
21-Mar-2013
2
Updated Figure 5: SPV1040 internal block diagram.
DocID022816 Rev 2
AN4050
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DocID022816 Rev 2
19/19