AN1038

Application Note 1038
WLED Backlighting Solution for Medium LCD Panel
Designed with AP3608E+AP3039
Prepared by Yuan Shan Shan, Han Lu
System Engineering Dept.
1. Introduction
solution for medium LCD panel under this condition.
With the enhancement of environment-protecting
consciousness, WLED backlighting is more popular
than traditional CCFL backlighting. Nowadays,
WLED becomes the mainstream of the small size
LCD panel backlighting instead of CCFL. Because of
so many advantages of WLED, such as fast response,
safe, long lifetime, small size and so on, WLED will
become more and more important in the medium size
and large size LCD panel backlighting in the future.
To compare with the small size LCD panel, medium
and large size LCD panel need tens of WLEDs. It
means many new requirements are needed to be met,
for example, higher driver voltage and current match
between WLED strings.
1.1 Solution Description
The solution schematic is shown in Figure 1, The
solution consists of two ICs, one is AP3039,the other
is AP3608E. The solution can drive totally 80
WLEDs, and the current match accuracy between any
two strings is within ±1.5% .The operation frequency
can be adjustable, which allows trade-offs between
external component size and system efficiency.
WLED brightness can be adjusted by PWM dimming
function. The internal soft start circuit effectively
reduces the inrush current when start-up. The solution
has multiple features to protect the system from fault
conditions. It features under voltage lockout
protection, over voltage protection, over temperature
protection and WLED open protection.
BCD semiconductor proposes a WLED backlight
D
L
VIN : 7V to 27V
CIN1
10µF
RUVLO1
Q
VIN
OUT
UVLO
A
P
3
0
3
9
EN
RT
RT
10k
ROV1
CS
RUVLO2
OFF ON
COUT
10µF
SS
CSS
0.1µF
RCS
30m
10* 8
ROV2
OV
CH1
CH2
SDBX
SDB
SHDN
FB
CH8
AP3608E
FB
FBX
EN
COMP
RC
10k
CC
10nF
GND
VCC
VCC
CIN2
0.1µF
CV
PWM
ISET
GND
RISET
AP3608E Vcc
5.0V
External
8K
PWM
Dimming
OFF ON
Figure 1. BCD Solution Schematic
Apr. 2009
Rev. 1. 0
BCD Semiconductor Manufacturing Limited
1
Application Note 1038
and exports the lowest voltage of the string to
AP3039. If there is some channel unused, the channel
pin should be connected to ground. The dimming can
be achieved by feeding a PWM signal to PWM pin.
Figure 3 is the functional block diagram of AP3608E.
In the solution, AP3608E supplies current to 10*8
(10 series, 8 strings) WLEDs with good current
match accuracy.
1.2 AP3039 Description
The AP3039 is a high voltage low-side N-channel
MOSFET controller ideal for boost converter. It
adopts current mode and its operation frequency is
adjustable from 400kHz to 1MHz. In the solution, the
boost converter built up by AP3039 generates a high
output voltage for WLEDs.
REFERENCE
1.25V
2 (4)
1 (3)
BYPASS
SWITCH
VCC
4 (5)
REGULATOR
3V
REFERENCE
EN
EN
15 (1)
R
1.25V
22µA
CLK
16
14, 21
EN
Logic
Bandgap
22µA
LEB
10 (11)
8
STG
(Short To GND)
CH1...CH8
8
100mV CH1...CH8
8 (9)
+
SAW
EN
FBX
8
110mV
LOGIC
Time
Out
3V
6 (7)
S
UVLO
VREF
16 (2)
1.25V
OTP
5 (6)
DRIVER
Q
GND
15
+
Σ
SDB
13 (13)
11
OSTD
0.5V
EA
Disable
or
All STG
or
Synchronous
with PWM
Signal
100mV
Test
EN
COMP
Max.(CH1...CH8)
Min.(CH1...CH8,FBx)
10
FB
CH8 CH7 CH6 CH5 CH4 CH3 CH2 CH1
DFF
1
8
11 (12)
CH1
EN
12µA
14 (14)
7 (8)
OSL
VCC
CLK
9 (10)
SDBX
12
VCC
VREF
SAW
OPA
+
4
16
Current Sink
Current Sink
Current Sink
Current Sink
Current Sink
Figure 2. Functional Block Diagram of AP3039
ISET
9
Current Sink
Figure 2 is the functional block diagram of AP3039.
Operation process: at the start of each oscillation cycle,
the SR latch is set and external power switch Q (refer
to Figure 1.) turns on. The switch current will increase
linearly. The voltage on external sense resistor RCS
(refer to Figure 1.) is proportional to the switch current.
This voltage is added to a stabilizing ramp and the
result is fed into the non-inversion input of the PWM
comparator. When this non-inversion input voltage
exceeds inversion input voltage of PWM comparator
which is the output voltage level of the error amplifier
EA, the SR latch is reset and the external power switch
turns off. This voltage level is the amplified signal of
the voltage difference between feedback voltage and
reference voltage of 0.5V. It is clear that the voltage
level at inversion input of PWM comparator sets the
peak current level to keep the output in regulation.
PWM
5
PWM Dimming
Current Sink
23
22
20
19
18
17
CH2
CH3
CH4
CH5
CH6
CH7
CH8
Figure 3. Functional Block Diagram of AP3608E
2. Component Selection
In the solution shown in Figure 1, several peripheral
components are needed. This section will give some
suggestion on how to select these components.
2.1 AP3039 Peripheral Component
Selection
2.1.1.
CIN1
The input capacitor (CIN1) of AP3039 filters the
current peaks drawn from the input supply and
reduces noise injection into the IC. A 10µF ceramic
capacitor is recommended in the typical application.
1.3 AP3608E Description
The AP3608E is designed for WLED display
application, which contains eight well-matched
current sinks to provide constant current through
WLED. The full scale WLED current can be adjusted
from 10mA to 100mA per channel with an external
resistor. The maximum output current is 800mA
when 8 channels are all enabled. The SDB pin and
FB pin are the interface terminals for working with
AP3039. FB pin samples voltage of each channel,
Apr. 2009
Current Sink
24
2.1.2.
L
When choosing an inductor, the first step is to
determine the operating mode: continuous
conduction mode (CCM) or discontinuous
conduction mode (DCM). When CCM mode is
chosen, the ripple current and the peak current of the
inductor can be minimized. If a small size inductor is
required, DCM mode can be chosen. In DCM mode,
Rev. 1. 0
BCD Semiconductor Manufacturing Limited
2
Application Note 1038
the inductor ripple current and peak current are
higher than those in CCM.
Where Qg is the total gate charge of the MOSFET.
Power of VCC is applied by VIN and the MOSFET
driving current flows through VCC regulator. This loss
PVcc is estimated as:
When the value of inductor is less than LCCM(MIN), the
system operates in DCM mode.
PVcc = (VIN-VCC)*Qg*fOSC
⎛ V ⎞
L CCM(MIN) = ⎜⎜ IN ⎟⎟
⎝ VOUT ⎠
2
⎛ VOUT − VIN ⎞ η
⎜⎜
⎟⎟ *
I
*
f
⎝ OUT OSC ⎠ 2
So the total gate charging loss is PG_TOTAL= PG + PVcc.
The total gate charging loss occurs in IC and not in
the MOSFET itself actually.
Where η is the expected efficiency (the value can be
taken from an appropriate curve in the datasheet).
2.1.3.
Switching loss, PSW, occurs in transition period as the
MOSFET turns on and off. This loss is consisted of
turn on loss and turn off loss.
D
∆I
1
( I IN - L ) * VOUT * t r * f OSC
6
2
∆I L
1
PTURNOFF=
( I IN +
) * VOUT * t f * f OSC
6
2
The boost converter requires a diode D to carry the
inductor current during the MOSFET off time.
Schottky diodes are recommended due to their fast
recovery time and low forward voltage. D should be
rated to handle the maximum output voltage (plus
switching node ringing) and the peak switch current.
The conduction loss of diode is calculated by:
PTURNON =
PSW = PTURNON + PTURNOFF
Where tr and tf are the rise and fall times of the
MOSFET. ∆I L is calculated by :
PDIODE= IRMS_OFF*VF
(IRMS_OFF
2
⎡ VIN ⎛ 2 ∆I L 2 ⎞⎤
⎟⎥ )
* ⎜⎜ I I N +
=⎢
⎟
V
12
⎠⎦⎥
⎣⎢ OUT ⎝
∆I L =
Where VF is the forward voltage of the Schottky
diode.
2.1.4.
L * f OSC * VOUT
The maximum drain-to-source voltage applied across
the MOSFET is VOUT plus the ring due to parasitic
inductance and capacitance. The maximum drive
voltage at the gate of the MOSFET is VCC plus the
ring from gate to source. So the voltage rating of the
MOSFET selected must withstand the maximum
drain-to-source voltage, and withstand the maximum
gate-to-source voltage. The MOSFET with VDS=60V
and VGS>10V is recommended in typical application.
Q
When selecting the power MOSFET Q, some
tradeoffs between cost, size, and efficiency should be
made. Losses in the MOSFET can be calculated by:
PMOS= PCONDUCTION+ PG + PSW
Where PCONDUCTION is conduction loss, PG is gate
charging loss, and PSW is switching loss.
2.1.5.
COUT
The output capacitor of the boost converter is used
for output filtering and keeping the loop stable. The
ESR value is the most important parameter of the
COUT, because it directly affects the system stability
and the output ripple voltage.
PCONDUCTION = KTH * IRMS_ON2 * RDSON
Where KTH is the factor for the increase in on
resistance of MOSFET due to heating. For an
approximate analysis, the factor can be ignored and
the maximum on resistance of the MOSFET can be
used.
The total output ripple can be calculated by the
following equations:
Gate charging loss, PG, results from the current
required to charge and discharge the gate capacitance
of the power MOSFET and is approximated as:
ΔVO =ΔVO(Co) +ΔVO(ESR)
ΔVO(Co) =
PG = Qg*VCC* fOSC
Apr. 2009
(VOUT − VIN ) * VIN
Rev. 1. 0
I OUT
CO
⎛ V - VIN ⎞
⎟⎟
* ⎜⎜ OUT
⎝ VOUT * f OSC ⎠
BCD Semiconductor Manufacturing Limited
3
Application Note 1038
ΔVO(ESR) = I L _ PEAK * R ESR ( CO)
( I L− PEAK =
2.1.7.
∆I L
+ I IN )
2
Where ∆VO(Co) is caused by the charging and
discharging on the output capacitor, and∆VO(ESR) is
caused by the capacitor’s equivalent series resistance
(ESR).
When the loop is open or the output voltage becomes
excessive in any case, the voltage on OV pin will
exceed 1.25V, as a result, all functions of AP3039 are
disabled and the output voltage will fall. The OVP
threshold rising edge can be calculated by:
To get low output ripple, a low ESR ceramic
capacitor is a good choice. The capacitance of 10µF
is recommended.
2.1.6.
Vo _ ovp = (
RUVLO1& RUVLO2
The AP3039 contains an under voltage lockout
(UVLO) circuit. Two resistors RUVLO1, RUVLO2 are
connected from UVLO pin to ground and to the VIN
pin (refer to Figure 4.). The resistor divider must be
designed such that the voltage on the UVLO pin is
higher than 1.25V when VIN is in the desired
operating range. If this under voltage threshold is not
met, all functions of AP3039 are disabled and system
remains in a low power standby state. The UVLO
threshold rising edge can be calculated by:
Vin _ uvlo = (
ROV1&R OV2
The AP3039 has an over voltage protection (OVP)
circuit. Two resistors ROV1, ROV2 are connected from
OV pin to ground and to the output VO (refer to
Figure 5.)
Rov1
+ 1) * 1.25V
Rov 2
The OVP hysteresis is accomplished with an internal
20µA current source and the operation process is the
same as UVLO. The OVP hysteresis can be
calculated by:
VOVP_HYS=ROV1*20µA
VO
AP3039
Ruvlo1
+ 1) * 1.25V
Ruvlo2
ROV1
1.25V
OV
The UVLO hysteresis is accomplished by an internal
20µA current source which is switched on or off into
the impedance of the set-point divider. When the
UVLO threshold is exceeded, the current source is
activated. When the UVLO pin voltage falls below the
threshold, the current source is turned off. The UVLO
hysteresis can be calculated by:
ROV2
20µA
Figure 5. OVP Protection Circuit
2.1.8.
VUVLO_HYS=RUVLO1*20µA
RT
An external resistor RT is connected from RT pin to
GND to set the operating frequency (refer to Figure
1). Operating frequency range is from 400kHz to
1MHz (as shown in Table 1). High frequency
operation optimizes the regulator for the smallest
component size, while low frequency operation can
reduce the switch losses.
RT (kΩ)
147
95
68
51
Figure 4. UVLO Protection Circuit
Apr. 2009
+
Operation Frequency (kHz)
400
600
800
1000
Table 1. Frequency Selection
Rev. 1. 0
BCD Semiconductor Manufacturing Limited
4
Application Note 1038
2.1.9.
CSS
2.2.1
The AP3039 has a soft start circuit to limit the inrush
current during startup. The soft start feature allows the
boost converter output to gradually reach the initial
steady state output voltage, thereby reducing startup
stresses and current surges. The startup time is
controlled by an internal 12µA current source and an
external soft start capacitor CSS which connected from
SS pin to GND (refer to Figure1). At power on, after
the VIN UVLO threshold is satisfied, the internal 12µA
current source charges the external capacitor CSS. The
capacitor voltage will ramp up slowly and limit COMP
pin voltage and the switch current.
2.2.2
RISET
The maximum WLED current can be set up to
100mA per channel, by using the ISET pin. To set the
reference current (ISET), connect a resistor (RISET)
between this pin and ground. The relationship of ISET
and RISET can be expressed by:
2.1.10. CV
ISET = 1.194V / R ISET
The VCC pin of AP3039 should be decoupled with a
ceramic capacitor placed as close to the AP3039 as
possible. This capacitor keeps VCC voltage steady
when the system operates at a high frequency. The
X5R or X7R ceramic capacitor should be adopted as
decoupling capacitor because of their good thermal
stability, and the capacitance of 0.47µF is
recommended.
This reference current is multiplied internally with a
gain (K) of 400, and then mirrored on all enabled
channels. This sets the maximum WLED current,
referred to as 100% current (ICHX_MAX). The value can
be calculated by the following formula:
I CHX_MAX = K ⋅ I SET
The WLED current can be reduced from 100% by
PWM dimming control.
2.1.11. RCS
An external resistor RCS is connected from CS pin to
PGND to detect switch current signal for
current-mode boost converter. The current limit
threshold voltage VCS of AP3039 is fixed at 110mV.
The required resistance RCS is dependent to the peak
inductor current at the end of the switch on-time, and
can be calculated by the following equations:
RC_MAX<
3. Operation
3.1 Initialization
When peripheral components are ready, the solution
should be initialized by following the below steps.
3.1.1
Vcs
I L_PEAK
2
(IRMS_ON
V − VIN
= OUT
VOUT
STG (Short to Ground)
Before the solution begins to work, any unused
channel should be connected to ground at first. For
example, if CH8 is not needed in the application,
CH8 should be connected to ground as shown in
Figure 6. It is not allowed to float the unused channel
or to connect unused channel to ground after solution
powers on.
PRcs= I RMS _ ON * R CS
2
CIN2
The VCC pin of AP3608E should be decoupled with
a ceramic capacitor placed as close to the AP3608E
as possible. The X5R or X7R ceramic capacitor
should be adopted as decoupling capacitor because of
their good thermal stability, and the capacitance of
0.1µF is recommended.
⎛ 2 ∆I L 2 ⎞
⎟)
* ⎜⎜ I IN +
⎟
12
⎝
⎠
2.1.12. RC&CC
AP3039 adopts current mode PWM control to
improve transient response and achieve simple loop
compensation circuit. The designer should select RC
and CC by trial and error to ensure the system have
enough bandwidth and phase margin. RC=3.9k and
CC=10n are sufficient for AP3039 work in 1MHz.
2.2 AP3608E
Selection
Peripheral
Component
Figure 6. AP3608E Channel Set
Apr. 2009
Rev. 1. 0
BCD Semiconductor Manufacturing Limited
5
Application Note 1038
3.1.2
voltage to WLEDs according to the signal of FB pin
from AP3608E. During the “low level” time of the
PWM signal, AP3039 keeps the output voltage
regardless of the signal of FB pin, that is to say,
signal of FB pin from AP3608E can not control the
boost loop during PWM “low level” time.
Set ICHX_MAX
Set the maximum WLED current of all used channels
according to the application, the detail information
please refers to 2.2.2 section.
3.1.3
Power On
In the solution, AP3039 is suggested to power on first,
and the AP3608E is the second.
3.3 Protection
3.3.1
3.2 PWM Dimming
After initialization is finished, the system goes into
normal work mode. On the normal work mode, PWM
dimming function of the solution provides less
WLED color distortion and can be used to adjust the
LCD brightness according to different application.
UVLO Protection
The solution has the UVLO protection. Both AP3039
and AP3608E have the UVLO function. The system
is disabled until VIN of AP3039 exceeds the UVLO
threshold and VCC of AP3608E exceeds the UVLO
threshold at the same time. The UVLO threshold and
hysteresis of AP3039 can be set according to
different application. The detailed information please
refers to 2.1.6 section. The UVLO threshold and
hysteresis of AP3608E is fixed, the typical UVLO
threshold value is 3.8V and the typical hysteresis
value is 200mV.
The PWM pin of AP3608E is used to achieve PWM
dimming function. The WLED current can be
adjusted by applying the PWM signal to PWM pin.
On this mode, all enabled channels can be adjusted at
the same time and the brightness can be adjusted
from 1%*ICHX_MAX to 100%*ICHX_MAX. During the
“high level” time of the PWM signal, the WLED
turns on and the 100% current flows through WLED.
During the “low level” time of the PWM signal, the
WLED turns off and almost no current flows through
WLED. So the average current through WLED is
changed and the brightness is adjusted. The external
PWM signal applied to PWM pin should be in the
range of 100Hz to 2kHz for good dimming accuracy.
3.3.2
Over Voltage Protection
The solution has the OV protection. Set the proper
OV threshold according to the number of WLEDs in
the different applications. The detailed information
please refer to 2.1.7 section. On normal work mode,
if all used channels are open, the output of AP3039
will go high. Once the output voltage reaches the OV
protection threshold, the AP3039 will turn off the
external MOSFET and the system goes into disabled
mode. The AP3039 will start to work after the output
voltage drops below the OV protection threshold and
the system goes into enabled mode again.
An example for PWM dimming is shown in Figure 8.
All 8 channels are set to the maximum current
ICHX_MAX at the beginning. When a 50% duty cycle
PWM signal is applied to PWM pin, average current
valued 50%*ICHX_MAX flows through the 8 channels.
When an 80% duty cycle PWM signal is applied to
PWM pin, average current valued 80%*ICHX_MAX
flows through the 8 channels.
3.3.3
Open WLED Protection
The solution has the self-check and protection against
open WLED. If any used WLED string opens,
voltage on the corresponding CHX pin goes to zero
and the FB pin of AP3608E exports the zero voltage
to AP3039. So the boost converter controlled by
AP3039 operates in open loop and the voltage on
remainder CHX pin goes higher. Once the voltage on
remainder CHX pin reaches the self-check voltage
3V, the AP3608E begins looking for the open string.
After finding the open channel, AP3608E removes
On PWM dimming mode, AP3608E gives a signal
which is synchronous with PWM signal to AP3039
by SDB pin. During the “high level” time of the
PWM signal, AP3039 supplies the proper output
50% duty cycle
80% duty cycle
PWM
ICH_MAX
CH1...CH8
Current
ICH_MAX
I CH_MAX
0
0
Figure 7. PWM Dimming Mode Example
Apr. 2009
Rev. 1. 0
BCD Semiconductor Manufacturing Limited
6
Application Note 1038
the corresponding CHX pin from boost control loop,
and then the boost circuit is controlled in the normal
manner. Once the circuit returns normal operation,
the voltage on the CHX pin is regulated to the normal
level. It is necessary to pay attention that the open
strings are removed from boost regulation, but not
disabled. If the open WLED string is reconnected, it
will sink current up to the programmed current level.
Vo
AP3608
CH1
CH2
An example is shown in Figure 8. CH1, CH2 and
CH3 are used channels while CH4 to CH8 are unused
channels. If CH3 opens for any reason, the voltage on
CH3 goes to zero. FB pin of AP3608E samples the
lowest voltage of CH1, CH2 and CH3, so FB pin
exports the zero voltage to AP3039 and AP3039
makes the output voltage go high. As a result, the
voltage on CH1 and CH2 goes higher than normal
value. Once either voltage of CH1 or voltage of CH2
pin reaches the self-check voltage 3V, the AP3608E
begins looking for the open channel. After finding the
open channel CH3, AP3608E removes the CH3 from
boost control loop, and boost converter returns to
normal operation. Once the system returns normal
operation, the voltage on the CH1 and CH2 are
regulated to the normal level.
CH3
8*3
CH4
CH8
Figure 9
3.3.5
Over Temperature Protection
The solution has over temperature protection (OTP).
Both AP3039 and AP3608E have the OTP circuit.
The threshold of the OTP is typically 160oC, and the
hysteresis of the OTP is typically 20oC.
3.3.6
Soft Start
The AP3039 in the solution has a soft start circuit to
limit the inrush current during startup. The detailed
information please refers to 2.1.9 section.
4. PCB Layout Guideline
Boost converter performance can be seriously
affected by poor layout. To produce an optimal
solution for medium LCD backlighting, good layout
and design of the PCB are as important as the
component selection. The following PCB layout
guideline should be considered:
1. There are two high-current loops in the solution.
One is the high-current input loop, and the other is
the high-current output loop. The high-current input
loop goes from the positive terminal of the CIN1 to the
inductor, to the MOSFET, then to the current-sense
resistor, and to the CIN1’s negative terminal. The
high-current output loop goes from the positive
terminal of the CIN1 to the inductor, to the diode, to
the positive terminal of the COUT, reconnecting
between the COUT and the CIN1’s ground terminals.
Minimize the area of the two high-current loops to
avoid excessive switching noise. The trace connected
these two high-current loops must be short and thick.
Figure 8
3.3.4
Short WLED Protection
The system can avoid destroy when some WLEDs
are short. CH1 pin to CH8 pin of AP3608E can
endure at least 30V high voltage. An example is
shown in Figure 9, even though the WLEDs of CH3
are all short for any reason, AP3608E can still keep
the safety.
Apr. 2009
Rev. 1. 0
BCD Semiconductor Manufacturing Limited
7
Application Note 1038
3. Place the bypass capacitor CV and CIN2 as close to
the device as possible. The ground connection of
these capacitors should be connected directly to
AGND pins with a thick trace.
2. Create two ground islands. One is called power
ground island (PGND), the other is called analog
ground island (AGND). PGND consists of CIN1 and
COUT ground connections and negative terminal of the
current-sense resistor RCS. Maximizing the width of
the PGND traces improves efficiency and reduces
output voltage ripple and noise spike. AGND consists
of the OV and UVLO detection-divider ground
connection, the ISET and RT resistor ground
connections, CV, CSS, CC and CIN2 ground
connections, and the device`s exposed backside pad.
Connect the AGND and the PGND directly to the
exposed backside pad. Make no other connections
between these separate ground planes.
Apr. 2009
4. Keep the feedback trace away from the switching
node, and make sure the feedback trace is short and
thick. Place the OV and UVLO detection-divider
resistors as close to the OV pin and UVLO pin as
possible respectively. The divider`s center trace
should be kept short. Avoid running the sensing trace
near switching node.
Rev. 1. 0
BCD Semiconductor Manufacturing Limited
8
Similar pages