ANP002

ANP002
Application Note
AP1501 Series Step-Down (Buck) Regulator
Contents
1.
Features
2.
Introduction
3.
Regulator Design Procedure
4.
Design Example
This application note contains new product information. Diodes, Inc. reserves the right to modify the product specification without notice. No liability is
assumed as a result of the use of this product. No rights under any patent accompany the sale of the product.
1/9
ANP002 – App. Note 1
May 2006
www.diodes.com
© Diodes Incorporated
ANP002
Application Note
AP1501 Series Step-Down (Buck) Regulator
1.0
Features
◆
Small Board Size
- Entire circuit can fit on less than 1.6 square inch of PCB space
◆
Low Implementation Cost
- Fewer than 10 discrete components required
◆
ON /OFF Control
- Be controlled by external logic level signal
◆
Thermal Shut-down and Current Limit
- Built-in function
◆
Simple Feedback Compensation
- Lead compensation using external capacitor
◆
Immediate Implementation
- Schematic, board-of-materials and board layout available from Anachip
2.0
Introduction
This application note discusses simple ways to select all necessary
components to implement a step-down (BUCK) regulator and gives a design
example. In this example, the AP1501 monolithic IC is used to design a
cost-effective and high-efficient miniature switching buck regulator. This
implementation is suitable for LCD monitor application requiring a regulated
+5V from an adapter whose output voltage is +12V. For more complete
information, pin descriptions and specifications for the AP1501 will not be
repeated here, please refer to the datasheet when designing or evaluating
with the AP1501.
This demonstration board allows the designer to evaluate the performance of the AP1501 series buck
regulator in a typical application circuit. The user needs only to supply an input voltage and a load. The
demonstration board can be configured to evaluate a fixed output voltage of 3.3V, 5V, 12V, and an
adjustable output version of the AP1501 series. Operation at other voltages and currents may be
accomplished by proper component selection and replacement.
2/9
ANP002 – App. Note 1
May 2006
www.diodes.com
© Diodes Incorporated
ANP002
Application Note
AP1501 Series Step-Down (Buck) Regulator
3.0 Regulator Design Procedure
3.0.1 Given Power Specification
V
IN (max)
V
IN (min)
V
OUT
V
RIPPLE
= Maximum Input Voltage
= Minimum Input Voltage
= Regulated Output Voltage
= Ripple Voltage (peak-to-peak), typical value is 1% of the output voltage
I
LOAD(max)
I
LOAD(min)
= Maximum Load Current
= Minimum Load Current before the circuit becomes discontinued, typical value is 10% of the
Maximum Load Current
F
= Switching Frequency (fixed at a nominal 150kHz)
3.0.2 Programming Output Voltage
The output voltage is programmed by selection of the divider R2 and R5. The designer should use
resistors R2 and R5 with ±1% tolerance in order to obtain the best accuracy of the output voltage. The output
voltage can be calculated from the following formula:
V
OUT
⎛ R2 ⎞
= V REF × ⎜1 +
⎟ ------------------------ (1)
R5 ⎠
⎝
Where
V
REF
= 1.235V
⎛
⎞
R 2 = R5 × ⎜ V OUT − 1⎟ -------------------------- (2)
⎜
⎟
⎝ V REF
⎠
Select a value for R5 between 1K and 3K. The lower resistor values minimize noise pickup in the
sensitive feedback pin.
If the designer selects a fixed output version of the AP1501, the formula (1) won't be applied, and then
the resistor R2 shall be short and R5 shall be open.
3/9
ANP002 – App. Note 1
May 2006
www.diodes.com
© Diodes Incorporated
ANP002
Application Note
AP1501 Series Step-Down (Buck) Regulator
3.0.3 Inductor Selection
A. The minimum inductor
L
(min)
can be calculated from the following design formula table:
Calculation
T
T
T
ON
Step-down (buck) regulator
(V OUT + V F )
ON
V
OFF
+ T OFF
T
[V
(min)
− V SAT − V OUT
1
F
(Ton + Toff )
⎞
⎛ Ton
⎜⎜
+ 1⎟⎟
⎠
⎝ Toff
OFF
L
IN (min)
IN (min)
]
− V SAT − V OUT × T ON (max)
2 × I LOAD (min)
V
SAT
V
= Internal switch saturation voltage of the AP1501 = 1.16V
F
= Forward voltage drop of output rectifier D1 = 0.5V
B. The inductor must be designed so that it does not saturate or significantly saturate at DC current bias of
I
PK
. (
I
PK
= Peak inductor or switch current =
I
LOAD (max)
+ I LOAD (min) )
3.0.4 Output Capacitor Selection
A. The output capacitor is required to filter the output and provide regulator loop stability. When selecting
an output capacitor, the important capacitor parameters are; the 100kHz Equivalent Series Resistance (ESR),
the RMS ripples current rating, voltage rating, and capacitance value. For the output capacitor, the ESR
value is the most important parameter. The ESR can be calculated from the following formula:
⎞
⎛
ESR = ⎜ V RIPPLE ⎟ ------------------------ (3)
⎟
⎜ 2× I
LOAD (min) ⎠
⎝
An aluminum electrolytic capacitor's ESR value is related to the capacitance value and its voltage rating.
In most cases, higher voltage electrolytic capacitors have lower ESR values. Often, capacitors with much
higher voltage ratings may be needed to provide the low ESR values required for low output ripple voltages.
If the selected capacitor's ESR is extremely low, it results in an oscillation at the output, it is recommended to
replace this low ESR capacitor by using two general standard capacitors in parallel.
4/9
ANP002 – App. Note 1
May 2006
www.diodes.com
© Diodes Incorporated
ANP002
Application Note
AP1501 Series Step-Down (Buck) Regulator
B. The capacitor voltage rating should be at least 1.5 times greater than the output voltage, and often much
higher voltage ratings are needed to satisfy the low ESR requirements needed for low output ripple
voltage.
3.0.5 Compensation Capacitor Selection
For output voltage greater than approximately 10V, an additional capacitor C1 is required. The
compensation capacitor C1 provides additional stability for high output voltages, low input-output voltages,
and/or very low ESR output capacitors.
3.0.6 Output Rectifier Selection
A. The output rectifier D1 current rating must be greater than the peak switch current IPK. The reverse
voltage rating of the output rectifier D1 should be at least 1.25 times the maximum input voltage.
B. The output rectifier D1 must be fast (short reverse recovery time) and must be located close to the
AP1501 using short leads and short printed circuit traces. Because of their fast switching speed and low
forward voltage drop, Schottky diodes provide the best performance and efficiency, and should be the
first choice, especially in low output voltage applications.
3.0.7 Input Capacitor Selection
A. The RMS current rating of the input capacitor can be calculated from the following formula table. The
capacitor manufacturers datasheet must be checked to assure that this current rating is not exceeded.
Calculation
δ
I
I
ΔI
I
Step-down (buck) regulator
(T
I
I
PK
m
ON
ON
+T OFF
)
LOAD (max)
+ I LOAD (min)
LOAD (max)
− I LOAD (min)
2 × I LOAD(min)
L
IN ( rms )
T
δ × ⎢(I PK × I m ) +
⎡
⎣
1
(Δ I L )2 ⎤⎥
3
⎦
B. This capacitor should be located close to the IC using short leads and the voltage rating should be
approximately 1.5 times the maximum input voltage.
5/9
ANP002 – App. Note 1
May 2006
www.diodes.com
© Diodes Incorporated
ANP002
Application Note
AP1501 Series Step-Down (Buck) Regulator
4.0 Design Example
4.0.1 Summary of Target Specifications
Input Power
V
V
V
Regulated Output Power
Output Ripple Voltage
Output Voltage Load Regulation
Efficiency
Switching Frequency
IN (max)
OUT
= +12V;
= + 5V;
RIPPLE
I
V
IN (min)
LOAD (max)
= +12V
= 2.5A;
I
LOAD (min)
= 0.3A
≤ 50 mV peak-to-peak
1% (1/2 full load to full load)
75% minimum at full load
F = 150kHz ± 15 %
4.0.2 Calculating and Components Selection
Calculation Formula
⎛
⎞
R 2 = R5 × ⎜ V OUT − 1⎟
⎜
⎟
⎝ V REF
⎠
L
I
(min)
PK
=
[V
≥
I
IN (min)
LOAD (max)
]
− V SAT − V OUT × T ON (max)
2 × I LOAD (min)
+ I LOAD (min)
⎞
⎛
ESR = ⎜ V RIPPLE ⎟
⎟
⎜ 2× I
LOAD (min) ⎠
⎝
V WVDC ≥ 1.5 ×V OUT
V
I
RRM
PK
=
≥ 1.25 ×V IN (max)
I
LOAD (max)
Select Condition
240Ω ≤ R5 ≤ 1.5KΩ
+ I LOAD (min)
1
2⎤
⎡
I IN ( rms ) = δ × ⎢⎣(I PK × I m ) + 3 (Δ I L ) ⎥⎦
V WVDC ≥ 1.5 ×V IN (max)
L
I
≥ 33UH
(min)
rms
≥
I
PK
= 2.8A
ESR ≤ 88mΩ
V
V
I
I
WVDC
RRM
PK
V
≥ 7.5V
Select D1:
20V/3A SS32
≥ 15V
≥
WVDC
I
IN ( rms )
≥ 18V
Select L1 from "FRONTIER"
33UH/2.8A CSS136S-330M
Select C4 from "LUXON"
220UF/25V*1pcs LY series, or
470UF/25V*1pcs LZ series, or
470UF/25V*2pcs SM series
= 2.8A
ripple
Component spec.
R5 = 1KΩ; R2 = 3KΩ
= 1.94A
Select C2 from "LUXON"
680UF/25V*1pcs LY series
If the +12V power source that has
a large output capacitor enough to
supply this current IN ( rms ) ,
I
designer can select another one.
470UF/25V*1pcs SM series
6/9
ANP002 – App. Note 1
May 2006
www.diodes.com
© Diodes Incorporated
ANP002
Application Note
AP1501 Series Step-Down (Buck) Regulator
4.0.3 Parts List (Board of Materials)
Item
Part Number
MFG/Dist.
Description
Value
Quantity
Open
0
Aluminum Electrolytic*
680uF, 25V
1
Ceramic Capacitor
0.1uF, 50V
1
Aluminum Electrolytic*
470uF, 25V
1
Ceramic Capacitor
22nF, 50V
1
Schottky Diode*
20V, 3A
1
J1
Terminal Block
Pitch = 5.08mm, 2pin
1
J2
Terminal Block
Pitch = 5.08mm, 3pin
1
C1
C2
ELY687M025S1A6H20
LUXON
C3
C4
ELZ477M025S1A6H15
LUXON
SS32
HAWYANG
C5
D1
L1
CSS136S-330M
FRONTIER
Inductor*
33 UH, 2.8A
1
U1
AP1501K5
Anachip
PWM Buck Converter*
150kHz, 3A
1
R1
Std
Film Chip Resistor
10Ω±5%, 1/8W
1
R2
Std
Film Chip Resistor
3KΩ±1%, 1/8W
1
Film Chip Resistor
Open
Short
1KΩ±1%, 1/8W
0
0
1
R3
R4
R5
Std
* Manufacturers and Distributor Contact Information:
Anachip Corp.
易亨電子股份有限公司
Phone
Fax
Website
FRONTIER Electronics Co., LTD
弘電電子工業股份有限公司
Phone
Fax
Website
HAWYANG Electronics Co., LTD
浩陽有限公司
Phone
+886-2-2655-1818
+886-2-2655-1616
http://www.anachip.com.tw
http://www.anachip.com
+886-2-2914-7685~9
+886-2-2918-6304
http://www.frontierelec.com.tw
http://www.frontierusa.com
+886-2-2377-5117
Fax
Website
Phone
Fax
Website
+886-2-2377-3189
http://www.hawyang.com.tw
+886-2-2620-3388
+886-2-2622-8668
http://www.luxon.com.tw
LUXON Electronics Corp.
世昕企業股份有限公司
7/9
ANP002 – App. Note 1
May 2006
www.diodes.com
© Diodes Incorporated
ANP002
Application Note
AP1501 Series Step-Down (Buck) Regulator
4.0.4 Demo Board Schematic
8/9
ANP002 – App. Note 1
May 2006
www.diodes.com
© Diodes Incorporated
ANP002
Application Note
AP1501 Series Step-Down (Buck) Regulator
4.0.5 Typical PC Board Layout, Adjustable Output: (1x Size)
(1). Component Placement Guide
(2). Component Side PC Board Layout
(3). Solder Side PC Board Layout
9/9
ANP002 – App. Note 1
May 2006
www.diodes.com
© Diodes Incorporated
Similar pages