ANP011

ANP011
Application Note
AP1507 150kHz, 3A PWM Buck DC/DC Converter
Contents
1.
Features
2.
Introduction
3.
Regulator Design Procedures
4.
Design Example
This application note contains new product information. Diodes, Inc. reserves the right to modify the product specification without notice. No liability is
assumed as a result of the use of this product. No rights under any patent accompany the sale of the product.
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ANP011
Application Note
AP1507 150kHz, 3A PWM Buck DC/DC Converter
1.0
Features
Small Board Size
- Entire circuit can fit on less than 1 square inch of PCB space
◆
Low Implementation Cost
- Fewer than 4 discrete components required
◆
ON /OFF Control
- Be controlled by external logic level signal
◆
Thermal Shut-Down and Current Limit
- Built-in function
◆
Simple Feedback Compensation
- Lead compensation using external capacitor
◆
Immediate Implementation
- Schematic, board-of-materials and board layout available from Anachip
2.0
Introduction
This application note discusses simple ways to select all necessary components to implement a
step-down (BUCK) regulator and gives a design example. In this example, the AP1507 monolithic IC is used
to design a cost-effective and high-efficiency miniature switching buck regulator. For more complete
information, pin descriptions and specifications for the AP1507, please refer to the datasheet when designing
or evaluating the AP1507.
This demonstration board allows the designer to evaluate the performance of the AP1507 series buck
regulator in a typical application circuit. The user needs only to supply an input voltage and a load. The
demonstration board can be configured to evaluate a fixed output voltage of 3.3V, 5V, 12V, and an
adjustable output version of the AP1507 series. Operation at other voltages and currents may be
accomplished by proper component selection and replacement.
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ANP011
Application Note
AP1507 150kHz, 3A PWM Buck DC/DC Converter
3.0 Regulator Design Procedure
3.0.1 Given Power Specification
V
V
V
V
I
I
IN (max)
IN (min)
OUT
= Maximum Input Voltage
= Minimum Input Voltage
= Regulated Output Voltage
RIPPLE
= Ripple Voltage (peak-to-peak), typical value is 1% of the Output Voltage
LOAD(max)
LOAD(min)
= Maximum Load Current
= Minimum Load Current before the circuit becomes discontinuous, typical value is 10% of the
maximum load current
F = Switching Frequency (fixed at a nominal 150kHz)
3.0.2 Programming Output Voltage (refer to 4.0.4 Demo Board Schematic P7)
The output voltage is programmed by selection of the divider R1 and R2. Designer should use resistors
R1 and R2 with ±1% tolerance in order to obtain best accuracy of Output Voltage. The Output Voltage can be
calculated from the following formula:
Vout = 1.23 x ( 1 + R1 / R2)
Select a value for R2 between 240Ω and 1.5KΩ. The lower resistor values minimize noise pickup in the
sensitive feedback pin.
If the designer selects a fixed output version of the AP1507, the resistor R1 shall be short and R2 shall be
open.
3.0.3 Inductor Selection
A. The minimum inductor
Calculation
T
T
L
ON
OFF
(min)
L
(min)
can be calculated from the following design formula table:
Step-down (buck) regulator
(V OUT + V F )
[V
V
IN (min)
IN (min)
− V SAT − V OUT
]
− V SAT − V OUT × T ON (max)
2 × I LOAD (min)
V
V
SAT
F
= Internal switch saturation voltage of the AP1507 = 1.3V
= Forward voltage drop of output rectifier D1 = 0.5V
B. The inductor must be designed so that it does not saturate or significantly saturate at DC current bias of
. ( PK = Peak inductor or switch current =
+ LOAD (min) )
LOAD (max)
PK
I
I
I
I
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AP1507 150kHz, 3A PWM Buck DC/DC Converter
3.0.4 Output Capacitor Selection
A. The Output Capacitor is required to filter the output and provide regulator loop stability. When selecting
an Output Capacitor, the important capacitor parameters are; the 100kHz Equivalent Series Resistance
(ESR), the RMS ripples current rating, voltage rating, and capacitance value. For the output capacitor, the
ESR value is the most important parameter. The ESR can be calculated from the following formula:
⎞
⎛
ESR = ⎜ V RIPPLE ⎟ ------------------------ (3)
⎟
⎜ 2× I
LOAD (min) ⎠
⎝
An aluminum electrolytic capacitor's ESR value is related to the capacitance and its voltage rating. In
most cases, higher voltage electrolytic capacitors have lower ESR values. Most of the time, capacitors with
much higher voltage ratings may be needed to provide the low ESR values required for low output ripple
voltage. If the selected capacitor's ESR is extremely low, it results in an oscillation at the output. It is
recommended to replace this low ESR capacitor by using two general standard capacitors in parallel.
B. The capacitor’s voltage rating should be at least 1.5 times greater than the output voltage, and often
much higher voltage ratings are needed to satisfy the low ESR requirements for low output ripple voltage.
3.0.5 Compensation Capacitor Selection
For output voltages greater than approximately 10V, an additional capacitor C1 is required. The
compensation capacitor C1 provides additional stability for high output voltages, low input-output voltages,
and/or very low ESR output capacitors.
3.0.6 Output Rectifier Selection
A. The output rectifier D1 current rating must be greater than the peak switch current IPK. The reverse
voltage rating of the output rectifier D1 should be at least 1.25 times the maximum input voltage.
B. The output rectifier D1 must be fast (short reverse recovery time) and must be located close to the
AP1507 using short leads and short printed circuit traces. Because of their fast switching speed and low
forward voltage drop, Schottky Diodes provide the best performance and efficiency, and should be the
first choice, especially in low output voltage applications.
3.0.7 Input Capacitor Selection
A. The RMS current rating of the input capacitor can be calculated from the following formula table. The
capacitor manufacturer’s datasheet must be checked to assure that this current rating is not exceeded.
Calculation
δ
I
I
ΔI
I
Step-down (buck) regulator
Ton/(Ton+Toff)
I
I
PK
m
LOAD (max)
+ I LOAD (min)
LOAD (max)
− I LOAD (min)
2 × I LOAD(min)
L
IN ( rms )
δ × ⎢(I PK × I m ) +
⎡
⎣
1
(Δ I L )2 ⎤⎥
3
⎦
B. This capacitor should be located close to the IC using short leads and the voltage rating should be
approximately 1.5 times the maximum input voltage.
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Application Note
AP1507 150kHz, 3A PWM Buck DC/DC Converter
4.0 Design Example
4.0.1 Summary of Target Specifications
Input Power
V
V
V
Regulated Output Power
Output Ripple Voltage
Output Voltage Load Regulation
Efficiency
Switching Frequency
IN (max)
OUT
= +12V;
= + 5V;
RIPPLE
I
V
IN (min)
LOAD (max)
= +12V
= 3A;
I
LOAD (min)
= 0.3A
≤ 50 mV peak-to-peak
1% (1/2 full load to full load)
75% minimum at full load.
F = 150KHz ± 15 %
4.0.2 Calculating and Components Selection
Calculation Formula
Vout = Vref x ((R1/R2) + 1)
L(min) ≥
[V
IN (min)
]
− V SAT − V OUT × T ON (max)
2 × I LOAD (min)
I
PK
=
I
Select Condition
240Ω ≤ R2 ≤ 1.5KΩ
LOAD (max)
I
+ I LOAD (min)
I
RRM
≥ 1.25 ×V IN (max)
PK
=
LOAD (max)
I
≥ 44UH
rms
≥
PK
V
I
WVDC
V
I
+ I LOAD (min)
1
2⎤
⎡
I IN ( rms ) = δ × ⎢⎣(I PK × I m ) + 3 (Δ I L ) ⎥⎦
V WVDC ≥ 1.5 ×V IN (max)
(min)
I
ripple
V
RRM
PK
≥
R1 = 3KΩ; R2 = 1KΩ
= 1.8A
ESR ≤ 125mΩ
⎞
⎛
ESR = ⎜ V RIPPLE ⎟
⎟
⎜ 2× I
LOAD (min) ⎠
⎝
V WVDC ≥ 1.5 ×V OUT
V
L
Component spec.
≥ 7.5V
Select C4 from "LUXON"
220UF/25V*1pcs LY series , or
470UF/25V*1pcs LZ series , or
470UF/25V*2pcs SM series
≥ 15V
Select D1: 20V/2A
= 1.8A
I
IN ( rms )
WVDC
= 1A
≥ 18V
Select C2 from "LUXON"
470UF/25V*1pcs LY series.
If the +12V power source has a
large output capacitor enough to
supply this current IN ( rms ) , the
I
designer can select another one.
470UF/25V*1pcs SM series
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AP1507 150kHz, 3A PWM Buck DC/DC Converter
4.0.3 Parts List (Board of Materials)
Item
Part Number
Description
Value
Quantity
C1
Aluminum Electrolytic
470uF, 25V
0
C2
Ceramic Capacitor
0.1uF, 25V
1
C3
Aluminum Electrolytic
470uF, 16V
1
C4
Ceramic Capacitor
0.1uF, 25V
1
D1
MFG/Dist.
Schottky Diode
20V, 2A
1
J1
220
Jumper
Pitch = 2.54mm, 3pin
1
J2,J3
Terminal Block
Pitch = 5.08mm, 2pin
2
Inductor
120 UH, 1.8A
1
PWM Buck Converter
150kHz, 3A
1
L1
CSS136S-121M
U1
AP1507D
R1
Std
Film Chip Resistor
0Ω
1
R2
Std
Film Chip Resistor
OPEN
0
Anachip
4.0.4 Demo Board Schematic
4.0.5 Demo Board Efficiency at Vin 12V
Load
Vout = 3.3V
Vout = 5V
0.5A
77.2%
81.6%
1A
80%
83.9%
1.5A
78.6%
83.4%
3A
78.2%
82.2%
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Application Note
AP1507 150kHz, 3A PWM Buck DC/DC Converter
4.0.6 Typical PC Board Layout
(1). Component Placement Guide
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AP1507 150kHz, 3A PWM Buck DC/DC Converter
(2). Component Side PC Board Layout
(3). Solder Side PC Board Layout
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AP1507 150kHz, 3A PWM Buck DC/DC Converter
4.0.7 Heatsink Layout Guide Line
The heatsink is dependent on the maximum power dissipation and maximum ambient temperature of the
application.
For example
12V to 5V/2A
1
Top Copper Area
(mm*mm)
49*8
Bottom Copper
Area (mm*mm)
0
Through
Hole
0
2
49*15
49*15
1mm*20
1
Top Copper Area
(mm*mm)
49*8
Bottom Copper
Area (mm*mm)
0
Through
Hole
0
2
49*15
49*15
1mm*20
Layout
IC Body Temperature Gnd Pin Temperature
57
86
53
63
12V to 3.3V/2A
Layout
IC Body Temperature Gnd Pin Temperature
53
70
44
57
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