DN4

Design Note 4
Issue 2 June 1995
Temperature Effects On Silicon Semiconductor
Devices
Many applications require reliable
circ uit operation over a wide
temperature range. Automotive
environments for example may
experience a range of -40°C to +125°C,
while a more usual industrial range may
b e - 1 0 ° C t o 8 5 ° C . T o e ns u r e t h a t
electronic components and systems
behave satisfactorily, the design process
must include consideration of device
parameter variation with temperature, in
particular those parameters which affect
leakage currents, drive conditions,
on-state loss es, and switching
performance.
This design note provides a general
indication of the effects of temperature
on silicon devices, and lists typical
temperature coefficients for the main
parameters. This information is based
on known physical effects, and
measurements conducted previously.
The latter applies when either the device
textbooks do not consider the
de vice/parameter of interest, or a
product specific measurement is
required. Obviously for such a general
guide, these values must be considered
as approximate, but will probably be
adequate in many cases.
BIPOLAR (except Darlingtons)
Parameter
Temp. Coefficient
Comment
hFE
+0.3 to 0.6%/°C
In active region at low to medium currents
Negative
At high currents. Cross over point falls as IC and Breakdown Voltage Increases
-0.25%/°C
In saturation region
VBE(sat)
-0.15%/°C
VBE(on)
-1.9 to 2.2 mV/°C
VCE(sat)
+0.23 to 0.4%/°C
Small signal devices (eg ZTX300)
0.12 to 0.15%/°C
Medium power devices (eg ZTX650)
VCBO(VCES)
+0.07 to 0.09%/°C
VCEO
+ or - about zero
VEBO
+0.04%/°C
ICBO.
x2 per 11°C
PNP tend to be higher than NPN
(Eg. can be small, but very device dependent)
Design Note 4
Issue 2 June 1995
DARLINGTONS
Parameter
Temperature Coefficient
Comment
hFE
+0.5 to 1.6%/°C
In active region at low to medium currents
+ or - about zero (small) (due to inability
to saturate fully)
In saturation region
VCE(sat)
+ or - about zero (small)
VBE(on)
-0.2%/°C
VCBO
+0.08%/°C
VEBO
+0.04%/°C
ICEO
Approx x2 per 8-10 °C rise.
Dependent on voltage as well as temperature
MOSFETS
Parameter
Temperature Coefficient
Comment
VDSS
+0.04 to 0.1%/°C
Increases with resistivity (BVDSS)
RDS(ON)
+0.7 to 1.0%/°C
VGS(TH)
-0.1 to 0.2%/°C
IDSS
Approx x2 per 11°C rise
gfs
Small ( say -0.2% / °C)
Vf (of body diode)
-2 to 2.5mV/°C
dV/dT capability falls as temperature increases.
Switching speed does not alter significantly.
DIODES
Parameter
Temperature Coefficient
VSS
-1.9 to 2.2mV/°C
BSS
+0.7 to 0.09%/°C
Comment
VARICAP/VARACTOR DIODES
Parameter
Temperature Coefficient
Comment
Capacitance
Abrupt:280 ppm @ 4V; 100 ppm @ 20V
Very dependent on bias voltage
Hyperabrupt:350 ppm @ 3V; 80 ppm @ 20V
VOLTAGE REFERENCE DIODES
Parameter
Temperature Coefficient
Comment
VZ
-0.06%/°C
Nominally zero
+0.075%/°C
0.2%/°C
3.3V(Field effect)
5.0V
12.0V (Avalanche effect)
24.0V (Avalanche effect)
ICEO
Approx x4 per11°C rise
ICER(10k)
Approx x3 per 11°C rise
td and tr
Independent
ts
+1.4 to 1.6%/°C
Parameter
Temperature Coefficient
tf
+1.0 to 2.5%/°C
VF
-1.2mV/°C
Very dependent on hFE
SCHOTTKY DIODES
DN4-1
Comment
DN4-2
Design Note 4
Issue 2 June 1995
Temperature Effects On Silicon Semiconductor
Devices
Many applications require reliable
circ uit operation over a wide
temperature range. Automotive
environments for example may
experience a range of -40°C to +125°C,
while a more usual industrial range may
b e - 1 0 ° C t o 8 5 ° C . T o e ns u r e t h a t
electronic components and systems
behave satisfactorily, the design process
must include consideration of device
parameter variation with temperature, in
particular those parameters which affect
leakage currents, drive conditions,
on-state loss es, and switching
performance.
This design note provides a general
indication of the effects of temperature
on silicon devices, and lists typical
temperature coefficients for the main
parameters. This information is based
on known physical effects, and
measurements conducted previously.
The latter applies when either the device
textbooks do not consider the
de vice/parameter of interest, or a
product specific measurement is
required. Obviously for such a general
guide, these values must be considered
as approximate, but will probably be
adequate in many cases.
BIPOLAR (except Darlingtons)
Parameter
Temp. Coefficient
Comment
hFE
+0.3 to 0.6%/°C
In active region at low to medium currents
Negative
At high currents. Cross over point falls as IC and Breakdown Voltage Increases
-0.25%/°C
In saturation region
VBE(sat)
-0.15%/°C
VBE(on)
-1.9 to 2.2 mV/°C
VCE(sat)
+0.23 to 0.4%/°C
Small signal devices (eg ZTX300)
0.12 to 0.15%/°C
Medium power devices (eg ZTX650)
VCBO(VCES)
+0.07 to 0.09%/°C
VCEO
+ or - about zero
VEBO
+0.04%/°C
ICBO.
x2 per 11°C
PNP tend to be higher than NPN
(Eg. can be small, but very device dependent)
Design Note 4
Issue 2 June 1995
DARLINGTONS
Parameter
Temperature Coefficient
Comment
hFE
+0.5 to 1.6%/°C
In active region at low to medium currents
+ or - about zero (small) (due to inability
to saturate fully)
In saturation region
VCE(sat)
+ or - about zero (small)
VBE(on)
-0.2%/°C
VCBO
+0.08%/°C
VEBO
+0.04%/°C
ICEO
Approx x2 per 8-10 °C rise.
Dependent on voltage as well as temperature
MOSFETS
Parameter
Temperature Coefficient
Comment
VDSS
+0.04 to 0.1%/°C
Increases with resistivity (BVDSS)
RDS(ON)
+0.7 to 1.0%/°C
VGS(TH)
-0.1 to 0.2%/°C
IDSS
Approx x2 per 11°C rise
gfs
Small ( say -0.2% / °C)
Vf (of body diode)
-2 to 2.5mV/°C
dV/dT capability falls as temperature increases.
Switching speed does not alter significantly.
DIODES
Parameter
Temperature Coefficient
VSS
-1.9 to 2.2mV/°C
BSS
+0.7 to 0.09%/°C
Comment
VARICAP/VARACTOR DIODES
Parameter
Temperature Coefficient
Comment
Capacitance
Abrupt:280 ppm @ 4V; 100 ppm @ 20V
Very dependent on bias voltage
Hyperabrupt:350 ppm @ 3V; 80 ppm @ 20V
VOLTAGE REFERENCE DIODES
Parameter
Temperature Coefficient
Comment
VZ
-0.06%/°C
Nominally zero
+0.075%/°C
0.2%/°C
3.3V(Field effect)
5.0V
12.0V (Avalanche effect)
24.0V (Avalanche effect)
ICEO
Approx x4 per11°C rise
ICER(10k)
Approx x3 per 11°C rise
td and tr
Independent
ts
+1.4 to 1.6%/°C
Parameter
Temperature Coefficient
tf
+1.0 to 2.5%/°C
VF
-1.2mV/°C
Very dependent on hFE
SCHOTTKY DIODES
DN4-1
Comment
DN4-2
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