API9221EV1 User Guide Issue 3

API9221EV1 USER GUIDE
Performance
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Introduction
Dual Input – DC (6.8V OVP) and USB
(5.4V OVP)
Double layer capacitors on board to
demonstrate battery charge cycle
Load resistors on board up to 1A
Programmable charging currents
Ambient temperature range
-40°C to +85°C
This evaluation circuit demonstrates the
API9221 Lithium Ion Battery Charger. The
charge and discharge cycle can be quickly and
simply demonstrated without a battery. The
circuit includes a load consisting of an
electrolytic double layer capacitor bank of 5
Farads to facilitate this demonstration. The
assembly also includes a set of resistive loads.
There is a logic enable input, which disables
charging when pulled high. Manual links are
provided for these functions.
Ordering Information
Order Number
API9221EV1
The construction is a double-sided FR4 printed
circuit board, 95 x 60 x 1.6 mm with 1oz/sq ft
copper (35µm).
CAUTION: Do not connect a Lithium Ion
cell before first removing the link CAP SW,
or setting it to the “0F” position. (A cell is
not required for the tests described here.)
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API9221EV1
Quick Start Guide
CAUTION: Do not connect a Lithium Ion cell before first removing the
link CAP SW, or setting it to the “0F” position. (A cell is not required
for the tests described here.)
Suitable test equipment is given in the table below. The oscilloscope is optional, but gives a display of
the output voltage against time. The demonstration is slow enough that the performance can be
observed on the multimeters.
Operation using AC Adapter Input (VDC)
1. On the API9221EV1 board set the links as follows:
PL1: Disable position (EN de-selected)
PL2: IVDC Hi
PL3: IUSB Hi
PL4: IMIN Lo
PL5: 8Ω closed (selected): (this discharges the double-layer capacitors)
PL6: 16Ω open (de-selected)
PL7: 32Ω open (de-selected)
PL8: 64Ω open (de-selected)
PL9: 5F (capacitor load selected)
2. Set the power supply to 5.0V but do not switch on. Set the current limit to 1.0A.
3. Connect up the API9221EV1 board to the equipment as in Figure 1 below. Set DMM1 to
measure voltage. Set DMM2 to measure current.
4. Note the output voltage (DMM1). (Do not switch on the supply.) If necessary, wait for the
load capacitor to fully discharge to 1V or less (DMM1).
5. Set the oscilloscope as follows:
CH1 sensitivity:
1V/div
Trace vertical position:
CH2 sensitivity:
2V/div
Trace vertical position:
CH3 sensitivity:
2V/div
Trace vertical position:
CH4 sensitivity:
2V/div
Trace vertical position:
Time base:
25s/div
Trigger Source:
AC Line
Trigger Mode:
Auto
Press RUN/STOP so that the sweep is stopped.
-3 div (approx)
+1 div (approx)
+1.5 div (approx)
+2 div (approx)
6. Move the link at PL5 (8Ω) to the open position. Switch on the power supply. Note that the
input current (DMM2) is 1mA or less. The output voltage remains close to 0V. The EN\ input
voltage is high (3V to 5V), and the output PPR\ is low (0V). The output LDO is now 4.9V.
(The output USB_BYP remains at 0V.)
7. On the oscilloscope press RUN/STOP so that the sweep is initiated. Within about 20
seconds, but after the sweep is seen to begin, move the link at PL1 to the EN position. The
EN\ voltage goes low. Note that the current has increased to about 90mA to 100mA. The
voltage at DMM1 increases and the CH1 oscilloscope trace begins to climb.
8. After about 3 minutes, when the output reaches 2.7V, the current suddenly increases to about
500mA. The oscilloscope trace may rise suddenly (a step of 0.5V or less), due to the internal
resistance of the capacitors. After a few seconds, the current decreases gradually as the
voltage approaches 4.2V. When the current reaches the IMIN value of about 50mA, the
output CHG\ is seen to go high. The current then reduces further, and the voltage now
changes very little.
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API9221EV1
9. Before the sweep finishes, switch off the power supply. The output PPR\ goes high. Press
RUN/STOP to freeze the oscilloscope waveform before the end of the sweep. Figure 2
below shows the resulting oscilloscope waveform.
10. Move the link at PL5 to connect the 8Ω load. This discharges the capacitor for safe shipping.
This concludes the demonstration using VDC input. See below for USB input demonstration.
Figure 1: Test Schematic using VDC Input
Figure 2: Oscilloscope Waveforms
About the BAT waveform: The initial constant pre-charge current of about 90 mA
charging the capacitance of 5Farads gives a ramp rate of nearly 2.7V in 150 seconds,
or about 0.018 V/s, as predicted from:
dV
I 0.09
= =
= 0.018 V/s
dt C
5
When the charging current increases to 0.5A, the ramp rate increases accordingly until
the limiting voltage of 4.2V is reached.
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API9221EV1
Operation using USB Input
11. Repeat steps 1 to 10 above, but at step 3, connect as in Figure 3 below. Note that in step 6,
the output LDO is 0V and USB_BYP is 5V. The waveform is again similar to that of Figure 2.
Figure 3: Test Schematic using USB Input
Suitable Test Equipment
Count
Description
1
Adjustable Power Supply, 10V
1A
2
Digital Multimeter
1
Digital Storage Oscilloscope, 4
channels
1
Resistor, 100k ohms ± 5%,
250mW
Manufacturer
Part Number
Thurlby Thandar
CPX400A
Fluke
179
Tektronix
TDS2024B
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API9221EV1
Schematic
TP1
BAT
BAT
INPUT VDC
VDC
TP4
C5
1uF
25V
C1
4.7uF
50V
LDO
VDC_LDO
GND
R7
100k
GND
U1
API9221
5Farad
1
2
3
TP2
INPUT USB
VUSB
1
2
C2
4.7uF
50V
5
IVDC
9
IUSB
GND
7
ENABLE
J1
1
2
3
4
5
6
PL1
1
2
3
4
5
VDC
BAT
USB
VDC_LDO
EN
USB_BYP
IVDC
PPR
IUSB
CHG
IMIN
GND
1
2
3
BAT1
CAP SW
12
R9
10k
C3
10F 2.3V
10
3
C4
10F 2.3V
4
8
C6
1uF
25V
R10
10k
C7
1uF
25V
GND
IMIN
GND
GND
GND
USB_BYP
GND
EN SW
DISENABLE
Mini-USB
0Farad
11
1
2
3
1
2
3
TP5
PL9
R8
100k
BYP
PPR
GND
GND
R1
13k
R3
13k
R5
5.6k
IVDC1
IUSB1
IMIN1
TP6
CHG
PPR\
TP3
ENABLE\
TP7
EN
HIGH
CURRENT SETTINGS
LOW
PL2
1
2
3
PL3
1
2
3
R2
13k
IVDC SW
1
2
3
SEL
PL5
1
2
3
PL4
1
2
3
R4
13k
IUSB SW
1
2
3
1
2
3
Open
R6
5.6k
1
2
3
1
2
3
8 OHM SW
PL7
1
2
3
1
2
3
16 OHM SW
PL8
1
2
3
1
2
3
32 OHM SW
CHG\
1
2
3
TP8
GND
64 OHM SW
TP9
IMIN SW
R11
23.7R
GND
PL6
GND
R12
23.7R
R13
23.7R
R14
31.6R
R15
31.6R
R16
31.6R
R17
130R
GND
GND
R18
130R
TP10
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
PCB Copper Layout & Silk Screen -Top
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API9221EV1
PCB Copper Layout & Silk Screen – Bottom
Parts List
Count
Designator
Description
Package
Manufacturer
Part Number
2
C1, C2
Capacitor, X7R,
4.7uF 50V
1210
Kemet
C1210C475K5RACTU
2
C3, C4
Capacitor, Gold
Cap 10F 2.3V
Radial,
35x12.5mm
Panasonic
EECHW0D106
3
C5, C6, C7
Capacitor, X7R,
1uF 25V
0805
Kemet
C0805C105K3RAC
4
R1, R2, R3, R4
Resistor, 13k, 1%
0805
various
2
R5, R6
Resistor, 5k6, 1%
0805
various
2
R7, R8
Resistor, 100k, 1%
0805
various
2
R9, R10
Resistor, 10k, 1%,
0.25W
1206
various
3
R11, R12, R13
Resistor, 23.7R,
1%, 0.75W
2010
Panasonic
ERJ-12SF23R7U
3
R14, R15, R16
Resistor, 31.6R,
1%, 0.75W
2010
Panasonic
ERJ-12SF31R6U
2
R17, R18
Resistor, 130R, 1%,
0.25W
1206
various
1
U1
IC, Battery Charger,
Li-Ion
DFN4x3-12
9
PL1, PL2, PL3,
PL4, PL5, PL6,
PL7, PL8, PL9
Header, SIL 3pins
SIL 3 pins
Diodes Zetex
API9221
Phoenix
HDR1X3
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API9221EV1
I/O and Test points
Count
Designator
Description
Function
Manufacturer
Part Number
1
TP1
Loop Terminal,
2.15mm, Green
VDC Input
Hughes
100-108
1
TP2
Loop Terminal,
2.15mm, Green
USB Input
Hughes
100-108
1
TP3
Loop Terminal,
2.15mm, Green
EN\ Input
Hughes
100-108
1
TP4
Loop Terminal,
2.15mm, Green
BAT battery
connection
Hughes
100-108
1
TP5
Loop Terminal,
2.15mm, Green
LDO output
Hughes
100-108
1
TP6
Loop Terminal,
2.15mm, Green
USB BYPass
Hughes
100-108
1
TP7
Loop Terminal,
2.15mm, Green
PPR\ Power Present
logic output
Hughes
100-108
1
TP8
Loop Terminal,
2.15mm, Green
CHG\ Charging logic
output
Hughes
100-108
1
TP9
Loop Terminal,
2.15mm, Green
GND ground
Hughes
100-108
1
TP10
Loop Terminal,
2.15mm, Green
GND ground
Hughes
100-108
1
J1
Mini-USB
USB Input
Wurth
65100516121
Recommended Operating Conditions
Symbol
Parameter
Min
Max
Units
VDC
Input Supply Voltage, VDC
(when VUSB=0)
4.5
6.7
V
VUSB
Input Supply Voltage, USB
(when VDC=0)
4.5
5.3
V
IVDC
Charge current via VDC
0.1
1.1
A
IUSB
Charge current via USB
50
500
mA
IUSB_BYP
USB Bypass Current
0
200
mA
ILDO
LDO Output Current
0
10
mA
TA
Operating Ambient
Temperature
-40
+85
°C
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API9221EV1
Current Settings
The maximum charge current is set by a resistor, one for each input, VDC and USB. For the VDC
input, the resistor R1 sets the current. The link IVDC SW can be set to add a series resistor, R2. For
the USB input, resistor R3 sets the current. The link IUSB SW can be set to add a series resistor R4.
In each case the full charge current is given by IVDC when using the VDC input, or IUSB when using the
USB input, according to the following equations.
6820
Amp
(1)
RIVDC
where RIVDC is the resistance, in ohms, (R1 or R1 + R2) between IVDC and GND pins.
IVDC =
6820
Amp
(2)
RIUSB
where RIUSB is the resistance, in ohms, (R3 or R3 + R4) between IUSB and GND pins.
IUSB =
For example if the IVDC SW link is set to LOW, and RIVDC is chosen to be 26k, then the charge
current is nominally 262mA when using the VDC input.
When the battery voltage VBAT is below 2.7V, the charging current is typically 18% of the full values
IVDC or IUSB. When VBAT is above this level, the charging current rises to the full value given by the
equations (1) and (2) above. When VBAT approaches the output control value of nominally 4.2V, the
current is reduced to a low level. As the battery crosses the end-of-charge threshold voltage, the
current value IMIN is reached and the CHG\ output flag goes high. The current is further reduced
gradually to a very low leakage value as the final battery voltage is reached. IMIN is set by resistor R5.
The link IMIN SW can be set to add an additional resistor, R6. IMIN is determined as follows:
550
Amp
(3)
RIMIN
where RIMIN is the resistance, in ohms, (R5 or R5 + R6) between IMIN and GND pins.
IMIN =
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INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK
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