Data Sheet

PCF8537
Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
Rev. 1 — 31 May 2012
Product data sheet
1. General description
The PCF8537 is a fully featured Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)1 driver, specifically designed
for high-contrast Vertical Alignment (VA) LCD with multiplex rates up to 1:8. It generates
the drive signals for any static or multiplexed LCD containing up to eight backplanes,
46 segments, and up to 352 elements. The PCF8537 features an internal charge pump
with internal capacitors for on-chip generation of the LCD driving voltage. To ensure an
optimal and stable contrast over the full temperature range, the PCF8537 offers a
programmable temperature compensation of the LCD supply voltage. The PCF8537 can
be easily connected to a microcontroller by either the two-line I2C-bus (PCF8537AH) or a
three-line bidirectional SPI-bus (PCF8537BH).
2. Features and benefits
 Low-power single-chip LCD controller and driver
 352 elements allowing to drive:
 up to 44 7-segment alphanumeric characters
 up to 22 14-segment alphanumeric characters
 Selectable backplane drive configuration: static, 2, 4, 6, or 8 backplane multiplexing
 Software programmable internal charge pump for on-chip LCD voltage generation up
to 9 V with internal capacitors
 400 kHz I2C-bus interface (PCF8537AH)
 5 MHz SPI-bus interface (PCF8537BH)
 Programmable temperature compensation of VLCD in four regions
 Selectable display bias configuration
 Wide range for digital power supply: from 1.8 V to 5.5 V
 Wide LCD supply range: from 2.5 V for low threshold LCDs and up to 9.0 V for high
threshold twisted nematic LCDs
 Display memory bank switching in static, duplex, and quadruplex drive modes
 352-bit RAM for display data storage
 Programmable frame frequency in the range of 60 Hz to 300 Hz in steps of 10 Hz;
factory calibrated
 Integrated temperature sensor with temperature readout
 On chip calibration of internal oscillator frequency and VLCD
 Manufactured in silicon gate CMOS process
1.
The definition of the abbreviations and acronyms used in this data sheet can be found in Section 17.
PCF8537
NXP Semiconductors
Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
3. Applications










White goods
Handheld electronics
Battery operated equipment
Machine control systems
Measuring equipment
Information boards
Panels
Consumer
Industrial
Medical and health care
4. Ordering information
Table 1.
Ordering information
Type number
Interface type
Package
Name
Description
Version
PCF8537AH/1
I2C-bus
TQFP64
plastic thin quad flat package; 64 leads;
body 10  10  1.0 mm
SOT357-1
PCF8537BH/1
SPI-bus
TQFP64
plastic thin quad flat package; 64 leads;
body 10  10  1.0 mm
SOT357-1
5. Marking
Table 2.
PCF8537
Product data sheet
Marking codes
Type number
Marking code
PCF8537AH/1
PCF8537AH
PCF8537BH/1
PCF8537BH
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PCF8537
NXP Semiconductors
Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
6. Block diagram
VLCD
BP0 to BP5
VDD2
S44/BP7
S45/BP6
BACKPLANE
OUTPUTS
DISPLAY SEGMENT OUTPUTS
LCD
VOLTAGE
SELECTOR
CHARGE
PUMP
(VOLTAGE
MULTIPLIER)
S0 to S43
DISPLAY REGISTER
DISPLAY
CONTROL
OUTPUT BANK SELECT
LCD BIAS
GENERATOR
VSS
DISPLAY RAM
TEMPERATURE
SENSOR
CLK
CLOCK SELECT
AND TIMING
PCF8537AH
OSCILLATOR
POWER-ON
RESET
RESET
SCL
COMMAND
DECODER
WRITE DATA
CONTROL
DATA POINTER,
AUTO INCREMENT
I2C-BUS
CONTROLLER
SDA
013aaa671
A0
Fig 1.
VSS
VDD1
T1 T2 T3
Block diagram of PCF8537AH
PCF8537
Product data sheet
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PCF8537
NXP Semiconductors
Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
VLCD
BP0 to BP5
VDD2
S44/BP7
S45/BP6
BACKPLANE
OUTPUTS
DISPLAY SEGMENT OUTPUTS
LCD
VOLTAGE
SELECTOR
CHARGE
PUMP
(VOLTAGE
MULTIPLIER)
S0 to S43
DISPLAY REGISTER
DISPLAY
CONTROL
OUTPUT BANK SELECT
LCD BIAS
GENERATOR
VSS
DISPLAY RAM
TEMPERATURE
SENSOR
CLK
CLOCK SELECT
AND TIMING
PCF8537BH
OSCILLATOR
POWER-ON
RESET
RESET
SCL
COMMAND
DECODER
WRITE DATA
CONTROL
DATA POINTER,
AUTO INCREMENT
SPI-BUS
CONTROLLER
SDIO
013aaa672
CE
Fig 2.
VSS
VDD1
T1 T2 T3
Block diagram of PCF8537BH
PCF8537
Product data sheet
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NXP Semiconductors
PCF8537
49 BP4
50 BP5
51 S45/BP6
52 S44/BP7
53 S43
54 S42
55 S41
56 S40
57 S39
58 S38
59 S37
60 S36
61 S35
62 S34
63 S33
64 S32
49 BP4
50 BP5
51 S45/BP6
52 S44/BP7
53 S43
54 S42
55 S41
56 S40
57 S39
58 S38
59 S37
60 S36
61 S35
62 S34
63 S33
64 S32
7.1 Pinning
1
48 BP3
S31
1
48 BP3
S30
2
47 BP2
S30
2
47 BP2
S29
3
46 BP1
S29
3
46 BP1
S28
4
45 BP0
S28
4
45 BP0
S27
5
44 VLCD
S27
5
44 VLCD
S26
6
43 VDD2
S26
6
43 VDD2
S25
7
42 VDD1
S25
7
42 VDD1
S24
8
41 VSS
S24
8
S23
9
40 T3
S23
9
S22 10
39 CLK
S22 10
39 CLK
S21 11
38 T2
S21 11
38 T2
S20 12
37 T1
S20 12
37 T1
S19 13
36 A0
S19 13
36 SDIO
S18 14
35 SCL
S18 14
35 SCL
S17 15
34 SDA
S17 15
34 CE
S16 16
33 RESET
S16 16
33 RESET
Top view. For mechanical details, see Figure 62.
Fig 3. Pin configuration for TQFP64 (PCF8537AH)
Top view. For mechanical details, see Figure 62.
Fig 4. Pin configuration for TQFP64 (PCF8537BH)
S0 32
S1 31
S2 30
S3 29
S4 28
40 T3
S5 27
S6 26
S7 25
S8 24
S9 23
S10 22
S11 21
S12 20
S13 19
S14 18
013aaa673
41 VSS
PCF8537BH
S15 17
S0 32
S1 31
S2 30
S3 29
S4 28
S5 27
S6 26
S7 25
S8 24
S9 23
S10 22
S11 21
S12 20
S13 19
S15 17
PCF8537AH
013aaa674
PCF8537
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Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
Rev. 1 — 31 May 2012
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S31
S14 18
Product data sheet
7. Pinning information
PCF8537
NXP Semiconductors
Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
7.2 Pin description
Table 3.
Pin description of PCF8537AH and PCF8537BH
Pin
Symbol
Type
Description
S31 to S0
output
LCD segments
RESET
input
active low reset input
PCF8537AH
1 to 32
33
34
SDA
35
SCL
PCF8537BH
input/output I2C-bus serial data
CE
SCL
36
A0
SDIO
37, 38,
40
I2C-bus serial clock
input
SPI-bus serial clock
input
I2C-bus slave address selection
input/output SPI-bus serial data
input
test pins; must be tied to VSS in
applications
CLK
input/output internal oscillator output, external
oscillator input
41
VSS
supply
ground supply
42
VDD1
supply
supply voltage 1
43
VDD2
supply
supply voltage 2
44
VLCD[1]
supply
LCD supply[2]
BP0 to BP5
output
LCD backplanes
51
S45/BP6
output
LCD segments for 1:6 multiplex drive
mode;
52
S44/BP7
output
LCD backplanes for 1:8 multiplex drive
mode
S43 to S32
output
LCD segments
53 to 64
Product data sheet
SPI-bus chip enable - active LOW
input
39
45 to 50
PCF8537
T1 to T3
input
[1]
VLCD must be equal to or greater than VDD2.
[2]
When the internal VLCD generation is used, this pin drives the VLCD voltage. In this case pin VLCD is an
output. When the external supply is requested, then pin VLCD is an input and VLCD can be supplied on it. In
this case, the internal charge pump must be disabled (see Table 8).
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PCF8537
NXP Semiconductors
Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
8. Functional description
The PCF8537 is a versatile peripheral device designed to interface any microcontroller to
a wide variety of LCDs. It can directly drive any static or multiplexed LCD containing up to
352 elements.
8.1 Commands of PCF8537
The commands to control the PCF8537 are defined in Table 4. Any other combinations of
operation code bits that are not mentioned in this document can lead to undesired
operation modes of PCF8537.
Table 4.
Commands of PCF8537
The bit labeled with - is not implemented.
Command name RS[1] Bits
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
Section 8.1.1
OTP-refresh
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
Section 8.1.2
Oscillator-ctrl
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
COE
OSC
Section 8.1.3
Charge-pump-ctrl 0
1
1
0
0
0
0
CPE
CPC
Section 8.1.4
TCE
TME
Section 8.1.5
Temp-msr-ctrl
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
Temp-comp
0
0
0
0
1
1
SLA[2:0]
0
0
0
1
0
0
SLB[2:0]
0
0
0
1
0
1
SLC[2:0]
SLD[2:0]
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
VPR[7:4]
0
0
1
0
1
VPR[3:0]
Display-enable
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
Set-MUX-mode
0
0
0
0
0
0
M[2:0]
Set-bias-mode
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
Load-data-pointer 0
1
0
P[5:0]
Frame-frequency 0
0
1
1
0
0
Section 8.1.6
Section 8.1.7
0
E
Section 8.1.8
Section 8.1.9
B[1:0]
Section 8.1.10
Section 8.1.11
F[4:0]
0
Section 8.1.12
1
0
IBS
Bank-select
0
0
Write-RAM-data
1
B[7:0]
Section 8.1.14
Temp-read
-
TD[7:0]
Section 8.1.15
Invmode_ctrl
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
LF
0
Section 8.1.16
Temp-filter
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
TFE
Section 8.1.17
[1]
Product data sheet
7
Initialize
Set-VPR
PCF8537
Reference
OBS
Section 8.1.13
For further information about the register selection bit, see Table 30 on page 52.
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PCF8537
NXP Semiconductors
Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
8.1.1 Command: Initialize
This command generates a chip-wide reset which resets all command values to their
default values. After this command is sent, it is possible to send additional commands
without the need to re-initialize the interface. The reset takes 100 ns to complete.
Table 5.
Initialize - initialize command bit description
For further information, see Section 8.2 on page 17.
Bit
Symbol
Binary value
Description
7 to 0
-
00111010
fixed value
8.1.2 Command: OTP-refresh
During production and testing of the device, each IC is calibrated to achieve the specified
accuracy of VLCD, the frame frequency, and the temperature measurement. This
calibration is performed on EPROM cells called One Time Programmable (OTP) cells.
The device reads these cells every time at power-on, after a reset, and every time when
the initialize command or the OTP-refresh command is sent.
Remark: It is recommended not to enter power-down mode during the OTP refresh cycle.
Table 6.
OTP-refresh - OTP-refresh command bit description
Bit
Symbol
Binary value
Description
7 to 0
-
11010000
fixed value
8.1.3 Command: Oscillator-ctrl
The Oscillator-ctrl command switches between internal and external oscillator and
enables or disables the pin CLK.
Table 7.
Oscillator-ctrl - oscillator control command bit description
For further information, see Section 8.1.3.1.
Bit
Symbol
Binary value
Description
7 to 2
-
110011
fixed value
1
COE
0
[1]
8.1.3.1
control pin CLK
0[1]
clock signal not available on pin CLK;
pin CLK is in 3-state and may be left floating
1
clock signal available on pin CLK
OSC
oscillator source
0[1]
internal oscillator used
1
external oscillator used;
pin CLK becomes an input
Default value.
Oscillator
The internal logic and LCD drive signals of the PCF8537 are timed either by the built-in
oscillator or from an external clock.
PCF8537
Product data sheet
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PCF8537
NXP Semiconductors
Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
8.1.3.2
Internal oscillator
When the internal oscillator is used, it is possible to make the clock signal available on pin
CLK by using the Oscillator-ctrl command (see Table 7). If this is not intended, the pin
CLK should be left open. At power-on the signal at pin CLK is disabled and pin CLK is in
3-state.
If the internal charge pump is enabled, then the internal oscillator starts and is used to run
the charge pump. An external oscillator can still be applied for driving the display
waveforms.
The duty cycle of the output clock provided on the CLK pin is not always 50 : 50. Table 17
on page 13 shows the expected duty cycle for each of the chosen frame frequencies.
8.1.3.3
External clock
In applications where an external clock must be applied to the PCF8537, bit OSC (see
Table 7) must be set logic 1. In this case, pin CLK becomes an input.
The CLK signal is a signal that is fed into the VDD1 domain. Therefore it must have an
amplitude equal to the VDD1 voltage supplied to the chip and be referenced to VSS.
The clock frequency (fclk) determines the LCD frame frequency.
Remark: If an external clock is used then this clock signal must always be supplied to the
device. Removing the clock can freeze the LCD in a DC state. Removal of the clock is
possible when following the correct procedures (see Figure 11 on page 21 and Figure 12
on page 22).
8.1.4 Command: Charge-pump-ctrl
The Charge-pump-ctrl command enables or disables the internal VLCD generation and
controls the charge pump voltage multiplier setting.
Table 8.
Charge-pump-ctrl - charge pump control command bit description
For further information, see Table 11 on page 11 and Section 8.4.3 on page 26.
Bit
Symbol
Binary value
Description
7 to 2
-
110000
fixed value
1
CPE
0
[1]
PCF8537
Product data sheet
charge pump switch
0[1]
charge pump disabled;
no internal VLCD generation;
external supply of VLCD
1
charge pump enabled
CPC
charge pump voltage multiplier setting
0[1]
VLCD = 2  VDD2
1
VLCD = 3  VDD2
Default value.
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PCF8537
NXP Semiconductors
Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
8.1.5 Command: Temp-msr-ctrl
The Temp-msr-ctrl command enables or disables the temperature measurement block
and the temperature compensation of VLCD.
Table 9.
Temp-msr-ctrl - temperature measurement control command bit description
For further information, see Section 8.4.4 on page 28.
Bit
Symbol
Binary value
Description
7 to 2
-
110010
fixed value
1
TCE
0
temperature compensation switch
0
no temperature compensation of VLCD
possible
1[1]
temperature compensation of VLCD possible
TME
temperature measurement switch
0
temperature measurement disabled:
no temperature readout possible
1[1]
temperature measurement enabled:
temperature readout possible
[1]
Default value.
8.1.6 Command: Temp-comp
The Temp-comp command allows setting the temperature compensation coefficients for
each of the temperature regions SFA to SFD. For further information, see Section 8.4.4.2.
Table 10. Temp-comp - temperature compensation coefficients command
For further information, see Section 8.4.4 on page 28.
Bit
Symbol
Binary value
Description
-
00011
fixed value
SLA[2:0]
000[1]
temperature compensation coefficient SLA,
see Table 26 on page 30
-
00100
fixed value
SLB[2:0]
000[1]
temperature compensation coefficient SLB,
see Table 26 on page 30
-
00101
fixed value
SLC[2:0]
000[1]
temperature compensation coefficient SLC,
see Table 26 on page 30
-
00110
fixed value
SLD[2:0]
000[1]
temperature compensation coefficient SLD,
see Table 26 on page 30
SLA
7 to 3
2 to 0
to 111
SLB
7 to 3
2 to 0
to 111
SLC
7 to 3
2 to 0
to 111
SLD
7 to 3
2 to 0
[1]
PCF8537
Product data sheet
to 111
Default value.
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PCF8537
NXP Semiconductors
Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
8.1.7 Command: Set-VPR
With these two instructions, it is possible to set the target VLCD voltage for the internal
charge pump.
Table 11. Set-VPR - set VPR command bit description
For further information, see Section 8.4.2 on page 25.
Bit
Symbol
Binary value
Description
-
0100
fixed value
VPR[7:4]
0000[1]
Set-VPR MSB
7 to 4
3 to 0
to
the four most significant bits of VPR[7:0]
1111[2]
Set-VPR LSB
7 to 4
3 to 0
-
0101
VPR[3:0]
0000[1]
fixed value
to
the four least significant bits of VPR[7:0]
1111[2]
[1]
[2]
Default value.
VPR[7:0] = 0h results in Vprog(LCD) = 3 V;
VPR[7:0] = C8h results in Vprog(LCD) = 9 V.
8.1.8 Command: Display-enable
This command allows switching the display on and off. The possibility to disable and
enable the display allows implementation of blinking the entire display under external
control.
Table 12.
Display-enable - display enable command bit description
Bit
Symbol
Binary value
Description
7 to 1
-
0011100
fixed value
E
0[1]
display disabled
0
backplane and segment outputs are internally
connected to VSS
1
[1]
PCF8537
Product data sheet
display enabled
Default value.
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PCF8537
NXP Semiconductors
Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
8.1.9 Command: Set-MUX-mode
The multiplex drive mode is configured with the bits described in Table 13.
Table 13. Set-MUX-mode - set multiplex drive mode command bit description
For further information, see Section 8.4.5 on page 31.
Bit
Symbol
Binary value
Description
7 to 3
-
00000
fixed value
M[2:0]
000[1]
1:8 multiplex drive mode
2 to 0
011
101
111
110
8 backplanes and 44 segments
1:6 multiplex drive mode
6 backplanes and 46 segments
100
1:4 multiplex drive mode
4 backplanes and 44 segments
010
1:2 multiplex drive mode
001
static drive mode
2 backplanes and 44 segments
1 backplane and 44 segments
[1]
Default value.
8.1.10 Command: Set-bias-mode
The Set-bias-mode command allows setting the bias level.
Table 14. Set-bias-mode - set bias mode command bit description
For further information, see Section 8.4.5 on page 31.
Bit
Symbol
Binary value
Description
7 to 2
-
110001
fixed value
1 to 0
B[1:0]
LCD bias configuration[1]
00[2]
01
1⁄
4
bias
11
1⁄
3
bias
10
1⁄
2
bias
[1]
Not applicable for static drive mode.
[2]
Default value.
8.1.11 Command: Load-data-pointer
The Load-data-pointer command defines the display RAM address where the following
display data will be sent to.
Table 15. Load-data-pointer - load data pointer command bit description
For further information, see Section 8.8 on page 44.
Bit
PCF8537
Product data sheet
Symbol
Binary value
Description
7 to 6
-
10
fixed value
5 to 0
P[5:0]
000000 to
101101
RAM address
6-bit binary value of 0 to 45
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PCF8537
NXP Semiconductors
Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
8.1.12 Command: Frame-frequency
With the Frame-frequency command, the frame frequency and the output clock frequency
can be configured.
Table 16.
Bit
Symbol
Binary value
Description
7 to 5
-
011
fixed value
4 to 0
F[4:0]
see Table 17
frame frequency values, see Table 17
Table 17.
PCF8537
Product data sheet
Frame frequency - frame frequency and output clock frequency command bit
description
Frame frequency values
F[4:0]
Nominal frame
frequency ffr (Hz)[1]
Resultant output
clock frequency,
fclk(o) (Hz)
Duty cycle (%)[2]
00000
60
2880
20 : 80
00001
70
3360
7 : 93
00010
80
3840
47 : 53
00011
91
4368
40 : 60
00100
100
4800
33 : 67
00101
109
5232
27 : 73
00110
120
5760
20 : 80
00111
129.7
6226
13 : 87
01000
141.2
6778
5 : 95
01001
150
7200
50 : 50
01010
160
7680
47 : 53
01011
171.4
8227
43 : 57
01100
177.8
8534
41 : 59
01101
192
9216
36 : 64
01110[3]
200
9600
33 : 67
01111
208.7
10018
30 : 70
10000
218.2
10474
27 : 73
10001
228.6
10973
23 : 77
10010
240
11520
20 : 80
10011
252.6
12125
16 : 84
10100, 10101
266.7
12802
10 : 90
10110, 10111
282.4
13555
5 : 95
11000 to 11111
300
14400
50 : 50
[1]
Nominal frame frequency calculated for the default clock frequency of 9600 Hz.
[2]
Duty cycle definition: % HIGH-level time : % LOW-level time.
[3]
Default value.
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PCF8537
NXP Semiconductors
Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
8.1.12.1
Timing and frame frequency
The timing of the PCF8537 organizes the internal data flow of the device. This includes
the transfer of display data from the display RAM to the display segment outputs. The
timing also generates the LCD frame frequency. The frame frequency is a fixed division of
the internal clock or of the frequency applied to pin CLK when an external clock is used.
When the internal clock is used, the clock frequency can be programmed by software
such that the nominal frame frequency can be chosen in steps of 10 Hz in the range of
60 Hz to 300 Hz (see Table 17). Furthermore the nominal frame frequency is
factory-calibrated with an accuracy of ±15 %.
When the internal clock is enabled at pin CLK by using bit COE, the duty ratio of the clock
may change when choosing different values for the frame frequency prescaler. Table 17
shows the different output duty ratios for each frame frequency prescaler setting.
8.1.13 Command: Bank-select
For the multiplex drive modes 1:4, 1:2, and the static drive mode, it is possible to write
data to one area of the RAM while displaying from another. These areas are named RAM
banks. There are two banks, 0 and 1. Figure 39 on page 50 and Figure 40 on page 50
show the concept. The Bank-select command controls where data is written to and where
it is displayed from.
Table 18. Bank-select - bank select command bit description
For further information, see Section 8.9 on page 50.
Bit
Symbol
Binary value
Description
7 to 2
-
000010
fixed value
1
IBS
selects RAM bank to write to
0[1]
1
0
[1]
OBS
Bank 0
Bank 1
selects RAM bank to read from to the LCD
0[1]
Bank 0
1
Bank 1
Default value.
8.1.14 Command: Write-RAM-data
By setting the RS bit of the control byte to logic 1, all data transferred is interpreted as
RAM data and placed in the RAM in accordance with the current setting of the RAM
address pointer (see Section 8.1.11 on page 12). Definition of the RS can be found in
Table 30 on page 52.
Remark: After Power-On Reset (POR) the RAM content is random and should be brought
to a defined status by clearing it (setting it to logic 0).
Table 19. Write-RAM-data - write RAM data command bit description
For further information, see Section 8.8 on page 44.
PCF8537
Product data sheet
Bit
Symbol
Binary value
Description
7 to 0
B[7:0]
00000000 to
11111111
writing data byte-wise to the RAM
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8.1.15 Command: Temp-read
The Temp-read command allows reading out the temperature values measured by the
internal temperature sensor.
Table 20. Temp-read - temperature readout command bit description
For further information, see Section 8.4.4 on page 28.
Bit
Symbol
Binary value
Description
7 to 0
TD[7:0]
00000000 to
11111111
digital temperature values[1]
[1]
For this command, bit R/W of the I2C-bus slave address byte has to be set logic 1 (see Table 31).
8.1.16 Command: Invmode_ctrl
The Invmode_ctrl command allows changing the drive scheme inversion mode.
The waveforms used to drive LCD displays inherently produce a DC voltage across the
display cell. The PCF8537 compensates for the DC voltage by inverting the waveforms on
alternate frames or alternate lines. The choice of compensation method is determined
with the LF bit.
Table 21. Invmode_ctrl - drive scheme inversion command bit description
For further information, see Section 8.4.6 on page 34.
Bit
Symbol
Binary value
Description
7 to 2
-
110101
fixed value
1
LF
0
[1]
-
set inversion mode
0[1]
driving scheme A: line inversion mode
1
driving scheme B: frame inversion mode
0
fixed value
Default value.
In frame inversion mode, the DC value is compensated across two frames and not within
one frame. Changing the inversion mode to frame inversion reduces the power
consumption, therefore it is useful when power consumption is a key point in the
application.
Frame inversion may not be suitable for all applications. The RMS voltage across a
segment is better defined, however since the switching frequency is reduced there is
possibility for flicker to occur.
Figure 24 on page 34 to Figure 30 on page 40 are showing the waveforms in line
inversion mode. Figure 31 on page 41 shows an example of frame inversion.
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Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
8.1.17 Command: Temp-filter
Table 22. Temp-filter - digital temperature filter command bit description
For further information, see Section 8.4.4 on page 28.
Bit
Symbol
Binary value
Description
7 to 1
-
1101001
fixed value
0
TFE
[1]
PCF8537
Product data sheet
digital temperature filter switch
0[1]
digital temperature filter disabled; the
unfiltered digital value of TD[7:0] is
immediately available for the readout and
VLCD compensation, see Section 8.4.4.1
1
digital temperature filter enabled
Default value.
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8.2 Start-up and shut-down
8.2.1 Power-On Reset (POR)
At power-on, the PCF8537 resets to starting conditions as follows:
1. All backplane and segment outputs are set to VSS.
2. Selected drive mode is: 1:8 with 1⁄4 bias.
3. Input and output bank selectors are reset.
4. The I2C-bus and SPI-bus interface are initialized.
5. The data pointer is cleared (set logic 0).
6. The internal oscillator is running; no clock signal is available on pin CLK; pin CLK is in
3-state.
7. Temperature measurement is enabled.
8. Temperature filter is disabled.
9. The internal VLCD voltage generation is disabled. The charge pump is switched off.
10. The VLCD temperature compensation is enabled.
11. The display is disabled.
The reset state is as shown in Table 23.
Table 23. Reset state
Reset state of configuration bits shown in the command table format for clarity. The bit labeled with - has an undefined reset
state.
Command name
Bits
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Oscillator-ctrl
1
1
0
0
1
1
COE = 0
OSC = 0
Charge-pump-ctrl
1
1
0
0
0
0
CPE = 0
CPC = 0
Temp-msr-ctrl
1
1
0
0
1
0
TCE = 1
TME = 1
Temp-comp
0
0
0
1
1
SLA[2:0] = 000
0
0
1
0
0
SLB[2:0] = 000
0
0
1
0
1
SLC[2:0] = 000
0
0
1
1
0
SLD[2:0] = 000
0
1
0
0
VPR[7:4] = 0000
0
1
0
1
VPR[3:0] = 0000
Set-VPR
Display-enable
0
0
1
1
1
0
Set-MUX-mode
0
0
0
0
0
M[2:0] = 000
0
E=0
Set-bias-mode
1
1
0
0
0
1
B[1:0] = 00
Load-data-pointer
1
0
P[5:0] is undefined
Frame-frequency
0
1
1
F[4:0] = 01110
Bank-select
0
0
0
0
1
0
IBS = 0
OBS = 0
Invmode_ctrl
1
1
0
1
0
1
LF = 0
-
Temp-filter
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
TFE = 0
Remark: Do not transfer data on the I2C-bus or SPI-bus for at least 1 ms after a power-on
reset to allow the reset action to complete.
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The first command sent to the device after the power-on event must be the Initialize
command (see Section 8.1.1).
After POR and before enabling the display, the RAM content should be brought to a
defined status
• by clearing it (setting it all to logic 0) or
• by writing meaningful content (for example, a graphic)
otherwise unwanted display artifacts may appear on the display.
8.2.2 RESET pin function
The RESET pin of the PCF8537 resets all the registers to their default state. The reset
state is given in Table 23. The RAM contents remain unchanged. After the reset signal is
removed, the PCF8537 will behave in the same manner as after POR. See Section 8.2.1
for details.
8.2.3 Recommended start-up sequences
This chapter describes how to proceed with the initialization of the chip in different
application modes.
START
Power-on
VDD1 and
VDD2 at the
same time
Set VPR
register to
desired VLCD
value
Set
multiplication
factor for
charge pump
and enable it
Wait minimum
1 ms
Initialize
command
Initiate an
OTP-refresh
Wait till
VLCD reaches
programmed
value(1)
Write RAM
content to be
displayed and
enable the
display
STOP
013aaa632
(1) This time depends on the external capacitor on pin VLCD. For a capacitor of 100 nF a delay of 5 ms
to 15 ms is expected.
Fig 5.
PCF8537
Product data sheet
Recommended start-up sequence when using the internal charge pump and the
internal clock signal
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If the display is enabled too soon after the charge pump is enabled, then the VLCD voltage
may not have yet stabilized leading to an uneven display effect.
START
Initiate an
OTP-refresh
Power-on
VDD1, VDD2
and VLCD
at the
same time
Write RAM
content to be
displayed and
enable the
display
Wait minimum
1 ms
STOP
Initialize
command
013aaa633
Fig 6.
Recommended start-up sequence when using an external supplied VLCD and the
internal clock signal
START
Power-on
VDD1 and
VDD2 at the
same time
Apply external
clock signal
to pin CLK;
set OSC bit
logic 1(1)
Wait till
VLCD reaches
programmed
value(1)
(2)
Wait minimum
1 ms
Set VPR
register to
desired VLCD
value
Initialize
command
Initiate an
OTP-refresh
Set
multiplication
factor for
charge pump
and enable it
Write RAM
content to be
displayed and
enable the
display
STOP
013aaa634
(1) The external clock signal can be applied after the generation of the VLCD voltage as well.
(2) This time depends on the external capacitor on pin VLCD. For a capacitor of 100 nF a delay of 5 ms
to 15 ms is expected.
Fig 7.
PCF8537
Product data sheet
Recommended start-up sequence when using the internal charge pump and an
external clock signal
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START
Power-on
VDD1, VDD2
and VLCD
at the
same time
Apply external
clock signal
to pin CLK;
set OSC bit
logic 1
Wait minimum
1 ms
Write RAM
content to be
displayed and
enable the
display
Initialize
command
STOP
Initiate an
OTP-refresh
Fig 8.
013aaa635
Recommended start-up sequence when using an external supplied VLCD and an
external clock signal
8.2.4 Recommended sequences to enter power-down mode
With the following sequences, the PCF8537 can be set to a state of minimum power
consumption, called power-down mode.
START
Disable display by setting
bit E logic 0
Stop generation of VLCD
by setting bit
CPE logic 0
Disable temperature measurement by
setting bit
TME logic 0
STOP
013aaa636
Fig 9.
PCF8537
Product data sheet
Recommended power-down sequence for minimum power-down current when
using the internal charge pump and the internal clock signal
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START
Disable display by setting
bit E logic 0
Disable temperature measurement by
setting bit
TME logic 0
STOP
013aaa637
Fig 10. Recommended power-down sequence when using an external supplied VLCD and
the internal clock signal
START
Disable display by setting
bit E logic 0
Stop generation of VLCD
by setting bit
CPE logic 0
Disable temperature measurement by
setting bit
TME logic 0
Bring pin CLK
to 3-state by
setting bit
OSC and bit
COE logic 0
External
clock may
be switched
off
STOP
013aaa638
Fig 11. Recommended power-down sequence when using the internal charge pump and
an external clock signal
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START
Disable display by setting
bit E logic 0
Disable temperature measurement by
setting bit
TME logic 0
Bring pin CLK
to 3-state by
setting bit
OSC and bit
COE logic 0
External
clock may
be switched
off
STOP
013aaa639
Fig 12. Recommended power-down sequence for minimum power-down current when
using an external supplied VLCD and an external clock signal
Remark: It is necessary to run the power-down sequence before removing the supplies.
Depending on the application, care must be taken that no other signals are present at the
chip input or output pins when removing the supplies (see Section 10). Otherwise this
may cause unwanted display artifacts. In the case of uncontrolled removal of supply
voltages the PCF8537 will not be damaged.
Remark: Static voltages across the liquid crystal display can build up when the external
LCD supply voltage (VLCD) is on while the IC supply voltage (VDD1 or VDD2) is off, or the
other way around. This may cause unwanted display artifacts. To avoid such artifacts,
VLCD, VDD1, and VDD2 must be applied or removed together.
Remark: A clock signal must always be supplied to the device when the display is active.
Removing the clock may freeze the LCD in a DC state, which is not suitable for the liquid
crystal. It is recommended to first disable the display and afterwards to remove the clock
signal.
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8.3 Possible display configurations
The PCF8537 is a versatile peripheral device designed to interface between any
microcontroller to a wide variety of LCD segment or dot matrix displays (see Figure 13). It
can directly drive any static or multiplexed LCD containing up to eight backplanes with
44 segments.
The display configurations possible with the PCF8537 depend on the number of active
backplane outputs required. A selection of possible display configurations is given in
Table 24.
dot matrix
7-segment with dot
14-segment with dot and accent
013aaa312
Fig 13. Example of displays suitable for PCF8537
Table 24.
Selection of display configurations
Number of
Digits/Characters
Backplanes
Segments
Icons
7 segment[1]
14 segment[2]
Dot matrix/
Elements
8
44
352
44
22
352 dots (8  44)
6
46
276
34
17
276 dots (6  46)
4
44
176
22
11
176 dots (4  44)
2
44
88
11
5
88 dots (2  44)
1
44
44
5
2
44 dots (1  44)
[1]
7 segment display has 8 elements including the decimal point.
[2]
14 segment display has 16 elements including decimal point and accent dot.
All of the display configurations in Table 24 can be implemented in the typical systems
shown in Figure 14 (internal VLCD) and in Figure 15 (external VLCD).
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VDD2
VDD1
R=
tr
2Cb
SDA
HOST
PROCESSOR/
MICROCONTROLLER
VDD1
VLCD
44 segment drives
SCL
RESET
VDD2
LCD PANEL
(up to 352
elements)
PCF8537AH
8 backplanes
CLK A0 T1 T2 T3 VSS
n.c.
VSS
013aaa675
VDD1 from 1.8 V to 5.5 V and VDD2 from 2.5 V to 5.5 V.
Fig 14. Typical I2C system configuration when using the internal VLCD generation
VLCD
VDD1
SDIO
HOST
PROCESSOR/
MICROCONTROLLER
VDD1
VLCD
44 segment drives
SCL
LCD PANEL
(up to 352
elements)
PCF8537BH
CE
RESET
VDD2
8 backplanes
CLK
T1 T2 T3 VSS
n.c.
VSS
013aaa676
VDD1 from 1.8 V to 5.5 V, VDD2 from 2.5 V to 5.5 V and VLCD from 2.5 V to 9.0 V.
Fig 15. Typical SPI system configuration when using an external VLCD
The host microcontroller maintains the two-line I2C-bus communication channel with the
PCF8537AH or the three-line SPI-bus with the PCF8537BH. The appropriate biasing
voltages for the multiplexed LCD waveforms are generated internally. The only other
connections required to complete the system are the power supplies (VDD1, VDD2, VSS,
VLCD), the external capacitors, and the LCD panel selected for the application.
The recommended values for external capacitors on VDD1, VDD2, and VLCD are of nominal
100 nF value. When using bigger capacitors, especially on the VLCD, the generated ripple
will be consequently smaller. However it will take longer for the internal charge pump to
first reach the target VLCD voltage.
If VDD1 and VDD2 are connected externally, the capacitors on VDD1 and VDD2 can be
replaced by a single capacitor with a nominal value of 220 nF.
Remark: In case of insufficient decoupling, ripple on VDD1 and VDD2 will create additional
VLCD ripple. The ripple on the VLCD can be reduced by making the VSS connection as
low-ohmic as possible. Excessive ripple on VLCD may cause flicker on the display.
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8.4 LCD supply voltage
8.4.1 External VLCD supply
VLCD can be directly supplied to the VLCD pin. In this case, the internal charge pump must
not be enabled otherwise a high current may occur on pin VDD2 and pin VLCD. When
VLCD is supplied externally, no internal temperature compensation occurs on this voltage
even if bit TCE is set logic 1 (see Section 8.4.4.2). The VLCD voltage which is supplied
externally will be available at the segments and backplanes of the device through the
chosen bias system. Also programming VPR[7:0] will have no effect on the VLCD which is
externally supplied.
8.4.2 Internal VLCD generation
VLCD can be generated and controlled on the chip by using software commands. When
the internal charge pump is used, the programmed VLCD is available on pin VLCD. The
charge pump generates a VLCD of up to 3  VDD2. The charge pump can be enabled or
disabled with the CPE bit (see Table 8 on page 9). With bit CPC, the charge pump
multiplier setting can be configured.
The final value of VLCD is a combination of the programmed Vprog(LCD) value and the
output of the temperature compensation block, Voffset(LCD).
(1)
V LCD = V prog  LCD  + V offset  LCD 
The system is shown in Figure 16.
SLA
SLB
SLC
SLD
Voffset(LCD)
0 OFFSET
TEMPERATURE
READOUT
8
8
TD[7:0]
VT[7:0]
-40
0
+20
+50
+80
TEMPERATURE
0.03
VPR[7:0]
8
0.03
3
8
Vprog(LCD)
VLCD
013aaa640
VPR[7:0] is the binary value of the programmed voltage. VT[7:0] is the binary value of the temperature compensated voltage.
Its values come from the temperature compensation block and is a two’s complement which has the value 0h at 20 C.
V prog  LCD  = VPR  7:0   0.03 + 3 .
The equations for Voffset(LCD), see Table 27 on page 31.
Fig 16. VLCD generation including temperature compensation
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Figure 17 illustrates how VLCD changes with the programmed value of VPR[7:0].
013aaa661
V LCD
(2)
9V
0.03 V
(1)
VDD2
3V
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
...
...
C7
C8
C9 CA
...
FC
FD
FE
FF
VPR[7:0]
(1) If VDD2 > 3.0 V then VPR[7:0] must be set so that VLCD  VDD2.
(2) Automatic limitation for VLCD > 9.0 V.
Fig 17. VLCD programming of PCF8537 (assuming VT[7:0] = 0h)
The programmable range of VPR[7:0] is from 0h to FFh. With the upper part of the
programmable range, it is possible to achieve more than 9.0 V, but the PCF8537 has a
built-in automatic limitation of VLCD at 9.0 V. If VDD2 is higher than 3.0 V, then it is
important that VPR[7:0] is set to a value such that the resultant VLCD (including the
temperature correction of VT[7:0]) is higher than VDD2.
8.4.3 Charge pump
8.4.3.1
Charge pump configuration
To obtain the desired VLCD values, the charge pump has to be configured properly. It has
to be taken into account that the maximum theoretical values cannot be reached due to
internal losses (see Section 8.4.3.2). So, for example, it is not possible to get a
VLCD = 6.0 V with VDD2 = 3.0 V and a charge pump configuration of 2 times VDD2. In this
case, a charge pump configuration of 3 times VDD2 is needed.
8.4.3.2
Charge pump driving capability
Figure 18 and Figure 19 are showing the charge pump driving capability with different
settings of VDD2 and charge pump configurations.
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013aaa664
10
VLCD
(V)
8
(3)
6
(2)
4
(1)
2
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
IDD(LCD) (mA)
1
(1) VPR[7:0] = 42h.
(2) VPR[7:0] = 85h.
(3) VPR[7:0] = C6h.
Tamb = 30 C; VDD1 = VDD2 = 3.3 V.
Remark: For driving the charge pump safely the VLCD and IDD(LCD) values have to be kept below
the flat part of the respective graph.
Charge pump configuration: VLCD = 3  VDD2.
Fig 18. Charge pump driving capability with VDD2 = 3.3 V
013aaa662
10
VLCD
(V)
8
(3)
6
(2)
4
(1)
2
0
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
IDD(LCD) (mA)
3.5
(1) VPR[7:0] = 42h.
(2) VPR[7:0] = 85h.
(3) VPR[7:0] = C6h.
Tamb = 30 C; VDD1 = VDD2 = 5 V.
Remark: For driving the charge pump safely the VLCD and IDD(LCD) values have to be kept below
the flat part of the respective graph.
a. Charge pump configuration: VLCD = 2  VDD2
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Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
013aaa663
10
VLCD
(V)
8
(3)
6
(2)
4
(1)
2
0
0
0.4
0.8
1.2
1.6
IDD(LCD) (mA)
2
(1) VPR[7:0] = 42h.
(2) VPR[7:0] = 85h.
(3) VPR[7:0] = C6h.
Tamb = 30 C; VDD1 = VDD2 = 5 V.
Remark: For driving the charge pump safely the VLCD and IDD(LCD) values have to be kept below
the flat part of the respective graph.
b. Charge pump configuration: VLCD = 3  VDD2
Fig 19. Charge pump driving capability with VDD2 = 5.0 V
8.4.4 Temperature measurement and temperature compensation of VLCD
8.4.4.1
Temperature readout
The PCF8537 has a built-in temperature sensor which provides an 8 bit digital value,
TD[7:0], of the ambient temperature. This value can be read through the interface (see
Figure 47 on page 56 and Figure 51 on page 59). The actual temperature is determined
from TD[7:0] using Equation 2:
T (°C) = 0.9375  TD  7:0  – 40
(2)
The measurement needs about 5 ms to complete and is repeated periodically as soon as
bit TME is set logic 1 (see Table 9 on page 10). The time between measurements is linked
to the system clock and hence varies with changes in the chosen frame frequency, see
Table 25.
Table 25.
Temperature measurement update rate
Selected frame frequency
Temperature measurement update rate
60 Hz
3.3 s
200 Hz
1s
300 Hz
0.67 s
The temperature sensor can be thought of as analog to digital converter. Like all A/D
converters, jitter will exist on the LSB of the output value. This is also true of the
temperature sensor in the PCF8537. Jitter of the LSB of TD[7:0] may lead to contrast
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Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
stepping of the display due to the VLCD voltage is periodically changing between two
different target voltages. For this reason, a filter has been implemented to ensure that LSB
jitter does not affect the display performance.
TEMPERATURE
MEASUREMENT
BLOCK
TD[7:0]
unfiltered
DIGITAL
TEMPERATURE
FILTER
TD[7:0]
filtered
To the readout register
via I2C-bus and to
the VLCD compensation
block
enabled or disabled
by bit TFE
013aaa642
Fig 20. Temperature measurement block with digital temperature filter
Like any other filtering, the digital temperature filter (see Figure 20) introduces a certain
delay in the measurement of temperature. This behavior is illustrated in Figure 21.
013aaa643
50
T
(°C)
16
DT
(°C)(3)
40
12
30
8
(1)
(2)
20
4
(3)
10
0
-4
160
0
0
40
80
120
t (s)
(1) Environment temperature, T1 (C).
(2) Measured temperature, T2 (C).
(3) Temperature deviation, T = T2  T1.
Fig 21. Temperature measurement delay during ramping up-down of the environment
temperature
This delay may cause undesired effects at start-up when the environment temperature
may be different than the reset value of the PCF8537 which is 20 C. In this case, it takes
up to 30 s until the correct measured temperature value will be available. A control bit,
TFE (see Table 22 on page 16), is implemented to enable or disable the digital
temperature filter. This bit is set logic 0 by default, which means, that the filter is disabled
and the unfiltered environment temperature value is available to calculate the desired
VLCD.
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Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
8.4.4.2
Temperature adjustment of the VLCD
Due to the temperature dependency of the liquid crystal viscosity the LCD controlling
voltage VLCD might have to be adjusted at different temperatures to maintain optimal
contrast. The temperature behavior of the liquid comes from the LCD manufacturer. The
slope has to be set to compensate for the liquid behavior. Internal temperature
compensation may be enabled via bit TCE (see Table 9 on page 10).
The ambient temperature range is split up into four equally sized regions and a different
temperature coefficient can be applied to each. Each coefficient can be selected from a
choice of eight different slopes. Each one of these coefficients may be independently
selected (see Table 26).
Table 26.
Temperature coefficients
SLA to SLD register value
Corresponding slope factor, SFA to SFD (mV/C)
000[1]
0
001
4
010
8
011
16
100
40
101
+4
110
+8
111
+16
[1]
Default value.
The slope factors imply a linear correction, however the implementation is in steps of
30 mV.
TD[7:0]
0h
20h
60h
40h
7Fh
VLCD with temperature
compensation (V)
zero offset
at 20 °C
SFA
-40
SFB
-10
SFC
20
SFD
50
79
Temperature (°C)
013aaa644
Fig 22. Example of segmented temperature coefficients
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Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
The offset voltage is calculated according to Table 27.
Table 27.
Calculation of the VLCD offset voltage
Temperature range
Voffset(LCD) voltage (mV)
T  40 C
V offset  LCD  = 30  SFA + 30  SFB
40 C  T  10 C
V offset  LCD  =  – 10 – T   SFA + 30  SFB
10 C < T  20 C
V offset  LCD  =  20 – T   SFB
20 C < T  50 C
V offset  LCD  =  T – 20   SFC
50 C < T < 80 C
V offset  LCD  =  T – 50   SFD + 30  SFC
80 C 
V offset  LCD  = 30  SFD + 30  SFC
[1]
T[1]
No temperature compensation is possible above 80 C. Above this value, the system maintains the
compensation value from 80 C.
Example: Assumed that Tamb = 8 C; SFB= 16 mV/C:
V offset  LCD  =  20 – –8 x  – 16  = 28   – 16  = – 448mV
Remark: Care must be taken that the ranges of VPR[7:0] and VT[7:0] do not cause
clipping and hence undesired results. The device will not permit overflow or underflow and
will clamp results to either end of the range.
8.4.5 LCD voltage selector
The LCD voltage selector co-ordinates the multiplexing of the LCD in accordance with the
selected LCD drive configuration. The operation of the voltage selector is controlled by the
Set-bias-mode command (see Table 14 on page 12) and the Set-MUX-mode command
(see Table 13 on page 12).
Intermediate LCD biasing voltages are obtained from an internal voltage divider. The
biasing configurations that apply to the preferred modes of operation, together with the
biasing characteristics as functions of VLCD and the resulting discrimination ratios (D), are
given in Table 28.
Discrimination is a term which is defined as the ratio of the one and off RMS voltage
across a segment. It can be thought of as a measurement of contrast.
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Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
Table 28.
LCD drive modes: summary of characteristics
LCD drive
mode
Number of:
Backplanes
Bias levels
LCD bias
configuration
V off  RMS 
----------------------V LCD
V on  RMS 
---------------------V LCD
V on  RMS  [1]
D = ---------------------V off  RMS 
VLCD[2]
static
1
2
static
0
1

Von(RMS)
1:2 multiplex
2
3
1⁄
2
0.354
0.791
2.236
2.828Voff(RMS)
1:2 multiplex
2
4
1⁄
3
0.333
0.745
2.236
3.0Voff(RMS)
5
1⁄
4
0.395
0.729
1.845
2.529Voff(RMS)
4
3
1⁄
2
0.433
0.661
1.527
2.309Voff(RMS)
4
4
1⁄
3
0.333
0.577
1.732
3.0Voff(RMS)
5
1⁄
4
0.331
0.545
1.646
3.024Voff(RMS)
3
1⁄
2
0.456
0.612
1.341
2.191Voff(RMS)
1:2
multiplex[3]
1:4
multiplex[3]
1:4 multiplex
1:4
multiplex[3]
1:6
multiplex[3]
2
4
6
1:6 multiplex
6
4
1⁄
3
0.333
0.509
1.527
3.0Voff(RMS)
1:6 multiplex
6
5
1⁄
4
0.306
0.467
1.527
3.266Voff(RMS)
1:8 multiplex[3]
8
3
1⁄
2
0.467
0.586
1.254
2.138Voff(RMS)
4
1⁄
3
0.333
0.471
1.414
3.0Voff(RMS)
5
1⁄
4
0.293
0.424
1.447
3.411Voff(RMS)
1:8
multiplex[3]
1:8 multiplex
8
8
[1]
Determined from Equation 5.
[2]
Determined from Equation 4.
[3]
In these examples, the discrimination factor and hence the contrast ratios are smaller. The advantage of these LCD drive modes is a
power saving from a reduction of the LCD voltage VLCD.
A practical value for VLCD is determined by equating Voff(RMS) with a defined LCD
threshold voltage (Vth), typically when the LCD exhibits approximately 10 % contrast. In
the static drive mode, a suitable choice is VLCD > 3Vth.
1
Bias is calculated by ------------- , where the values for a are
1+a
a = 1 for 1⁄2 bias
a = 2 for 1⁄3 bias
a = 3 for 1⁄4 bias
The RMS on-state voltage (Von(RMS)) for the LCD is calculated with Equation 3
V on  RMS  =
V LCD
a 2 + 2a + n
-----------------------------2
n  1 + a
(3)
where VLCD is the resultant voltage at the LCD segment and where the values for n are
n = 1 for static mode
n = 2 for 1:2 multiplex
n = 4 for 1:4 multiplex
n = 6 for 1:6 multiplex
n = 8 for 1:8 multiplex
The RMS off-state voltage (Voff(RMS)) for the LCD is calculated with Equation 4:
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Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
V off  RMS  =
V LCD
a 2 – 2a + n
-----------------------------2
n  1 + a
(4)
Discrimination is the ratio of Von(RMS) to Voff(RMS) and is determined from Equation 5:
V on  RMS 
--------------------- =
V off  RMS 
2
a + 1 + n – 1
-------------------------------------------2
a – 1 + n – 1
(5)
It should be noted that VLCD is sometimes referred as the LCD operating voltage.
8.4.5.1
Electro-optical performance
Suitable values for Von(RMS) and Voff(RMS) are dependent on the LCD liquid used. The
RMS voltage, at which a pixel will be switched on or off, determine the transmissibility of
the pixel.
For any given liquid, there are two threshold values defined. One point is at 10 % relative
transmission (at Vth(off)) and the other at 90 % relative transmission (at Vth(on)), see
Figure 23. For a good contrast performance, the following rules should be followed:
V on  RMS   V th  on 
(6)
V off  RMS   V th  off 
(7)
Von(RMS) and Voff(RMS) are properties of the display driver and are affected by the selection
of a (see Equation 3), n (see Equation 5), and the VLCD voltage.
Vth(off) and Vth(on) are properties of the LCD liquid and can be provided by the module
manufacturer. Vth(off) is sometimes just named Vth. Vth(on) is sometimes named saturation
voltage Vsat.
It is important to match the module properties to those of the driver in order to achieve
optimum performance.
100 %
Relative Transmission
90 %
10 %
Vth(off)
OFF
SEGMENT
Vth(on)
GREY
SEGMENT
VRMS [V]
ON
SEGMENT
013aaa494
Fig 23. Electro-optical characteristic: relative transmission curve of the liquid
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Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
8.4.6 LCD drive mode waveforms
8.4.6.1
Static drive mode
The static LCD drive mode is used when a single backplane is provided in the LCD.
Tfr
LCD segments
VLCD
BP0
VSS
state 1
(on)
VLCD
state 2
(off)
Sn
VSS
VLCD
Sn+1
VSS
(a) Waveforms at driver.
VLCD
state 1
0V
−VLCD
VLCD
state 2
0V
−VLCD
(b) Resultant waveforms
at LCD segment.
013aaa207
Vstate1(t) = VSn(t)  VBP0(t).
Vstate2(t) = V(Sn + 1)(t)  VBP0(t).
Von(RMS)(t) = VLCD.
Voff(RMS)(t) = 0 V.
Fig 24. Static drive mode waveforms (line inversion mode)
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Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
8.4.6.2
1:2 multiplex drive mode
When two backplanes are provided in the LCD, the 1:2 multiplex mode applies. The
PCF8537 allows the use of 1⁄2 bias or 1⁄3 bias in this mode as shown in Figure 25 and
Figure 26.
Tfr
VLCD
BP0
LCD segments
VLCD/2
VSS
state 1
VLCD
BP1
state 2
VLCD/2
VSS
VLCD
Sn
VSS
VLCD
Sn+1
VSS
(a) Waveforms at driver.
VLCD
VLCD/2
state 1
0V
−VLCD/2
−VLCD
VLCD
VLCD/2
state 2
0V
−VLCD/2
−VLCD
(b) Resultant waveforms
at LCD segment.
013aaa208
Vstate1(t) = VSn(t)  VBP0(t).
Vstate2(t) = VSn(t)  VBP1(t).
Von(RMS)(t) = 0.791VLCD.
Voff(RMS)(t) = 0.354VLCD.
Fig 25. Waveforms for the 1:2 multiplex drive mode with 1⁄2 bias (line inversion mode)
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PCF8537
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Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
Tfr
BP0
BP1
Sn
Sn+1
VLCD
2VLCD/3
LCD segments
VLCD/3
VSS
state 1
VLCD
2VLCD/3
state 2
VLCD/3
VSS
VLCD
2VLCD/3
VLCD/3
VSS
VLCD
2VLCD/3
VLCD/3
VSS
(a) Waveforms at driver.
VLCD
2VLCD/3
VLCD/3
state 1
0V
−VLCD/3
−2VLCD/3
−VLCD
VLCD
2VLCD/3
VLCD/3
state 2
0V
−VLCD/3
−2VLCD/3
−VLCD
(b) Resultant waveforms
at LCD segment.
013aaa209
Vstate1(t) = VSn(t)  VBP0(t).
Vstate2(t) = VSn(t)  VBP1(t).
Von(RMS)(t) = 0.745VLCD.
Voff(RMS)(t) = 0.333VLCD.
Fig 26. Waveforms for the 1:2 multiplex drive mode with 1⁄3 bias (line inversion mode)
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PCF8537
NXP Semiconductors
Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
8.4.6.3
1:4 multiplex drive mode
When four backplanes are provided in the LCD, the 1:4 multiplex drive mode applies, as
shown in Figure 27.
Tfr
BP0
VLCD
2VLCD/3
VLCD/3
VSS
BP1
VLCD
2VLCD/3
VLCD/3
VSS
BP2
VLCD
2VLCD/3
VLCD/3
VSS
BP3
VLCD
2VLCD/3
VLCD/3
VSS
Sn
VLCD
2VLCD/3
VLCD/3
VSS
Sn+1
VLCD
2VLCD/3
VLCD/3
VSS
Sn+2
VLCD
2VLCD/3
VLCD/3
VSS
Sn+3
VLCD
2VLCD/3
VLCD/3
VSS
state 1
VLCD
2VLCD/3
VLCD/3
0V
-VLCD/3
-2VLCD/3
-VLCD
state 2
VLCD
2VLCD/3
VLCD/3
0V
-VLCD/3
-2VLCD/3
-VLCD
LCD segments
state 1
state 2
(a) Waveforms at driver.
(b) Resultant waveforms
at LCD segment.
013aaa211
Vstate1(t) = VSn(t)  VBP0(t).
Vstate2(t) = VSn(t)  VBP1(t).
Von(RMS)(t) = 0.577VLCD.
Voff(RMS)(t) = 0.333VLCD.
Fig 27. Waveforms for the 1:4 multiplex drive mode with 1⁄3 bias (line inversion mode)
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Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
8.4.6.4
1:6 multiplex drive mode
When six backplanes are provided in the LCD, the 1:6 multiplex drive mode applies. The
PCF8537 allows the use of 1⁄3 bias or 1⁄4 bias in this mode as shown in Figure 28 and
Figure 29.
Tfr
BP0
VLCD
2VLCD / 3
VLCD / 3
VSS
BP1
VLCD
2VLCD / 3
VLCD / 3
VSS
BP2
VLCD
2VLCD / 3
VLCD / 3
VSS
BP3
VLCD
2VLCD / 3
VLCD / 3
VSS
BP4
VLCD
2VLCD / 3
VLCD / 3
VSS
BP5
VLCD
2VLCD / 3
VLCD / 3
VSS
Sn
VLCD
2VLCD / 3
VLCD / 3
VSS
Sn + 1
VLCD
2VLCD / 3
VLCD / 3
VSS
LCD segments
state 1
state 2
(a) Waveforms at driver
VLCD
2VLCD / 3
state 1
VLCD / 3
VSS
-VLCD / 3
-2VLCD / 3
-VLCD
state 2
VLCD
2VLCD / 3
VLCD / 3
VSS
-VLCD / 3
-2VLCD / 3
-VLCD
(b) Resultant waveforms at LCD segment
001aal399
Vstate1(t) = VSn(t)  VBP0(t). Vstate2(t) = VSn(t)  VBP1(t).
Von(RMS)(t) = 0.509VLCD. Voff(RMS)(t) = 0.333VLCD.
Fig 28. Waveforms for 1:6 multiplex drive mode with 1⁄3 bias (line inversion mode)
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Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
Tfr
LCD segments
VLCD
3VLCD / 4
state 1
state 2
BP0
VLCD / 4
VSS
VLCD
3VLCD / 4
BP1
VLCD / 4
VSS
VLCD
3VLCD / 4
BP2
VLCD / 4
VSS
VLCD
3VLCD / 4
BP3
VLCD / 4
VSS
VLCD
3VLCD / 4
BP4
VLCD / 4
VSS
VLCD
3VLCD / 4
BP5
VLCD / 4
VSS
VLCD
Sn
VLCD / 2
VSS
VLCD
Sn + 1
VLCD / 2
VSS
(a) Waveforms at driver
VLCD
3VLCD / 4
state 1
VLCD / 4
VSS
-VLCD / 4
-3VLCD / 4
-VLCD
VLCD
3VLCD / 4
VLCD / 2
VLCD / 4
VSS
state 2
-VLCD / 4
-VLCD / 2
-3VLCD / 4
-VLCD
(b) Resultant waveforms at LCD segment
001aal400
Vstate1(t) = VSn(t)  VBP0(t). Vstate2(t) = VSn(t)  VBP1(t).
Von(RMS)(t) = 0.467VLCD. Voff(RMS)(t) = 0.306VLCD.
Fig 29. Waveforms for 1:6 multiplex drive mode with 1⁄4 bias (line inversion mode)
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Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
8.4.6.5
VLCD
3VLCD / 4
1:8 multiplex drive mode
Tfr
LCD segments
state 1
state 2
BP0
VLCD / 4
VSS
VLCD
3VLCD / 4
BP1
VLCD / 4
VSS
VLCD
3VLCD / 4
BP2
VLCD / 4
VSS
VLCD
3VLCD / 4
BP3
VLCD / 4
VSS
VLCD
3VLCD / 4
BP4
3LCD / 4
VSS
VLCD
3VLCD / 4
BP5
VLCD / 4
VSS
VLCD
3VLCD / 4
BP6
VLCD / 4
VSS
VLCD
3VLCD / 4
BP7
VLCD / 4
VSS
VLCD
Sn
VLCD / 2
VSS
VLCD
Sn + 1
VLCD / 2
VSS
(a) Waveforms at driver
VLCD
3VLCD / 4
state 1
VLCD / 4
VSS
-VLCD / 4
-3VLCD / 4
-VLCD
state 2
VLCD
3VLCD / 4
VLCD / 2
VLCD / 4
VSS
-VLCD / 4
-VLCD / 2
-3VLCD / 4
-VLCD
(b) Resultant waveforms at LCD segment
001aal398
Vstate1(t) = VSn(t)  VBP0(t). Vstate2(t) = VSn(t)  VBP1(t). Von(RMS)(t) = 0.424VLCD. Voff(RMS)(t) = 0.293VLCD.
Fig 30. Waveforms for 1:8 multiplex drive mode with 1⁄4 bias (line inversion mode)
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Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
VLCD
3/4 VLCD
Tfr
frame n
Tfr
frame n+1
LCD segments
state 1
BP0
state 2
1/4 VLCD
VSS
VLCD
3/4 VLCD
BP1
1/4 VLCD
VSS
VLCD
3/4 VLCD
BP2
1/4 VLCD
VSS
VLCD
3/4 VLCD
BP3
1/4 VLCD
VSS
VLCD
3/4 VLCD
BP4
1/4 VLCD
VSS
VLCD
3/4 VLCD
BP5
1/4 VLCD
VSS
VLCD
3/4 VLCD
BP6
1/4 VLCD
VSS
VLCD
3/4 VLCD
BP7
1/4 VLCD
VSS
VLCD
Sn
1/2 VLCD
VSS
VLCD
Sn + 1
1/2 VLCD
VSS
(a) Waveforms at driver
state 1
VLCD
3/4 VLCD
1/2 VLCD
1/4 VLCD
VSS
1/4 VLCD
1/2 VLCD
3/4 VLCD
VLCD
state 2
VLCD
3/4 VLCD
1/2 VLCD
1/4 VLCD
VSS
1/4 VLCD
1/2 VLCD
3/4 VLCD
VLCD
(b) Resultant waveforms at LCD segment
001aam359
Vstate1(t) = VSn(t)  VBP0(t). Vstate2(t) = VSn(t)  VBP1(t). Von(RMS)(t) = 0.424VLCD. Voff(RMS)(t) = 0.293VLCD.
Fig 31. Waveforms for 1:8 multiplex drive mode with 1⁄4 bias (frame inversion mode)
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Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
8.5 Backplane and segment outputs
8.5.1 Backplane outputs
The LCD drive section includes eight backplane outputs: BP0 to BP7. The backplane
output signals are generated based on the selected LCD multiplex drive mode.
Table 29 describes which outputs are active for each of the multiplex drive modes and
what signal is generated.
Table 29.
Mapping of output pins and corresponding signals with respect to driving mode
MUX
mode
Output pin
BP0
BP1
BP2
BP3
BP4
BP5
S45/BP6 S44/BP7
Signal
1:8
BP0
BP1
BP2
BP3
BP4
BP5
BP6
BP7
1:6
BP0
BP1
BP2
BP3
BP4
BP5
S45
S44
1:4
BP0
BP1
BP2
BP3
BP0[1]
BP1[1]
BP2[1]
BP3[1]
1:2
BP0
BP1
BP0[1]
BP1[1]
BP0[1]
BP1[1]
BP0[1]
BP1[1]
static
BP0
BP0[1]
BP0[1]
BP0[1]
BP0[1]
BP0[1]
BP0[1]
BP0[1]
[1]
8.5.1.1
These pins may optionally or alternatively be connected to the display to improve drive strength. Connect
only with the corresponding output pin carrying the same signal. If not required, they can be left open
circuit.
1:8 multiplex drive mode
In 1:8 multiplex drive mode, BP0 to BP7 must be connected directly to the LCD.
8.5.1.2
1:6 multiplex drive mode
1:6 multiplex mode is a special case. In this mode BP0 to BP5 must be connected directly
to the display as back plane signals and S44 and S45 must be connected to the display as
segment signals.
8.5.1.3
1:4 multiplex drive mode
In the 1:4 multiplex drive mode, BP0 to BP3 must be connected directly to the LCD.
The unused BPs may be left open-circuit. Optionally they may also be connected to the
display to increase drive strength.
•
•
•
•
8.5.1.4
BP0 is repeated on BP4
BP1 is repeated on BP5
BP2 is repeated on BP6
BP3 is repeated on BP7
1:2 multiplex drive mode
In the 1:2 multiplex drive mode, BP0 and BP1 must be connected directly to the LCD.
The unused BPs may be left open-circuit. Optionally they may also be connected to the
display to increase drive strength.
• BP0 is repeated on BP2, BP4, and BP6
• BP1 is repeated on BP3, BP5, and BP7
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8.5.1.5
Static drive mode
In the static drive mode, BP0 must be connected directly to the LCD.
In the static drive mode, the same signal is carried by all eight backplane outputs and they
can be connected in parallel for very high drive requirements.
• BP0 is repeated on BP1, BP2, BP3, BP4, BP5, BP6, and BP7
8.5.2 Segment outputs
The LCD drive section includes up to 46 segment outputs. Segments S0 to S43 are
always segment outputs. There are also two more segment outputs which become active
in 1:6 multiplex mode. These are S45/BP6 and S44/BP7 and must also be connected
directly to the display.
The segment output signals are generated based on the multiplexed backplane signals
and with data resident in the display register. When less than 46 segment outputs are
required, the unused segment outputs must be left open-circuit.
8.5.2.1
Static, 1:8, 1:4, 1:2 multiplex drive mode
In these drive modes, segments S0 to S43 must be connected to the display.
8.5.2.2
1:6 multiplex drive mode
In this drive mode, segments S0 to S43, S44, and S45 must be connected to the display.
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8.6 Display controller
The display controller executes the commands identified by the command decoder. It
contains the status registers of the PCF8537 and co-ordinates their effects. The controller
is also responsible for loading display data into the display RAM as required by the filling
order.
8.7 Display register
The display register holds the display data while the corresponding multiplex signals are
generated.
8.8 Display RAM
The display RAM stores LCD data. Depending on the multiplex drive mode, the
arrangement of the RAM is changed.
•
•
•
•
•
multiplex drive mode 1:8: RAM is 44  8 bit
multiplex drive mode 1:6: RAM is 46  6 bit
multiplex drive mode 1:4: RAM is 44  4 bit arranged in two banks
multiplex drive mode 1:2: RAM is 44  2 bit arranged in two banks
static drive mode: RAM is 44  1 bit arranged in two banks
A logic 1 in the RAM bit map indicates the on-state of the corresponding LCD element;
similarly, a logic 0 indicates the off-state.
There is a one-to-one correspondence between
• the bits in the RAM bitmap and the LCD elements,
• the RAM columns and the segment outputs,
• the RAM rows and the backplane outputs.
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Display RAM addresses (columns)/segment outputs (S)
Multiplex drive mode 1:8
S0
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
S38 S39 S40 S41 S42 S43
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
S38 S39 S40 S41 S42 S43 S44 S45
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
S38 S39 S40 S41 S42 S43
row0/BP0
row1/BP1
row2/BP2
row3/BP3
row4/BP4
row5/BP5
row6/BP6
row7/BP7
Multiplex drive mode 1:6
Display RAM bits (rows)backplane outputs (BP)
S0
S1
S2
row0/BP0
row1/BP1
row2/BP2
row3/BP3
row4/BP4
row5/BP5
Multiplex drive mode 1:4
S0
S1
S2
row0/BP0
row1/BP1
row2/BP2
row3/BP3
row4/BP0
row5/BP1
row6/BP2
row7/BP3
bank 0
bank 1
Multiplex drive mode 1:2
S0
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
S38 S39 S40 S41 S42 S43
row0/BP0
row1/BP1
row2
row3
row4/BP0
row5/BP1
row6
row7
bank 0
bank 1
Static drive mode
S0
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
S38 S39 S40 S41 S42 S43
bank 0
row0/BP0
row1
row2
row3
row4/BP1
row5
row6
row7
bank 1
013aaa645
The display RAM bitmap shows the direct relationship between the display RAM column and the
segment outputs; and between the bits in a RAM row and the backplane outputs.
Fig 32. Display RAM bitmap
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The display RAM bit map, Figure 32, shows row 0 to row 7 which correspond with the
backplane outputs BP0 to BP7, and column 0 to column 45 which correspond with the
segment outputs S0 to S45. In multiplexed LCD applications, the data of each row of the
display RAM is time-multiplexed with the corresponding backplane (row 0 with BP0, row 1
with BP1, and so on).
When display data is transmitted to the PCF8537, the display bytes received are stored in
the display RAM in accordance with the selected LCD multiplex drive mode. The data is
stored as it arrives. Depending on the current multiplex drive mode, data is stored
singularly, in pairs, quadruples, sextuples or bytes.
8.8.1 Data pointer
The addressing mechanism for the display RAM is realized using the data pointer. This
allows the loading of an individual display data byte, or a series of display data bytes, into
any location of the display RAM. The sequence commences with the initialization of the
data pointer by the Load-data-pointer command (see Table 15 on page 12).
Following this command, an arriving data byte is stored starting at the display RAM
address indicated by the data pointer.
After each byte stored, the data pointer is automatically incremented in accordance with
the chosen LCD multiplex drive mode configuration:
•
•
•
•
•
by eight (static drive mode)
by four (1:2 multiplex drive mode)
by two (1:4 multiplex drive mode)
by one or two (1:6 multiplex drive mode), see Figure 37 on page 49
by one (1:8 multiplex drive mode)
When the address counter reaches the end of the RAM row, it stops incrementing after the
last byte is transmitted. Redundant bits of the last byte transmitted are discarded.
Additional bytes, sent after the end of the RAM is reached, will be discarded too. The data
pointer does not wrap around to the beginning. To send new RAM data, the data pointer
must be reset.
If an I2C-bus or SPI-bus data access is terminated early, then the state of the data pointer
is unknown. The data pointer must then be re-written before further RAM accesses.
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8.8.2 RAM filling in static drive mode
In the static drive mode the eight transmitted data bits are placed in eight successive
display RAM columns in row 0 (see Figure 33).
columns
display RAM columns/segment outputs (S)
rows
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
39 40 41 42 43
display RAM rows/
0 b7 b6 b5 b4 b3 b2 b1 b0
backplane outputs
(BP)
b7 b6 b5 b4 b3 b2 b1 b0
MSB
LSB
transmitted data byte
013aaa646
Fig 33. Display RAM filling order in static drive mode
In order to fill the whole RAM row, 6 bytes must be sent to the PCF8537, but the last 4 bits
from the last byte are discarded (see Figure 34).
data pointer
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43
7
0 a7 a6 a5 a4 a3 a2 a1 a0
e7 e6 e5 e4 e3 e2 e1 e0 f7 f6 f5 f4 f3 f2 f1 f0
discarded
display RAM
013aaa647
Fig 34. Discarded bits at the end of data transmission
When bit IBS is set to bank 1 (see Table 18 on page 14), then data is stored in row 4.
8.8.3 RAM filling in 1:2 multiplex drive mode
In the 1:2 multiplex drive mode the eight transmitted data bits are placed in four
successive display RAM columns (see Figure 35). In order to fill the whole two RAM rows
11 bytes need to be sent to the PCF8537.
columns
display RAM columns/segment outputs (S)
rows
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
39 40 41 42 43
display RAM rows/ 0 b7 b5 b3 b1
backplane outputs 1 b6 b4 b2 b0
(BP)
LSB
b7 b6 b5 b4 b3 b2 b1 b0
MSB
transmitted data byte
013aaa648
Fig 35. Display RAM filling order in 1:2 multiplex drive mode
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When bit IBS is set to bank 1 (see Table 18 on page 14), then data is stored in row 4 and
row 5.
8.8.4 RAM filling in 1:4 multiplex drive mode
In the 1:4 multiplex drive mode the eight transmitted data bits are placed in two
successive display RAM columns of four rows (see Figure 36). In order to fill the whole
four RAM rows 22 bytes need to be sent to the PCF8537.
columns
display RAM columns/segment outputs (S)
0 1 2
0 b7 b3
1 b6 b2
rows
3
4
5
6
7
39 40 41 42 43
2 b5 b1
display RAM rows/
backplane outputs
(BP)
3 b4 b0
b7 b6 b5 b4 b3 b2 b1 b0
MSB
LSB
transmitted data byte
013aaa649
Fig 36. Display RAM filling order in 1:4 multiplex drive mode
When bit IBS is set to bank 1 (see Table 18 on page 14), then data is stored in rows 4 to
row 7.
8.8.5 RAM filling in 1:6 multiplex drive mode
In the 1:6 multiplex drive mode the RAM is organized in six rows and 46 columns. The
eight transmitted data bits are placed in such a way, that a column is filled up (see
Figure 37). The remaining bits are wrapped up into the next column. In order to fill the
whole RAM addresses 35 bytes need to be sent to the PCF8537, however the four least
significant bits of the 35th byte are discarded.
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columns
display RAM columns/segment outputs (S)
data pointer
incrementation
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
41 42 43 44 45
0 a7 a1 b3 c5
rows
display RAM rows/
backplane outputs
(BP)
h3
1 a6 a0 b2 c4
h2
2 a5 b7 b1 c3
h7 h1
3 a4 b6 b0 c2
h6 h0
4 a3 b5 c7 c1
h5
5 a2 b4 c6 c0
h4
discarded
MSB
LSB
a7 a6 a5 a4 a3 a2 a1 a0
b7 b6 b5 b4 b3 b2 b1 b0
c7 c6 c5 c4 c3 c2 c1 c0
transmitted data bytes
013aaa650
Fig 37. Display RAM filling order in 1:6 multiplex drive mode
When data transfer is initiated, then the MSB of the first byte will always be placed in
row 0. Data must be transferred contiguously to achieve RAM filling as described in
Figure 37.
8.8.6 RAM filling in 1:8 multiplex drive mode
In the 1:8 multiplex drive mode the eight transmitted data bits are placed into eight rows of
one display RAM column (see Figure 38). In order to fill the whole RAM addresses
44 bytes need to be sent to the PCF8537.
columns
transmitted data byte
display RAM columns/segment outputs (S)
MSB
LSB
b7 b6 b5 b4 b3 b2 b1 b0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
39 40 41 42 43
0 b7
1 b6
rows
2 b5
display RAM rows/
backplane outputs
(BP)
3 b4
4 b3
5 b2
6 b1
7 b0
013aaa651
Fig 38. Display RAM filling order in 1:8 multiplex drive mode
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8.9 Bank selection
The PCF8537 includes a RAM bank switching feature in the static, 1:2, and 1:4 multiplex
drive modes. A bank can be thought of as a collection of RAM rows. The RAM bank
switching gives the provision for preparing display information in an alternative bank and
to be able to switch to it once it is complete.
There are two banks; bank 0 and bank 1. Figure 32 on page 45 shows the location of
these banks relative to the RAM map. Input and output banks can be set independently
from one another with the Bank-select command (see Table 18 on page 14). Figure 39
shows the concept.
IBS CONTROLS THE INPUT
DATA PATH
OBS CONTROLS THE OUTPUT
DATA PATH
BANK 0
MICROCONTROLLER
RAM
DISPLAY
BANK 1
013aaa423
Fig 39. Bank selection
In Figure 40 an example is shown for 1:4 multiplex drive mode where the displayed data is
read from the first four rows of the memory (bank 0), while the transmitted data is stored in
the second four rows of the memory (bank 1).
columns
display RAM columns/segment outputs (S)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
39 40 41 42 43
output RAM bank
0
1
rows
to the LCD
2
display RAM rows/
backplane outputs
(BP)
3
4
5
to the RAM
6
7
input RAM bank
013aaa652
Fig 40. Example of the Bank-select command with multiplex drive mode 1:4
8.9.1 Input bank selection
The IBS (input bank selection) bit of the Bank-select command (see Table 18) controls
where display data is loaded into the display RAM.
The input bank selection works independently of output bank selection.
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8.9.2 Output bank selection
The OBS bit of the Bank-select command (see Table 18 on page 14) controls from which
bank display data is taken,
The output bank selection works independently of input bank selection.
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9. Bus interfaces
9.1 Control byte
After initiating the communication over the bus and sending the slave address (I2C-bus,
see Section 9.2) or subaddress (SPI-bus, see Section 9.3), a control byte follows. The
purpose of this byte is to indicate both, the content for the following data bytes (RAM or
command) and to indicate that more control bytes will follow.
Typical sequences could be:
• Slave address/subaddress - control byte - command byte - command byte - command
byte - end
• Slave address/subaddress - control byte - RAM byte - RAM byte - RAM byte - end
• Slave address/subaddress - control byte - command byte - control byte - RAM byte end
In this way, it is possible to send a mixture of RAM and command data in one access or
alternatively, to send just one type of data in one access.
Table 30.
Control byte description
Bit
Symbol
7
CO
6
5 to 0
Binary value
Description
continue bit
0
last control byte
1
control bytes continue
RS
register selection
0
command register
1
data register
-
not relevant
MSB
7
6
5
CO RS
4
3
2
1
LSB
0
not relevant
mgl753
Fig 41. Control byte format
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9.2 I2C-bus interface characteristics (PCF8537AH)
The I2C-bus is for bidirectional, two-line communication between different ICs or modules.
The two lines are a Serial DAta line (SDA) and a Serial CLock line (SCL). Both lines must
be connected to a positive supply via a pull-up resistor when connected to the output
stages of a device. Data transfer may be initiated only when the bus is not busy.
9.2.1 Bit transfer
One data bit is transferred during each clock pulse. The data on the SDA line must remain
stable during the HIGH period of the clock pulse as changes in the data line at this time
will be interpreted as a control signal (see Figure 42).
SDA
SCL
data line
stable;
data valid
change
of data
allowed
mba607
Fig 42. Bit transfer
9.2.2 START and STOP conditions
Both data and clock lines remain HIGH when the bus is not busy.
A HIGH-to-LOW change of the data line, while the clock is HIGH is defined as the START
condition (S).
A LOW-to-HIGH change of the data line while the clock is HIGH is defined as the STOP
condition (P).
The START and STOP conditions are shown in Figure 43.
SDA
SDA
SCL
SCL
S
P
START condition
STOP condition
mbc622
Fig 43. Definition of START and STOP conditions
9.2.3 System configuration
A device generating a message is a transmitter, a device receiving a message is the
receiver. The device that controls the message is the master and the devices which are
controlled by the master are the slaves. The system configuration is shown in Figure 44.
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MASTER
TRANSMITTER/
RECEIVER
SLAVE
TRANSMITTER/
RECEIVER
SLAVE
RECEIVER
MASTER
TRANSMITTER/
RECEIVER
MASTER
TRANSMITTER
SDA
SCL
mga807
Fig 44. System configuration
9.2.4 Acknowledge
The number of data bytes transferred between the START and STOP conditions from
transmitter to receiver is unlimited. Each byte of 8 bits is followed by an acknowledge
cycle.
• A slave receiver which is addressed must generate an acknowledge after the
reception of each byte.
• Also a master receiver must generate an acknowledge after the reception of each
byte that has been clocked out of the slave transmitter.
• The device that acknowledges must pull-down the SDA line during the acknowledge
clock pulse, so that the SDA line is stable LOW during the HIGH period of the
acknowledge related clock pulse (set-up and hold times must be considered).
• A master receiver must signal an end of data to the transmitter by not generating an
acknowledge on the last byte that has been clocked out of the slave. In this event, the
transmitter must leave the data line HIGH to enable the master to generate a STOP
condition.
Acknowledgement on the I2C-bus is shown in Figure 45.
data output
by transmitter
not acknowledge
data output
by receiver
acknowledge
SCL from
master
1
2
8
9
S
START
condition
clock pulse for
acknowledgement
mbc602
Fig 45. Acknowledgement on the I2C-bus
9.2.5 I2C-bus controller
The PCF8537AH acts as an I2C-bus slave receiver. It does not initiate I2C-bus transfers or
transmit data to an I2C-bus master receiver. The only data output from PCF8537AH are
the acknowledge signals and the temperature readout byte of the selected device.
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9.2.6 Input filters
To enhance noise immunity in electrically adverse environments, RC low-pass filters are
provided on the SDA and SCL lines.
9.2.7 I2C-bus slave address
The device selection depends on the I2C-bus slave address.
Two different I2C-bus slave addresses can be used to address the PCF8537AH (see
Table 31).
Table 31.
I2C slave address byte
Slave address
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
MSB
0
0
LSB
1
1
1
0
0
A0
R/W
Bit 1 of the slave address is defined by connecting the input A0 to either VSS (logic 0) or
VDD (logic 1). Therefore, two instances of PCF8537AH can be distinguished on the same
I2C-bus.
The least significant bit of the slave address byte is bit R/W (see Table 32).
Table 32.
R/W bit description
Symbol
Value
R/W
[1]
Description
data read or write selection
0
write data
1
read data[1]
Only used for temperature readout from PCF8537AH (see Table 20 on page 15).
9.2.8 I2C-bus protocol
The I2C-bus protocol is shown in Figure 46. The sequence is initiated with a START
condition (S) from the I2C-bus master which is followed by one of the two PCF8537AH
slave addresses available. All PCF8537AH’s with the corresponding A0 level
acknowledge in parallel to the slave address, but all PCF8537AH with an alternative A0
level ignore the whole I2C-bus transfer.
After acknowledgement, a control byte follows (see Section 9.1 on page 52).
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R/W = 0
slave address
control byte
S 0 1 1 1 0 0 A 0 A C R
O S
0
RAM/command byte
L
S P
B
M
A S
B
EXAMPLES
a) transmit two bytes of RAM data
S 0 1 1 1 0 0 A 0 A 0 1
0
A
RAM DATA
A
A
COMMAND
A 0 0
A
COMMAND
A P
COMMAND
A 0 1
A
RAM DATA
A
RAM DATA
A P
b) transmit two command bytes
S 0 1 1 1 0 0
A
0 A 1 0
0
c) transmit one command byte and two RAM date bytes
S 0 1 1 1 0 0
A
0 A 1 0
0
A
RAM DATA
A P
013aaa653
Fig 46. I2C-bus protocol, write mode
The display bytes are stored in the display RAM at the address specified by the data
pointer.
The acknowledgement after each byte is made only by the addressed PCF8537AH. After
the last display byte, the I2C-bus master issues a STOP condition (P). Alternatively a
START may be issued to RESTART an I2C-bus access.
9.2.9 Data read
If a temperature readout (byte TD[7:0]) is made, the R/W bit must be logic 1 and then the
next data byte following is provided by the PCF8537AH as shown in Figure 47.
R/W = 1
slave address
S 0 1 1 1 0 0
temperature
readout byte
M
A
1 A S
0
B
acknowledge
from PCF8537AH
L
S A P
B
acknowledge
from master
013aaa677
Fig 47. I2C-bus protocol, read mode
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9.3 SPI-bus interface (PCF8537BH)
Data transfer to the device is made via a three-line SPI-bus (see Table 30). The SPI-bus is
reset whenever the chip enable pin CE is inactive.
Table 33.
Pin
Serial interface
Function
Description
LOW[1]
CE
chip enable input; active
SCL
serial clock input
when HIGH, the interface is reset;
-
SDIO
serial data input output
input data is sampled on the rising edge of SCL;
data is output on the falling edge of SCL
[1]
The chip enable must not be wired permanently LOW.
9.3.1 Data transmission
The chip enable signal is used to identify the transmitted data. Each data transfer is a
byte, with the Most Significant Bit (MSB) sent first.
The transmission is controlled by the active LOW chip enable signal CE. The first byte
transmitted is the subaddress byte.
data bus
SUBADDRESS
DATA
DATA
DATA
CE
013aaa464
Fig 48. Data transfer overview
The subaddress byte opens the communication with a read/write bit and a subaddress.
The subaddress is used to identify multiple devices on one SPI-bus.
Table 34.
Subaddress byte definition
Bit
Symbol
7
R/W
Binary value
Description
data read or write selection
0
write data
1
read data[1]
6 to 5
SA[1:0]
01
subaddress; other codes will cause the device
to ignore data transfer
4 to 0
-
-
unused
[1]
Only used for temperature readout from PCF8537BH (see Table 20 on page 15).
After the subaddress byte, a control byte follows (see Section 9.1 on page 52).
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R/W = 0
subaddress
control byte
RAM/command byte
0 0 1
L
S
B
M
S
B
C R
O S
EXAMPLES
a) transmit two bytes of display RAM data
0 1
0 0 1
RAM DATA
RAM DATA
b) transmit two command bytes
0 0 1
1 0
COMMAND
0 0
COMMAND
0 1
RAM DATA
c) transmit one command byte and two display RAM date bytes
0 0 1
1 0
COMMAND
RAM DATA
013aaa656
Data transfers are terminated by de-asserting CE (set CE to logic 1)
Fig 49. SPI-bus write example
R/W
b7
0
SA
b6
0
unused
b5
1
b4
0
b3
0
b2
0
multiplex drive mode = 1:8 M[2:0] = 111
command byte
b1
0
b0
0
b7
0
b6
0
b5
0
b4
0
b3
0
b2
0
b1
0
b0
0
b7
0
b6
0
b5
0
b4
0
b3
0
b2
1
b1
1
b0
1
SCL
SDIO
CE
013aaa657
In this example, the multiplex mode is set to 1:8. The transfer is terminated by CE returning to logic 1. After the last bit is
transmitted, the state of the SDIO line is not important.
Fig 50. SPI-bus write example
9.3.2 Data read
The temperature readout data byte TD[7:0] can be read from the PCF8537BH.
A readout is initiated by sending the subaddress byte with the R/W bit set high. The
transmission is controlled by the active LOW chip enable signal CE.
After the last bit of the subaddress byte is transmitted, the PCF8537BH will immediately
start to drive the SDIO line. It is only necessary to read the values once, however since
the update of the register is asynchronous to the interface clock, it is recommended to
read the register twice and check for a stable value.
The readout is terminated by asserting CE. At this time, the SDIO bus is released. It is
important that the bus is not left floating and that the microcontroller then takes over
driving of the bus.
PCF8537
Product data sheet
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PCF8537
NXP Semiconductors
Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
R/W
b7
1
unused
SA
b6
0
b5
1
b4
0
b3
0
b2
0
temperature data 11BCD
temperature data 11BCD
b1
0
b0
0
b7
0
b6
0
b5
0
b4
1
b3
0
b2
0
b1
0
b0
1
b7
0
b6
0
b5
0
b4
1
b3
0
b2
0
b1
0
b0
1
SCL
SDIO
CE
microcontroller driving SDIO
PCF8537BH driving SDIO
013aaa678
Fig 51. SPI-bus read example
PCF8537
Product data sheet
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PCF8537
NXP Semiconductors
Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
10. Internal circuitry
VDD1
A0, RESET,
T1, T2, CLK
VSS
T3, VLCD, SDA,
SCL, VDD1, VDD2
VLCD
BP0 to BP5,
S0 to S43,
BP7/S44,
BP6/S45
VSS
(1)
VSS
013aaa659
(1) Output resistance, RO, see Table 36 on page 62.
Fig 52. Device protection diagram for PCF8537AH
VDD1
SDIO, RESET,
T1, T2, CLK
VSS
T3, VLCD, CE,
SCL, VDD1, VDD2
VLCD
BP0 to BP5,
S0 to S43,
BP7/S44,
BP6/S45
VSS
(1)
VSS
013aaa660
(1) Output resistance, RO, see Table 36 on page 62.
Fig 53. Device protection diagram for PCF8537BH
PCF8537
Product data sheet
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PCF8537
NXP Semiconductors
Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
11. Limiting values
CAUTION
Static voltages across the liquid crystal display can build up when the LCD supply voltage
(VLCD) is on while the IC supply voltage (VDD) is off, or vice versa. This may cause unwanted
display artifacts. To avoid such artifacts, VLCD and VDD must be applied or removed together.
Table 35. Limiting values
In accordance with the Absolute Maximum Rating System (IEC 60134).
Symbol
Parameter
Conditions
Min
Max
Unit
VDD1
VDD2
supply voltage 1
digital
0.5
+6.5
V
supply voltage 2
analog
0.5
+6.5
V
IDD1
supply current 1
digital
50
+50
mA
IDD2
supply current 2
analog
50
+50
mA
VLCD
LCD supply voltage
0.5
+10
V
IDD(LCD)
LCD supply current
50
+50
mA
Vi
input voltage
0.5
+6.5
V
II
input current
10
+10
mA
VO
output voltage
on pins S0 to S45,
BP0 to BP7
0.5
+10
V
on pins SDA,
SDIO, CLK
0.5
+6.5
V
IO
output current
10
+10
mA
ISS
ground supply current
50
+50
mA
Ptot
total power dissipation
-
400
mW
P/out
power dissipation per
output
-
100
mW
VESD
electrostatic discharge
voltage
HBM
[1]
-
4500
V
CDM
[2]
-
1500
V
latch-up current
[3]
-
200
mA
Tstg
storage temperature
[4]
65
+150
C
Tamb
ambient temperature
40
+85
C
Ilu
PCF8537
Product data sheet
on pins CLK, CE,
SDA, SCL, A0,
SDIO, T1, T2
operating device
[1]
Pass level; Human Body Model (HBM), according to Ref. 6 “JESD22-A114”.
[2]
Pass level; Charged-Device Model (CDM), according to Ref. 7 “JESD22-C101”.
[3]
Pass level; latch-up testing according to Ref. 8 “JESD78” at maximum ambient temperature (Tamb(max)).
[4]
According to the NXP store and transport requirements (see Ref. 10 “NX3-00092”) the devices have to be
stored at a temperature of +8 C to +45 C and a humidity of 25 % to 75 %. For long term storage products
deviant conditions are described in that document.
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PCF8537
NXP Semiconductors
Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
12. Static characteristics
Table 36. Static characteristics
VDD1 = 1.8 V to 5.5 V; VDD2 = 2.5 V to 5.5 V; VSS = 0 V; VLCD = 2.5 V to 9.0 V; Tamb = 40 C to +85 C; temperature
measurement enabled; 1:8 multiplex drive mode; 1⁄4 bias; LCD outputs are open circuit; RAM is all written with logic 1; inputs
at VSS or VDD; internal clock with maximum prescale factor; I2C-bus/SPI-bus inactive; unless otherwise specified.
Symbol
Parameter
Conditions
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
VDD1
supply voltage 1
logic
1.8
-
5.5
V
VDD2
supply voltage 2
analog;
VDD2  VDD1
2.5
-
5.5
V
Supplies
charge pump set to 2  VDD2
charge pump set to 3  VDD2
VLCD
LCD supply voltage
2.5
-
5.5
V
VLCD  VDD2
[1]
2.5
-
9.0
V
[2]
0.10
-
+0.10
V
VLCD
LCD voltage variation
VDD1 = VDD2 = 5.0 V;
VLCD = 6.99 V
IDD1
supply current 1
digital;
display disabled;
charge pump off
-
90
200
A
IDD2
supply current 2
display disabled;
charge pump off;
external VLCD
-
0.5
-
A
-
30
40
A
-
200
-
A
-
85
-
A
VDD2 = 5.5 V;
charge pump set to 2  VDD2;
internal VLCD = 7.0 V
display disabled
display enabled
external VLCD = 7.0 V;
display enabled;
[3]
IDD(LCD)
LCD supply current
IDD(pd)
power-down mode supply on pin VDD1
current
-
1
3
A
ILCD(pd)
power-down LCD current
-
15
25
A
Tacc
temperature accuracy
readout temperature error;
VDD1 = 5.0 V
Tamb = 40 C to +85 C
5
-
+5
C
Tamb = 25 C
3
-
+3
C
Logic
VSS  0.5 -
VDD + 0.5 V
on pins CLK and A0
-
-
0.3VDD
V
on pins CLK and A0
0.7VDD
-
-
V
output voltage
0.5
-
VDD + 0.5 V
VOH
HIGH-level output voltage on pin CLK
0.8VDD
-
-
VOL
LOW-level output voltage
-
-
0.2VDD
V
IOH
HIGH-level output current output source current;
VOH = 4.6 V;
VDD = 5 V;
on pin CLK
1
-
-
mA
VI
input voltage
VIL
LOW-level input voltage
VIH
HIGH-level input voltage
VO
PCF8537
Product data sheet
on pin CLK
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V
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PCF8537
NXP Semiconductors
Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
Table 36. Static characteristics …continued
VDD1 = 1.8 V to 5.5 V; VDD2 = 2.5 V to 5.5 V; VSS = 0 V; VLCD = 2.5 V to 9.0 V; Tamb = 40 C to +85 C; temperature
measurement enabled; 1:8 multiplex drive mode; 1⁄4 bias; LCD outputs are open circuit; RAM is all written with logic 1; inputs
at VSS or VDD; internal clock with maximum prescale factor; I2C-bus/SPI-bus inactive; unless otherwise specified.
Symbol
Parameter
Conditions
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
IOL
LOW-level output current
output sink current;
VOL = 0.4 V;
VDD = 5 V;
on pin CLK
1
-
-
mA
VPOR
power-on reset voltage
-
-
1.6
V
IL
leakage current
1
-
+1
A
pins SDA, SCL
VSS  0.5 -
5.5
V
pin SDIO
VSS  0.5 -
VDD + 0.5 V
[4]
Vi = VDD or VSS;
on pins CLK and A0
I2C- and SPI-bus lines; pins SDA, SCL and SDIO
input voltage
VI
VIL
LOW-level input voltage
pins SDA, SCL, and SDIO
-
-
0.3VDD
V
VIH
HIGH-level input voltage
pins SDA, SCL, and SDIO
0.7VDD
-
-
V
VO
output voltage
pins SDA and SCL
0.5
-
5.5
V
SDIO
0.5
-
VDD + 0.5 V
VOL = 0.4 V;
VDD = 5 V;
on pin SDA and SDIO
3
-
-
mA
IOL
LOW-level output current
IOH
HIGH-level output current VOH = 4.6 V;
VDD = 5 V;
on pin SDIO
3
-
-
mA
IL
leakage current
VI = VDD or VSS
1
-
+1
A
output voltage variation
on pins BP0 to BP7
[5]
15
-
+15
mV
on pins S0 to S45
[6]
15
-
+15
mV
VLCD = 7 V;
on pins BP0 to BP7
[7]
0.3
0.8
1.5
k
VLCD = 7 V;
on pins S0 to S45
[7]
0.6
1.5
3
k
LCD outputs
VO
output resistance
RO
[1]
When supplying external VLCD it must be VLCD  VDD2. Also when using the internal charge pump to generate a certain VLCD, VPR[7:0]
must be set to a value that the voltage is higher than VDD2 (see Section 8.4.2).
[2]
Calibrated at testing stage. VLCD temperature compensation is disabled.
[3]
Tested on sample basis.
[4]
If VDD1 < VPOR a reset occurs.
[5]
Variation between any 2 backplanes on a given voltage level; static measured.
[6]
Variation between any 2 segments on a given voltage level; static measured.
[7]
Outputs measured one at a time.
PCF8537
Product data sheet
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63 of 82
PCF8537
NXP Semiconductors
Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
013aaa687
195
ΔVLCD
(mV)
130
65
0
-65
-130
-195
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
Temperature (ºC)
100
VLCD = 5 V to 9 V.
Remark: Only valid if the charge pump is driven in a safe range as described in Figure 18 and
Figure 19.
a. VDD = 5 V
013aaa688
195
ΔVLCD
(mV)
130
65
0
-65
-130
-195
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
Temperature (ºC)
100
VLCD = 5 V to 9 V.
Remark: Only valid if the charge pump is driven in a safe range as described in Figure 18 and
Figure 19.
b. VDD = 3 V
Fig 54. LCD voltage variation with respect to temperature
PCF8537
Product data sheet
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PCF8537
NXP Semiconductors
Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
013aaa668
160
IDD1
(μA)
150
140
(1)
(2)
130
120
110
100
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
Temperature (ºC)
100
VDD2 = 5.0 V; 1:8 multiplex drive mode; 1⁄4 bias; temperature measurement enabled; LCD outputs
are open circuit; RAM all logic 1; inputs at VSS or VDD; internal clock with max prescale factor; bus
active.
(1) Charge pump on; VDD1 = 5.5 V; charge pump configuration: VLCD = 2  VDD2; VPR[7:0] set to
7.0 V; display enabled.
(2) Charge pump off; VDD1 = 5.0 V; display disabled.
Fig 55. Typical IDD1 with respect to temperature
013aaa669
160
IDD2
(μA)
150
140
130
120
110
100
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
Temperature (ºC)
100
VDD1 = VDD2 = 5.0 V; 1:8 multiplex drive mode; 1⁄4 bias; temperature measurement enabled; flat
temperature compensation; LCD outputs are open circuit; RAM all logic 1; inputs at VSS or VDD;
internal clock with max prescale factor; bus inactive; charge pump on; charge pump configuration:
VLCD = 2  VDD2; VPR[7:0] set to 7.0 V; display enabled.
Fig 56. Typical IDD2 with respect to temperature
PCF8537
Product data sheet
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PCF8537
NXP Semiconductors
Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
013aaa670
140
IDD(LCD)
(
(μA)
130
120
110
100
90
80
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
Temperature (ºC)
100
VDD1 = VDD2 = 5.0 V; 1:8 multiplex drive mode; 1⁄4 bias; temperature measurement enabled; flat
temperature compensation; LCD outputs are open circuit; RAM all logic 1; inputs at VSS or VDD;
internal clock with max prescale factor; bus inactive; charge pump on; charge pump configuration:
VLCD = 7.0 V, external supplied; display enabled.
Fig 57. Typical IDD(LCD) with respect to temperature
PCF8537
Product data sheet
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PCF8537
NXP Semiconductors
Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
13. Dynamic characteristics
Table 37. Dynamic characteristics
VDD = 1.8 V to 5.5 V; VSS = 0 V; VLCD = 2.5 V to 9.0 V; Tamb = 40 C to +85 C; unless otherwise specified.
Symbol
Parameter
Conditions
fclk(ext)
external clock frequency
tclk(H)
clock HIGH time
tclk(L)
clock LOW time
external clock source used
fclk
clock frequency
tw(rst)L
LOW-level reset time
[1]
[1]
on pin CLK; see Table 17
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
450
-
14500
Hz
33
-
-
s
33
-
-
s
7800
9600
11040
Hz
400
-
-
ns
Frequency present on OSCCLK with default display frequency division factor.
1/fclk
tclk(H)
tclk(L)
0.7 VDD
CLK
0.3 VDD
013aaa296
Fig 58. Driver timing waveforms
tw(rst)L
RESET
0.3 VDD
013aaa665
Fig 59. RESET timing
PCF8537
Product data sheet
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PCF8537
NXP Semiconductors
Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
Table 38. Timing characteristics: I2C-bus
VDD1 = 1.8 V to 5.5 V; VDD2 = 2.5 V to 5.5 V; VSS = 0 V; Tamb = 40 C to +85 C; unless otherwise specified.
Symbol
Parameter
fSCL
tBUF
Conditions
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
SCL clock frequency
-
-
400
kHz
bus free time between a
STOP and START condition
1.3
-
-
s
tHD;STA
hold time (repeated) START
condition
0.6
-
-
s
tSU;STA
set-up time for a repeated
START condition
0.6
-
-
s
tVD;DAT
data valid time
[4]
-
-
0.9
s
tVD;ACK
data valid acknowledge time
[5]
-
-
0.9
s
tLOW
LOW period of the SCL clock
1.3
-
-
s
tHIGH
HIGH period of the SCL clock
0.6
-
-
s
tf
fall time
of both SDA and SCL signals
-
-
0.3
s
tr
rise time
of both SDA and SCL signals
-
-
0.3
s
Cb
capacitive load for each bus
line
-
-
400
pF
tSU;DAT
data set-up time
100
-
-
ns
tHD;DAT
data hold time
0
-
-
ns
tSU;STO
set-up time for STOP
condition
0.6
-
-
s
tw(spike)
spike pulse width
-
-
50
ns
[1]
Internal calibration made with OTP so that the maximum variation is 15 % over whole temperature and voltage range. The typical fclk
frequency generates a typical frame frequency of 200 Hz when the default frequency division factor is used.
[2]
The typical value is defined at VDD1 = VDD2 = 5.0 V and 30 C.
[3]
All timing values are valid within the operating supply voltage and ambient temperature range and are referenced to VIL and VIH with an
input voltage swing of VSS to VDD.
[4]
tVD;DAT = minimum time for valid SDA output following SCL LOW.
[5]
tVD;ACK = time for acknowledgement signal from SCL LOW to SDA output LOW.
protocol
bit 7
MSB
(A7)
START
condition
(S)
tSU;STA
tLOW
bit 6
(A6)
tHIGH
1/f
bit 0
(R/W)
acknowledge
(A)
STOP
condition
(P)
SCL
SCL
tBUF
tr
tf
SDA
tSU;DAT
tHD;STA
tHD;DAT
tVD;DAT
tVD;ACK
tSU;STO
013aaa417
Fig 60. I2C-bus timing waveforms
PCF8537
Product data sheet
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68 of 82
PCF8537
NXP Semiconductors
Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
Table 39. Timing characteristics: SPI-bus
VDD = 1.8 V to 5.5 V; VSS = 0 V; Tamb = 40 C to +85 C. All timing values are valid within the operating supply voltage and
temperature range and referenced to VIL and VIH with an input voltage swing of VSS to VDD.
Symbol
Parameter
Conditions
VDD < 2.7 V
VDD  2.7 V
Min
Max
Min
Max
Unit
Timing characteristics (see Figure 61)
fclk(SCL)
SCL clock frequency
-
2
-
5
MHz
tSCL
SCL time
500
-
200
-
ns
tclk(H)
clock HIGH time
200
-
80
-
ns
tclk(L)
clock LOW time
200
-
80
-
ns
tr
rise time
for SCL signal
-
100
-
100
ns
for SCL signal
tf
fall time
-
100
-
100
ns
tsu(CE)
CE set-up time
150
-
80
-
ns
th(CE)
CE hold time
0
-
0
-
ns
trec(CE)
CE recovery time
100
-
100
-
ns
tsu
set-up time
set-up time for SDI data
35
-
10
-
ns
th
hold time
hold time for SDI data
25
-
15
-
ns
CE
tsu(CE)
tSCL
tclk(H)
tr
tf
trec(CE)
th(CE)
70 %
SCL
30 %
tclk(L)
tsu
th
SDIO
b7
b6
b0
Write example
tdis(SDIO)
tt(SDIO-SDIO)
SDIO
b7
b6
b0
b7
b6
b0
Read example
td(R)SDIO
Microcontroller driving SDIO bus
PCF8537BH driving SDIO bus
013aaa679
Fig 61. SPI-bus timing
PCF8537
Product data sheet
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69 of 82
PCF8537
NXP Semiconductors
Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
14. Package outline
TQFP64: plastic thin quad flat package; 64 leads; body 10 x 10 x 1.0 mm
SOT357-1
c
y
X
A
48
33
49
32
ZE
e
E HE
A
(A 3)
A2 A
1
wM
pin 1 index
θ
bp
64
Lp
L
17
1
detail X
16
ZD
e
v M A
wM
bp
D
B
HD
v M B
0
2.5
5 mm
scale
DIMENSIONS (mm are the original dimensions)
UNIT
A
max.
A1
A2
A3
bp
c
D (1)
E (1)
e
mm
1.2
0.15
0.05
1.05
0.95
0.25
0.27
0.17
0.18
0.12
10.1
9.9
10.1
9.9
0.5
HD
HE
12.15 12.15
11.85 11.85
L
Lp
v
w
y
1
0.75
0.45
0.2
0.08
0.1
Z D(1) Z E(1)
1.45
1.05
1.45
1.05
θ
7o
o
0
Note
1. Plastic or metal protrusions of 0.25 mm maximum per side are not included.
REFERENCES
OUTLINE
VERSION
IEC
JEDEC
SOT357-1
137E10
MS-026
JEITA
EUROPEAN
PROJECTION
ISSUE DATE
00-01-19
02-03-14
Fig 62. Package outline SOT357-1 (TQFP64)
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15. Handling information
All input and output pins are protected against ElectroStatic Discharge (ESD) under
normal handling. When handling Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) devices ensure that
all normal precautions are taken as described in JESD625-A, IEC 61340-5 or equivalent
standards.
16. Soldering of SMD packages
This text provides a very brief insight into a complex technology. A more in-depth account
of soldering ICs can be found in Application Note AN10365 “Surface mount reflow
soldering description”.
16.1 Introduction to soldering
Soldering is one of the most common methods through which packages are attached to
Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs), to form electrical circuits. The soldered joint provides both
the mechanical and the electrical connection. There is no single soldering method that is
ideal for all IC packages. Wave soldering is often preferred when through-hole and
Surface Mount Devices (SMDs) are mixed on one printed wiring board; however, it is not
suitable for fine pitch SMDs. Reflow soldering is ideal for the small pitches and high
densities that come with increased miniaturization.
16.2 Wave and reflow soldering
Wave soldering is a joining technology in which the joints are made by solder coming from
a standing wave of liquid solder. The wave soldering process is suitable for the following:
• Through-hole components
• Leaded or leadless SMDs, which are glued to the surface of the printed circuit board
Not all SMDs can be wave soldered. Packages with solder balls, and some leadless
packages which have solder lands underneath the body, cannot be wave soldered. Also,
leaded SMDs with leads having a pitch smaller than ~0.6 mm cannot be wave soldered,
due to an increased probability of bridging.
The reflow soldering process involves applying solder paste to a board, followed by
component placement and exposure to a temperature profile. Leaded packages,
packages with solder balls, and leadless packages are all reflow solderable.
Key characteristics in both wave and reflow soldering are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
PCF8537
Product data sheet
Board specifications, including the board finish, solder masks and vias
Package footprints, including solder thieves and orientation
The moisture sensitivity level of the packages
Package placement
Inspection and repair
Lead-free soldering versus SnPb soldering
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16.3 Wave soldering
Key characteristics in wave soldering are:
• Process issues, such as application of adhesive and flux, clinching of leads, board
transport, the solder wave parameters, and the time during which components are
exposed to the wave
• Solder bath specifications, including temperature and impurities
16.4 Reflow soldering
Key characteristics in reflow soldering are:
• Lead-free versus SnPb soldering; note that a lead-free reflow process usually leads to
higher minimum peak temperatures (see Figure 63) than a SnPb process, thus
reducing the process window
• Solder paste printing issues including smearing, release, and adjusting the process
window for a mix of large and small components on one board
• Reflow temperature profile; this profile includes preheat, reflow (in which the board is
heated to the peak temperature) and cooling down. It is imperative that the peak
temperature is high enough for the solder to make reliable solder joints (a solder paste
characteristic). In addition, the peak temperature must be low enough that the
packages and/or boards are not damaged. The peak temperature of the package
depends on package thickness and volume and is classified in accordance with
Table 40 and 41
Table 40.
SnPb eutectic process (from J-STD-020C)
Package thickness (mm)
Package reflow temperature (C)
Volume (mm3)
< 350
 350
< 2.5
235
220
 2.5
220
220
Table 41.
Lead-free process (from J-STD-020C)
Package thickness (mm)
Package reflow temperature (C)
Volume (mm3)
< 350
350 to 2000
> 2000
< 1.6
260
260
260
1.6 to 2.5
260
250
245
> 2.5
250
245
245
Moisture sensitivity precautions, as indicated on the packing, must be respected at all
times.
Studies have shown that small packages reach higher temperatures during reflow
soldering, see Figure 63.
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temperature
maximum peak temperature
= MSL limit, damage level
minimum peak temperature
= minimum soldering temperature
peak
temperature
time
001aac844
MSL: Moisture Sensitivity Level
Fig 63. Temperature profiles for large and small components
For further information on temperature profiles, refer to Application Note AN10365
“Surface mount reflow soldering description”.
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17. Abbreviations
Table 42.
PCF8537
Product data sheet
Abbreviations
Acronym
Description
AEC
Automotive Electronics Council
CMOS
Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor
DC
Direct Current
EPROM
Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory
HBM
Human Body Model
I2C
Inter-Integrated Circuit bus
IC
Integrated Circuit
LCD
Liquid Crystal Display
LSB
Least Significant Bit
MSB
Most Significant Bit
MSL
Moisture Sensitivity Level
MUX
Multiplexer
OTP
One Time Programmable
PCB
Printed-Circuit Board
POR
Power-On Reset
RC
Resistance-Capacitance
RAM
Random Access Memory
RMS
Root Mean Square
SCL
Serial Clock Line
SDA
Serial DAta line
SMD
Surface Mount Device
SPI
Serial Peripheral Interface
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18. References
[1]
AN10365 — Surface mount reflow soldering description
[2]
AN10853 — ESD and EMC sensitivity of IC
[3]
IEC 60134 — Rating systems for electronic tubes and valves and analogous
semiconductor devices
[4]
IEC 61340-5 — Protection of electronic devices from electrostatic phenomena
[5]
IPC/JEDEC J-STD-020D — Moisture/Reflow Sensitivity Classification for
Nonhermetic Solid State Surface Mount Devices
[6]
JESD22-A114 — Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Sensitivity Testing Human Body
Model (HBM)
[7]
JESD22-C101 — Field-Induced Charged-Device Model Test Method for
Electrostatic-Discharge-Withstand Thresholds of Microelectronic Components
[8]
JESD78 — IC Latch-Up Test
[9]
JESD625-A — Requirements for Handling Electrostatic-Discharge-Sensitive
(ESDS) Devices
[10] NX3-00092 — NXP store and transport requirements
[11] SNV-FA-01-02 — Marking Formats Integrated Circuits
[12] UM10204 — I2C-bus specification and user manual
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19. Revision history
Table 43.
Revision history
Document ID
Release date
Data sheet status
Change notice
Supersedes
PCF8537 v.1
20120531
Product data sheet
-
-
PCF8537
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20. Legal information
20.1 Data sheet status
Document status[1][2]
Product status[3]
Definition
Objective [short] data sheet
Development
This document contains data from the objective specification for product development.
Preliminary [short] data sheet
Qualification
This document contains data from the preliminary specification.
Product [short] data sheet
Production
This document contains the product specification.
[1]
Please consult the most recently issued document before initiating or completing a design.
[2]
The term ‘short data sheet’ is explained in section “Definitions”.
[3]
The product status of device(s) described in this document may have changed since this document was published and may differ in case of multiple devices. The latest product status
information is available on the Internet at URL http://www.nxp.com.
20.2 Definitions
Draft — The document is a draft version only. The content is still under
internal review and subject to formal approval, which may result in
modifications or additions. NXP Semiconductors does not give any
representations or warranties as to the accuracy or completeness of
information included herein and shall have no liability for the consequences of
use of such information.
Short data sheet — A short data sheet is an extract from a full data sheet
with the same product type number(s) and title. A short data sheet is intended
for quick reference only and should not be relied upon to contain detailed and
full information. For detailed and full information see the relevant full data
sheet, which is available on request via the local NXP Semiconductors sales
office. In case of any inconsistency or conflict with the short data sheet, the
full data sheet shall prevail.
Product specification — The information and data provided in a Product
data sheet shall define the specification of the product as agreed between
NXP Semiconductors and its customer, unless NXP Semiconductors and
customer have explicitly agreed otherwise in writing. In no event however,
shall an agreement be valid in which the NXP Semiconductors product is
deemed to offer functions and qualities beyond those described in the
Product data sheet.
20.3 Disclaimers
Limited warranty and liability — Information in this document is believed to
be accurate and reliable. However, NXP Semiconductors does not give any
representations or warranties, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy or
completeness of such information and shall have no liability for the
consequences of use of such information. NXP Semiconductors takes no
responsibility for the content in this document if provided by an information
source outside of NXP Semiconductors.
In no event shall NXP Semiconductors be liable for any indirect, incidental,
punitive, special or consequential damages (including - without limitation - lost
profits, lost savings, business interruption, costs related to the removal or
replacement of any products or rework charges) whether or not such
damages are based on tort (including negligence), warranty, breach of
contract or any other legal theory.
Notwithstanding any damages that customer might incur for any reason
whatsoever, NXP Semiconductors’ aggregate and cumulative liability towards
customer for the products described herein shall be limited in accordance
with the Terms and conditions of commercial sale of NXP Semiconductors.
Right to make changes — NXP Semiconductors reserves the right to make
changes to information published in this document, including without
limitation specifications and product descriptions, at any time and without
notice. This document supersedes and replaces all information supplied prior
to the publication hereof.
PCF8537
Product data sheet
Suitability for use — NXP Semiconductors products are not designed,
authorized or warranted to be suitable for use in life support, life-critical or
safety-critical systems or equipment, nor in applications where failure or
malfunction of an NXP Semiconductors product can reasonably be expected
to result in personal injury, death or severe property or environmental
damage. NXP Semiconductors and its suppliers accept no liability for
inclusion and/or use of NXP Semiconductors products in such equipment or
applications and therefore such inclusion and/or use is at the customer’s own
risk.
Applications — Applications that are described herein for any of these
products are for illustrative purposes only. NXP Semiconductors makes no
representation or warranty that such applications will be suitable for the
specified use without further testing or modification.
Customers are responsible for the design and operation of their applications
and products using NXP Semiconductors products, and NXP Semiconductors
accepts no liability for any assistance with applications or customer product
design. It is customer’s sole responsibility to determine whether the NXP
Semiconductors product is suitable and fit for the customer’s applications and
products planned, as well as for the planned application and use of
customer’s third party customer(s). Customers should provide appropriate
design and operating safeguards to minimize the risks associated with their
applications and products.
NXP Semiconductors does not accept any liability related to any default,
damage, costs or problem which is based on any weakness or default in the
customer’s applications or products, or the application or use by customer’s
third party customer(s). Customer is responsible for doing all necessary
testing for the customer’s applications and products using NXP
Semiconductors products in order to avoid a default of the applications and
the products or of the application or use by customer’s third party
customer(s). NXP does not accept any liability in this respect.
Limiting values — Stress above one or more limiting values (as defined in
the Absolute Maximum Ratings System of IEC 60134) will cause permanent
damage to the device. Limiting values are stress ratings only and (proper)
operation of the device at these or any other conditions above those given in
the Recommended operating conditions section (if present) or the
Characteristics sections of this document is not warranted. Constant or
repeated exposure to limiting values will permanently and irreversibly affect
the quality and reliability of the device.
Terms and conditions of commercial sale — NXP Semiconductors
products are sold subject to the general terms and conditions of commercial
sale, as published at http://www.nxp.com/profile/terms, unless otherwise
agreed in a valid written individual agreement. In case an individual
agreement is concluded only the terms and conditions of the respective
agreement shall apply. NXP Semiconductors hereby expressly objects to
applying the customer’s general terms and conditions with regard to the
purchase of NXP Semiconductors products by customer.
No offer to sell or license — Nothing in this document may be interpreted or
construed as an offer to sell products that is open for acceptance or the grant,
conveyance or implication of any license under any copyrights, patents or
other industrial or intellectual property rights.
All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers.
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Export control — This document as well as the item(s) described herein
may be subject to export control regulations. Export might require a prior
authorization from competent authorities.
Non-automotive qualified products — Unless this data sheet expressly
states that this specific NXP Semiconductors product is automotive qualified,
the product is not suitable for automotive use. It is neither qualified nor tested
in accordance with automotive testing or application requirements. NXP
Semiconductors accepts no liability for inclusion and/or use of
non-automotive qualified products in automotive equipment or applications.
In the event that customer uses the product for design-in and use in
automotive applications to automotive specifications and standards, customer
(a) shall use the product without NXP Semiconductors’ warranty of the
product for such automotive applications, use and specifications, and (b)
whenever customer uses the product for automotive applications beyond
NXP Semiconductors’ specifications such use shall be solely at customer’s
own risk, and (c) customer fully indemnifies NXP Semiconductors for any
liability, damages or failed product claims resulting from customer design and
use of the product for automotive applications beyond NXP Semiconductors’
standard warranty and NXP Semiconductors’ product specifications.
Translations — A non-English (translated) version of a document is for
reference only. The English version shall prevail in case of any discrepancy
between the translated and English versions.
20.4 Trademarks
Notice: All referenced brands, product names, service names and trademarks
are the property of their respective owners.
I2C-bus — logo is a trademark of NXP B.V.
21. Contact information
For more information, please visit: http://www.nxp.com
For sales office addresses, please send an email to: [email protected]
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Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
22. Tables
Table 1.
Table 2.
Table 3.
Table 4.
Table 5.
Table 6.
Table 7.
Table 8.
Table 9.
Table 10.
Table 11.
Table 12.
Table 13.
Table 14.
Table 15.
Table 16.
Table 17.
Table 18.
Table 19.
Table 20.
Table 21.
Table 22.
Table 23.
Table 24.
Table 25.
Table 26.
Table 27.
Table 28.
Table 29.
Table 30.
Table 31.
Table 32.
Table 33.
Table 34.
Table 35.
Table 36.
Table 37.
Table 38.
Table 39.
Ordering information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
Marking codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
Pin description of PCF8537AH and
PCF8537BH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Commands of PCF8537 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Initialize - initialize command bit description . . .8
OTP-refresh - OTP-refresh command bit
description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
Oscillator-ctrl - oscillator control command bit
description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
Charge-pump-ctrl - charge pump control
command bit description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Temp-msr-ctrl - temperature measurement control
command bit description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
Temp-comp - temperature compensation
coefficients command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
Set-VPR - set VPR command bit description . 11
Display-enable - display enable command bit
description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Set-MUX-mode - set multiplex drive mode
command bit description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
Set-bias-mode - set bias mode command bit
description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
Load-data-pointer - load data pointer command
bit description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
Frame frequency - frame frequency and output
clock frequency command bit description . . . .13
Frame frequency values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Bank-select - bank select command bit
description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Write-RAM-data - write RAM data command
bit description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Temp-read - temperature readout command
bit description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
Invmode_ctrl - drive scheme inversion
command bit description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
Temp-filter - digital temperature filter command
bit description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
Reset state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Selection of display configurations . . . . . . . . . .23
Temperature measurement update rate . . . . . .28
Temperature coefficients. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Calculation of the VLCD offset voltage. . . . . . . .31
LCD drive modes: summary of characteristics .32
Mapping of output pins and corresponding
signals with respect to driving mode. . . . . . . . .42
Control byte description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52
I2C slave address byte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
R/W bit description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
Serial interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
Subaddress byte definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
Limiting values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
Static characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
Dynamic characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
Timing characteristics: I2C-bus . . . . . . . . . . . .68
Timing characteristics: SPI-bus . . . . . . . . . . . .69
PCF8537
Product data sheet
Table 40.
Table 41.
Table 42.
Table 43.
SnPb eutectic process (from J-STD-020C) . . . 72
Lead-free process (from J-STD-020C) . . . . . . 72
Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Revision history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
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PCF8537
NXP Semiconductors
Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
23. Figures
Fig 1.
Fig 2.
Fig 3.
Fig 4.
Fig 5.
Fig 6.
Fig 7.
Fig 8.
Fig 9.
Fig 10.
Fig 11.
Fig 12.
Fig 13.
Fig 14.
Fig 15.
Fig 16.
Fig 17.
Fig 18.
Fig 19.
Fig 20.
Fig 21.
Fig 22.
Fig 23.
Fig 24.
Fig 25.
Fig 26.
Block diagram of PCF8537AH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
Block diagram of PCF8537BH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Pin configuration for TQFP64 (PCF8537AH). . . . .5
Pin configuration for TQFP64 (PCF8537BH). . . . .5
Recommended start-up sequence when using
the internal charge pump and the internal clock
signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
Recommended start-up sequence when using
an external supplied VLCD and the internal clock
signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
Recommended start-up sequence when using the
internal charge pump and an external clock
signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
Recommended start-up sequence when using
an external supplied VLCD and an external
clock signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Recommended power-down sequence for
minimum power-down current when using the
internal charge pump and the internal clock
signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Recommended power-down sequence when
using an external supplied VLCD and the internal
clock signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
Recommended power-down sequence when
using the internal charge pump and an external
clock signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
Recommended power-down sequence for
minimum power-down current when using an
external supplied VLCD and an external clock
signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
Example of displays suitable for PCF8537 . . . . .23
Typical I2C system configuration when using
the internal VLCD generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
Typical SPI system configuration when using
an external VLCD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
VLCD generation including temperature
compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
VLCD programming of PCF8537 (assuming
VT[7:0] = 0h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
Charge pump driving capability with
VDD2 = 3.3 V. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
Charge pump driving capability with
VDD2 = 5.0 V. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
Temperature measurement block with digital
temperature filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
Temperature measurement delay during
ramping up-down of the environment
temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
Example of segmented temperature coefficients.30
Electro-optical characteristic: relative
transmission curve of the liquid . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
Static drive mode waveforms (line inversion
mode). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
Waveforms for the 1:2 multiplex drive mode
with 1⁄2 bias (line inversion mode) . . . . . . . . . . . .35
Waveforms for the 1:2 multiplex drive mode
PCF8537
Product data sheet
Fig 27.
Fig 28.
Fig 29.
Fig 30.
Fig 31.
Fig 32.
Fig 33.
Fig 34.
Fig 35.
Fig 36.
Fig 37.
Fig 38.
Fig 39.
Fig 40.
Fig 41.
Fig 42.
Fig 43.
Fig 44.
Fig 45.
Fig 46.
Fig 47.
Fig 48.
Fig 49.
Fig 50.
Fig 51.
Fig 52.
Fig 53.
Fig 54.
Fig 55.
Fig 56.
Fig 57.
Fig 58.
Fig 59.
Fig 60.
Fig 61.
Fig 62.
Fig 63.
with 1⁄3 bias (line inversion mode) . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Waveforms for the 1:4 multiplex drive mode
with 1⁄3 bias (line inversion mode) . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Waveforms for 1:6 multiplex drive mode
with 1⁄3 bias (line inversion mode) . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Waveforms for 1:6 multiplex drive mode
with 1⁄4 bias (line inversion mode) . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Waveforms for 1:8 multiplex drive mode
with 1⁄4 bias (line inversion mode) . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Waveforms for 1:8 multiplex drive mode
with 1⁄4 bias (frame inversion mode) . . . . . . . . . . 41
Display RAM bitmap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Display RAM filling order in static drive mode . . . 47
Discarded bits at the end of data transmission . . 47
Display RAM filling order in 1:2 multiplex drive
mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Display RAM filling order in 1:4 multiplex drive
mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Display RAM filling order in 1:6 multiplex drive
mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Display RAM filling order in 1:8 multiplex drive
mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Bank selection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Example of the Bank-select command with
multiplex drive mode 1:4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Control byte format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Bit transfer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Definition of START and STOP conditions . . . . . 53
System configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Acknowledgement on the I2C-bus. . . . . . . . . . . . 54
I2C-bus protocol, write mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
I2C-bus protocol, read mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Data transfer overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
SPI-bus write example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
SPI-bus write example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
SPI-bus read example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Device protection diagram for PCF8537AH . . . . 60
Device protection diagram for PCF8537BH . . . . 60
LCD voltage variation with respect to
temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Typical IDD1 with respect to temperature . . . . . . . 65
Typical IDD2 with respect to temperature . . . . . . . 65
Typical IDD(LCD) with respect to temperature . . . . 66
Driver timing waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
RESET timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
I2C-bus timing waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
SPI-bus timing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Package outline SOT357-1 (TQFP64) . . . . . . . . 70
Temperature profiles for large and small
components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers.
Rev. 1 — 31 May 2012
© NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved.
80 of 82
PCF8537
NXP Semiconductors
Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
24. Contents
1
General description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2
Features and benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
3
Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
4
Ordering information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
5
Marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
6
Block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
7
Pinning information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
7.1
Pinning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
7.2
Pin description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
8
Functional description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
8.1
Commands of PCF8537 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
8.1.1
Command: Initialize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
8.1.2
Command: OTP-refresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
8.1.3
Command: Oscillator-ctrl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
8.1.3.1
Oscillator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
8.1.3.2
Internal oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
8.1.3.3
External clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
8.1.4
Command: Charge-pump-ctrl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
8.1.5
Command: Temp-msr-ctrl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
8.1.6
Command: Temp-comp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
8.1.7
Command: Set-VPR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
8.1.8
Command: Display-enable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
8.1.9
Command: Set-MUX-mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
8.1.10
Command: Set-bias-mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
8.1.11
Command: Load-data-pointer. . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
8.1.12
Command: Frame-frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
8.1.12.1 Timing and frame frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
8.1.13
Command: Bank-select . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
8.1.14
Command: Write-RAM-data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
8.1.15
Command: Temp-read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
8.1.16
Command: Invmode_ctrl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
8.1.17
Command: Temp-filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
8.2
Start-up and shut-down. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
8.2.1
Power-On Reset (POR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
8.2.2
RESET pin function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
8.2.3
Recommended start-up sequences . . . . . . . . 18
8.2.4
Recommended sequences to enter
power-down mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
8.3
Possible display configurations . . . . . . . . . . . 23
8.4
LCD supply voltage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
8.4.1
External VLCD supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
8.4.2
Internal VLCD generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
8.4.3
Charge pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
8.4.3.1
Charge pump configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
8.4.3.2
Charge pump driving capability . . . . . . . . . . . 26
8.4.4
Temperature measurement and temperature
compensation of VLCD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
8.4.4.1
Temperature readout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.4.2
Temperature adjustment of the VLCD . . . . . . .
8.4.5
LCD voltage selector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.5.1
Electro-optical performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.6
LCD drive mode waveforms. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.6.1
Static drive mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.6.2
1:2 multiplex drive mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.6.3
1:4 multiplex drive mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.6.4
1:6 multiplex drive mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.6.5
1:8 multiplex drive mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.5
Backplane and segment outputs . . . . . . . . . .
8.5.1
Backplane outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.5.1.1
1:8 multiplex drive mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.5.1.2
1:6 multiplex drive mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.5.1.3
1:4 multiplex drive mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.5.1.4
1:2 multiplex drive mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.5.1.5
Static drive mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.5.2
Segment outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.5.2.1
Static, 1:8, 1:4, 1:2 multiplex drive mode . . . .
8.5.2.2
1:6 multiplex drive mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.6
Display controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.7
Display register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.8
Display RAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.8.1
Data pointer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.8.2
RAM filling in static drive mode . . . . . . . . . . .
8.8.3
RAM filling in 1:2 multiplex drive mode . . . . .
8.8.4
RAM filling in 1:4 multiplex drive mode . . . . .
8.8.5
RAM filling in 1:6 multiplex drive mode . . . . .
8.8.6
RAM filling in 1:8 multiplex drive mode . . . . .
8.9
Bank selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.9.1
Input bank selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.9.2
Output bank selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9
Bus interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1
Control byte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2
I2C-bus interface characteristics
(PCF8537AH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.1
Bit transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.2
START and STOP conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.3
System configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.4
Acknowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.5
I2C-bus controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.6
Input filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.7
I2C-bus slave address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.8
I2C-bus protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.9
Data read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3
SPI-bus interface (PCF8537BH) . . . . . . . . . .
9.3.1
Data transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3.2
Data read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28
30
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33
34
34
35
37
38
40
42
42
42
42
42
42
43
43
43
43
44
44
44
46
47
47
48
48
49
50
50
51
52
52
53
53
53
53
54
54
55
55
55
56
57
57
58
continued >>
PCF8537
Product data sheet
All information provided in this document is subject to legal disclaimers.
Rev. 1 — 31 May 2012
© NXP B.V. 2012. All rights reserved.
81 of 82
PCF8537
NXP Semiconductors
Industrial LCD driver for multiplex rates up to 1:8
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
16.1
16.2
16.3
16.4
17
18
19
20
20.1
20.2
20.3
20.4
21
22
23
24
Internal circuitry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Limiting values. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Static characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dynamic characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Package outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Handling information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Soldering of SMD packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Introduction to soldering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wave and reflow soldering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wave soldering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reflow soldering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Revision history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Legal information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data sheet status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Disclaimers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trademarks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Contact information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
60
61
62
67
70
71
71
71
71
72
72
74
75
76
77
77
77
77
78
78
79
80
81
Please be aware that important notices concerning this document and the product(s)
described herein, have been included in section ‘Legal information’.
© NXP B.V. 2012.
All rights reserved.
For more information, please visit: http://www.nxp.com
For sales office addresses, please send an email to: [email protected]
Date of release: 31 May 2012
Document identifier: PCF8537
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