Data Sheet

INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
SCC2691
Universal asynchronous
receiver/transmitter (UART)
Product data sheet
Supersedes data of 1998 Sep 04
2006 Aug 04
Philips Semiconductors
Product data sheet
Universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART)
DESCRIPTION
SCC2691
PIN CONFIGURATIONS
The Philips Semiconductors SCC2691 Universal Asynchronous
Receiver/Transmitter (UART) is a single-chip CMOS-LSI
communications device that provides a full-duplex asynchronous
receiver/transmitter. It is fabricated with Philips Semiconductors
CMOS technology which combines the benefits of high density and
low power consumption.
The operating speed of the receiver and transmitter can be selected
independently as one of 18 fixed baud rates, a 16X clock derived
from a programmable counter/timer, or an external 1X or 16X clock.
The baud rate generator and counter/timer can operate directly from
a crystal or from external clock inputs. The ability to independently
program the operating speed of the receiver and transmitter make
the UART particularly attractive for dual-speed channel applications
such as clustered terminal systems.
The receiver is quadruple buffered to minimize the potential of
receiver overrun or to reduce interrupt overhead in interrupt driven
systems. In addition, a handshaking capability is provided to disable
a remote UART transmitter when the receiver buffer is full.
RDN
1
24
VCC
RxD
2
23
WRN
TxD
3
22
D0
MPO
4
21
D1
MPI
5
20
D2
A2
6
19
D3
A1
7
18
D4
A0
8
17
D5
X1/CLK
9
16
D6
X2
10
15
D7
RESET
11
14
CEN
GND 12
13
INTRN
The UART provides a power-down mode in which the oscillator is
frozen but the register contents are stored. This results in reduced
power consumption on the order of several magnitudes.
N24
AND
D24
PACKAGES
4
26
5
25
The UART is fully TTL compatible and operates from a single +5V
power supply.
A28
PACKAGE
11
FEATURES
• Full-duplex asynchronous receiver/transmitter
• Quadruple buffered receiver data register
• Programmable data format:
19
12
– 5 to 8 data bits plus parity
– Odd, even, no parity or force parity
– 1, 1.5 or 2 stop bits programmable in 1/16-bit increments
• 16-bit programmable Counter/Timer
• Baud rate for the receiver and transmitter selectable from:
– 22 fixed rates: 50 to 115.2K baud
– Non-standard rates to 115.2 kb
18
Pin
Symbol
Pin
Symbol
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
VCC
RDN
RxD
TxD
MPO
MPI
NC
NC
A2
A1
A0
X1/CLK
X2
RESET
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
GND
INTRN
CEN
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
NC
D2
D1
NC
D0
WRN
SD00122
Figure 1. Pin Configurations
– Non-standard user-defined rate derived from programmable
timer/ counter
• Single interrupt output with seven maskable interrupting
– External 1X or 16X clock
conditions
• Parity, framing, and overrun detection
• False start bit detection
• Line break detection and generation
• Programmable channel mode
• On-chip crystal oscillator
• Low power mode
• TTL compatible
• Single +5V power supply
• Commercial (0°C to +70°C) and industrial (-40°C to +85°C)
– Normal (full-duplex)
– Automatic echo
temperature versions available
– Local loopback
• SOL, PLCC and 300 mil wide DIP packages available
– Remote Loopback
• Multi-function programmable 16-bit counter/timer
2006 Aug 04
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Philips Semiconductors
Product data sheet
Universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART)
SCC2691
ORDERING INFORMATION
COMMERCIAL
INDUSTRIAL
VCC = +5V +10%,
TA = 0°C to +70°C
VCC = +5V +10%,
TA = –40°C to +85°C
VERSION
SCC2691AC1N24
SCC2691AE1N24
SOT222–1
28-Pin Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier (PLCC) Package
SCC2691AC1A28
SCC2691AE1A28
SOT261-2
24-Pin Plastic Small Outline Large (SOL) Package
SCC2691AC1D24
PACKAGES
24-Pin Plastic Dual In-Line Package (DIP)
SOT137-1
BLOCK DIAGRAM
INTERNAL DATA
BUS
8
D0–D7
BUS BUFFER
RDN
WRN
CEN
A0–A2
RESET
CHANNEL A
OPERATION CONTROL
TRANSMIT
HOLDING REG
ADDRESS
DECODE
TRANSMIT
SHIFT REGISTER
TxD
3
R/W CONTROL
RECEIVE
HOLDING REG (3)
CONTROL
RxD
RECEIVE
SHIFT REGISTER
INTERRUPT CONTROL
IMR
INTRN
MR1, 2
ISR
CR
SR
TIMING
TIMING
BAUD RATE
GENERATOR
INPUT PIN
CLOCK
SELECTORS
CHANGE OF
STATE
DETECTOR
COUNTER/
TIMER
MPI
CRYSTAL
OSCILLATOR
OUTPUT PIN
POWER DOWN
LOGIC
FUNCTION
SELECT LOGIC
X1/CLK
MPO
CSR
X2
ACR
ACR
CTUR
CTLR
VCC
GND
SD00123
Figure 2. Block Diagram
2006 Aug 04
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Philips Semiconductors
Product data sheet
Universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART)
SCC2691
PIN DESCRIPTION
MNEMONIC
PIN NO.
TYPE
NAME AND FUNCTION
DIP
PLCC
22–15
27, 25,
24,
22–18
I
Data Bus: Active-high 8-bit bidirectional 3-State data bus. Bit 0 is the LSB and bit 7 is the
MSB. All data, command, and status transfers between the CPU and the UART take place
over this bus. The direction of the transfer is controlled by the WRN and RDN inputs when
the CEN input is low. When the CEN input is high, the data bus is in the 3-State condition.
CEN
14
17
I
Chip Enable: Active-low input. When low, data transfers between the CPU and the UART
are enabled on D0–D7 as controlled by the WRN, RDN and A0–A2 inputs. When CEN is
high, the UART is effectively isolated from the data bus and D0–D7 are placed in the 3-State
condition.
WRN
23
28
I
Write Strobe: Active-low input. A low on this pin while CEN is low causes the contents of
the data bus to be transferred to the register selected by A0–A2. The transfer occurs on the
trailing (rising) edge of the signal.
RDN
1
2
I
Read Strobe: Active-low input. A low on this pin while CEN is low causes the contents of
the register selected by A0–A2 to be placed on the data bus. The read cycle begins on the
leading (falling) edge of RDN.
A0–A2
8–6
11–9
I
Address Inputs: Active-high address inputs to select the UART registers for read/write
operations.
RESET
11
14
I
Reset: Master reset. A high on this pin clears the status register (SR), the interrupt mask
register (IMR), and the interrupt status register (ISR), sets the mode register pointer to MR1,
and places the receiver and transmitter in the inactive state causing the TxD output to go to
the marking (high) state. Clears Test modes.
INTRN
13
16
O
Interrupt Request: This active-low output is asserted upon occurrence of one or more of
seven maskable interrupting conditions. The CPU can read the interrupt status register to
determine the interrupting condition(s). This open-drain output requires a pull-up resistor.
X1/CLK
9
12
I
Crystal 1: Crystal connection or an external clock input. A crystal of a clock the appropriate
frequency (nominally 3.6864 MHz) must be supplied at all times. For crystal connections see
Figure 7, Clock Timing.
X2
10
13
I
Crystal 2: Crystal connection. See Figure 7. If a crystal is not used it is best to keep this pin
not connected although it is permissible to ground it.
RxD
2
3
I
Receiver Serial Data Input: The least significant bit is received first. If external receiver
clock is specified, this input is sampled on the rising edge of the clock.
TxD
3
4
O
Transmitter Serial Data Output: The least significant bit is transmitted first. This output is
held in the marking (high) condition when the transmitter is idle or disabled and when the
UART is operating in local loopback mode. If external transmitter is specified, the data is
shifted on the falling edge of the transmitter clock.
MPO
4
5
O
Multi-Purpose Output: One of the following functions can be selected for this output pin by
programming the auxiliary control register:
RTSN – Request to send active-low output. This output is asserted and negated via the
command register. By appropriate programming of the mode registers, RTSN can be programmed to be automatically reset after the character in the transmitter is completely shifted
or when the receiver FIFO and shift register are full.
C/TO – The counter/timer output.
TxC1X – The 1X clock for the transmitter.
TxC16X – The 16X clock for the transmitter.
RxC1X – The 1X clock for the receiver.
RxC16X – The 16X clock for the receiver.
TxRDY – The transmitter holding register empty signal. Active-low output. (Open drain)
RxRDY/FFULL – The receiver FIFO not empty/full signal. Active-low output. (Open drain)
MPI
5
6
I
Multi-Purpose Input: This pin can serve as an input for one of the following functions:
GPI – General purpose input. The current state of the pin can be determined by reading the
ISR.
CTSN – Clear-to-send active-low input.
CTCLK – Counter/timer external clock input.
RTCLK – Receiver and/or transmitter external clock input. This may be a 1X or 16X clock as
programmed by CSR[3:0] or CSR[7:4].
Pin has an internal VCC pull-up device supplying 1 to 4 mA of current.
VCC
24
1
I
Power Supply: +5V supply input.
GND
12
15
I
Ground
D0–D7
2006 Aug 04
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Philips Semiconductors
Product data sheet
Universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART)
SCC2691
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS1
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
TA
RATING
UNIT
Note 4
°C
Operating ambient temperature range2
TSTG
Storage temperature range
–65 to +150
°C
VCC
Voltage from VCC to GND3
–0.5 to + 7.0
V
VS
Voltage from any pin to
PD
Power Dissipation
ground3
–0.5 to VCC +10%
V
300
mW
NOTES:
1. Stresses above those listed under Absolute Maximum Ratings may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress rating only and
functional operation of the device at these or any other condition above those indicated in the operation section of this specification is not
implied.
2. For operating at elevated temperature, the device must be derated based on +150°C maximum junction temperature.
3. This product includes circuitry specifically designed for the protection of its internal devices from damaging effects of excessive static
charge. Nonetheless, it is suggested that conventional precautions be taken to avoid applying any voltages larger than the rated maxima.
4. Parameters are valid over specified temperature range. See Ordering Information table for applicable operating temperature and VCC supply
range.
DC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS1, 2, 3
SYMBOL
VIL
VIH
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
LIMITS
Min
Typ
Input low voltage
Input high voltage
2
0.8VCC
All except X1/CLK
X1/CLK
VOL
VOH4
Output low voltage
Output high voltage
(except open drain outputs)
IOL = 2.4mA
IIL
Input leakage current
ILL
Data bus 3-State leakage current
IOD
Open-drain output leakage current
VO = 0.4 to VCC
–10
IXIL
X1/CLK low input current
VIN = 0, X2 floated
–100
–30
IXIH
X1/CLK high input current
VIN = VCC, X2 floated
0
30
IX2L
X2 low output current
VOUT = 0, X1/CLK = VCC
–100
IX2H
X2 high output current
VOUT = VCC, X1/CLK = 0V
ICCA
Power supply current, active
Max
UNIT
0.8
V
VCC
V
V
0.4
V
IOH = –400µA
2.4
VIN = 0 to VCC
VO = 0.4 to VCC
–10
10
µA
–10
10
µA
10
µA
0
µA
100
µA
0°C to +70°C
–40°C to +85°C
V
µA
0.8
1.0
100
µA
2.0
2.5
500
mA
mA
µA
ICCD
Power down current5
NOTES:
1. Parameters are valid over specified temperature range. See Ordering Information table for applicable operating temperature and VCC supply
range.
2. All voltage measurements are referenced to ground (GND). For testing, all input signals swing between 0V and 3.0V with a transition time of
20ns max. For X1/CLK, this swing is between 0.4V and 4.0V. All time measurements are referenced at input voltages of 0.8V and 2V and
output voltages of 0.8V and 2V as appropriate.
3. Typical values are at +25°C, typical supply voltages, and typical processing parameters.
4. Test condition for outputs: CL = 150pF, except interrupt outputs. Test conditions for interrupt outputs: CL = 50pF, RL = 2.7kΩ to VCC.
5. For power down current levels in the 1µA region see the UART application note.
2006 Aug 04
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Philips Semiconductors
Product data sheet
Universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART)
SCC2691
AC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS1, 2, 3, 4
SYMBOL
LIMITS
PARAMETER
Min
Typ
Max
UNIT
Reset timing (Figure 3)
tRES
Reset pulse width
Bus timing (Figure 4)5
100
ns
tAS
A0–A2 setup time to RDN, WRN low
tAH
A0–A2 hold time from RDN, WRN low
tCS
CEN setup time to RDN, WRN low
tCH
CEN hold time from RDN, WRN high
tRW
WRN, RDN pulse width
tDD
Data valid after RDN low
tDF
Data bus floating after RDN high
tDS
Data setup time before WRN high
tDH
Data hold time after WRN high
tRWD
Time between reads and/or writes6, 7
MPI and MPO timing (Figure 5)5
10
100
0
0
150
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
tPS
MPI input setup time before RDN low
tPH
MI input hold time after RDN low
tPD
MPO output valid after WRN high
Interrupt timing (Figure 6)
30
30
125
110
50
30
150
INTRN negated
Read RHR (RxRDY/FFULL interrupt)
Write THR (TxRDY, TxEMT interrupt)
Reset command (break change interrupt)
Reset command (MPI change interrupt)
Stop C/T command (counter interrupt)
Write IMR (clear of interrupt mask bit)
Clock timing (Figure 7)
370
ns
ns
ns
370
370
370
370
370
270
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
tIR
tCLK
fCLK9
tCTC
fCTC8
tRX
fRX8
tTX
fTX8
X1/CLK high or low time
X1/CLK frequency
Counter/timer clock high or low time
Counter/timer clock frequency
RxC high or low time
RxC frequency (16X)
RxC frequency (1X)
TxC high or low time
TxC frequency (16X)
TxC frequency (1X)
100
0
100
0
220
0
0
220
0
0
2.0
1.0
ns
MHz
ns
MHz
ns
MHz
MHz
ns
MHz
MHz
350
150
ns
ns
4.0
4.0
3.6864
2.0
1.0
Transmitter timing (Figure 8)
tTXD
TxD output delay from TxC external clock input on IP pin
tTCS
Output delay from TxC low at OP pin to TxD data output
Receiver timing (Figure 9)
0
tRXS
RxD data setup time before RxC high at external clock input on IP pin
100
ns
tRXH
RxD data hold time after RxC high at external clock input on IP pin
100
ns
NOTES:
1. Parameters are valid over specified temp. range. See Ordering Information table for applicable operating temp. and VCC supply range.
2. All voltage measurements are referenced to ground (GND). For testing, all input signals swing between 0V and 3.0V with a transition time of
20ns max. For X1/CLK, this swing is between 0.4V and 4.0V. All time measurements are referenced at input voltages of 0.8V and 2V and
output voltages of 0.8V and 2V as appropriate.
3. Typical values are at +25°C, typical supply voltages, and typical processing parameters.
4. Test condition for outputs: CL = 150pF, except interrupt outputs. Test conditions for interrupt outputs: CL = 50pF, RL = 2.7kΩ to VCC.
5. Timing is illustrated and referenced to the WRN and RDN inputs. The device may also be operated with CEN as the ‘strobing’ input. In this
case, all timing specifications apply referenced to the falling and rising edges of CEN. CEN and RDN (also CEN and WRN) are ORed internally. As a consequence, this signal asserted last initiates the cycle and the signal negated first terminates the cycle.
6. If CEN is used as the ‘strobing’ input, this parameter defines the minimum high time between one CEN and the next. The RDN signal must
be negated for tRWD guarantee that any status register changes are valid.
7. Consecutive write operations to the command register require at least three rising edges of the X1 clock between writes.
8. These parameters are guaranteed by design, but are not 100% tested in production.
9. Operation to 0MHz is assured by design. Minimum test frequency is 2MHz.
2006 Aug 04
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Philips Semiconductors
Product data sheet
Universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART)
SCC2692, SCC68681 and SCC2698B” Philips Semiconductors ICs
for Data Communications, IC-19, 1994.
BLOCK DIAGRAM
As shown in the block diagram, the UART consists of: data bus buffer,
interrupt control, operation control, timing, receiver and transmitter.
Mode registers 1 and 2 are accessed via an auxiliary pointer. The
pointer is set to MR1 by RESET or by issuing a reset pointer
command via the command register. Any read or write of the mode
register while the pointer is at MR1 switches the pointer to MR2. the
pointer then remains at MR2 so that subsequent accesses are to
MR2, unless the pointer is reset to MR1 as described above.
Data Bus Buffer
The data bus buffer provides the interface between the external and
internal data busses. It is controlled by the operation control block to
allow read and write operations to take place between the controlling
CPU and UART.
Timing Circuits
Interrupt Control
The timing block consists of a crystal oscillator, a baud rate
generator, a programmable 16-bit counter/timer, and two clock
selectors.
A single interrupt output (INTRN) is provided which may be asserted
upon occurrence of any of the following internal events:
– Transmit holding register ready
The crystal oscillator operates directly from a 3.6864MHz crystal
connected across the X1/ CLK and X2 inputs with a minimum of
external components. If an external clock of the appropriate
frequency is available, it may be connected to X1/CLK. If an external
clock is used instead of a crystal, X1/CLK is driven using a
configuration similar to the one in Figure 7. In this case, the input
high-voltage must be capable of attaining the voltage specified in the
DC Electrical Characteristics. The clock serves as the basic timing
reference for the baud rate generator (BRG), the counter/timer, and
other internal circuits. A clock frequency, within the limits specified in
the electrical specifications, must be supplied if the internal BRG is
not used.
– Transmit shift register empty
– Receive holding register ready or FIFO full
– Change in break received status
– Counter reached terminal count
– Change in MPI input
– Assertion of MPI input
Associated with the interrupt system are the interrupt mask register
(IMR) and the interrupt status register (ISR). The IMR can be
programmed to select only certain of the above conditions to cause
INTRN to be asserted. The ISR can be read by the CPU to
determine all currently active interrupting conditions. However, the
bits of the ISR are not masked by the IMR.
The baud rate generator operates from the oscillator or external
clock input and is capable of generating 18 commonly used data
communications baud rates ranging from 50 to 38.4K baud. Thirteen
of these are available simultaneously for use by the receiver and
transmitter. Eight are fixed, and one of two sets of five can be
selected by programming ACR[7]. The clock outputs from the BRG
are at 16X the actual baud rate. The counter/timer can be used as a
timer to produce a 16X clock for any other baud rate by counting
down the crystal clock or an external clock. The clock selectors
allow the independent selection by the receiver and transmitter of
any of these baud rates or an external timing signal.
Operation Control
The operation control logic receives operation commands from the
CPU and generates appropriate signals to internal sections to
control device operation. It contains address decoding and read and
write circuits to permit communications with the microprocessor via
the data bus buffer. The functions performed by the CPU read and
write operations are shown in Table 1.
Table 1.
A2
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
A1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
Register Addressing
A0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
READ
(RDN = 0)
MR1, MR2
SR
BRG Test
RHR
1X/16X Test
ISR
CTU
CTL
WRITE
(WRN = 0)
MR1, MR2
CSR
CR
THR
ACR
IMR
CTUR
CTLR
Counter/Timer (C/T)
The C/T operation is programmed by ACR[6:4]. One of eight timing
sources can be used as the input to the C/T. The output of the C/T is
available to the clock selectors and can be programmed by
ACR[2:0} to be output on the MPO pin.
In the timer mode, the C/T generates a square wave whose period is
twice the number of clock periods loaded into the C/T upper and
lower registers. The counter ready bit in the ISR is set once each
cycle of the square wave. If the value in CTUR or CTLR is changed,
the current half-period will not be affected, but subsequent
half-periods will be affected. In this mode the C/T runs continuously
and does not recognize the stop counter command (the command
only resets the counter ready bit in the ISR). Receipt of a start C/T
command causes the counter to terminate the current timing cycle
and to begin a new cycle using the values in CTUR and CTLR.
NOTE;
*Reserved registers should never be read during operation since
they are reserved for internal diagnostics.
ACR = Auxiliary control register
CR = Command register
CSR = Clock select register
CTL = Counter/timer lower output register
CTLR = Counter/timer lower preset register
CTU = Counter/timer upper output register
CTUR = Counter/timer upper preset register
MR = Mode register A
SR = Status register
THR = Tx holding register
* See Table 6 for BRG Test frequencies in this data sheet, and
“Extended baud rates for SCN2681, SCN68681, SCC2691,
2006 Aug 04
SCC2691
In the counter mode, the C/T counts down the number of pulses
loaded into CTUR and CTLR. Counting begins upon receipt of a
start C/T command. Upon reaching terminal count, the counter
ready bit in the ISR is set. The counter continues counting past the
terminal count until stopped by the CPU. If MPO is programmed to
be the output of the C/T, the output remains high until terminal count
is reached, at which time it goes low. The output returns to the high
state and the counter ready bit is cleared when the counter is
stopped by a stop counter command. the CPU may change the
7
Philips Semiconductors
Product data sheet
Universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART)
one-half of the bit period after the stop bit was sampled, then the
receiver operates as if a new start bit transition had been detected at
that point(one-half bit time after the stop bit was sampled).
values of CTUR and CTLR at any time, but the new count becomes
effective only on the next start counter command following a stop
counter command. If new values have not been loaded, the previous
count values are preserved and used for the next count cycle.
The parity error, framing error and overrun error (if any) are strobed
into the SR at the received character boundary, before the RxRDY
status bit is set.
In the counter mode, the current value of the upper and lower eight
bits of the counter may be read by the CPU. It is recommended that
the counter be stopped when reading to prevent potential problems
which may occur if a carry from the lower eight bits to the upper
eight bits occurs between the times that both halves of the counter
are read. However, a subsequent start counter command causes
the counter to begin a new count cycle using the values in CTUR
and CTLR. See further description in CTUR/CTLR section.
If a break condition is detected (RxD is low for the entire character
including the stop bit), only one character consisting of all zeros will
be loaded in the FIFO and the received SR break bit is set to 1. The
RxD input must return to high for two (2) clock edges of the X1
crystal clock for the receiver to recognize the end of the break
condition and begin the search for a start bit. This will usually
require a high time of one X1 clock period or 3 X1 edges since
the clock of the controller is not synchronous to the X1 clock.
Receiver and Transmitter
The UART is a full-duplex asynchronous receiver/transmitter. The
operating frequency for the receiver and transmitter can be selected
independently from the baud rate generator, the counter/timer, or
from an external input. Registers associated with the
communications channel are: the mode registers (MR1 and MR2),
the clock select register (CSR), the command register (CR), the
status register (SR), the transmit holding register (THR), and the
receive holding register (RHR).
RECEIVER FIFO
The RHR consists of a first-in-first-out (FIFO) queue with a capacity
of three characters. Data is loaded from the receive shift register
into the top-most empty position of the FIFO. The RxRDY bit in the
status register (SR) is set whenever one or more characters are
available to be read, and a FFULL status bit is set if all three queue
positions are filled with data. Either of these bits can be selected to
cause an interrupt. A read of the RHR outputs the data at the top of
the FIFO. After the read cycle, the data FIFO and its associated
status bits are ‘popped’ thus emptying a FIFO position for new data.
Transmitter
The transmitter accepts parallel data from the CPU and converts it
to a serial bit stream on the TxD output pin. It automatically sends a
start bit followed by the programmed number of data bits, an
optional parity bit, and the programmed number of stop bits. The
least significant bit is sent first. Following the transmission of the
stop bits, if a new character is not available in the THR, the TxD
output remains high and the TxEMT bit in the SR will be set to 1.
Transmission resumes and the TxEMT bit is cleared when the CPU
loads a new character in the THR. In the 16X clock mode, this also
resynchronizes the internal 1X transmitter clock so that transmission
of the new character begins with minimum delay.
Receiver Status Bits
In addition to the data word, three status bits (parity error, framing
error, and received break) are appended to each data character in
the FIFO. Status can be provided in two ways, as programmed by
the error mode control bit in mode register 1. In the character mode,
status is provided on a character-by-character basis: the status
applies only to the character at the top of the FIFO. In the block
mode, the status provided in the SR for these three bits is the
logical-OR of the status for all characters coming to the top of the
FIFO since the last reset error command was issued. In either
mode, reading the SR does not affect the FIFO. The FIFO is
‘popped’ only when the RHR is read. Therefore, the SR should be
read prior to reading the corresponding data character.
The transmitter can be forced to send a break (continuous low
condition) by issuing a start break command via the CR. The break
is terminated by a stop break command.
If the transmitter is disabled, it continues operating until the
character currently being transmitted and the character in the THR,
if any, are completely sent out. Characters cannot be loaded in the
THR while the transmitter is disabled.
The receiver can control the deactivation of RTS. If programmed to
operate in this mode, the RTSN output will be negated when a valid
start bit was received and the FIFO is full. When a FIFO position
becomes available, the RTSN output will be re-asserted
automatically. This feature can be used to prevent an overrun, in
the receiver, by connecting the RTSN output to the CTSN input of
the transmitting device.
Receiver
The receiver accepts serial data on the RxD pin, converts the serial
input to parallel format, checks for start bit, stop bit, parity bit (if any),
or break condition, and presents the assembled character to the
CPU. The receiver looks for a high-to-low (mark-to-space) transition
of the start bit on the RxD input pin. If a transition is detected, the
state of the RxD pin is sampled again each 16X clock for 7-1/2
clocks (16X clock mode) or at the next rising edge of the bit time
clock (1X clock mode). If RxD is sampled high, the start bit is invalid
and the search for a valid start bit begins again. If RxD is still low, a
valid start bit is assumed and the receiver continues to sample the
input at one bit time intervals at the theoretical center of the bit, until
the proper number of data bits and the parity bit (if any) have been
assembled, and one sop bit has been detected. The data is then
transferred to the RHR and the RxRDY bit in the SR is set to a 1. If
the character length is less than eight bits, the most significant
unused bits in the RHR are set to zero.
Receiver Reset and Disable
Receiver disable stops the receiver immediately – data being
assembled if the receiver shift register is lost. Data and status in the
FIFO is preserved and may be read. A re-enable of the receiver
after a disable will cause the receiver to begin assembling
characters at the next start bit detected. A receiver reset will discard
the present shift register data, reset the receiver ready bit (RxRDY),
clear the status of the byte at the top of the FIFO and re-align the
FIFO read/write pointers. This has the appearance of “clearing or
flushing” the receiver FIFO. In fact, the FIFO is NEVER cleared!
The data in the FIFO remains valid until overwritten by another
received character. Because of this, erroneous reading or extra
reads of the receiver FIFO will miss-align the FIFO pointers and
result in the reading of previously read data. A receiver reset will
re-align the pointers.
After the stop bit is detected, the receiver will immediately look for
the next start bit. However, if a non-zero character was received
without a stop bit (i.e. framing error) and RxD remains low for
2006 Aug 04
SCC2691
8
Philips Semiconductors
Product data sheet
Universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART)
In addition to the normal transmitter and receiver operation
described above, the UART incorporates a special mode which
provides automatic wake-up of the receiver through address frame
recognition for multi-processor communications. This mode is
selected by programming bits MR1[4:3] to ‘11’.
MULTI-PURPOSE OUTPUT PIN
This pin can be programmed to serve as a request-to-send output,
the counter/timer output, the output for the 1X or 16X transmitter or
receiver clocks, the TxRDY output or the RxRDY/FFULL output (see
ACR[2:0] – MPO Output Select). Please note that this pin drives
both high and low. HOWEVER when it is programmed to represent
interrupt type functions (such as receiver ready, transmitter ready or
counter/timer ready) it will be switched to an open drain
configuration in which case an external pull-up device would be
required.
In this mode of operation, a ‘master’ station transmits an address
character followed by data characters for the addressed ‘slave’
station. The slave stations, whose receivers are normally disabled,
examine the received data stream and ‘wake-up’ the CPU [by
setting RxRDY) only upon receipt of an address character. The CPU
compares the received address to its station address and enables
the receiver if it wishes to receive the subsequent data characters.
Upon receipt of another address character, the CPU may disable the
receiver to initiate the process again.
REGISTERS
The operation of the UART is programmed by writing control words
in the appropriate registers. Operational feedback is provided via
status registers which can be read by the CPU. Addressing of the
registers is as described in Table 1.
A transmitted character consists of a start bit, the programmed
number of data bits, an address/data (A/D) bit, and the programmed
number of stop bits. The polarity of the transmitted A/D bit is
selected by the CPU by programming bit MR1[2]. MR1[2] = 0
transmits a zero in the A/D bit position which identifies the
corresponding data bits as data, while MR1[2] = 1 transmits a one in
the A/D bit position which identifies the corresponding data bits as
an address. The CPU should program the mode register prior to
loading the corresponding data bits in the THR.
The contents of certain control registers are initialized to zero on
reset (see RESET pin description). Care should be exercised if the
contents of a register are changed during operation, since certain
changes may cause operational problems. For example, changing
the number of bits per character while the transmitter is active may
cause the transmission of an incorrect character. The contents of
the MR, the CSR, and the ACR should only be changed while the
receiver and transmitter are disabled, and certain changes to the
ACR should only be made while the C/T is stopped. The bit formats
of the UART are shown in Table 2.
While in this mode, the receiver continuously looks at the received
data stream, whether it is enabled or disabled. If disabled, it sets the
RxRDY status bit and loads the character in the RHR FIFO if the
received A/D bit is a one, but discards the received character if the
received A/D bit is a zero. If enabled, all received characters are
then transferred to the CPU via the RHR. In either case, the data
bits are loaded in the data FIFO while the A/D bit is loaded in the
status FIFO position normally used for parity error (SR[5]). Framing
error, overrun error, and break detect operate normally whether or
not the receiver is enabled.
MR1 – Mode Register 1
MR1 is accessed when the MR pointer points to MR1. The pointer is
set to MR1 by RESET or by a set pointer command applied via the
CR. After reading or writing MR1, the pointers are set at MR2.
MR1[7] – Receiver Request-to-Send Control
The bit controls the deactivation of the RTSN output (MPO) by the
receiver. This output is normally asserted and negated by
commands applied via the command register. MR1[7] = 1 causes
RTSN to be automatically negated upon receipt of a valid start bit if
the receiver FIFO is full. RTSN is reasserted when an empty FIFO
position is available. This feature can be used to prevent overrun in
the receiver by using the RTSN output signal to control the CTS
input of the transmitting device.
MULTI-PURPOSE INPUT PIN
The MPI pin can be programmed as an input to one of several
UART circuits. The function of the pin is selected by programming
the appropriate control register (MR2[4]), ACR[6:4], CSR [7:4, 3:0]}.
Only one of the functions may be selected at any given time. If CTS
or GPI is selected, a change of state detector provided with the pin
is activated. A high-to-low or low-to-high transition of the inputs
lasting longer than 25–50µs sets the MPI change-of-state bit in the
interrupt status register. The bit is cleared via a command. The
change-of-state can be programmed to generate an interrupt to the
CPU by setting the corresponding bit in the interrupt mask register.
MR1[6] – Receiver Interrupt Select
This bit selects either the receiver ready status (RxRDY) or the FIFO
full status (FFULL) to be used for CPU interrupts.
MR1[5] – Error Mode Select
This bit selects the operating mode of the three FIFOed status bits
(FE, PE, received break). In the character mode, status is provided
on a character-by-character basis. The status applies only to the
character at the top of the FIFO. In the block mode, the status
provided in the SR for these bits is the accumulation (logical-OR) of
the status for all characters coming to the top of the FIFO since the
last reset error command was issued.
The input port pulse detection circuitry uses a 38.4kHz sampling
clock derived from one of the baud rate generator taps. This
produces a sampling period of slightly more than 25µs (assuming a
3.6864MHz oscillator input). The detection circuitry, in order to
guarantee that a true change in level has occurred, requires two
successive samples at the new logic level be observed. As a
consequence, the minimum duration of the signal change is 25µs if
the transition occurs coincident with the first sample pulse. The 50µs
time refers to the condition where the change of state is just missed
and the first change of state is not detected until after an additional
25µs. The MPI pin has a small pull-up device that will source 1 to
4 mA of current from VCC. This pin does not require pull-up devices
or VCC connection if it is not used.
2006 Aug 04
SCC2691
MR1[4:3] – Parity Mode Select
If with parity or force parity is selected, a parity bit is added to the
transmitted character and the receiver performs a parity check on
incoming data. MR![4:3] = 11 selects the channel to operate in the
special wake-up mode.
MR1[2] – Parity Type Select
This bit selects the parity type (odd or even) if the with parity mode
is programmed by MR1[4:3], and the polarity of the forced parity bit
if the force parity mode is programmed. It has no effect if the no
9
Philips Semiconductors
Product data sheet
Universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART)
immediately. An exception to this is switching out of auto-echo or
remote loopback modes; if the deselection occurs just after the
receiver has sampled the stop bit (indicated in auto-echo by
assertion o fRxRDY), and the transmitter is enabled, the transmitter
is enabled, the transmitter will remain in auto-echo mode until one
full stop bit has been retransmitted.
parity mode is programmed. In the special wake-up mode, it selects
the polarity of the transmitted A/D bit.
MR1[1:0] – Bits Per Character Select
This field selects the number of data bits per character to be
transmitted and received. The character length does not include the
start, parity, and stop bits.
MR2[5] – Transmitter Request-to–Send Control
CAUTION: When the transmitter controls the OP pin (usually used
for the RTSN signal) the meaning of the pin is not RTSN at all!
Rather, it signals that the transmitter has finished the transmission
(i.e., end of block).
MR2 – Mode Register 2
MR2 is accessed when the channel MR pointer points to MR2,
which occurs after any access to MR1. Accesses to MR2 do not
change the pointer.
MR2[7:6] – Mode Select
The UART can operate in one of four modes. MR2[7:6] = 00 is the
normal mode, with the transmitter and receiver operating
independently. MR2[7:6] = 01 places the channel in the automatic
echo mode, which automatically re-transmits the received data. The
following conditions are true while in automatic echo mode:
1. Received data is re-clocked and retransmitted on the TxD
output.
2. The receive clock is used for the transmitter.
3. The receiver must be enabled, but the transmitter need not be
enabled.
4. The TxRDY and TxEMT status bits are inactive.
5. The received parity is checked, but is not regenerated for
transmission, i.e., transmitted parity bit is as received.
6. Character framing is checked, but the stop bits are retransmitted
as received.
7. A received break is echoed as received until the next valid start
bit is detected.
8. CPU-to-receiver communication continues normally, but the
CPU-to-transmitter link is disabled.
This bit allows deactivation of the RTSN output by the transmitter.
This output is manually asserted and negated by the appropriate
commands issued via the command register. MR2[5] set to 1
caused the RTSN to be reset automatically one bit time after the
character(s) in the transmit shift register and in the THR (if any) are
completely transmitted (including the programmed number of stop
bits) if a previously issued transmitter disable is pending. This
feature can be used to automatically terminate the transmission as
follows:
1. Program the auto-reset mode: MR2[5]=1
2. Enable transmitter, if not already enabled
3. Assert RTSN via command
4. Send message
5. After the last character of the message is loaded to the THR,
disable the transmitter. (If the transmitter is underrun, a special
case exists. See note below.)
6. The last character will be transmitted and the RTSN will be reset
one bit time after the last stop bit is sent.
NOTE: The transmitter is in an underrun condition when both the
TxRDY and the TxEMT bits are set. This condition also exists
immediately after the transmitter is enabled from the disabled or
reset state. When using the above procedure with the transmitter in
the underrun condition, the issuing of the transmitter disable must be
delayed from the loading of a single, or last, character until the
TxRDY becomes active again after the character is loaded.
Two diagnostic modes can also be selected. MR2[7:6] = 10 selects
local loopback mode. In this mode:
1. The transmitter output is internally connected to the receiver
input.
2. The transmit clock is used for the receiver.
3. The TxD output is held high.
4. The RxD input is ignored.
5. The transmitter must be enabled, but the receiver need not be
enabled.
6. CPU to transmitter and receiver communications continue
normally.
MR2[4] – Clear-to-Send Control
The sate of this bit determines if the CTSN input (MPI) controls the
operation of the transmitter. If this bit is 0, CTSN has no effect on the
transmitter. If this bit is a 1, the transmitter checks the sate of CTSN
each time it is ready to send a character. If it is asserted (low), the
character is transmitted. If it is negated (high), the TxD output
remains in the marking state and the transmission is delayed until
CTSN goes low. Changes in CTSN while a character is being
transmitted do not affect the transmission of that character. This
feature can be used to prevent overrun of a remote receiver.
The second diagnostic mode is the remote loopback mode, selected
by MR2[7:6] = 11. In this mode:
1. Received data is re-clocked and retransmitted on the TxD
output.
2. The receive clock is used for the transmitter.
3. Received data is not sent to the local CPU, and the error status
conditions are inactive.
4. The received parity is not checked and is not regenerated for
transmission, i.e., the transmitted parity bit is as received.
5. The receiver must be enabled, but the transmitter need not be
enabled.
6. Character framing is not checked, and the stop bits are
retransmitted as received.
7. A received break is echoed as received until the next valid start
bit is detected.
MR2[3:0] – Stop Bit Length Select
This field programs the length of the stop bit appended to the
transmitted character. Stop bit lengths of 9/16 to 1 and 1–9/16 to 2
bits, in increments of 1/16 bit, can be programmed for character
lengths of 6, 7, and 8 bits. For a character length of 5 bits, 1–1/16 to
2 stop bits can be programmed in increments of 1/16 bit. In all
cases, the receiver only checks for a mark condition at the center of
the first stop bit position (one bit time after the last data bit, or after
the parity bit if parity is enabled). If an external 1X clock is used for
the transmitter, MR2[3] = 0 selects one stop bit and MR2[3] = 1
selects two stop bits to be transmitted.
When switching in and out of the various modes, the selected mode
is activated immediately upon mode selection, even if this occurs in
the middle of a received or transmitted character. Likewise, if a
mode is deselected, the device will switch out of the mode
2006 Aug 04
SCC2691
10
Philips Semiconductors
Product data sheet
Universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART)
Table 2.
SCC2691
Register Bit Formats
Bit 7
Bit 6
MR1 (Mode Register 1)
Bit 5
RxRTS Control
RxINT Select
Error Mode*
0 = no
1 = yes
0 = RxRDY
1 = FFULL
0 = Char
1 = Block
Bit 4
Bit 3
Parity Mode
00 = With parity
01 = Force parity
10 = No parity
11 = Special mode
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Parity Type
Bits per Character
0 = Even
1 = Odd
00 = 5
01 = 6
10 = 7
11 = 8
NOTE:
*In block error mode, block error conditions must be cleared by using the error reset command (command 4x) or a receiver reset.
MR2 (Mode Register 2)
Channel Mode
00 = Normal
01 = Auto echo
10 = Local loop
11 = Remote loop
TxRTS
Control
CTS Enable
Tx
0 = No
1 = Yes
0 = No
1 = Yes
Stop Bit Length*
0 = 0.563
1 = 0.625
2 = 0.688
3 = 0.750
4 = 0.813
5 = 0.875
6 = 0.938
7 = 1.000
8 =1.563
9 = 1.625
A = 1.688
B = 1.750
C = 1.813
D = 1.875
E = 1.938
F = 2.000
NOTE: *Add 0.5 to values shown for 0–7 if channel is programmed for 5 bits/character.
CSR (Clock Select Register)
Receiver Clock Select
Transmitter Clock Select
See Text
See Text
See Table 6 for BRG Test frequencies in this data sheet, and “Extended baud rates for SCN2681, SCN68681, SCC2691, SCC2692, SCC68681
and SCC2698B” Philips Semiconductors ICs for Data Communications, IC-19, 1994.
CR (Command Register)
Miscellaneous Commands
Disable Tx
Enable Tx
Disable Rx
Enable Rx
See Text
0 = No
1 = Yes
0 = No
1 = Yes
0 = No
1 = Yes
0 = No
1 = Yes
NOTE:
Access to the miscellaneous commands should be separated by 3 X1 clock edges. A disabled transmitter cannot be loaded.
SR (Channel Status Register)
Received Break
Framing
Error
Parity
Error
Overrun
Error
TxEMT
TxRDY
FFULL
RxRDY
0 = No
1 = Yes
*
0 = No
1 = Yes
*
0 = No
1 = Yes
*
0 = No
1 = Yes
0 = No
1 = Yes
0 = No
1 = Yes
0 = No
1 = Yes
0 = No
1 = Yes
NOTE:
*These status bits are appended to the corresponding data character in the receive FIFO. A read of the status register provides these bits [7:5]
from the top of the FIFO together with bits [4;0]. These bits are cleared by a reset error status command. In character mode they are reset when
the corresponding data character is read from the FIFO. In block error mode, block error conditions must be cleared by using the error reset
command (command 4x) or a receiver reset.
ACR (Auxiliary Control Register)
BRG Set
Select
Counter/Timer
Mode and Source
Power-Down
Mode
0 = Set 1
1 = Set 2
See Text
0 = On
PWRDN Active
1 = Off
Normal
MPO Pin
Function Select
000 = RTSN
001 = C/TO
010 = TxC (1X)
011 = TxC (16X)
100 = RxC (1X)
101 = RxC (16X)
110 = TxRDY
111 = RxRDY/FFULL
ISR (Interrupt Status Register)
MPI Pin
Change
MPI Pin
Current State
0 = No
1 = Yes
0 = Low
1 = High
Not used
Counter
Ready
Delta
Break
RxRDY/
FFULL
TxEMT
TxRDY
0 = No
1 = Yes
0 = No
1 = Yes
0 = No
1 = Yes
0 = No
1 = Yes
0 = No
1 = Yes
Counter
Ready Int
Delta Break
Interrupt
RxRDY/FFULL
Interrupt
TxEMT
Interrupt
TxRDY
Interrupt
0 = Off
1 = On
0 = Off
1 = On
0 = Off
1 = On
0 = Off
1 = On
0 = Off
1 = On
IMR (Interrupt Mask Resister)
MPI Change
Interrupt
MPI Level
Interrupt
0 = Off
1 = On
0 = Off
1 = On
2006 Aug 04
Not used
11
Philips Semiconductors
Product data sheet
Universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART)
SCC2691
Table 2. Register Bit Formats (Continued)
CTUR (Counter/Timer Upper Register)
C/T[15]
Bit 7
C/T[14]
C/T[13]
C/T[12]
C/T[11]
C/T[10]
C/T[9]
C/T[8]
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
C/T[4]
C/T[3]
C/T[2]
C/T[1]
C/T[0]
CTLR (Counter/Timer Lower Register)
C/T[7]
C/T[6]
C/T[5]
0011 Reset transmitter. Resets the transmitter as if a hardware reset
had been applied
0100 Reset error status. Clears the received break, parity error,
framing error, and overrun error bits in the status
register (SR[7:4]}. Used in character mode to clear OE status
(although RB, PE, and FE bits will also be cleared), and in
block mode to clear all error status after a block of data has
been received.
0101 Reset break change interrupt. Causes the break detect change
bit in the interrupt status register (ISR[3]) to be cleared to zero.
0110 Start break. Forces the TxD output low (spacing). If the
transmitter is empty, the start of the break condition will be
delayed up to two bit times. If the transmitter is active, the
break begins when transmission of the character is completed.
If a character is in the THR, the start of break is delayed until
that character or any others loaded after it have been
transmitted (TxEMT must be true before break begins). The
transmitter must be enabled to start a break
0111 Stop break. The TxD line will go high (marking) within two bit
times. TxD will remain high for one bit time before the next
character, if any, is transmitted.
1000 Start C/T. In counter or timer modes, causes the contents of
CTUR/CTLR to be preset into the counter/timer and starts the
counting cycle. In timer mode, any counting cycle in progress
when the command is issued is terminated. In counter mode,
has no effect unless a stop C/T command was issued
previously.
1001 Stop counter. In counter mode, stops operation of the
counter/timer, resets the counter ready bit in the ISR, and
forces the MPO output high if it is programmed to be the
output of the C/T. In timer mode, resets the counter ready bit in
the ISR but has no effect on the counter/timer itself or on the
MPO output.
1010 Assert RTSN. Causes the RTSN output (MPO) to be asserted
(low).
1011 Negate RTSN.Causes the RTSN output (MPO) to be negated
(high).
1100 Reset MPI change interrupt. Causes the MPI change bit in the
interrupt status register (ISR[7]) to be cleared to zero.
1100 Reserved.
111x Reserved.
CSR – Clock Select Register (see Table 6. also)
Table 3. Baud Rate Selection
CSR[3:0]/ [7:4]
ACR[7] = 0
ACR[7] = 1
0000
0001
0010
0011
0100
0101
0110
0111
1000
1001
1010
1011
1100
1101
1110
1111
50
110
134.5
200
300
600
1,200
1,050
2,400
4,800
7,200
9,600
38.4k
Timer
MPI – 16X
MPI–1X
75
110
134.5
150
300
600
1,200
2,000
2,400
4,800
1,800
9,600
19.2k
Timer
MPI – 16X
MPI–1X
The receiver clock is always a 16X clock, except for CSR[7:4] = 1111.
See “Extended baud rates for SCN2681, SCN68681, SCC2691,
SCC2692, SCC68681 and SCC2698B” in application notes
elsewhere in this publication
CSR[7:4] – Receiver Clock Select
This field selects the baud rate clock for the receiver as shown in
Table 3. The baud rates listed are for a 3.6864MHz crystal or
external clock.
CSR[3:0] – Transmitter Clock Select
This field selects the baud rate clock for the transmitter. The field
definition is as shown in Table 3.
CR – Command Register
CR is used to write commands to the UART. Multiple commands can
be specified in a single write to CR as long as the commands are
non-conflicting, e.g., the enable transmitter and reset transmitter
commands cannot be specified in a single command word.
CR[7:4] – Miscellaneous Commands
The encoded value of this field may be used to specify a single
command as follows:
CR[3] – Disable Transmitter
This command terminates operation and resets the TxRDY and
TxEMT status bits. However, if a character is being transmitted or if
a character is in the THR when the transmitter is disabled, the
transmission of the character(s) is completed before assuming the
inactive state. A disabled transmitter cannot be loaded.
NOTE: Access to the upper four bits of the command register
should be separated by three (3) edges of the X1 clock.
0000 No command.
0001 Reset MR pointer. Causes the MR pointer to point to MR1.
0010 Reset receiver. Resets the receiver as if a hardware reset had
been applied. The receiver is disable and the FIFO is flushed.
2006 Aug 04
CR[2] – Enable Transmitter
Enables operation of the channel A transmitter. The TxRDY status
bit will be asserted.
12
Philips Semiconductors
Product data sheet
Universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART)
SCC2691
SR[2] – Transmitter Ready (TxRDY)
This bit, when set, indicates that the THR is empty and ready to be
loaded with a character. This bit is cleared when the THR is loaded
by the CPU and is set when the character is transferred to the
transmit shift register. TxRDY is reset when the transmitter is
disabled and is set when the transmitter is first enabled, e.g.,
characters loaded in the THR while the transmitter is disabled will
not be transmitted.
CR[1] – Disable Receiver
This command terminates operation of the receiver immediately; a
character being received will be lost. The command has no effect on
the receiver status bits or any other control registers. If the special
wake-up mode is programmed, the receiver operates even if it is
disabled (see Wake-up Mode).
CR[0] – Enable Receiver
Enables operation of the receiver. If not in the special wake-up
mode, this also forces the receiver into the search for start bit state.
SR[1] – FIFO Full (FFULL)
This bit is set when a character is transferred from the receive shift
register to the receive FIFO and the transfer causes the FIFO to
become full, i.e., all three FIFO positions are occupied. It is reset
when the CPU reads the FIFO and there is no character in the
receive shift register. If a character is waiting in the receive shift
register because the FIFO is full, FFULL will be reset by the CPU
read and then set by the transfer of the character to the FIFO, which
causes all three FIFO positions to be occupied.
SR – Channel Status Register
The status register is updated while RDN is negated. Therefore, the
bus interface used with this device must not use a static RDN line.
The RDN line must be pulsed to allow status register updates.
SR[7] – Received Break
This bit indicates that an all zero character of the programmed
length has been received without a stop bit. Only a single FIFO
position is occupied when a break is received; further entries to the
FIFO are inhibited until the RxD line returns to the marking state for
at least one half bit time two successive edges of the internal or
external 1X clock. This will usually require a high time of one X1
clock period or 3 X1 edges since the clock of the controller is
not synchronous to the X1 clock.
SR[0] – Receiver Ready (RxRDY)
This bit indicates that a character has been received and is waiting
in the FIFO to be read by the CPU. It is set when the character is
transferred from the receive shift register to the FIFO and reset
when the CPU reads the RHR, and no more characters are in the
FIFO.
When this bit is set, the change in break bit in the ISR (ISR[3]) is
set. ISR[3] is also set when the end of the break condition, as
defined above, is detected.
ACR – Auxiliary Control Register
ACR[7] – Baud Rate Generator Set Select
This bit selects one of two sets of baud rates generated by the BRG.
The break detect circuitry is capable of detecting breaks that
originate in the middle of a received character. However, if a break
begins in the middle of a character, it must last until the end of the
next character time in order for it to be detected.
SR[6] – Framing Error (FE)
This bit, when set, indicates that a stop bit was not detected when
the corresponding data character in the FIFO was received. The
stop bit check is made in the middle of the first stop bit position.
Set 1:
50, 110, 134.5, 200, 300, 600, 1.05k, 1.2k, 2.4k, 4.8k, 7.2k,
9.6k, and 38.4k baud.
Set 2:
75, 110, 134.5, 150, 300, 600, 1.2k, 1.8k, 2.0k, 2.4k, 4.8k,
9.6k, and 19.2k baud.
The selected set of rates is available for use by the receiver and
transmitter. See Table 3 for characteristics of the BRG.
ACR[6:4] – Counter/Timer Mode and Clock Source Select
This field selects the operating mode of the counter/timer and its
clock source as follows:
SR[5]– Parity Error (PE)
This bit is set when the with parity or force parity mode is
programmed and the corresponding character in the FIFO was
received with incorrect parity. In special wake-up mode, the parity
error bit stores the received A/D bit.
Table 4.
ACR[6:4] Operating Mode
ACR [6:4]
Mode
0 0 0
Counter
MPI pin
SR[4] – Overrun Error (OE)
This bit, when set, indicates that one or more characters in the
received data stream have been lost. It is set upon receipt of a new
character when the FIFO is full and a character is already in the
receive shift register waiting for an empty FIFO position. When this
occurs, the character in the receive shift register (and its break
detect, parity error and framing error status, if any) is lost. This bit is
cleared by a reset error status command.
0 0 1
Counter
MPI pin divided by 16
0 1 0
Counter
TxC–1X clock
transmitter
0 1 1
Counter
Crystal or X1/CLK divided
by 16
1 0 0
Timer (square wave)
MPI pin
1 0 1
Timer (square wave)
MPI pin divided by 16
SR[3] – Transmitter Empty (TxEMT)
This bit will be set when the transmitter underruns, i.e., both the
TxEMT and TxRDY bits are set. This bit and TxRDY are set when
the transmitter is first enabled and at any time it is re-enabled after
either (a) reset, or (b) the transmitter has assumed the disabled
state. It is always set after transmission of the last stop bit of a
character if no character is in the THR awaiting transmission.
1 1 0
Timer (square wave)
Crystal or external clock
(X1/CLK)
1 1 1
Timer (square wave)
Crystal or X1/CLK divided
by 16
of
the
The timer mode generates a squarewave.
ACR[3] – Power-Down Mode Select
This bit, when set to zero, selects the power-down mode. In this
mode, the SCC2691 oscillator is stopped and all functions requiring
this clock are suspended. The contents of all registers are saved. It
is recommended that the transmitter and receiver be disabled prior
It is reset when the THR is loaded by the CPU, a pending
transmitter disable is executed, the transmitter is reset, or the
transmitter is disabled while in the underrun condition.
2006 Aug 04
Clock Source
13
Philips Semiconductors
Product data sheet
Universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART)
to placing the SCC2691 in this mode. Note that this bit must be set
to a logic 1 after reset.
011
When the power-down mode is enabled, internal circuitry forces the
X1/CLK pin to the low state and the X2 pin to the high state. If an
external clock is being used to drive the device, it is recommended
that the clock source be three-stated or forced low while the UART
is in power-down mode in order to prevent the clock driver from
being short circuited.
100
Table 5.
101
110
BRG Characteristics
Nom Rate (Baud)
Actual 16X Clock (kHz)
Error (%)
50
75
110
134.5
150
200
300
600
1050
1200
1800
2000
2400
4800
7200
9600
14.4K
19.2k
28.8K
38.4k
57.6K
115.2K
0.8
1.2
1.759
2.153
2.4
3.2
4.8
9.6
16.756
19.2
28.8
32.056
38.4
76.8
115.2
153.6
230.4
307.2
460.8
614.4
921.6
1843.2K
0
0
–0.069
0.059
0
0
0
0
–0.260
0
0
0.175
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
111
The 16X clock for the receiver. This is the clock selected by
CSR[7:4], and is a 1X clock if CSR[7:4] = 1111.
The transmitter register empty signal, which is the complement of SR[2]. Active low output.
The receiver ready or FIFO full signal (complement of
ISR[2]). Active-low output.
This register provides the status of all potential interrupt sources. The
contents of this register are masked by the interrupt mask register
(IMR). If a bit in the ISR is a ‘1’ and the corresponding bit in the IMR
is also a ‘1’, the INTRN output is asserted (low). If the corresponding
bit in the IMR is a zero, the state of the bit in the ISR has no effect on
the INTRN output. Note that the IMR does not mask the reading of
the ISR; the true status is provided regardless of the contents of the
IMR. This register is cleared when the device is reset.
ISR[7] – MPI Change-of-State
This bit is set when a change-of-state occurs at the MPI input pin. It
is reset by a reset change interrupt command.
ISR[6] – MPI Current State
This bit provides the current state of the MPI pin. This information is
latched and reflects the state of the pin at the leading edge of the
ISR ready cycle.
ISR[4] – Counter Ready
In the counter mode of operation, this bit is set when the counter
reaches terminal count and is reset when the counter is stopped by
a stop counter command.
In the timer mode, this bit is set once each cycle of the generated
square wave (every other time the C/T reaches zero count). The bit
is reset by a stop counter command. The command, however, does
not stop the C/T.
Asynchronous UART communications can tolerate frequency error
of 4.1% to 6.7% in a “clean” communications channel. The percent
of error changes as the character length changes. The above
percentages range from 5 bits not parity to 8 bits with parity and one
stop bit. The error with 8 bits no parity and one stop bit is 4.6%. If a
stop bit length of 9/16 is used, the error tolerance will approach 0
due to a variable error of up to 1/16 bit time in receiver clock phase
alignment to the start bit.
ISR[3] – Change in Break
This bit, when set, indicates that the receiver has detected the
beginning or end of a received break. It is reset when the CPU
issues a reset break change interrupt command.
ISR[2] – Receiver Ready or FIFO Full
The function of this bit is programmed by MR1[6]. If programmed as
receiver ready, it indicates that a character has been received and is
waiting in the FIFO to be read by the CPU. It is set when the
character is transferred from the receive shift register to the FIFO
and reset when the CPU reads the receiver FIFO. If the FIFO
contains more characters, the bit will be set again after the FIFO is
read. If programmed as FIFO full, it is set when a character is
transferred from the receive holding register to the receive FIFO and
the transfer causes the FIFO to become full, i.e., all three FIFO
positions are occupied. It is reset when the FIFO is read and there is
no character in the receive shift register. If there is a character
waiting in the receive shift register because the FIFO is full, the bit is
set again when the waiting character is transferred into the FIFO.
ACR[2:0] – MPO Output Select
This field programs the MPO output pin to provide one of the
following:
000
Request-to-send active-low output (RTSN). This output is
asserted and negated via the command register. RTSN
can be programmed to be automatically reset after the
character in the transmitter is completely shifted out or
when the receiver FIFO and receiver shift register are full
using MR2[5] and MR1[7], respectively.
001
The counter/timer output. In the timer mode, this output is
a square wave with a period of twice the value (in clock
periods) of the contents of the CTUR and CTLR. In the
counter mode, the output remains high until the terminal
count is reached, at which time it goes low. The output
returns to the high state when the counter is stopped by a
stop counter command.
ISR[1] – Transmitter Empty
This bit is a duplicate of TxEMT (SR[3]).
The 1X clock for the transmitter, which is the clock that
shifts the transmitted data. If data is not being transmitted, a non-synchronized 1X clock is output.
2006 Aug 04
The 16X clock for the transmitter. This is the clock selected
by CSR[3:0] = 1111.
The 1X clock for the receiver, which is the clock that samples
the received data. If data is not being received, a non-synchronized 1X clock is output.
ISR – Interrupt Status Register
Duty cycle of 16X clock is 50% ±1%. Crystal or Clock = 3.6864MHz
010
SCC2691
ISR[0] – Transmitter Ready
This bit is a duplicate of TxRDY (SR[2]).
14
Philips Semiconductors
Product data sheet
Universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART)
0.3/26.3 which is 1.14%; well within the ability asynchronous mode
of operation.
IMR – Interrupt Mask Register
The programming of this register selects which bits in the ISR cause an
interrupt output. If a bit in the ISR is a ‘1’ and the corresponding bit in
the IMR is a ‘1’, the INTRN output is asserted (low). If the corresponding
bit in the IMR is a zero, the state of the bit in the ISR has no effect on
the INTRN output. Note that the IMR does not mask reading of the ISR.
NOTE: When IMR[6] is a 1, a 1 on the MPI pin causes and interrupt.
If the value in CTUR or CTLR is changed, the current half-period will
not be affected, but subsequent half-periods will be.
The counter ready status bit (ISR[4]) is set once each cycle of the
square wave. The bit is reset by a stop counter command. The
command, however, does not stop the C/T. The generated square
wave is output on MPO if it is programmed to be the C/T output.
CTUR and CTLR – Counter/Timer Registers
The CTUR and CTLR hold the eight MSBs and eight LSBs,
respectively, of the value to be used by the counter/timer in either
the counter or timer modes of operation. The minimum value which
may be loaded is H‘0002’.
In the counter mode, the C/T counts down the number of pulses
loaded in CTUR and CTLR. Counting begins upon receipt of a start
C/T command. Upon reaching the terminal count, the counter ready
interrupt bit (ISR[4]) is set. the counter continues counting past the
terminal count until stopped by the CPU. If MPO is programmed to
be the output of the C/T, the output remains high until the terminal
count is reached, at which time it goes low.
In the timer (programmable divider) mode, the C/T generates a
square wave whose period is twice the value (in clock periods) of
the CTUR and CTLR. The waveform so generated is often used for
a data clock. The formula for calculating the divisor n to load to the
CTUR and CTLR for a particular 1X data clock is shown below:
n +
SCC2691
The output returns to the high state and ISR[4] is cleared when the
counter is stopped by a stop counter command. The CPU may
change the values of CTUR and CTLR at any time, but the new
count becomes effective only on the next start counter command. If
new values have not been loaded, the previous values are
preserved and used for the next count cycle.
CńT Clock Frequency
2 x 16 x Baud rate desired
Often this division will result in a non-integer number; 26.3, for
example. One can only program integer numbers in a digital divider.
Therefore, 26 would be chosen. This gives a baud rate error of
RESET
tRES
SD00028
Figure 3. Reset Timing
A0–A2
tAS
tAH
CEN
tCS
tCH
tRWD
tRW
RDN
tDD
D0–D7
(READ)
FLOAT
tDF
NOT VALID
VALID
FLOAT
tRWD
WRN
tDS
D0–D7
(WRITE)
tDH
VALID
SD00124
Figure 4. Bus Timing
2006 Aug 04
15
Philips Semiconductors
Product data sheet
Universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART)
SCC2691
RDN
tPS
tPH
MPI
WRN
tPD
MPO
SD00125
Figure 5. I/O Timing
VM
WRN
tIR
VOL +0.5V
INTERRUPT 1
OUTPUT
VOL
RDN
tIR
INTERRUPT 1
OUTPUT
VOL +0.5V
VOL
NOTES:
1. INTRN or MPO when used as interrupt outputs.
2. The test for open drain outputs is intended to guarantee switching of the output transistor. Measurement of this response is referenced from the midpoint of the switching signal,
VM, to a point 0.5V above VOL. This point represents noise margin that assures true switching has occurred. Beyond this level, the effects of external circuitry and test environment
are pronounced and can greatly affect the resultant measurement.
SD00126
Figure 6. Interrupt Timing
Y1 = 3.6864MHz, CL = 20pF
tCLK
tCTC
tRx
tTx
C1 = C2 = 24pF
X1/CLK
X1/CLK
C/T CLK
RxC
TxC
C1
Y1
tCLK
tCTC
tRx
tTx
DRIVING
FROM EXTERNAL
SOURCE
CLK
5V
C2
50k
to
150k
SCC2691
X2
TYPICAL CRYSTAL SPECIFICATION
470Ω
N/C
X1
FREQUENCY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2–4MHz
LOAD CAPACITANCE (CL). . . 20 or 32pF (typical)
X2
TYPE OF OPERATION . . . . . .PARALLEL RESONANT, FUND. MODE
SD00127
Figure 7. Clock Timing
2006 Aug 04
16
Philips Semiconductors
Product data sheet
Universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART)
SCC2691
1 BIT TIME
(1 OR 16 CLOCKS)
TxC
(INPUT)
tTXD
TxD
tTCS
TxC
(1X OUTPUT)
SD00092
Figure 8. Transmit Timing
RxC
(1X INPUT)
tRXS
tRXH
RxD
SD00093
Figure 9. Receive Timing
2006 Aug 04
17
Philips Semiconductors
Product data sheet
Universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART)
TxD
D1
D2
D2
D3
D3
BREAK
SCC2691
D4
D6
TRANSMITTER
ENABLED
TxRDY
(SR2)
WRN
D1
START
BREAK
D4
STOP
BREAK
D5 WILL
NOT BE
TRANSMITTED
D6
CTSN1
(MPI)
RTSN2
(MPO)
CR[7:4] = 1010
CR[7:4] = 1010
NOTES:
1. TIMING SHOWN FOR MR2[4] = 1.
2. TIMING SHOWN FOR MR2[5] = 1.
SD00128
Figure 10. Transmitter Timing
RxD
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
D8
RECEIVER
ENABLED
RxRDY
(SR0)
D2
FFULL
(SR1)
RxRDY/
FFULL
MPO2
RDN
S
OVERRRUN
(SR4)
D
S = STATUS
D = DATA
S
D5 WILL
BE LOST
D1
D
D2
S
D
D3
S
D
D4
RESET BY
COMMAND
RTS1
MPO
MPO = 1 (CR[7:4] = 1010)
NOTES;
1. Timing shown for MR1[7].
2. Shown for ACR[2:] = 111 and MR1[6] = 0.
SD00129
Figure 11. Receiver Timing
2006 Aug 04
18
Philips Semiconductors
Product data sheet
Universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART)
MASTER STATION
BIT 9
ADD#1
TxD
BIT 9
1
D0
SCC2691
BIT 9
0
ADD#2
1
TRANSMITTER
ENABLED
TxRDY
(SR2)
CSN
(WRITE]
MR1[2] = 1 ADD#2
MR1[4:3] = 11 ADD#1 MR1[2] = 0 D0
MR1[2] = 1
PERIPHERAL STATION
BIT 9
RxD
0
BIT 9
ADD#1
BIT 9
1
D0
0
ADD#2
BIT 9
BIT 9
1
0
RECEIVER
ENABLED
RxRDY
(SR0)
RDN/WRN
MR1[4:3] = 11
S
ADD#1
D
S = STATUS
D = DATA
D0
S
D
ADD#2
SD00130
Figure 12. Wake-Up Mode
RTS can also be controlled by the commands 1010 and 1011 in the
command register. RTS is expressed at the MP0 pin which is still an
output port. Therefore, the state of MP0 should be set low (by
commands to the CR register) for the receiver to generate the
proper RTS signal. The logic at the output is basically a NAND of
the MP0 bit register and the RTS signal as generated by the
receiver. When the RTS flow control is selected via the MR(7) bit
the state of the MP0 register is not changed. Terminating the use of
“Flow Control” (via the MR registers) will return the MP0 pin to the
control of the MP0 register.
The CTS, RTS, CTS Enable Tx signals
CTS (Clear To Send) is usually meant to be a signal to the
transmitter meaning that it may transmit data to the receiver. The
CTS input is on pin MPI. The CTS signal is active low; thus, it is
called CTSN.
RTS is usually meant to be a signal from the receiver indicating that
the receiver is ready to receive data. It is also active low and is,
thus, called RTSN. RTSN is on pin MP0. A receiver’s RTS output
will usually be connected to the CTS input of the associated
transmitter. Therefore, one could say that RTS and CTS are
different ends of the same wire!
Transmitter Disable Note
The sequence of instructions enable transmitter — load transmit
holding register — disable transmitter will result in nothing being
sent if the time between the end of loading the transmit holding
register and the disable command is less that 3/16 bit time in the
16x mode or one bit time in the 1x mode. Also, if the transmitter,
while in the enabled state and underrun condition, is immediately
disabled after a single character is loaded to the transmit holding
register, that character will not be sent.
MR2(4) is the bit that allows the transmitter to be controlled by the
CTS pin (MPI). When this bit is set to one AND the CTS input is
driven high, the transmitter will stop sending data at the end of the
present character being serialized. It is usually the RTS output of
the receiver that will be connected to the transmitter’s CTS input.
The receiver will set RTS high when the receiver FIFO is full AND
the start bit of the fourth character is sensed. Transmission then
stops with four valid characters in the receiver. When MR2(4) is set
to one, CTSN must be at zero for the transmitter to operate. If
MR2(4) is set to zero, the MP pin will have no effect on the operation
of the transmitter.
In general, when it is desired to disable the transmitter before the
last character is sent AND the TxEMT bit is set in the status register
(TxEMT is always set if the transmitter has underrun or has just
been enabled), be sure the TxRDY bit is active immediately before
issuing the transmitter disable instruction. TxRDY sets at the end of
the “start bit” time. It is during the start bit that the data in the
transmit holding register is transferred to the transmit shift register.
MR1(7) is the bit that allows the receiver to control MP0. When MP0
is controlled by the receiver, the meaning of that pin will be RTS.
However, a point of confusion arises in that MP0 may also be
controlled by the transmitter. When the transmitter is controlling this
pin, its meaning is not RTS at all. It is, rather, that the transmitter
has finished sending its last data byte. Programming the MP0 pin to
be controlled by the receiver and the transmitter at the same time is
allowed, but would usually be incompatible.
2006 Aug 04
Non-standard baud rates are available as shown in Table 6 below,
via the BRG Test function.
19
Philips Semiconductors
Product data sheet
Universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART)
SCC2691
Table 6. Baud Rates Extended
Normal BRG
BRG Test
CSR[7:4]
ACR[7] = 0
ACR[7] = 1
ACR[7] = 0
ACR[7] = 1
0000
50
75
4,800
7,200
0001
110
110
880
880
0010
134.5
134.5
1,076
1,076
0011
200
150
19.2K
14.4K
0100
300
300
28.8K
28.8K
0101
600
600
57.6K
57.6K
0110
1,200
1,200
115.2K
115.2K
0111
1,050
2,000
1,050
2,000
1000
2,400
2,400
57.6K
57.6K
1001
4,800
4,800
4,800
4,800
1010
7,200
1,800
57.6K
14.4K
1011
9,600
9,600
9,600
9,600
1100
38.4K
19.2K
38.4K
19.2K
1101
Timer
Timer
Timer
Timer
1110
I/O2 – 16X
I/O2 – 16X
I/O2 – 16X
I/O2 – 16X
1111
I/O2 – 1X
I/O2 – 1X
I/O2 – 1X
I/O2 – 1X
NOTE:
Each read on address H‘2’ will toggle the baud rate test mode. When in the BRG test mode, the baud rates change as shown to the left. This
change affects all receivers and transmitters on the DUART. See “Extended baud rates for SCN2681, SCN68681, SCC2691, SCC2692,
SCC68681 and SCC2698B” in application notes elsewhere in this publication.
The test mode at address H‘A’ changes all transmitters and receivers to the 1x mode and connects the output ports to some internal nodes.
Receiver Reset in the Normal Mode (Receiver Enabled)
Reset can be accomplished easily by issuing a receiver software or hardware reset followed by a receiver enable. All receiver data,
status and programming will be preserved and available before reset. The reset will NOT affect the programming.
Receiver Reset in the Wake-Up Mode (MR1[4:3] = 11)
Reset can also be accomplished easily by first exiting the wake-up mode (MR1[4:3] = 00 or 01 or 10), then issuing a receiver software or
hardware reset followed by a wake-up re-entry (MR1[4:3] = 11). All receiver data, status and programming will be preserved and
available before reset. The reset will NOT affect other programming.
The reason for this is the receiver is partially enabled when the parity bits are at ‘11’. Thus the receiver disable and reset is bypassed by
the partial enabling of the receiver.
SD00097
2006 Aug 04
20
Philips Semiconductors
Product data sheet
Universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART)
DIP24: plastic dual in-line package; 24 leads (300 mil)
2006 Aug 04
21
SCC2691
SOT222-1
Philips Semiconductors
Product data sheet
Universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART)
SO24: plastic small outline package; 24 leads; body width 7.5 mm
2006 Aug 04
22
SCC2691
SOT137-1
Philips Semiconductors
Product data sheet
Universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART)
PLCC28: plastic leaded chip carrier; 28 leads
2006 Aug 04
SCC2691
SOT261-2
23
Philips Semiconductors
Product data sheet
Universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART)
SCC2691
REVISION HISTORY
Rev
Date
Description
_3
20060804
Product data sheet (9397 750 14951). Supersedes data of 1998 Sep 04 (9397 750 04358).
Modifications:
• Ordering information: changed Version for PLCC28 from SOT261–3 to SOT261–2
• Changed package outline drawing from SOT261–3 to SOT261–2.
_2
19980904
_1
19950501
2006 Aug 04
Product specification (9397 750 04358). ECN 853-1078 19971.
24
Philips Semiconductors
Product data sheet
Universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART)
SCC2691
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Product status[3]
Definition
Objective [short] data sheet
Development
This document contains data from the objective specification for product development.
Preliminary [short] data sheet
Qualification
This document contains data from the preliminary specification.
Product [short] data sheet
Production
This document contains the product specification.
[1] Please consult the most recently issued document before initiating or completing a design.
[2] The term ‘short data sheet’ is explained in section “Definitions”.
[3] The product status of device(s) described in this document may have changed since this data sheet was published and may differ in case of multiple devices. The latest product status
information is available on the Internet at URL http://www.semiconductors.philips.com.
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Limiting values — Stress above one or more limiting values (as defined in
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expected to result in personal injury, death or severe property or
Trademarks
Notice: All referenced brands, product names, service names and
trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
Contact information
For additional information please visit: http://www.semiconductors.philips.com
For sales office addresses, send an e-mail to: [email protected]
Please be aware that important notices concerning this document and the product(s)
described herein, have been included in section ‘Legal information’.
 Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. 2006.
All rights reserved.
For more information, please visit http://www.semiconductors.philips.com.
For sales office addresses, email to: [email protected]
Date of release: 20060804
Document identifier: SCC2691_3
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