dm00106071

AN4437
Application note
L9678 user configurable airbag
Introduction
This document explains the features and benefits of the L9678 device, target for entry level
airbag system, with flexible configuration for power supply and management.
The configuration of the device depends on the specific application.
Guidelines for different operating modes of the device are provided.
Meaning features are the flexible configuration, availability of different voltage regulators,
two PSI-5 sensor interfaces, four DC sensors interface, two GPOs, high or low level
diagnostic test, arming managed following both internal or external safing engine,
deployment profile selectable, 32 bit SPI communication.
Note:
March 2015
The following information is given as a hint for the implementation of the device only and
shall not be regarded as a description or warranty of a certain functionality, condition or
quality of the device.
DocID025845 Rev 2
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Contents
AN4437
Contents
1
2
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.1
Main features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.2
Application overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Power up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.1
Power off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.1.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
3
4
Sleep mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.2.1
From sleep to active mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.2.2
From active back to sleep mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Active mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.3.1
From active to passive mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.3.2
From active back to sleep mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Passive mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.4.1
COVRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.4.2
From passive back to active mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.4.3
From passive back to sleep mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.4.4
From passive back to power off mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Power up and power down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3.1
Power up sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3.2
Power down sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Operative state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4.1
2/201
From power off to sleep mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Initialization - Watchdog function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
4.1.1
WATCHDOG INITIAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
4.1.2
WD1 INITIAL - WD1 RESET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
4.1.3
WD1 INITIAL - WD1 OVERRIDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.1.4
WD1 INITIAL - WD1 RUN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
4.1.5
WD1 RUN - WD1 TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
4.2
Diagnostic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
4.3
SAFING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
4.4
SCRAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
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4.5
5
ARMING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Voltage regulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
5.1
Internal voltage regulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
5.2
ERBOOST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
5.3
ER CHARGE - ER SWITCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
5.4
VDD5 linear regulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5.5
VDD3V3 linear regulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
5.6
VSUP Linear regulator (available for L9678S version) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
5.7
VSF linear regulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
5.8
RESET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
6
SPI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
7
SAFING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
8
7.1
SPI sensor data decoding - Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
7.2
SPI sensor data decoding - MASK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
7.3
SPI sensor data decoding - Example arming without on board sensor . . 78
7.4
Additional communication line (ACL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
8.1
9
Deployment requirement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
8.1.1
ARMING state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
8.1.2
DIAGNOSTIC state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
8.1.3
SAFING state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
8.1.4
DEPLOYMENT driver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
8.1.5
Deployment current monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
8.2
Deployment driver protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
8.3
Deployment driver example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Diagnostic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
9.1
Low level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
9.1.1
High voltage leak test, oxide isolation IC-car chassis . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
9.1.2
VRCM test validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
9.1.3
Leakage test - High side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
9.1.4
Leakage test - low side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
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AN4437
9.2
10
9.1.5
Leakage test - low side IPD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
9.1.6
Short between loops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
9.1.7
Squib resistance measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
9.1.8
High squib resistance diagnostic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
9.1.9
High side FET diagnostic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
9.1.10
Low side FET diagnostic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
9.1.11
High side driver diagnostic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
9.1.12
LOSS of Ground . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
9.1.13
Safing FET diagnostic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
9.1.14
Deployment time diagnostic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
High level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
9.2.1
VRCM check - High side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
9.2.2
VRCM check - Low side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
9.2.3
Leakage check - High side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
9.2.4
Leakage check - Low side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
9.2.5
Short between loops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
9.2.6
Squib resistance range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
9.2.7
Squib resistance measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
9.2.8
High side FET diagnostic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
9.2.9
Low side FET diagnostic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Remote sensor interface - L9678-S only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
10.1
Fault protection, short to GND, current limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
10.2
Fault protection, short to battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
10.3
Cross link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
10.4
Leakage to battery / open condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
10.5
Leakage to ground . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
10.6
Thermal shut-down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
10.7
Manchester decoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
10.8
Trip current auto adjust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
11
DC sensor interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
12
GPO drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
13
ISO9141 transceiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
4/201
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Contents
System voltage diagnostic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
14.1
ADC algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
15
Temperature sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
16
Footprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Appendix A Energy reserve capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Revision history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
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List of tables
AN4437
List of tables
Table 1.
Table 2.
Table 3.
Table 4.
Table 5.
Table 6.
Table 7.
Table 8.
Table 9.
Table 10.
Table 11.
Table 12.
6/201
VER measurement of the value ratio ADC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Blocks disabled in each IC state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Global SPI register map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Deployment driver example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
VRESDIAG and SFx measurement of the value ratio ADC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Squib x resistance measurement of the value ratio ADC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
VSF and SS measurement of the value ratio ADC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Resistance measurement of the value ratio ADC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
RSUx measurement to obtain the voltage value. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
GPODx and GPOSx measurement of the value ratio ADC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
Voltage measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Document revision history. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
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List of figures
List of figures
Figure 1.
Figure 2.
Figure 3.
Figure 4.
Figure 5.
Figure 6.
Figure 7.
Figure 8.
Figure 9.
Figure 10.
Figure 11.
Figure 12.
Figure 13.
Figure 14.
Figure 15.
Figure 16.
Figure 17.
Figure 18.
Figure 19.
Figure 20.
Figure 21.
Figure 22.
Figure 23.
Figure 24.
Figure 25.
Figure 26.
Figure 27.
Figure 28.
Figure 29.
Figure 30.
Figure 31.
Figure 32.
Figure 33.
Figure 34.
Figure 35.
Figure 36.
Figure 37.
Figure 38.
Figure 39.
Figure 40.
Figure 41.
Figure 42.
Figure 43.
Figure 44.
Figure 45.
Figure 46.
Figure 47.
Figure 48.
Functional block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Device states . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Wake-up input signal behaviour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
WAKEUP filter time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
COVRACT external components usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Example of power up sequence - VBAT then WAKEUP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Example of power up sequence - WAKEUP then VBAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Microcontroller drives the power shutdown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Power shutdown due to low or lost battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Device functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Watchdog functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
WD1 INITIAL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
WD1 INITIAL - WD1 RESET. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
WD1 INITIAL vs. WD1 OVERRIDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
WD1 INITIAL vs. WD1 RUN vs. WD1 RESET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
WATCHDOG service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
WD1 RESET - WD1 TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
ERBOOST functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
ERBOOST protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
ER CAP functionality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
ER SWITCH functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
VDD5 functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
VDD3V3 functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
VSUP functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
VSF enable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Regulators diagnostic errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
RESET organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
SPI signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Internal ARIMNG signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
ARMING organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
MOSI, MISO, SPI_CS, SAF_CS0, SAF_CS1, SCLK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Sensor's axis and vehicle's axis correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
ARMING enable pulse stretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
SPI sensor frame organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
MOSI, MISO, SPI_CS,SAF_CS0, SAF_CS1, SCLK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
ACL signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Device functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
High side and low side squib enable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
High side and low side squib enable in ARMING state. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
High side and low side squib enable in DIAG state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
High side and low side squib enable with ARMING signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Driver's DEPLOYMENT signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
DEPLOYMENT enable/disable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Current measurement during deploy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Diagnostic - blocks overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
High voltage leak test, oxide isolation IC-car chassis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Diagnostic - VRCM test validation (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Diagnostic - VRCM test validation (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
DocID025845 Rev 2
7/201
8
List of figures
Figure 49.
Figure 50.
Figure 51.
Figure 52.
Figure 53.
Figure 54.
Figure 55.
Figure 56.
Figure 57.
Figure 58.
Figure 59.
Figure 60.
Figure 61.
Figure 62.
Figure 63.
Figure 64.
Figure 65.
Figure 66.
Figure 67.
Figure 68.
Figure 69.
Figure 70.
Figure 71.
Figure 72.
Figure 73.
Figure 74.
Figure 75.
Figure 76.
Figure 77.
Figure 78.
Figure 79.
Figure 80.
Figure 81.
Figure 82.
Figure 83.
Figure 84.
Figure 85.
Figure 86.
Figure 87.
Figure 88.
Figure 89.
Figure 90.
Figure 91.
Figure 92.
Figure 93.
Figure 94.
Figure 95.
Figure 96.
Figure 97.
8/201
AN4437
Diagnostic - leakage test - high side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Diagnostic - leakage test - low side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Diagnostic - leakage test - low side IPD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Diagnostic - short between loops, HSi, HSx, ix (case 1). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Diagnostic - short between loops, HSi, LSx, ix (case 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Diagnostic - short between loops, LSi, HSx, ix (case 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Diagnostic - short between loops, LSi, LSx, ix (case 4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Diagnostic - HS short to Ground . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Diagnostic - LS short to Ground . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Diagnostic - Squib resistance measurement (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Diagnostic - Squib resistance measurement (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Diagnostic - High squib resistance diagnostic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Diagnostic - High side FET diagnostic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Diagnostic - High side FET diagnostic, SR short to GND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Diagnostic - Low side FET diagnostic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Diagnostic - Low side FET diagnostic, SF short to Battery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Diagnostic - Low side FET diagnostic, SR short to Battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Diagnostic - High side driver diagnostic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Diagnostic - Safing FET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Cases of status of the VSF (on or off) and on the commands from the microcontroller . . 141
Deployment timer diagnostic sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Deployment timer - no programmation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Deployment timer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
High level loop diagnostic flow 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
High level loop diagnostic flow 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Diagnostic - Safing FET flow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Diagnostic - VRCM check - High side. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Diagnostic - VRCM check - High side waveform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Diagnostic - VRCM check - Low side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Diagnostic - Leakage check - High side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Diagnostic - Leakage check - High side waveform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Diagnostic - Leakage check - High side waveform, long time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Diagnostic - Leakage check - Low side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Diagnostic - Squib resistance range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Diagnostic - Squib resistance measurement (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
Diagnostic - Squib resistance measurement (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Diagnostic - High side FET test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Diagnostic - Low side FET test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Manchester bit encoding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
In rush current. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Remote sensor current auto adjust. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
GPO low side configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
GPO high side configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
ISO9141 transceiver block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
FIFO filling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Footprint L9678-L9680 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Footprint L9678-L9679 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Blocks active in Autarchy mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Energy reserve capacitor depletion - timing diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
1
Description
Description
The L9678 IC is a system chip solution targeted for emerging market applications. Base
system designs can be completed with the L9678, SPC560Px microcontroller and an onboard acceleration sensor or PSI5 sensor.
1.1
Main features
Main features are:

Energy reserve voltage power supply
–
High frequency boost regulator, 1.875 MHz
–
Output voltage user selectable, 23 V or 33 V ±5%

User configurable linear power supplies
–
5.0 V and 7.2 V ±4% output voltages
–
External pass transistor

Fully integrated 3.3 V ±4% linear regulator

Battery voltage monitor and shutdown control with wake-up control

System voltage diagnostics with integrated ADC

Crossover switch
–
Crossover performance, max 3 Ω, 250 mA max.

Squib deployment drivers
–
4 channel HSD/LSD
–
25 V maximum deployment voltage
–
1.2 A @ 2 ms and 1.75 A @ 0.5/0.7 ms deployment profiles
–
Integrated safing FET linear regulator, 20 V nominal
–
Current monitoring
–
Rmeasure, STB, STG and leakage diagnostics
–
High and low side driver FET tests
–
Safing FET test

User customizable safing logic

Two channel PSI-5 remote sensor interface with SPI selectable switched/regulated
output voltage (asynchronous mode)

Four channel hall-effect, resistive or switch sensor interface

ISO9141 transceiver

Dual channel configurable high-side/low-side LED driver

Watchdog timer

Two integrated oscillators: 7.5/16 MHz

COVRACT function to connect externally of IC VIN to reserve capacitor

Temperature sensor

32 bit SPI communications

Minimum operating voltage = 6 V

Operating temperature, -40 °C to 95 °C

Packaging - 64 pin
DocID025845 Rev 2
9/201
200
Description
1.2
AN4437
Application overview
Different configurations for the device are possible. The device configurations are selected
via SPI.
Two different ways for the diagnostics, high level and low level, can be chosen.
In low level diagnostic an external logic takes care of all the required set-up necessary for
the requested measurement.
In high level diagnostic, the set-up for the measurement request is managed by the device
itself.
The choice of high level or low level diagnostic is done via SPI.
The IC status during its running can be partitioned in 4 phases POWER OFF / SLEEP
MODE / ACTIVE MODE / PASSIVE MODE.
This document explains in which way the device can be used.
10/201
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
Description
Figure 1. Functional block diagram
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DocID025845 Rev 2
*$3*36
11/201
200
Power up
2
AN4437
Power up
Power off / sleep mode / active mode / passive mode
To pass from one mode to the others, see the flow here below:
Figure 2. Device states
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DocID025845 Rev 2
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AN4437
Power up
Status of power control is readable via SPI:
$04 SYS_STATE
POWER_CTL_STATE, bit [2:0]
2.1
000 = AWAKE
001 = START UP
010 = RUN
011 = ER
100 = POWER SHUT-DOWN
101, 110, 111 unused
Power off
This state represents the case of low power supply and POR.
No voltage regulators are enabled.
2.1.1
From power off to sleep mode
Condition to enter into the next phase (sleep mode):
WAKEUP>WU_mon
WU_mon (1.5V max)
Power supplies are not necessary at their correct value.
2.2
Sleep mode
Supposing the external power supplies are increasing and WAKEUP pin connected to
external power supply, WAKEUP pin raises too.
As WAKEUP pin is over the second threshold WU_on (4V÷5V), the two internal 3.3V
voltage regulators run:
3V3INT is not accessible as it is internal only;
CVDD is available on pin 9
WakeUpFlt=1 means that WAKEUP pin is high at least 1 ms.
2.2.1
From sleep to active mode
Condition to enter into the next phase (Active mode):
(WakeUpFlt=1) & (VBATmon>VBGOOD) & (VIN>VINGOOD)
That means: the IC waits until WAKEPU is steadily high (at least 1ms) and the external
power supplies have reached their correct values, VBGOOD for VBATmon pin and
VINGOOD for VIN pin.
VBGOOD / VBBAD and VINGOOD/VINBAD are fixed via SPI (so through the
microcontroller), writing SYS_CTL register at any time and the default value:
b12=0,
VINGOOD = [5V:5.5V],
VINBAD = [4.5V:5V]
b11, b10=00,
VBGOOD = [5.5V:6V],
VBBAD = [5V:5.5V]
DocID025845 Rev 2
13/201
200
Power up
AN4437
$02 SYS_CTL
Config. in INIT, DIAG, SAFING, SCRAP, ARMING state
VIN_TH_SEL, bit 12
VBATMON_TH_SEL, bit 11, 10
2.2.2
0
1
= 5.5V, VINGOOD = [5V:5.5V], VINBAD = [4.5V:5V]
= 7.5V, VINGOOD = [7V:7.5V], VINBAD = [6.5V:7V]
00
01
10
11
= 6V, VBGOOD = [5.5V:6V], VBBAD = [5V:5.5V]
= 6.8V, VBGOOD = [6.3V:6.8V], VBBAD = [5.5V:6.3V]
= 8V, VBGOOD = [7.5V:8V], VBBAD = [7V:7.5V]
= 8.8V, VBGOOD = [8.3V:8.8V], VBBAD = [7.8V:8.3V]
From active back to sleep mode
Condition to turn back into the previous phase (POWER-OFF MODE):
WAKEUP<WU_mon
WU_mon (1.5V max)
That means that WAKEUP turns low.
2.3
Active mode
Active mode corresponds to the normal IC operation.
Until POR is not released, ERBOOST follows VBATT; the two internal voltage regulators,
VINT3V3 and CVDD are running.
As POR is released (see Section 5.8: RESET), ERBOOST starts running, followed by VDD5
and then by VDD3V3 (VDD3V3 is supplied by VDD5).
Once VDD5 and VDD3V3 are at their correct value, the microcontroller is supplied. IC
RESET pin is released and the microcontroller starts running too.
Microcontroller first checks
In this phase the microcontroller shall service the watchdog routine, (see Section 4.1:
Initialization - Watchdog function.
The microcontroller has to verify the correct connection of the external reserve capacitor on
VER pin, enabling ER charge block
$02 SYS_CTL
ER_CUR_EN, bit 7
Config. in INIT, DIAG, SAFING, SCRAP, ARMING state
0 = ER current source OFF requested
1 = ER current source ON requested
and verify that VER voltage increases linearly (constant current).
VER voltage is readable through ADC. Registers involved in this operation are the four
DIAGCTRL_x
$3x DIAGCTRL_x → x = A, B, C, D
Case x = A
14/201
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
Power up
$3A DIAGCTRL_A
Config. in DIAG, SAFING, SCRAP, ARMING state
NEWDATA[19]
new data available from the conversion
0 = cleared on read
1 = conversion finished
ADCREQ_A, bit [6:0]
request (MOSI)
$26 = VER
ADCREQ_A, bit [16:10]
readout (through MISO),
$26 = VER
ADCRES_A, bit [9:0]
10bit ADC result correspondent to the ADCREQ_A, bit
[9:0]
Once read the ADC measurement, to obtain the voltage value it is necessary to consider the
divider ratio of the ADC. In case of VER, it is 15:1.
Table 1. VER measurement of the value ratio ADC
Divider ratio
Measurements
15:1
VER
10:1
7:1
4:1
1:1
√
In case of problem, the microcontroller has to switch off the ER charge.
Note:
ER charge is limited at 20mA, so any load connected to VER (VRESDIAG for example)
subtracts current to the external reserve capacitor charge.
As shown in Figure 3, a 1 ms filter time is implemented on the WAKEUP input signal.
After that 9 ms has been elapsed with no WAKEUP de-assertions, WAKEUP active
condition is latched.
Figure 3. Wake-up input signal behaviour
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*$3*36
DocID025845 Rev 2
15/201
200
Power up
2.3.1
AN4437
From active to passive mode
Conditions to enter into the next phase (PASSIVE MODE):
1 - (WakeUpFlt=0) & SPI_SLEEP cmd
2 - VIN<VBGOOD
VBGOOD (5.5 V÷6 V)
The first case represents the normal IC shut-down, required by the microcontroller. The
microcontroller puts the WAKEUP pin low for at least 1ms and sends the dedicated SPI
command:
$03 SPI_SLEEP
SLEEP_MODE, [15:0]
Config. in INIT, DIAG, SAFING, SCRAP, ARMING state
$3C95
The second case represents the event of low battery, because, for example, battery
connection has been lost.
2.3.2
From active back to sleep mode
Condition to enter into the previous phases (SLEEP MODE):
(WakeUpFlt=0) OR (VBATmon < VBBAD) OR (VIN<VINBAD)
That means that WAKEUP is not steadily high for at least 1ms in the first 9ms, or the
external power supplies are turned at low value:
VBATmon<VBBAD or VIN<VINBAD (4.5 V÷5 V)
being VBBAD = 5 V÷5.5 V and VINBAD = 4.5 V÷5 V.
2.4
Passive mode
In Passive mode (ER state) ERBOOST can be disabled or not; it depends on
KEEP_ERBST_ON bit, SYS_CFG register:
KEEP_ERBST_ON=0 → ERBOOST disabled in ER state
KEEP_ERBST_ON=1 → ERBOOST not disabled in ER state
In PASSIVE MODE "ER charge" is disabled to decouple ERBOOST from VER.
There are two cases:
1. The first case is a driven switch off through an SPI_ SLEEP command and WAKEUP is
low.
The driven switch off can be received by the IC also during a low VIN voltage (second
case). In this condition the system survival is guaranteed by the energy stored in the
external reserve capacitor.
2. The second case is related to a low VIN voltage value. ER switch is automatically
turned on to connect VIN to VER.
The energy requirement, which may include the firing too, is taken from the external
reserve capacitor, until the capacitor is depleted and POR happens.
In this condition, current from the external reserve capacitor is limited by "ER switch" at
300 mA min, regardless VER value (22 V or 33 V).
The external reserve capacitor has to be chosen taking into account the highest energy
requirement.
16/201
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
Power up
Note:
If the capacitor on VER pin is not fully charged and VIN goes low, the external reserve
capacitor could not be able to supply the system with the energy required.
2.4.1
COVRACT
When the IC moves in PASSIVE MODE, COVRACT signal is asserted.
Figure 4. WAKEUP filter time
In Figure 4 are reported signals when the IC moves in PASSIVE MODE because of battery
lost: ch1 = RESET, ch2 = COVRACT, ch3 = VIN, ch4=VER.
In the next Figure 5 two possible usages of COVRACT function are shown in case of
supplementary deployment ASICs and/or satellite receivers to be supplied during Autarchy
mode (battery loss).
Being ER SWITCH current limited (300-500 mA), in the above mentioned cases a
supplementary cross over switch may be needed and the simplified external circuitry to be
used is shown below.
DocID025845 Rev 2
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200
Power up
AN4437
Figure 5. COVRACT external components usage
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The difference between options A and B is just the current that flows through the diode
(active or passive) placed between battery line (VBAT) and VIN pin.
If the current consumption of additional ASICs is too high to permit the L9678 to work at low
battery level, the option A is mandatory, otherwise option B is OK too.
18/201
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
2.4.2
Power up
From passive back to active mode
Condition to turn into the previous phases (ACTIVE MODE):
If the IC is in PASSIVE MODE due to low battery, as VBATmon turns at correct value (before
POR event) the IC turns back into ACTIVE MODE
VBATmon >VBGOOD
If the IC has been passed in PASSIVE MODE due to a SPI request, to turn back in ACTIVE
MODE it is necessary:
(WakeUpFilt=1) & (VBATmon >VBGOOD) & (VIN> VINGOOD)
2.4.3
From passive back to sleep mode
Condition to turn into the previous phases (SLEEP MODE):
If the IC is in PASSIVE MODE - power shutdown state, to turn back in SLEEP MODE it is
necessary
(WakeUpFilt=1) & [(VBATmon <VBGOOD) OR (VIN< VINGOOD)]
2.4.4
From passive back to power off mode
Condition to turn into POWER OFF MODE:
If the IC is in PASSIVE MODE - power shutdown state, to turn back in POWER OFF MODE
it is necessary a second SPI command
WakeUpFlt=0) & SPI_POWER OFF cmd
$02 SYS_CTL
Config. in INIT, DIAG, SAFING, SCRAP, ARMING state
SPI_OFF, bit 4
0 = no effect
1 = transition to POWER OFF
If this second SPI request is not received by the IC, that is in PASSIVE MODE due to a SPI
SLEEP mode request (with correct value of power supply), the IC remains in PASSIVE
MODE.
In the table here below disabled blocks in each IC state are shown:
Table 2. Blocks disabled in each IC state
SLEEP MODE
ACTIVE MODE
POWER
WAKEUP AWAKE STARTUP
OFF
Wakeup
Detector
Disabled
Intern reg.
Disabled
RUN
PASSIVE MODE
POWERMODE
SHUTDOWN
ER
Disabled
DocID025845 Rev 2
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200
Power up
AN4437
Table 2. Blocks disabled in each IC state (continued)
SLEEP MODE
ACTIVE MODE
POWER
WAKEUP AWAKE STARTUP
OFF
20/201
ERBOOST
Reg.
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
VSUP reg.
(only L9678-S)
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
ER CAP current
charge
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
ER switch
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
VDD5 reg.
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
VDD3V3 reg.
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
Deployment
drivers
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
VSF safing FET
reg.
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
Remote Sensor
Interf.
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
Watchdog
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
Diagnostic
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
DC sensor interf. Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
GPO drivers
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
Safing logic
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
ISO 9141
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
DocID025845 Rev 2
RUN
Disabled
PASSIVE MODE
POWERMODE
SHUTDOWN
ER
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
AN4437
Power up and power down
3
Power up and power down
3.1
Power up sequence
The aim of the procedure is to reach WakeUpFilt=1, VBATmon>VBGOOD, VIN>VINGOOD.
Different cases are possible as:
WAKEUP rises after that VBAT is GOOD, Figure 6;
WAKEUP rises while VBAT is rising, Figure 7.
Figure 6. Example of power up sequence - VBAT then WAKEUP
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DocID025845 Rev 2
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200
Power up and power down
AN4437
Figure 7. Example of power up sequence - WAKEUP then VBAT
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At the end of the power up sequence the device is in ACTIVE MODE.
22/201
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
3.2
Power up and power down
Power down sequence
Different possibilities are available.
Normal power shut down driven by microcontroller: first WAKEUP is driven low and then an
appropriate command is sent (SLEEP MODE), Figure 8:
It could happen that the IC receives the first command, indicated as SLEEP MODE in the
figure, but not the second. Being VIN at its correct value, the IC remains in that state.
Microcontroller should recognize the bad situation and manage it.
Figure 8. Microcontroller drives the power shutdown
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DocID025845 Rev 2
23/201
200
Power up and power down
AN4437
Another shut down is related to low battery. Shut down is related to low energy available,
until POR happens, see Figure 9.
In this case "ER switch" is automatically closed. VIN is thus connected to VER whose
voltage is close to ERBOOST. As consequence, the external reserve capacitor depletes,
VER and VIN voltages are consequently reduced.
CVDD/VINT and VDD5/VDD3V3 switch off depends on their load. The higher is the current
they have to furnish, the shorter is the time they are on.
Figure 9. Power shutdown due to low or lost battery
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24/201
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
4
Operative state
Operative state
As the device has been turned on, all voltage regulators run. Being VDD5, VDD3V3 present,
the microcontroller is supplied, but still in RESET. As VDD5 and VDD3V3 are at their correct
value and no fails are present (see Section 5.8: RESET), RESET pin is released and the
microcontroller starts working.
The following states are distinguishable (see Figure 10):
Initialization / diagnostic / safing / scrap / arming
Figure 10. Device functionality
33-2ESET
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IC states are readable through SPI:
$04 SYS_STATE
OPER_CTL_STATE, bit [10:8]
000 = INIT
001 = DIAG
010 = SAFING
011 = SCRAP
100 = ARMING
101, 110, 111 unused
DocID025845 Rev 2
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200
Operative state
4.1
AN4437
Initialization - Watchdog function
The first state of the IC is when the microcontroller starts is the INITIALIZATION state.
The state in which the IC is, is readable via SPI:
$04 SYS_STATE
OPER_CTL_STATE bit [10:8]
000 = IC in INIT state
In this phase the following configurations are managed:

Set-up of watchdog parameters, before the watchdog is asserted

Safing engine parameters

General system configuration

VSF voltage
Figure 11. Watchdog functionality
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Watchdog status is readable via SPI:
26/201
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AN4437
Operative state
$2C WD_STATE
WD1_STATE bit [10:8]
4.1.1
000 = INIT
001 = RUN
010 = TEST
011 = RESET
100 = OVERRIDE
WATCHDOG INITIAL
As WSM is released (see Section 5.8: RESET), watchdog is in its initial state, WD1 INITIAL.
In WD1 INITIAL state all arming signals are disabled to prevent deployment. As entered in
WD1 INITIAL, the counter of a first 500 ms time window is started.
In this phase, through WDTCR register, it is also defined the time window to service WD1.
As the IC passes in DIAGNOSTIC state, WD1 parameters can't be modified any more.
WD_RETRY_CONF register $28 has also to be programmed during this phase in order to
set the WD1_RETRY_TH bit: the meaning of such a threshold is explained in Section 4.1.2:
WD1 INITIAL - WD1 RESET.
$2A WDTCR
WD1_MODE, bit 14
WDTMIN bit [13:7]
WDTDELTA bit [6:0]
Config. in INIT only state
0 = fast WD1, 8 μs timer resol. (2 ms max value)
1 = slow WD1, 64 μs timer resol. (16.3 ms max value)
WD1 min time window. In according to WD1_MODE, $32 = 400 μs in
fast mode.
Update by WSM_RESET or dedicated SPI write
WD1 delta value
(WDTMAX=WDTMIN+MDTDELTA), in according to WD1_MODE,
$19 = 200 μs in fast mode
Update by WSM_RESET or dedicated SPI write
$28 WD_RETRY_CONF
Config. in INIT only state
WD1_RETRY_TH bit [2:0]
WD1 ERR_CNT threshold before setting definitively WD1_LOCKOUT bit.
Once the ASIC leaves the WD1INITIAL state, the register $28 cannot be anymore written
(internal signal WD1_ERR_TH_WE is no more asserted and register is locked for writing
access).
The watchdog block can remain indefinitely in INITIAL state, without any watchdog service,
in case WD1_TOVR is set via SPI. In this case, RESET toggling (1ms RESET active each
500ms) is disabled allowing some very initial operations (i.e. microcontroller FW flash)
DocID025845 Rev 2
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200
Operative state
AN4437
Figure 12. WD1 INITIAL
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$01 SYS_CFG
Config. in INIT only state
WD1_TOVR, bit 0
Note:
0 = timeout is active
1 = timeout is disabled
Disabling initial RESET toggling does not depend on the state of WDT/TM pin: SPI
command is effective even if WDT/TM is grounded.
To pass to another WD1 state, from WD1 INITIAL, there are the following possibilities:
4.1.2
WD1 INITIAL - WD1 RESET
Figure 13. WD1 INITIAL - WD1 RESET
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If neither WD1_TOVR is set in the first 500 ms nor WDOG service occurs, WD1_LOCKOUT
bit is set and an error counter, WD1_ERR_CNT, is incremented. Then WATCHDOG block
moves in reset, WD1 RESET.
WD1_ERR_CNT is readable via SPI:
28/201
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
Operative state
$2C WD_STATE
WD1_ERR_CNT bit [3:0]
Range 0:7
When WD1_LOCKOUT is set, all arming signals are disabled and deployment is inhibited.
WD1_LOCKOUT is readable on SPI:
$00 FLTSR
WD1_LO, bit 7
4.1.3
0 = WD1_LOCKOUT is inactive
1 = WD1_LOCKOUT is active
WD1 INITIAL - WD1 OVERRIDE
Figure 14. WD1 INITIAL vs. WD1 OVERRIDE
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The watchdog transition from WD1_INITIAL state to WD1_OVERRIDE state corresponds to
the transition from INIT to DIAGNOSTIC mode of the IC, see Figure 10.
In order to enter this state, the pin WDT/TM must be biased to the voltage
VWD_OVERRIDE and a proper SPI frame must be sent, accessing to the register
$35 WD_TEST
Config. in INIT, DIAG, SAFING state
Bit [15:8]
$3C to enter in WD_TEST
VWD_OVERRIDE = 10 V ÷ 14 V
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200
Operative state
4.1.4
AN4437
WD1 INITIAL - WD1 RUN
When the watchdog routine is correctly serviced, the watchdog block enters in RUN MODE
(Figure 15).
Figure 15. WD1 INITIAL vs. WD1 RUN vs. WD1 RESET
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In the transition WD1_INITIAL state to WD1_RUN, WD1_ERR_CNT holds its value.
If WD1_ERR_CNT has reached its threshold, WD1_RETRY_TH, WD1_LOCKOUT bit
remains set; lockout is automatically removed otherwise.
The number of allowed error cycle before permanently asserting the lockout is defined via
SPI into the WD1_RETRY_TH.
$28 WD_RETRY_CONF
Config. in INIT
WD1_RETRY_TH bit [2:0]
WD1 ERR_CNT threshold before setting definitively
WD1_LOCKOUT bit.
The watchdog transition from WD1_INITIAL state to WD1_RUN state corresponds to the
transition from INIT to DIAGNOSTIC mode of the IC, see Figure 10.
Watchdog service is defined into register WD1T:
$2B WD1T
WD1CTL, bit[1:0]
Config. in INIT, DIAG, SAFING, SCRAP, ARMING state
00 OR 11 NOP
01 = code A
10 = code B
Correct watchdog service is controlled through a programmable time resolution counter,
WD1_TIMER, whose parameters are defined in WDTCR register $2A in INIT state, (see
Section 4.1.1: WATCHDOG INITIAL).
30/201
$2B WD1T
Config. in INIT, DIAG, SAFING, SCRAP, ARMING state
WD1_TIMER, bit[15:8]
8 bit wd counter
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
Operative state
The counter WD1_TIMER, is reset every time a valid WD1CTL (watchdog service) is
received.
If WD1CTL are serviced too early or too late with respect to the time window, the watchdog
error counter, WD1_ERR_CNT, is incremented. WD1_LOCKOUT is set and watchdog
status passes in WD1 RESET state, (see Section 4.1.2: WD1 INITIAL - WD1 RESET) for
the management.
RESET pin is asserted with twdrst time:
0.9ms < twdrst <1.1ms
Watchdog error, WD1 WDR, is readable via SPI:
$00 FLTSR
WD1 WDR, bit5
0: WD1_WDR signal = 0, WD1 correctly serviced
1: WD1_WDR signal = 1 being WD1 not correctly serviced
In the follow Figure 16 is sketched the WD1 service.
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If more than one WD1 with the same key value is received (for example A instead of B, see
Figure 16), the WD1 counter is not refreshed until the correct key value is received in the
defined time window (WDTMIN, WDTDELTA) and no error signals are asserted.
If more than one WD1 with the same key value (….A A A instead of …A and than B) is
received no error signals are asserted even if the WD1 refresh command arrived before the
counter has reached WDTMIN programmed value.
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200
Operative state
4.1.5
AN4437
WD1 RUN - WD1 TEST
From WD1 RUN, through a SPI command, WD1 passes in WD1 TEST:
$35 WD_TEST
Config. in INIT, DIAG, SAFING state
bit [15:8]
$3C to enter in WD_TEST
This state generates a WD1_ERROR, without asserting WD1_LOCKOUT=1.
Figure 17. WD1 RESET - WD1 TEST
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This is used to test the WD refresh. Typically it is implemented once per power up, even if
there are no restrictions to accede to this mode in other moments.
In this state, deployments are not enabled.
Servicing WD1, watchdog turns back into WD1 RUN.
4.2
Diagnostic
Once WD1 is in WD1 RUN state or WD1 OVERRIDE state, the IC passes in DIAGNOSTIC
state, see Figure 10.
The state in which the IC is, is readable via SPI:
$04 SYS_STATE
OPER_CTL_STATE bit [10:8]
001 = IC in DIAG state
In DIAGNOSTIC state, the remaining IC configuration is allowed:
Safing records;
Deployment masks.
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AN4437
Operative state
In DIAGNOSTIC state, several tests of the device are allowed:
HS LS switch tests of the squib drivers (ignored out of this phase);
HS safing FET (ignored out of this phase);
Arming output to check for non stuck-at conditions on the pin and for configured firing
time.
Note:
ARM output and VSF test are mutually exclusive.
Diagnostic foresees two different modes, high level and low level diagnostic.
In high level diagnostic, set-up of each requested test is managed by the IC itself.
In low level diagnostic, set-up of each requested test is managed by the external logic
(microcontroller).
The selection between high and low level diagnostic is done writing the appropriate value of
DIAG_LEVEL (bit 15) $38 LPDIAGREQ register:
$38 LPDIAGREQ
DIAG_LEVEL, bit 15
Config. in DIAG, SAFING, SCRAP, ARMING state
0 = low level mode
1 = high level mode
Once in DIAGNOSTIC state there is the possibility to pass in SAFING state or in SCRAP
state, through dedicated commands.
4.3
SAFING
To pass in SAFING from DIAG state it is necessary a dedicated SPI frame:
$31 SAFING_STATE
bit [15:0]
Config. in DIAG state only
$ACAC to enter in SAFING state
The state in which the IC is, is readable via SPI:
$04 SYS_STATE
OPER_CTL_STATE bit [10:8]
010 = IC in SAFING state
Logic performs safing function through safing engine management.
Once in SAFING state, the IC returns to INITIALIZATION state only through a SSM_RESET.
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Operative state
4.4
AN4437
SCRAP
To pass in SCRAP from DIAG state it is necessary a dedicated SPI frame:
$30 SCRAP_STATE
Config. in DIAG state only
bit [15:0]
$3535 to enter in SCRAP state
The state in which the IC is, is readable via SPI:
$04 SYS_STATE
OPER_CTL_STATE bit [10:8]
011 = IC in SCRAP state
Once in SCRAP state, the IC returns to INITIALIZATION state only through a SSM_RESET.
In SCRAP state the microcontroller drives the transition to ARMING state and monitors
Remote Sensor SPI interface (L9678-S). Safing logic is disabled.
4.5
ARMING
This phase is the last enabling for the deployment.
Special care has to be taken to control the entry into and exit from ARMING state. The
mechanism is managed through ACL (Additional Communication Line).
In ARMING state the arming output is asserted.
Exit from this state occurs when a timeout happens without a correct ACL signal or
SSM_RESET is asserted.
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AN4437
5
Voltage regulators
Voltage regulators
2 internal linear voltage regulators:

3V3INT for internal analog blocks

CVDD for internal digital blocks. It requires an external filter capacitor (100 nF) on pin
CVDD.
1 switching regulator, ERBOOST 23 V or 3 3V programmable via SPI
1 linear regulator VDD5 5 V
1 linear regulator VDD3V3 3.3 V
1 optional linear regulator VSUP 7 V (L9678-S)
1 linear regulator VSF 20 V, 25 V programmable via SPI
5.1
Internal voltage regulators
In SLEEP MODE, the two internal regulators, 3V3INT and CVDD, are switched on, so that
the device is ready for the full activation.
The other voltage regulators are enabled in ACTIVE MODE.
Requirement: VIN>VINGOOD1max = 5.5 V
5.2
ERBOOST
Features



Boost enable via SPI (default active)
Boost works at 1.875 MHz, 2.13 MHz, 2 MHz, selectable via SPI.
ERBOOST is 23 V as default value and it is configurable, via SPI, at 33 V.
SPI configuration:
$02 SYS_CTL
ER_BST_V, bit 9
ER_BST_EN, bit 6
$2D CLK_CONF
ERBST_SEL, bit [1,0]
Config. in INIT, DIAG, SAFING, SCRAP, ARMING state
0 = 23V selected (22.6v÷25V)
1 = 33V selected (31.65V÷35V)
0 = ER_BOOST OFF
1 = ER_BOOST ON - default
Config. in INIT state only
00 = 1.88Mhz
01 = 2.13Mhz
10 = 11 = 2Mhz
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Voltage regulators
AN4437
Activation
Requirement: VINGOOD1max = 5.5 V ≤ VIN ≤ 18 V
IC in ACTIVE mode
ERBOOST pin follows battery until POR is released. As POR is released, BOOST runs
being as default active, and ERBOOST voltage increases up to 23 V (default) or 33 V, if
selected, (see Section 3.1: Power up sequence).
Normal function
ERBOOST supplies VSF safing regulator, the GPO drivers and the internal current
generator "ER charge" 30 mA typ. ER charge then charges the external reserve capacitor
on VER pin.
Figure 18. ERBOOST functionality
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Diagnostic
Diagnostic read out via SPI:

ERBOOST status (ON or OFF)

OVER/UNDERVOLTAGE
$05 POWER STATE
ER_BST_NOK, bit 12
ER_BST_ON, bit8
1 = V_ERBOOST<ERBOOST_OK
0 = V_ERBOOST>ERBOOST_OK
1 = ERBOOST ON
0 = ERBOOST OFF or (OVERTEMPERATURE or STANDBY)
ERBOOST_OK = 18 V ÷ 22 V if ERBOOST = 23 V
ERBOOST_OK = 26 V ÷ 30 V if ERBOOST = 33 V
36/201
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
Voltage regulators
Protection
Short to battery determines an over-temperature event (readable via SPI) that switches off
the regulator.
Overtemperature
$00 FLTSR
ER_BST_OT, bit 17
0 = NO FAULT
1 = FAULT
The over-temperature event is latched in the register until it is read through the SPI.
To switch on again ERBOOST, it is necessary to enable again ERBOOST via SPI:
$02 SYS_CTL
Config. in INIT, DIAG, SAFING, SCRAP, ARMING state
ER_BST_EN, bit 6
0 = ER_BOOST OFF
1 = ER_BOOST ON
Ground loss determines the regulator's switch off. As soon as ground connection is
restored, the regulator restarts automatically, without the ‘SWITCH ON’ SPI command.
After an under/over voltage detection, as soon as voltage turns to its correct value, the
regulator restarts automatically, without the ‘SWITCH ON’ SPI command.
Threshold to deactivate ERBOOST:
ERBST_DISABLETH = VIN-ERBOOST
1.6 V < ERBST_DISABLETH < 2.5 V
Threshold to activate the ER Boost CLAMP:
CLAMP_ENTH = (ERBSTSW - ERBOOST)
1.6 V < CLAMP_ENTH < 2.5 V
Figure 19. ERBOOST protection
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DocID025845 Rev 2
37/201
200
Voltage regulators
AN4437
Deactivation
ERBOOST can be disabled via SPI:
$02 SYS_CTL
ER_BST_EN, bit 6
Config. in INIT, DIAG, SAFING, SCRAP, ARMING state
0 = ER_BOOST OFF
1 = ER_BOOST ON
In case of low or lost battery, the IC passes in PASSIVE MODE / ER state, the regulator can
be switched off or not, depending on KEEP_ERBST_ON bit, SYS_CFG register:
5.3
$01 SYS_CFG
Config. in INIT
KEEP_ERBST_ON bit 12
0 = ERBOOST disabled in ER state
1 = ERBOOST not disabled in ER state
ER CHARGE - ER SWITCH
ER CHARGE
Features

IER_charge 20 mA ÷ 40 mA

RDS(on) max = 20 Ω
Activation

Requirement: VINGOOD1max = 5.5 V ≤ VIN ≤ 35 V

ERBOOST ≤ 8 V

IC in ACTIVE mode
SPI command:
$02 SYS_CTL
ER_CUR_EN, bit 7
38/201
Config. in INIT, DIAG, SAFING, SCRAP, ARMING state
0 = ER current source OFF requested
1 = ER current source ON requested
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
Voltage regulators
Normal function
ER CHARGE charges the external reserve capacitor connected to VER pin.
Figure 20. ER CAP functionality
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Note:
ER CHARGE is able to deliver 20 mA (worse case) to charge the external capacitor. Any
connections to VER pin determines an additive contribution in terms of current consumption.
Due to the max current limitation of ER CHARGE block, each additive load on the pin lowers
the current inside the external reserve capacitor increasing the time needed to fully charge
it.
For example, connecting VRESDIAG to VER, during diagnostic or at the DCS switch on, the
current required by VRESDIAG is higher than 20mA (the capacitor provides the extra
current).
Diagnostic
ER charge status is readable on SPI:
$05 POWER STATE
ER_CHRG_ON, bit 7
0 = ER charge ON
1 = ER charge OFF
Deactivation
Out of ACTIVE mode ER charge is switched off to decouple ERBOOST pin from VER
DocID025845 Rev 2
39/201
200
Voltage regulators
AN4437
ER SWITCH
Features

RDS(on) = 0.5 Ω ÷ 3 Ω

current limitation at his activation (300 mA min / 500 mA max)
Activation
Requirement: VINGOOD1max = 5.5 V ≤ VIN ≤ 35 V
IC in PASSIVE mode.
Normal function
When ER switch is on, VIN is supplied through ER switch by the external reserve capacitor.
The energy stored in the external reserve capacitor guarantees the energy supply for the
device until POR occurs, including the deployment (if required) in case of battery low or lost
too.
ER switch implements a current limitation (300mA:500mA) to avoid in-rush current as ER
switch is enabled or in case of a short to ground.
Figure 21. ER SWITCH functionality
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40/201
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
Voltage regulators
Protection
Dedicated thermal sensor, active when no deploy is running and monitored through
ER_SW_TSD comparator.
In thermal shutdown, with no deployment running, ER_SWITCH is turned OFF so the
energy taken from the external reserve capacitor is not available. In this condition the
regulators are not any more supplied and POR occurs.
Comparator thresholds are:
150°C < TJSD_ERSW < 190°C
5°C < THYS_TSDERSW <15°C
ER switch status is readable on SPI:
$05 POWER STATE
ER_SW_ON, bit 4
0 = ER SWITCH OFF
1 = ER SWITCH ON
To avoid continuously on and off cycling, there is a timeout T1, 1ms typ.
ER switch is protected against reverse biasing to avoid back-feeding of battery to the
external reserve capacitor.
Deactivation
It is deactivated when the device exits from PASSIVE mode.
5.4
VDD5 linear regulator
Features





5 V linear regulator, slope controlled, derived directly from battery line through an
external PNP (hFE min 50).
VDD5 output voltage: 4.85 V ÷ 5.15 V
VDD5 load current 0.5 mA ÷ 200 mA
VDD5 stability requires an external small capacitor 3 μF ÷ 31 μF.
Current limitation is guaranteed controlling the output current on BVDD5 pin.
Activation
Requirement: VINGOOD1max = 5.5 V ≤ VIN ≤ 35 V
It starts in ACTIVE mode and continues to work in PASSIVE mode too, being supplied
through ER switch by the external reserve capacitor.
As the regulator starts running, the under-voltage that occurs before the regulator has
reached its correct value, it is not considered a fault (under-voltage fault) in the first 3ms
after the regulator is switched on.
DocID025845 Rev 2
41/201
200
Voltage regulators
AN4437
Normal function
VDD5 is used to supply eventual 5 V compatible devices on board.
VDDQ pin defines the voltage level on I/O pin:

if VDDQ is connected to VDD5 it means that digital I/O pins 5V are compliant.

if VDDQ is connected to VDD3V3 it means that digital I/O pins 3.3V are compliant.
Figure 22. VDD5 functionality
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VDD5UVSD = VDD5UVL = 1.8 V ÷ 2.2 V
42/201
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
Voltage regulators
Diagnostic:
OVERVOLTAGE
UNDERVOLTAGE
UNDERVOLTAGE LOW LEVEL
VDD5 state active VDD5_ACT
VDD5_OV = 5.2V ÷ 5.5V, latched
VDD5_UV = 4.5V ÷ 4.8V
VDD5_UVL = 1.8V ÷ 2.2V
Diagnostic read out through SPI:
$05 POWER STATE
VDD5_UV, bit 11
0 = VDD5>VDD5_UV
1 = VDD5>VDD5_UV
VDD5_OV, bit 10
0 = VDD5<VDD5_OV
1 = VDD5>VDD5_OV
VDD5_ACT, bit 3
0 = VDD5 in OFF or SHUTDOWN state
1 = VDD5 in RAMPUP or ON
VDD5_ACT bit is used by the microcontroller to monitor the VDD5 status, ON or OFF.
Protection
Current limitation is guaranteed by means of controlling output current on BVDD5 pin (4 mA
to 10 mA).
Deactivation
Deactivation is determined by all the conditions that bring back the IC in SLEEP mode.
In case of VDD5_UV, or VDD5_OV or VDD3V3_OV the regulator is switched off.
5.5
VDD3V3 linear regulator
Features
3.3 V full integrated linear regulator slope controlled derived from VDD5.
VDD3V3: 3.2 V ÷ 3.4 V
VDD3V3 load current 0.5 mA ÷ 125 mA
VDD3V3 load current limitation: 150 mA min
VDD3V3 stability requires an external small capacitor 3 μF ÷ 31 μF.
Activation
Requirement: VDD5min = 4.85 V ≤ VDD5.
It starts in ACTIVE mode and continues to work in PASSIVE mode too, being supplied by
VDD5 and VDD5 is supplied, via ER switch, by the external reserve capacitor.
DocID025845 Rev 2
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200
Voltage regulators
AN4437
Normal function
VDD3V3 is used to supply 3.3 V devices, as for example, the microcontroller if it has been
chosen one whose I/O pins are 3.3 V compatible.
VDDQ pin defines the voltage level on I/O pin:

if VDDQ is connected to VDD5 it means that digital I/O pins 5 V are compliant.

if VDDQ is connected to VDD3V3 it means that digital I/O pins 3.3 V are compliant.
Figure 23. VDD3V3 functionality
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Diagnostic
OVERVOLTAGE
UNDERVOLTAGE
VDD3V3 active state
VDD3V3OV = 3.43V ÷ 3.6V
VDD3V3UV = 3.0V ÷ 3.17V
Diagnostic read out through SPI:
$05 POWER STATE
44/201
VDD3V3_UV, bit 14
0 = VDD3V3>VDD3V3_UV
1 = VDD3V3>VDD3V3_UV
VDD3V3_OV, bit 13
0 = VDD3V3<VDD3V3_OV
1 = VDD3V3>VDD3V3_OV
VDD3V3_ACT, bit 1
0 = VDD3V3 in OFF or SHUTDOWN state
1 = VDD3V3 is ON
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
Voltage regulators
VDD3V3_ACT bit is used by the microcontroller to monitor the VDD3V3 status, ON or OFF.
Protection
Current limitation of VDD3V3 is IO_LIM = 150 mA max.
Note:
If the VDDQ pin (digital outputs supply) is connected to the VDD3V3 and any of the digital
I/O pins are connected to 5V logic, there is no internal blocking diode to prevent 3.3V supply
back feeding.
Deactivation
Deactivation is determined by all the conditions that bring back the IC in SLEEP mode.
It is switched off in case VDD5 is NOT IN on STATE.
5.6
VSUP Linear regulator (available for L9678S version)
Features





6.8 V linear regulator slope controlled, derived directly from battery line through an
external PNP (hFE min 50)
VSUP output voltage: 6.5 V ÷ 7.1 V
VSUP load current 0.5 mA ÷ 200 mA
VSUP stability requires an external small capacitor 3 μF ÷ 30 μF.
Current limitation is guaranteed controlling the output current on BVSUP pin.
As the regulator starts running, the under-voltage that occurs before the regulator has
reached its correct value, it is not considered a fault (under-voltage fault) in the first 3ms
after the regulator is switched on.
Activation
Requirement: VINGOOD2max = 6.8 V ≤ VIN ≤ 35 V
IC in ACTIVE or PASSIVE mode; in PASSIVE mode VSUP is supplied through ER switch by
the external reserve capacitor.
SPI command:
$02 SYS_CTL
VSPU_EN, bit 5
Config. in INIT, DIAG, SAFING, SCRAP, ARMING state
0 = VSUP commanded OFF
1 = VSUP commanded ON
Normal function
VSUP is used to supply 6.8 V devices as, for example, the PSI-5 sensor.
In case of L9678 version, VSUP pin can be connected to GND.
DocID025845 Rev 2
45/201
200
Voltage regulators
AN4437
Figure 24. VSUP functionality
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Diagnostic
$05 POWER STATE
VSUP_NOK, bit 9
0: VSUP is in its correct range VTHLVSUP<VSUP<VTHHVSUP
1: VSUP is out of its correct range (VSUP<VTHLVSUP) OR (VSUP>
VTHHVSUP)
VSUP_ACT, bit 2
0 = VSUP in OFF or SHUTDOWN state
1 = VSUP in RAMPUP or ON
VTHHVSUP = 8 V max
VTHLVSUP = 6.5 V min
VSUP_ACT bit is used by the microcontroller to monitor the VSUP status, ON or OFF.
Protection
Current limitation is guaranteed by means of controlling output current on BVSUP pin (4 mA
to 10 mA).
Deactivation
Through SPI disable command.
In case of VSUP under-voltage condition that lasts for at least Tvsupuvfilt (27 μs ÷ 33 μs) after
5 ms, VSUP is switched off.
46/201
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
5.7
Voltage regulators
VSF linear regulator
Features


full integrated linear regulator derived from ERBOOST
VSF is 20 V as default value and it is configurable at 25 V via SPI
$01 SYS_CFG
Config. in INIT state
VSF_V, bit 2
0 = 20 V selected (18 V ÷ 20 V)
1 = 25 V selected (23 V ÷ 27 V)
VSF stability requires an external small capacitor 2.9 μF ÷ 14 μF.
Turn on time = 100 μs
Activation
Requirement: VINGOOD1max = 5.5 V ≤ VIN ≤ 35 V
VSF + 2 V ≤ ERBOOST
IC in ACTIVE or PASSIVE mode
Activation of this regulator is so conditioned:
Figure 25. VSF enable
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SAFESEL configures (via SPI) the safing logic, internal or external:
$01 SYS_CFG
SAFESEL, bit 3
Config. in INIT state
0 = internal safing engine
1 = external safing engine - default
If the IC is in DIAGNOSTIC state, VSF_EN is linked to the request to activate VSF:
DocID025845 Rev 2
47/201
200
Voltage regulators
AN4437
$36 SYSDIAGREQ
Config. in DIAG state
DSTEST, bit [3÷0]
0110 = VSF regulator active
Normal function
VSF is used to supply an external N channel safing FET.
Diagnostic
$05 POWER STATE
VSF_ACT, bit 0
0: VSF_EN = 0
1: VSF_EN = 1
Protection
Output load current limitation IO_LIM = 7 mA ÷ 13 mA
Output voltage drop-out = (ERBOOST-VSF) = 2 V max
Deactivation
See picture above: any condition that does not satisfy the condition reported.
5.8
RESET
RESET is active low.
Figure 26. Regulators diagnostic errors
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48/201
*1''B(55
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DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
Voltage regulators
List of the internal reset signals:
VBG_READY
problem on band gap
VREG_ERR
problem on internal voltage regulators
VDD3V3_ERR
problem on VDD3V3 voltage regulator
VDD5_ERR
problem on VDD5 voltage regulator
GNDA_ERR
GNDD_ERR
GND_ERR
GNDA shift greater than 300mV respect to GND SUB
GNDD shift greater than 300mV respect to GND SUB
GNDA_ERR or GNDD_ERR
These signals are grouped into 3 internal bit:
Figure 27. RESET organization
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POR (POR bit) takes into account problems on the internal voltage regulators (3V3INT and
CVDD), on GND connections, and problems in the clock frequency.
WSM_Reset (WSMRST bit) takes into account the same problem of POR and problems on
the external voltage regulators, VDD5 or VDD3V3.
Problems on VDD5 can be ignored depending on DIS_VDD5_ERR bit configuration:
$01 SYS_CFG
DIS_VDD5_ERR, bit 14
Config. in INIT state
0 = VDD5 OV/UV generates reset
1 = VDD5 OV/UV doesn’t generate reset
DocID025845 Rev 2
49/201
200
Voltage regulators
AN4437
SSM_Reset (SSMRST bit) takes into account the same problem of WSM_Reset and
problems on the watchdog service.
$00 FLTSR
WSMRST, bit 3
0 = WSM RESET has not occurred
1 = WSM RESET has occurred
SSMRST, bit 2
0 = SSM RESET has not occurred
1 = SSM RESET has occurred
POR, bit 0
0 = POR RESET has not occurred
1 = POR RESET has occurred
RESET pin (not SSM_Reset) summarizes all the above mentioned cases.
50/201
DocID025845 Rev 2
SPI
AN4437
6
For configuration, control and read out status of the IC.
Table 3. Global SPI register map
GID
RID / WID
0
Description
Operating State(1)
DocID025845 Rev 2
Name
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
$00
R
FLTSR
0
0 0 0 0 0 0 1
$01
R/W
SYS_CFG
Power supply configuration (regulators'
output voltage selection, enable internal
safing engine)
X
0
0 0 0 0 0 1 0
$02
R/W
SYS_CTL
Register to control the power management
(enable for tests in diag state, enable for
power mode control bit)
X
X
X
X
X
0
0 0 0 0 0 1 1
$03
W
SPI_SLEEP
Sleep Mode command
X
X
X
X
X
0
0 0 0 0 1 0 0
$04
R
SYS_STATE
Read register to report in which state the
power control state machine is and also in
which Operating state we are.
0
0 0 0 0 1 0 1
$05
R
POWER_STATE
0
0 0 0 0 1 1 0
$06
R/W
DCR_0
X
X
X
X
0
0 0 0 0 1 1 1
$07
R/W
DCR_1
X
X
X
X
0
0 0 0 1 0 0 0
$08
R/W
DCR_2
X
X
X
X
0
0 0 0 1 0 0 1
$09
R/W
DCR_3
X
X
X
X
0
0 0 0 1 0 1 0
$0A
0
0 0 0 1 0 1 1
$0B
0
0 0 0 1 1 0 0 $0C
0
0 0 0 1 1 0 1 $0D
0
0 0 0 1 1 1 0
$0E
0
0 0 0 1 1 1 1
$0F
0
0 0 1 0 0 0 0
$10
0
0 0 1 0 0 0 1
$11
Init
Diag Ssafing Scrap
Arming
Global fault status register
Power state register (feedback on regulators'
status and voltage thresholds)
Deployment configuration register
SPI
51/201
Hex R/W
Hex R/W
Name
Description
SPI
52/201
Table 3. Global SPI register map (continued)
Operating State(1)
DocID025845 Rev 2
GID
RID / WID
0
0 0 1 0 0 1 0
$12
R/W
DEPCOM
0
0 0 1 0 0 1 1
$13
R
DSR_0
0
0 0 1 0 1 0 0
$14
R
DSR_1
0
0 0 1 0 1 0 1
$15
R
DSR_2
0
0 0 1 0 1 1 0
$16
R
DSR_3
0
0 0 1 0 1 1 1
$17
0
0 0 1 1 0 0 0
$18
0
0 0 1 1 0 0 1
$19
0
0 0 1 1 0 1 0
$1A
0
0 0 1 1 0 1 1
$1B
0
0 0 1 1 1 0 0 $1C
0
0 0 1 1 1 0 1 $1D
0
0 0 1 1 1 1 0
$1E
0
0 0 1 1 1 1 1
$1F
R
DCMTS01
0
0 1 0 0 0 0 0
$20
R
DCMTS23
0
0 1 0 0 0 0 1
$21
0
0 1 0 0 0 1 0
$22
0
0 1 0 0 0 1 1
$23
0
0 1 0 0 1 0 0
$24
0
0 1 0 0 1 0 1
$25
R/W
SPIDEPEN
0
0 1 0 0 1 1 0
$26
R
LP_GNDLOSS
0
0 1 0 0 1 1 1
$27
R
VERSION_ID
0
0 1 0 1 0 0 0
$28
R/W
WD_RETRY_CONF
Watchdog Retry Configuration
X
0
0 1 0 1 0 0 1
$29
0
0 1 0 1 0 1 0
$2A R/W
WDTCR
Watchdog timer configuration
X
0
0 1 0 1 0 1 1
$2B R/W
WD1T
Watchdog key transmission & Test mode
X
Init
Diag Ssafing Scrap
Deployment command register
Arming
X
X
X
X
Deployment status register
Deployment current monitor register
Lock/Unlock command
Loss of ground fault for squib loops
Device version
X
X
X
AN4437
X
GID
RID / WID
Hex R/W
R
Name
Description
WD_STATE
Watchdog state
CLK_CONF
Clock Configuration
Operating State(1)
Init
Diag Ssafing Scrap
DocID025845 Rev 2
0
0 1 0 1 1 0 0 $2C
0
0 1 0 1 1 0 1 $2D R/W
0
0 1 0 1 1 1 0
$2E
0
0 1 0 1 1 1 1
$2F
0
0 1 1 0 0 0 0
$30
W
SCRAP_STATE
Scrap State command
X
0
0 1 1 0 0 0 1
$31
W
SAFING_STATE
Safing State command
X
0
0 1 1 0 0 1 0
$32
0
0 1 1 0 0 1 1
$33
0
0 1 1 0 1 0 0
$34
0
0 1 1 0 1 0 1
$35
W
WD_TEST
0
0 1 1 0 1 1 0
$36
R/W
SYSDIAGREQ
Diagnostic command for system safing
0
0 1 1 0 1 1 1
$37
R
LPDIAGSTAT
Diagnostic results register for deployment
loops
0
0 1 1 1 0 0 0
$38
R/W
LPDIAGREQ
Diagnostic configuration command for
deployment loops
0
0 1 1 1 0 0 1
$39
R/W
SWCTRL
0
0 1 1 1 0 1 0
$3A R/W
0
0 1 1 1 0 1 1
Watchdog first and second level test
Arming
AN4437
Table 3. Global SPI register map (continued)
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
DC sensor diagnostic configuration
X
X
X
X
DIAGCTRL_A
In WID is AtoD converter control register A.
In RID is AtoD result A request.
X
X
X
X
$3B R/W
DIAGCTRL_B
In WID is AtoD converter control register B.
In RID is AtoD result B request.
X
X
X
X
0
0 1 1 1 1 0 0 $3C R/W
DIAGCTRL_C
In WID is AtoD converter control register C.
In RID is AtoD result C request.
X
X
X
X
0
0 1 1 1 1 0 1 $3D R/W
DIAGCTRL_D
In WID is AtoD converter control register D.
In RID is AtoD result D request.
X
X
X
X
0
0 1 1 1 1 1 0
$3E
0
0 1 1 1 1 1 1
$3F
0
1 0 0 0 0 0 0
$40
0
1 0 0 0 0 0 1
$41
SPI
53/201
X
X
GID
RID / WID
Hex R/W
Name
0
1 0 0 0 0 1 0
$42
R/W
GPOCR
0
1 0 0 0 0 1 1
$43
R/W
0
1 0 0 0 1 0 0
$44
0
1 0 0 0 1 0 1
$45
0
1 0 0 0 1 1 0
0
Description
Operating State(1)
Init
Diag Ssafing Scrap
Arming
DocID025845 Rev 2
X
X
GPOCTRL0
General Purpose Output control register
X
X
X
X
X
R/W
GPOCTRL1
General Purpose Output control register
X
X
X
X
X
$46
R
GPOFLTSR
General Purpose Output fault status register
1 0 0 0 1 1 1
$47
R
ISOFLTSR
ISO9141 fault status register
0
1 0 0 1 0 0 0
$48
0
1 0 0 1 0 0 1
$49
0
1 0 0 1 0 1 0
$4A R/W
RSCR1
0
1 0 0 1 0 1 1
$4B R/W
RSCR2
0
1 0 0 1 1 0 0 $4C
0
1 0 0 1 1 0 1 $4D
0
1 0 0 1 1 1 0
$4E R/W
X
X
X
0
1 0 0 1 1 1 1
$4F
0
1 0 1 0 0 0 0
$50
R
RSDR1
0
1 0 1 0 0 0 1
$51
R
RSDR2
0
1 0 1 0 0 1 0
$52
0
1 0 1 0 0 1 1
$53
0
1 0 1 0 1 0 0
$54
0
1 0 1 0 1 0 1
$55
0
1 0 1 0 1 1 0
$56
0
1 0 1 0 1 1 1
$57
0
1 0 1 1 0 0 0
$58
0
1 0 1 1 0 0 1
$59
0
1 0 1 1 0 1 0
$5A
0
1 0 1 1 0 1 1
$5B
RSCTRL
PSI5 configuration register
X
X
Remote sensor control register
X
Remote sensor data and fault flag registers
SPI
54/201
General Purpose Output configuration
AN4437
Table 3. Global SPI register map (continued)
GID
RID / WID
Hex R/W
Name
Description
Operating State(1)
Init
Diag Ssafing Scrap
DocID025845 Rev 2
1 0 1 1 1 0 0 $5C
0
1 0 1 1 1 0 1 $5D
0
1 0 1 1 1 1 0
$5E
0
1 0 1 1 1 1 1
$5F
0
1 1 0 0 0 0 0
$60
0
1 1 0 0 0 0 1
$61
0
1 1 0 0 0 1 0
$62
0
1 1 0 0 0 1 1
$63
0
1 1 0 0 1 0 0
$64
0
1 1 0 0 1 0 1
$65
0
1 1 0 0 1 1 0
$66
0
1 1 0 0 1 1 1
$67
0
1 1 0 1 0 0 0
$68
0
1 1 0 1 0 0 1
$69
0
1 1 0 1 0 1 0
$6A
0
1 1 0 1 0 1 1
$6B
0
1 1 0 1 1 0 0 $6C
0
1 1 0 1 1 0 1 $6D
0
1 1 0 1 1 1 0
$6E R/W
LOOP_MATRIX_ARM1 Assignment of ARM 1 pin to which LOOPS
X
0
1 1 0 1 1 1 1
$6F
LOOP_MATRIX_ARM2 Assignment of ARM 2 pin to which LOOPS
X
0
1 1 1 0 0 0 0
$70
0
1 1 1 0 0 0 1
$71
0
1 1 1 0 0 1 0
$72
0
1 1 1 0 0 1 1
$73
R
AEPSTS_ARM1
0
1 1 1 0 1 0 0
$74
R
AEPSTS_ARM2
R/W
SAF_ALGO_CONF
R
ARM_STATE
R/W
Safing Algorithm configuration register
X
Status of internal arming signals FENH,
FENL, ARMx
Arming pulse stretch timer value
SPI
55/201
0
Arming
AN4437
Table 3. Global SPI register map (continued)
Hex R/W
Name
Description
Operating State(1)
DocID025845 Rev 2
GID
RID / WID
0
1 1 1 0 1 0 1
$75
0
1 1 1 0 1 1 0
$76
0
1 1 1 0 1 1 1
$77
0
1 1 1 1 0 0 0
$78
0
1 1 1 1 0 0 1
$79
0
1 1 1 1 0 1 0
$7A
0
1 1 1 1 0 1 1
$7B
0
1 1 1 1 1 0 0 $7C
0
1 1 1 1 1 0 1 $7D
0
1 1 1 1 1 1 0
$7E
0
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
$7F
R/W
SAF_ENABLE
1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
$80
R/W
SAF_REQ_MASK_1
X
1
0 0 0 0 0 0 1
$81
R/W
SAF_REQ_MASK_2
X
1
0 0 0 0 0 1 0
$82
R/W
SAF_REQ_MASK_3
X
1
0 0 0 0 0 1 1
$83
R/W
SAF_REQ_MASK_4
X
1
0 0 0 0 1 0 0
$84
1
0 0 0 0 1 0 1
$85
1
0 0 0 0 1 1 0
$86
1
0 0 0 0 1 1 1
$87
1
0 0 0 1 0 0 0
$88
1
0 0 0 1 0 0 1
$89
Safing record enable
SPI
56/201
Table 3. Global SPI register map (continued)
Init
Diag Ssafing Scrap
X
X
X
Arming
X
Safing record request mask
AN4437
Hex R/W
Name
Description
Operating State(1)
DocID025845 Rev 2
RID / WID
1
0 0 0 1 0 1 0
$8A
1
0 0 0 1 0 1 1
$8B
1
0 0 0 1 1 0 0 $8C
1
0 0 0 1 1 0 1 $8D
1
0 0 0 1 1 1 0
$8E
1
0 0 0 1 1 1 1
$8F
1
0 0 1 0 0 0 0
$90
1
0 0 1 0 0 0 1
$91
1
0 0 1 0 0 1 0
$92
1
0 0 1 0 0 1 1
$93
R/W
SAF_REQ_TARGET_1
X
1
0 0 1 0 1 0 0
$94
R/W
SAF_REQ_TARGET_2
X
1
0 0 1 0 1 0 1
$95
R/W
SAF_REQ_TARGET_3
X
1
0 0 1 0 1 1 0
$96
R/W
SAF_REQ_TARGET_4
X
1
0 0 1 0 1 1 1
$97
1
0 0 1 1 0 0 0
$98
1
0 0 1 1 0 0 1
$99
1
0 0 1 1 0 1 0
$9A
1
0 0 1 1 0 1 1
$9B
1
0 0 1 1 1 0 0 $9C
1
0 0 1 1 1 0 1 $9D
1
0 0 1 1 1 1 0
$9E
1
0 0 1 1 1 1 1
$9F
1
0 1 0 0 0 0 0
$A0
1
0 1 0 0 0 0 1
$A1
1
0 1 0 0 0 1 0
$A2
Init
Diag Ssafing Scrap
Arming
Safing record request mask
Safing record request target
SPI
57/201
GID
AN4437
Table 3. Global SPI register map (continued)
Hex R/W
Name
Description
SPI
58/201
Table 3. Global SPI register map (continued)
Operating State(1)
DocID025845 Rev 2
GID
RID / WID
1
0 1 0 0 0 1 1
$A3
1
0 1 0 0 1 0 0
$A4
1
0 1 0 0 1 0 1
$A5
1
0 1 0 0 1 1 0
$A6 R/W
SAF_RESP_MASK_1
X
1
0 1 0 0 1 1 1
$A7 R/W
SAF_RESP_MASK_2
X
1
0 1 0 1 0 0 0
$A8 R/W
SAF_RESP_MASK_3
X
1
0 1 0 1 0 0 1
$A9 R/W
SAF_RESP_MASK_4
X
1
0 1 0 1 0 1 0 $AA
1
0 1 0 1 0 1 1 $AB
1
0 1 0 1 1 0 0 $AC
1
0 1 0 1 1 0 1 $AD
1
0 1 0 1 1 1 0 $AE
1
0 1 0 1 1 1 1 $AF
1
0 1 1 0 0 0 0
$B0
1
0 1 1 0 0 0 1
$B1
1
0 1 1 0 0 1 0
$B2
1
0 1 1 0 0 1 1
$B3
1
0 1 1 0 1 0 0
$B4
1
0 1 1 0 1 0 1
$B5
1
0 1 1 0 1 1 0
$B6
1
0 1 1 0 1 1 1
$B7
1
0 1 1 1 0 0 0
$B8
1
0 1 1 1 0 0 1
$B9 R/W SAF_RESP_TARGET_1
1
0 1 1 1 0 1 0 $BA R/W SAF_RESP_TARGET_2
1
0 1 1 1 0 1 1 $BB R/W SAF_RESP_TARGET_3
1
0 1 1 1 1 0 0 $BC R/W SAF_RESP_TARGET_4
Init
Diag Ssafing Scrap
Arming
Safing record request target
Safing record response mask
X
X
X
X
AN4437
Safing record response target
GID
RID / WID
Hex R/W
Name
Description
Operating State(1)
Init
Diag Ssafing Scrap
DocID025845 Rev 2
1
0 1 1 1 1 0 1 $BD
1
0 1 1 1 1 1 0 $BE
1
0 1 1 1 1 1 1 $BF
1
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 $C0
1
1 0 0 0 0 0 1 $C1
1
1 0 0 0 0 1 0 $C2
1
1 0 0 0 0 1 1 $C3
1
1 0 0 0 1 0 0 $C4
1
1 0 0 0 1 0 1 $C5
1
1 0 0 0 1 1 0 $C6
1
1 0 0 0 1 1 1 $C7
1
1 0 0 1 0 0 0 $C8
1
1 0 0 1 0 0 1 $C9
1
1 0 0 1 0 1 0 $CA
1
1 0 0 1 0 1 1 $CB
1
1 0 0 1 1 0 0 $CC R/W
SAF_DATA_MASK_1
X
1
1 0 0 1 1 0 1 $CD R/W
SAF_DATA_MASK_2
X
1
1 0 0 1 1 1 0 $CE R/W
SAF_DATA_MASK_3
1
1 0 0 1 1 1 1 $CF R/W
SAF_DATA_MASK_4
1
1 0 1 0 0 0 0 $D0
1
1 0 1 0 0 0 1 $D1
Arming
AN4437
Table 3. Global SPI register map (continued)
Safing record response target
Safing record data mask
X
X
SPI
59/201
GID
RID / WID
Hex R/W
Name
Description
SPI
60/201
Table 3. Global SPI register map (continued)
Operating State(1)
Init
Diag Ssafing Scrap
DocID025845 Rev 2
1
1 0 1 0 0 1 0 $D2
1
1 0 1 0 0 1 1 $D3
1
1 0 1 0 1 0 0 $D4
1
1 0 1 0 1 0 1 $D5
1
1 0 1 0 1 1 0 $D6
1
1 0 1 0 1 1 1 $D7
1
1 0 1 1 0 0 0 $D8
1
1 0 1 1 0 0 1 $D9
1
1 0 1 1 0 1 0 $DA
1
1 0 1 1 0 1 1 $DB
1
1 0 1 1 1 0 0 $DC
1
1 0 1 1 1 0 1 $DD
1
1 0 1 1 1 1 0 $DE
1
1 0 1 1 1 1 1 $DF R/W
SAF_THRESHOLD_1
X
1
1 1 0 0 0 0 0
$E0 R/W
SAF_THRESHOLD_2
X
1
1 1 0 0 0 0 1
$E1 R/W
SAF_THRESHOLD_3
X
1
1 1 0 0 0 1 0
$E2 R/W
SAF_THRESHOLD_4
X
1
1 1 0 0 0 1 1
$E3
1
1 1 0 0 1 0 0
$E4
1
1 1 0 0 1 0 1
$E5
1
1 1 0 0 1 1 0
$E6
1
1 1 0 0 1 1 1
$E7
1
1 1 0 1 0 0 0
$E8
1
1 1 0 1 0 0 1
$E9
1
1 1 0 1 0 1 0 $EA
Arming
Safing record data mask
Safing record threshold
AN4437
GID
RID / WID
Hex R/W
Name
Description
Operating State(1)
Init
Diag Ssafing Scrap
DocID025845 Rev 2
1
1 1 0 1 0 1 1 $EB
1
1 1 0 1 1 0 0 $EC
1
1 1 0 1 1 0 1 $ED
1
1 1 0 1 1 1 0 $EE
1
1 1 0 1 1 1 1 $EF R/W
SAF_CONTROL_1
X
1
1 1 1 0 0 0 0
$F0
R/W
SAF_CONTROL_2
X
1
1 1 1 0 0 0 1
$F1
R/W
SAF_CONTROL_3
X
1
1 1 1 0 0 1 0
$F2
R/W
SAF_CONTROL_4
X
1
1 1 1 0 0 1 1
$F3
1
1 1 1 0 1 0 0
$F4
1
1 1 1 0 1 0 1
$F5
1
1 1 1 0 1 1 0
$F6
1
1 1 1 0 1 1 1
$F7
1
1 1 1 1 0 0 0
$F8
1
1 1 1 1 0 0 1
$F9
1
1 1 1 1 0 1 0
$FA
1
1 1 1 1 0 1 1 $FB
1
1 1 1 1 1 0 0 $FC
1
1 1 1 1 1 0 1 $FD
1
1 1 1 1 1 1 0 $FE
1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
$FF
Arming
AN4437
Table 3. Global SPI register map (continued)
Safing record threshold
Safing record control
R
SAF_CC
Safing record compare complete
1. A check mark indicates in which operating state a WRITE-command is valid.
SPI
61/201
SPI
AN4437
SPI_MOSI: for input register. MSB is the first bit received, LSB the last
SPI_MISO: for output register. MSB is the first bit transmitted, LSB the last
SPI_SCK: clock, slave input data latched on SPI_SCK rising edge and slave output data
shifted on falling edge
SPI_CS: chip select
CS = H → SPI pins in tri-state
CS = L → SPI communication enabled
There are other two chip selects, SAF_CS0 and SAF_CS1. They are used for a specific
communication between sensor interface and IC, see Section 4.3: SAFING.
Figure 28. SPI signals
63,B&6
63,B6&/.
06%287
/6%287
'$7$
'21¶7
&$5(
63,B0,62
63,B026,
'$7$
06%,1
/6%,1
'!0'03
SPI is 32 bit, so organized:
SPI_MOSI
SPI_MISO
31
GID
30
29
28
15
14
13
12
27
26
25
RID[6:0]
GSW[10:0]
11
10
9
SPI_MOSI
SPI_MISO
24
23
22
21
8
7
6
WRITE[15:0]
READ[15:0]
5
20
19
WID[6:0]
RPAR
4
16
WPAR
READ[19:16]
3
GID
global ID, shared between RID and WID
WID / RID
register definition Write and Read
WPAR / RPAR
odd parity bit Write and Read, calculated on all the 32 bit
GSW
Global Status Word
WRITE
Data input (15:0)
READ
Data output (19:0)
18
17
2
1
0
MSB is the first bit transmitted from the master to the IC slave and LSB (MOSI signal) is the
last. The same happens on MISO signal.
62/201
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
SPI
MISO BIT
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
MISO
SPIFLT
DEPOK
RSFLT
WDTDIS_S
ERSTATE
POWERFLT
FLT
CONVRDY2
CONVRDY1
ERR_WID
ERR_RID
Global Status Word bit organization:
GSW BIT
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Due to an SPI_MOSI, the correspondent SPI_MISO is available in the same slot of time of
the SPI_MOSI (in frame).
FAULT cases on SPI
GSW
SPIFLT, bit 31 (bit 10 of GSW)
0 = no fault
1 = fault
SPI_FLT indicates:
1. number of SPI_SCK different from 32;
2. WPAR bit error in MOSI
Any incorrect access to a register (write/read) is forbidden, but SPIFLT bit is not set.
ERR_WID / ERR_RID
If an SPI write command, with correct WID, is received but the IC is in a status where the
writing operation into the addressed register is forbidden (see INIT, DIAG, SAFING, SCRAP,
ARMING states), the command itself is discharged and ERR_WID in the next GSW is set.
ERR_WID is not set when a read only register is addressed through WID. The command is
ignored.
GSW
ERR_WID, bit 22 (bit 1 of GSW)
0 = no error
1 = error
If an SPI command is referred, through a RID address, to an unused register, ERR_RID is
set in the current GSW and the command is discharged.
GSW
ERR_RID, bit 21 (bit 1 of GSW)
0 = no error
1 = error
DocID025845 Rev 2
63/201
200
SAFING
7
AN4437
SAFING
Safing logic is based on

On board sensors and/or remote sensors (PSI 5)

ARM signal: two internal ARMiINT (i=1,2) or two external FENH, FENL
Figure 29. Internal ARIMNG signals
6&/.B*
026,B*
0,62B*
&6B*
6$)B&6
6$)B&6
63,'HFRGH
7KUHVKROG
&RPSDUH
3XOVH
6WUHWFK
6$),1*67$7(
',$*67$7(
$50,17
'67(67$50
'67(6738/6(
&+['(3
$50,17
$50,1*67$7(
*$3*36
ARM pin can be (in according to SAFESEL, bit3 $01 SYS_CFG) the output of the arming
signal generated by the integrated safing engine or it can be the combination of
FENH/FENL signals that come from external logic:
Figure 30. ARMING organization
:'B581
:'B/2&.287
660B5(6(7
$50B(1
:'B29(55,'(
$50,17
6DILQJ
(QJLQH
$50,17
$50
)(1/
)(1+
6$),1*67$7(
6$)(6(/
64/201
*$3*36
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
7.1
SAFING
SPI sensor data decoding - Configuration
IC is able to process data coming from both PSI5 remote sensors or on board sensor. Data
processed can be used in order to engage the ARMING internal procedure.
Following pins are involved in this process:

SPI_CS (active low) is the standard chip select of SPI;

SAF_CS0, SAF_CS1 (active low) to select up to two on board sensors;

MOSI is the input data for the IC and MISO is the output data of the IC when CS is low.
MISO is internally read back. Data will be sent out the IC or not basing on SPI_CS.
When SAF_CS0 or SAF_CS1 is asserted, IC can sniff data on MISO pin (MOSI remains an
input pin). So the IC knows what microcontroller requires and what sensor answers.
Figure 31. MOSI, MISO, SPI_CS, SAF_CS0, SAF_CS1, SCLK
63,B&6
026,
0,&52&21752//(5
0,62
/
5(4B0$6.5(4B7$5*(7
5(63B0$6.5(63B7$5*(7
'$7$ B0$6.
0,62
EORFN
6&/.
6(1625
6$)B&6
6(1625
6$)B&6
Note:
*$3*36
The external logic guarantees that SAF_CS0, SAF_CS1 and SPI_CS are not asserted
simultaneously; if it happens, the frame is discharged.
Safing configuration register is done through SAF_CONTROL_x registers x=1÷4.
$EF → SAF_CONTROL_x → x=1
$F0 → SAF_CONTROL_x → x=2
$F1 → SAF_CONTROL_x → x=3
$F2 → SAF_CONTROL_x → x=4
All safing records are reset by SSM reset.
Case x=1
DocID025845 Rev 2
65/201
200
SAFING
AN4437
ARMING considering positive or negative acceleration
It defines if arm is with positive or negative acceleration or both.
$EF SAF_CONTROL_1
Config only in DIAG state
ARMSEL1, bit [15,14]
00, 11 = ARMP or ARMN
01 = ARMP
10 = ARMN
SPI field selection
SPI field selects (for the safing record x) which 16-bit field in the SPI messages will be used
in the response on MISO. In case of message having less than 32 bit, this bit doesn't care.
This bit will be relevant in the SAF_RESP_MASK definition, where it is defined which bit,
sent from sensor to microcontroller, contain the data, the first 16 or the second 16 bit.
$EF SAF_CONTROL _1
SPIFLDSEL1, bit 13
Config. only in DIAG state
0 = first 16 bit of SPI_MISO frame
1 = second 16 bit of SPI_MISO frame
LIMIT SELECTION
It defines the out-of-range threshold, considering PSI 5 sensor at 8 bit or 10 bit.
This bit is taken into account if LIM_ENx is set.
$EF SAF_CONTROL _1
LIM_EN1, bit 12
Config. only in DIAG state
0 = 8 bit data range |data|>120d, data not recognized valid
1 = 10 bit data range |data|>480d, data not recognized valid
LIMIT ENABLE
To enable or not the out of range control.
$EF SAF_CONTROL _1
LIM_EN1, bit 11
Config. only in DIAG state
0 = data range limit disabled
1 = data range limit enabled
COMB
This command allows, performing mathematic elaboration as sum or difference between
accelerations read from different sensors, to elaborate the direction of the acceleration
detected from x-y axis to have an on-axis response. The direction depends on the sensor
orientation inside the system.
$EF SAF_CONTROL_1
COMBx, bit [10]
66/201
Config. only in DIAG state
0 = combine function disabled
1 = combine function enabled
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
SAFING
When the “combine function” is enabled, the elaboration, being x=1, 3, is:

Safing record pairs x, x+1 (1, 2 / 3, 4)

Safing record (x) = data(x) + data (x+1)

Safing record (x+1) = data(x) - data (x+1)
Since this elaboration is performed using two safing records, the elaboration itself is
performed only after that the two safing records have been captured (CC_x=1).
In case of an on-board dual axis sensor which is offset 45 degrees from center, the IC
allows vector addition/subtraction to refer the sensor data to the vehicle axis.
Here below it is shown how to refer to the data caught by the sensors, referred to their axis
orientation, to the axis LONG and LAT of the vehicle, through simple sum or difference of
sensor data, with the aim of managing the ARMING process.
Figure 32. Sensor's axis and vehicle's axis correlation
/21*
;
/21*
[
/$7
Q $
<
/$7
<
*$3*36
/21* ; FRVQ < FRVQ n
/$7 ; FRVQ < FRVQ LI
Q n
<
/$7 ; <
/21* ; ; <
; <
*$3*36
Thresholds are referred to LONG and LAT reference system;
Data caught from sensor are referred to X and Y axis. These axis are rotated with respect to
LONG and LAT axis, see Figure 32.
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SAFING
AN4437
The thresholds (TH_LONG and TH_LAT thresholds) must consider the sensor direction with
respect to the vehicle axis, so the trigonometric parameters (θ) are known and included in
the thresholds:
7+ B /21*
; < 7+ 7+ B /$7
; < 7+ *$3*36
DWELL
Once an arming condition is detected, it remains valid for DWELL time (pulse stretch time)
waiting for an eventual firing command.
DWELL time is blocked by SSM reset.
In case different values are configured for the four safing records, the value considered is
the longest one.
Figure 33. ARMING enable pulse stretch
$UPLQJ6DILQJ/RJLF
3URFHVVHGUHVXOW
$UPLQJ(QDEOH
3XOVH6WUHWFK
3XOVH6WUHWFK7LPH
/HVV7KDQ3XOVH
6WUHWFK7LPH
3XOVH6WUHWFK
7LPH
'!0'03
$EF SAF_CONTROL _1
DWELLx (x=1), bit [9,8]
Note:
Config. only in DIAG state
00 = 2048ms
01 = 256ms
10 = 32ms
11 = 0ms
In SAFING configuration it is defined the time DWELL, that is the period of time in which the
ARMING signal, once asserted, is valid waiting for a deployment command.
In DEPLOYMENT configuration it is defined the time DEPLOY EXPIRE TIME, that is the
period of time in which the deployment command, once received, is valid waiting for the
ARMING signal asserted.
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SAFING
ARM
There are two internal arming signals (ARM1INT, ARM2INT). The safing record can be
assigned to one or both of them (ARM1INT ARM2INT).
This allows grouping the sensors that recognize a high acceleration based on their direction,
representing then the crash event.
ARM1INT - ARM2INT are linked to the deployment loop following LOOP_MATRIX_ARMx
set-up, $6E and $6F registers:
$6E LOOP_MATRIX_AMR1
$6F LOOP_MATRIX_AMR2
ARMx_Li, i=3..0, b[3:0]
Config. only in DIAG state
0 = ARMx not associated with loop i
1 = ARMx associated with loop i
In this way it is possible to establish which deployment loop will take place based on the
direction of the crash event.
A safing record can be mapped at the same time both on ARM1INT and ARM2INT
x=1
$EF SAF_CONTROL _1
Config. only in DIAG state
ARM2x, bit 5
0 = safing record x not assigned to ARM2INT
1 = safing record x assigned to ARM2INT
ARM1x, bit 4
0 = safing record x not assigned to ARM1INT
1 = safing record x assigned to ARM1INT
CS
To associate a safing record with one of the 3 chip select, SPI_CS, SAF_CS0, SAF_CS1
$EF SAF_CONTROL _1
CSx, bit [3÷1]
Config. only in DIAG state
001 = SAF_CS0 associated to safing record x
010 = SAF_CS1 associated to safing record x
101 = SPI_CS associated to safing record x
Others = no CS associated to safing record x
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IN FRAME
As said, the answer (on MISO) can be in frame with the request (MOSI) or out of frame. The
IC has to be aligned to the option chosen
Figure 34. SPI sensor frame organization
-/3)
2EQUESTN
-)3/
3TATUS
5NUSED
2ESPONSEN
-/3)
2EQUESTN
2EQUESTN
-)3/
2EQUESTN
2ESPONSEN
$EF SAF_CONTROL _1
*$3*36
Config. only in DIAG state
IF1, bit 0
0 = response out of frame (record x)
1 = response in frame (record x)
SPI is 32bit:
31
SPI_MOSI
REQUEST
SPI_MISO
REQUEST
29
28
GID
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
RID[6:0]
14
13
12
11
20
19
18
17
WID[6:0]
GSW[10:0]
15
SPI_MOSI
REQUEST
SPI_MISO
REQUEST
30
10
9
WPAR
RPAR
8
7
6
5
4
16
READ[19:16]
3
2
1
0
WRITE[15:0]
READ[15:0]
Compatible on board sensors are able to communicate over 16, 32 or even more bit frames.
Useful information for the microcontroller requests is supposed to be always located on the
first 16MSBs (GID, RID, WID, WPAR), while the useful information for sensor response can
be located both on first 16 or second 16bit block of response from sensor.
If the frame is shorter than 16 bit, the frame is discharged;
In case of frame length between 16 and 32 bit, 16 MSB are latched while the latter bits are
ignored.
In case of 32 bit frame or longer, 32 MSB are latched, while the latter bits are ignored by the
IC; in this case first or second 16 bit block is considered, depending on the configuration of
the bit SPIFLDSEL1.
In order to extract useful information from the data sniffed over the SPI bus, IC provides
definition for configurations of proper request masks and response masks, which can be
programmed by the microcontroller, see Section 7.2.
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SAFING
Sensor data are processed as described below. The IC provides four 16 bit registers for
safing records.
ENABLE
Each safing record has to be activated, through 7F SAF_ENABLE
These bit determine when a safing record is active or inactive.
$7F SAF_ENABLE
EN_SAF4, bit 3
EN_SAF3, bit 2
EN_SAF2, bit 1
EN_SAF1, bit 0
Config. in DIAG, SAFING, SCRAP, ARMING state
0 = disable
1 = enable
THRESHOLD
Each safing record has to be compared with a threshold, configured only in DIAGNOSTIC
state, one threshold for each safing record:
$DF → SAF_THRESHOLD_x → x=1
$E0 → SAF_THRESHOLD_x → x=2
$E1 → SAF_THRESHOLD_x → x=3
$E2 → SAF_THRESHOLD_x → x=4
x=1,
$DF SAF_THRESHOLD_1
Config. only in DIAG state
SAF_THRESHOLD_1, bit [15÷0]
The threshold is always programmed in absolute value, even if the safing record is a simple
sensor data or data combination, sum or difference.
The safing record is compared with the SAF_TH.
Inside the IC there are two dedicated counters (POS_COUNT, NEG_COUNT) to count, with
the weight ADD_VAL and SUB_VAL, how many times the safing record overcomes the
threshold SAF_TH.
These counters (POS_COUNT, NEG_COUNT) have their limits, ARMN_TH, ARMP_TH.
These parameters are defined in the SAF_ALGO_CONF register.
Counters' values are updated on each sensor sample received.
$66 SAF_ALGO_CONF
Config. only in DIAG state
ADD_VAL, bit [2÷0]
incremental step size
SUB_VAL, bit [5÷3]
decremental step size
ARMN_TH, bit [13÷10]
ARMP_TH, bit [9÷6]
Threshold negative counter
Threshold positive counter
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If safing record > +|SAF_TH| → it is incremented the positive counter, POS_COUNT of
ADD_VAL; otherwise the counter is decremented of SUB_VAL
If safing record < -|SAF_TH| → it is incremented a negative counter, NEG_COUNT of
ADD_VAL; otherwise the counter is decremented of SUB_VAL.
Values of NEG_COUNT and POS_COUNT counters are compared with two thresholds,
ARMN_TH and ARMP_TH respectively to define ARMN and ARMP signals
If POS_COUNT ≥ ARMP_TH → ARMP set
If NEG_COUNT ≥ ARMN_TH → ARMN set
Based on ARMSEL bit (register $EF-$F2) and on ARMP/ARMN result, the internal arming
flags will be asserted or not.
Once the sample cycle time is elapsed, the sensor data received (CC_x=1) flags that the
arming processing has been successfully run.
In case of no data received (CC_x=0) it is possible to configure how the IC behaves. A
possibility is to consider the "no data" received event in a similar way than a data below
threshold (arming counters decremented) or by taking a more severe alternative (arming
counters reset).
$66 SAF_ALGO_CONF
NO_DATA, bit 15
Config. only in DIAG state
0 = event count reset if CC=0 when SPI has read the SAF_CCx bit (no
acceleration data received)
1 = event count decremented by SUB_VAL when SPI has read the
SAF_CCx bit (no acceleration data received)
COMPARE COMPLETE
Data sample cycle is managed by the microcontroller reading CC_x bit;
typical timing for sampling cycle is 500 μs (sensor sampling period 475 μs ÷ 525 μs).
Once the IC receives data from sensors, post processing for arming purpose starts and any
other valid data received from sensors are ignored until the microcontroller reads the CC_x
bit.
Should the microcontroller read the CC_x bit and no valid data have been received yet, IC
reacts according to the $66 SAF_ALGO_CONF register, NO DATA bit
$FF SAF_CC
CC_4, bit 3
CC_3, bit 2
CC_2, bit 1
CC_1, bit 0
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0 = compare not completed
1 = compare completed
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7.2
SAFING
SPI sensor data decoding - MASK
Sensors regularly exchange data with the main microcontroller through multiple SPI
messages. Since not all communications between sensors and microcontroller contain data,
it is important for the decoder to properly sort the communications and extract only the
targeted data.
The solution is specific masking definition, per safing record:
REQUEST MASK, TARGET REQUEST (MOSI line)
RESPONSE MASK, TARGET RESPONSE (MISO line)
DATA MASK
SAFING THRESHOLD
REQUEST MASK (on MOSI line)
The registers to be configured are the four SAF_REQ_MASK _x. The explanation is the
same for all the four registers, so only the first is considered:
$80 SAF_REQ_MASK_x → x=1
$81 SAF_REQ_MASK_x → x=2
$82 SAF_REQ_MASK_x → x=3
$83 SAF_REQ_MASK_x → x=4
Case x=1
$80 SAF_REQ_MASK_1
Config. only in DIAG state
SAF_REQ_MASK_1, bit [15÷0]
Here is defined the position, inside the frame, of the bit to be considered in the data
received. This is done by setting bit in SAF_REQ_MASK_x located in the position to be
considered.
Extraction of data is done by putting in AND (bit per bit) the SAF_REQ_MASK with the data
received.
TARGET REQUEST (on MOSI line)
The registers to be configured are the four SAF_REQ_TARGET_x. The explanation is the
same for all the four registers, so only the first is considered:
$93 SAF_REQ_TARGET_x → x=1
$94 SAF_REQ_TARGET_x → x=2
$95 SAF_REQ_TARGET_x → x=3
$96 SAF_REQ_TARGET_x → x=4
Case x=1
$93 SAF_REQ_TARGET_1
Config. only in DIAG state
SAF_REQ_TARGET_1, bit [15÷0]
Considering the bit selected through REQUEST MASK, the value they have to assume is
indicated in the REQUEST TARGET.
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So in REQUEST MASK it is defined which bit positions to look at; in REQUEST TARGET it
is defined the expected value the bit in the positions defined through REQUEST MASK have
to assume.
This procedure is the definition of the filter of all the data exchanged: which bit consider and
which value they have to assume.
RESPONSE MASK (on MISO line)
The registers to be configured are the four SAF_RESP_MASK_x. The explanation is the
same for all the four registers, so only the first is considered:
$A6 SAF_RESP_MASK_x → x=1
$A7 SAF_RESP_MASK_x → x=2
$A8 SAF_RESP_MASK_x → x=3
$A9 SAF_RESP_MASK_x → x=4
Case x=1
$A6 SAF_RESP_MASK_1
Config. only in DIAG state
SAF_RESP_MASK_1, bit [15÷0]
Here is defined the position, inside the frame received from the sensor (MISO), of those bit
to be considered. This is done setting the bit, in SAF_RESP_MASK_x, located in the
position of the bit to be considered.
RESPONSE TARGET (on MISO line)
The registers to be configured are the four SAF_RESP_TARGET_x. The explanation is the
same for all the four registers, so only the first is considered:
$B9 SAF_RESP_TARGET_x → x=1
$BA SAF_RESP_TARGET_x → x=2
$BB SAF_RESP_TARGET_x → x=3
$BC SAF_RESP_TARGET_x → x=4
Case x=1
$B9 SAF_RESP_TARGET_1
Config. only in DIAG state
SAF_RESP_TARGET_1, bit [15÷0]
Considering all the data that can pass on MISO line, the only one that has to be considered
is the data that in the position defined in RESP MASK has the value defined in the RESP
TARGET.
So in RESP MASK it is defined which bit look at; in REQUEST TARGET it is defined the
expected value these bit, coming from the sensors (MISO line), should have.
This procedure is the definition of the filter of all the data exchanged: which bit consider and
which value they should have, sensor side.
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SAFING
DATA MASK (on MISO line) definition, only in DIAGNOSTIC state
The registers to be configured are the four SAF_DATA_MASK_x. The explanation is the
same for all the four registers, so only the first is considered:
$CC SAF_DATA_MASK_x → x=1
$CD SAF_DATA_MASK_x → x=2
$CE SAF_DATA_MASK_x → x=3
$CF SAF_DATA_MASK_x → x=4
Case x=1
$CC SAF_DATA_MASK_1
Config. only in DIAG state
SAF_DATA_MASK _1, bit [15÷0]
Here is defined the position, inside the frame received from the sensor (MISO), of those bit
to be considered. This is done by setting the bit, in SAF_DATA_MASK_x, located in the
position of the bit to be considered.
Example
Figure 35. MOSI, MISO, SPI_CS,SAF_CS0, SAF_CS1, SCLK
&6
026,
0,&52&21752//(5
0,62
5(4B0$6.5(4B7$5*(7
5(63B0$6.5(63B7$5*(7
'$7$ B0$6.
6&/.
/
6$)B&6
6(1625
6$)B&6
6(1625
DocID025845 Rev 2
*$3*36
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Example to explain safing MASK definition
1. Data sensors are so organized:
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
SO
0
CH1
CH0
P
ST1
ST0
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
3
2
1
0
1
0
1
0
Sensor data
bit [14,13]= channel selection, x or y
bit [9÷0]=data sensor
bit 12=patity bit
bit [11,10]=type of data in sensor data field (acceleration, self-test, error)
If the microcontroller request is (MOSI):
2.
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
SI
0
0
1
X
1
0
3.
9
8
7
6
5
4
X
bit [14,13]= 01 this codification can be for example the sensor for x acceleration
bit 12=don't care
bit [11,10]=01 this codification can indicate for example that in the data field are
reported acceleration data
bit [9÷4]= don't care. These are the data the sensor sends. Microcontroller reads them,
but doesn't write them
bit [3÷0]=address of the sensor, for example 1010 that is sensor n.3
Based on this information, the MASK will be:
SAF_REQ_MASK - microcontroller requires something
SAF_REQ_MASKx[15:0]
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
1
1
1
0
1
1
9
8
7
6
0
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
1
1
1
bit [15:13], b[11:10], b[3:0] set
bit 12, bit [9:4] correspond to the position of bit not to be considered; they are left at 0.
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SAFING
4.
SAF_REQ_target - microcontroller says what it expects
SAF_REQ_TARGETx[15:0]
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
0
0
1
X
1
0
X
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
0
1
0
bit 15 is expected @0
bit [14:13] is expected to be 01 being x axis data
bit 12 is the parity bit, so a priori is not defined
bit [11:10] is expected to be 10 because it is supposed that the data received from
sensor will be the acceleration
bit [9:4] are the data, so their value is not known a priori.
bit [3:0] is expected to be 1010 being selected the sensor number 3
5.
SI[15:0] AND SAF_REQ_MASKx[15:0] = SAF_REQ_TARGETx[15:0]
The SAF_RESP_MASK allows choosing one message among those in the SPI bus.
In this case, the IC sniffs the frame on MISO line. It considers the position of bit at 1 in
the frame.
SAF_RESP_MASKx[15:0]
Bit
6.
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
bit 15 is expected at 0, so bit 15 is in a relevant position and bit 15 in the
SAF_RESP_MASK is set.
bit [14:13] expected 01 so bit 14 and bit 13 are set
bit 12 don't care so bit 12 is left at 0
bit [11:10] expected 10 so bit 11, bit 10 are set
bit [9:0] are the data, not useful to identify which message has to be chosen, so they
are left 0
The SAF_RESP_TARGET indicates which values are expected for the bit selected in
the SAF_RESP_MASK:
SAF_RESP_TARGETx[15:0]
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
0
0
1
X
1
0
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
X
bit 15=0
bit [14:13]=01
bit 12 don't care → x
bit [11:10]=10
bit [9:0] this field corresponds to the data that are not known a priori → x
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The SAF_DATA_MASK indicates where the data bits are localized, in the frame received
from the sensor and identified through SF_RESP_MASK, SAF_RESP_TARGET
In this example data are supposed to be localized in position 9:0, so the correspondent bit
[9:0] =1
SO[15:0] AND SAF_RESP_MASKx[15:0] = SAF_RESP_TARGETx[15:0]
SAF_DATA_MASKx[15:0]
Bit
7.3
15
14
13
12
11
10
0
0
0
0
0
0
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
SPI sensor data decoding - Example arming without on
board sensor
Here below there is an example to show how to configure the MASK registers in case of an
ECU where on board sensors are not present and the arming is driven by the data received
through RSU interface. It is supposed a 10 bit PSI5 data transmission (L9678-S case).
In particular, the example shows how to assign safing record 1 to the data from RSU0;
safing record 1 is assigned to both ARM1int and ARM2int signals.
1. Enable safing record #1
2.
$7F SAF_ENABLE
Config. in DIAG, SAFING, SCRAP, ARMING state
EN_SAF1 (bit 0) =1
0 = safing record 1 disabled
1 = safing record 1 enabled ← chose
Configure SAF_REQ_MASK for safing record 1
$80 SAF_REQ_MASK_1
SAF_REQ_MASK1 bit[15:0]
Config. only in DIAG state
0111 1111 0000 0000 = $7F00
SAF_REQ_MASK is applied on messages recorded from MOSI pin; peripheral device
identification is through GID, RID, WID that are located always in the first 16 bit:

bit 31 = GID, not important in this exercise

bit [30:24] = RID [6:0] is the address of the data to be read.

bit [23:17] = WID [6:0] is the address of the data to be written, not relevant

bit 16 = WPAR not relevant
SAF_REQ_MASK defines, in the first 16 bit, which of them have to be considered, here all
the RIDs, moved to the range [15:0] instead of [31:0]. They are set.
3.
Configure SAF_REQ_TARGET for safing record 1
$93 SAF_REQ_TARGET_1
SAF_REQ_TARGET1 bit[15:0]
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Config. only in DIAG state
0101 0000 0000 0000 = $5000
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SAFING
Here is defined the expected value of the bit extracted through the request MASK.
When bit[14:8] = RID[6:0] = 101, $50, of MOSI frame sent to the IC, a reading access to the
sensor register RSDR0.
All remaining bit, bit[7:0] in the register $93, are don't care in this exercise.
4.
Configure SAF_RESP_MASK for safing record 1
$A6 SAF_RESP_MASK_1
SAF_RESP_MASK1 bit[15:0]
Config. only in DIAG state
1111 1100 0000 0000 = $FC00
SAF_RESP_MASK is applied on messages sniffed from MISO pin;
Useful information from sensor is in the second 16 bit block, READ[15:0]
Here is defined which bit of the sensor RSU0 ($50 RSDR0 register) have to be considered.
Useful information is FLT bit, ON/OFF bit and LCID[3:0] bit. All remaining bits are don't care
in this exercise.
5.
Configure SAF_RESP_ TARGET for safing record 1
$B9 SAF_RESP_TARGET_1
SAF_RESP_TARGET1 bit[15:0]
Config. only in DIAG state
0100 0000 0000 0000 = $4000
Here is defined the expected value of the bit extracted through the response MASK in the
data received: IC is addressed to read RSU0 ($50 RSDR0 register).
In this step the following bit have to be considered (see RESP_MASK):

bit 15 = FLT, expected to be 0

bit 14 = on/off expected to be 1, that means the channel is ON

bit [13:10] = LCID[3:0] expected to be 0000, RSU0
All remaining bits are don't care in this exercise.
6.
Configure SAF_DATA_MASK for safing record 1
$CC SAF_DATA_MASK_1
SAF_DATA_MASK1 bit[15:0]
Config. only in DIAG state
0000 0011 1111 1111 = $03FF
Here is defined which bit of the sensor RSU0 ($50 RSDR0 register) have to be read as data
from sensor.
Note:
In case of 8 bit data transmission the data from sensor would be available on DATA[7:0] so
mask would be $00FF
All remaining bits are don't care in this exercise.
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7.
Configure SAF_CONTROL for safing record 1
$EF SAF_CONTROL_1
Config. only in DIAG state
SPIFLDSEL1
bit 13 = 1sensor data are transmitted on second 16 bit block of
MISO word
ARM21
bit 5 = 1 safing record 1 is assigned to both ARM1int and ARM2int
signals.
ARM11
bit 4 = 1 safing record 1 is assigned to both ARM1int and ARM2int
signals
CS1[3:1]
IF1
bit[3:1] = 101 SPI_CS is selected for safing record 1
bit 0 = 1 SPI MISO answer is in frame
All remaining bits are left at their default value
8.
Enter in SAFING STATE
$31 SAFING_STATE
Config. only in DIAG state
bit[15:0] = 1010110010101100 = $ACAC
This is needed to bring IC in SAFING state from DIAG state: safing records are enabled only
in SAFING STATE.
9.
Check IC STATE
$04 SYS_STATE
OPER_CTL_STATE bit [10:8] expected to be 010 ie. IC in SAFING
STATE
This SPI reading command allows to check in which state the IC is (SAFING expected).
10. Read PSI5 Sensor data
$50 RSDR0
FLT, bit 15
on/off, bit 14
LCID[3:0], bit [13:10]
this bit is expected to be 0
this bit is expected to be 1 channel ON
expected to be 0000, PSI5 channel 0
DATA, bit [9:0]
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SAFING
11. Check SAF CC bit
$FF SAF_CC
CC_1 bit 0
0 = compare not completed for record 1
1 = compare completed for record 1
Safing record can only be evaluated on the first matching input packet. Any further data
packet matches are ignored (i.e. once CC is set, record can't be processed until next sensor
sampling period)
7.4
Additional communication line (ACL)
The ACL pin is the Additional Communication Line input with the purpose of safely activate
the arming output for disposal of restraints devices at the end of vehicle life.
A valid ACL allows the IC to pass from Scrap state to Arming state.
To remain in Arming state the IC must receive the correct ACL signal; this must occur before
the scrap timeout timer expires:
TdisEOL= (2*TALC(min)) ÷ (2*TACL(max))
TACL = 187ms ÷ 213ms
A specific waveform needs to be present on this input in order to instruct the IC to arm all
deployment loops and implement the scrapping feature. For those systems not having a
proper ACL stimulus available, L9678 allows the ACL input pin to be successfully triggered
also with one of the MCU output digital ports.
The disposal signal may come from either the vehicle's service connector, or the systems
main microcontroller, depending on the customer's requirements.
The arming function monitors the disposal PWM input (ACL pin) for a command to arm all
loops for vehicle end-of-life airbag disposal.
Figure 36. ACL signal
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To remain in Arming state, at least three cycles of the ACL signal must be qualified. To
qualify the ACL signal, the period and duty cycle are checked.
Two consecutive cycles of invalid disposal signal are enough to disqualify the ACL signal.
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Deployment
8
AN4437
Deployment
Features:

4 independent loops composed by 4 independent high side and 4 independent low side

all 4 squibs can deploy at the same time or according to a given sequence

deployment granted in case of short to ground of the low side SRx.

firing voltage capability across SSxy and SFi is maximum 25 V

max resistance of high side and low side is 10 Ω.

each loop can sustain 50 deployment max, waiting at least 10s between each of them

2 supply pins, SS01, SS23 directly connected to the High Side for each channel;

2 dedicated power ground SG01, SG23 each of them able to sustain the current of two
channels simultaneously

SGxy is connected to GNDSUB through a diode so that the device is able to fire in case
of SGxy lost.
8.1
Deployment requirement
Deployment features are deploy current, deploy time and deployment expiration time. The
deployment expiration time is the duration time in which the deploy command remains valid,
once it is received, waiting for the arming signal.
These parameters are defined in DCR register, one per each channel.
Here are explained the commands to configure the IC deployment.
Deployment configuration is done through the four registers DCR_x, x=0-3, DIAG, SAFING,
SCRAP, ARMING state.
$06 DCRx → x=0 channel 0
$07 DCRx → x=1, channel 1
$08 DCRx → x=2, channel 2
$09 DCRx → x=3, channel 3
All deployment configuration registers are reset by SSM reset.
Case x=0
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Deployment
Deploy current, Deploy time and Deploy expiration time definition
$06 DCR0
Config. in DIAG, SAFING, SCRAP, ARMING state
Dep_current, bit [5:4]
Deploy_timer, bit [7:6]
Dep_expire_time, bit [3:2]
Note:
00 - 11= not used
01 = 1.75A min
10 = 1.2A min
00 = no deploy
01 = 0.5ms
10 = 0.7ms
11 = 2ms
00 = 500ms
01 = 250ms
10 = 125ms
11 = 0ms
DWELL time is defined in SAFING configuration. DWELL time is the period of time in which
the ARMING signal once asserted, is valid waiting for a deployment command.
DEPLOY EXPIRE TIME is defined in DEPLOYMENT configuration. DEPLOY EXPIRE TIME
is the period of time in which the deployment command, once received, is valid waiting for
the ARMING signal asserted.
Note:
The combination 1.75 A, 2 ms is not allowed.
If the above mentioned case should happen, the IC changes the set-up into 1.2 A / 500 μs and
flags the bit CHxDD, in DSRx register (deployment status register), one per each channel:
$13 DSRx register, x=0, channel 0
$14 DSRx register, x=1, channel 1
$15 DSRx register, x=2, channel 2
$16 DSRx register, x=3, channel 3
$13 DSR0 register
CH0DD, bit [13]
Note:
0 = correct current / time combination
1 = incorrect current / time combination.
In order to perform deployment, all the deploy configurations registers ($06 DCR_0, $07
DCR_1, $08 DCR_2, $09 DCR_3) have to be accessed, also if the default values have just
to be confirmed; otherwise IC inhibits deployment. DRCxERR bit in DSRx register reports
this information.
$13 DSR0 register
DRCxERR, bit [12]
0 = Deploy configuration change accepted and stored in memory
1 = Deploy configuration change rejected because deploy is in progress (or
DEP_EXPIRE_TIME changed when in DEP_ENABLED state)
For each channel, the deploy requires that high side and low side are enabled first and then
switched on.
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Deployment
AN4437
The pictures below show the states of the IC and the signal paths which enable the high
side and low side.
Figure 37. Device functionality
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AN4437
Deployment
In the next pages the conditions required to deploy are considered.
8.1.1
ARMING state
This state corresponds to the disposal of the vehicle (see figures 37 and 39 for
correspondent signals). In this state the high side and low side are enabled.
Figure 39. High side and low side squib enable in ARMING state
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Deployment
8.1.2
AN4437
DIAGNOSTIC state
In DIAGNOSTIC state (see Figure 37) it is possible to perform the high side FET test and
low side FET test.
These tests require a sequence of steps, as listed here below. Correspondent signals are
summarized in Figure 40.
1. Chose the channel:
$38 LPDIAGREQ
LEAK_CHSEL, bit [3:0]
Config. in DIAG, SAFING, SCRAP, ARMING state
0000= CHANNEL 0
0001= CHANNEL 1
0010= CHANNEL 2
0011= CHANNEL 3
2a. Chose the test, high side FET:
$36 SYSDIAGREQ
DSTEST [3:0]0
Config. in DIAG state
0111 = high side FET test active
2b. Chose the test, low side FET:
$36 SYSDIAGREQ
DSTEST [3:0]0
Config. in DIAG state
1000 = low side FET test active
Figure 40. High side and low side squib enable in DIAG state
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86/201
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AN4437
8.1.3
Deployment
SAFING state
Figure 41. High side and low side squib enable with ARMING signal
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If WD_LOCKOUT is not set (that is ARM_EN=1 in the Figure 41), high side and low side
enable depends on the safing engine machine, internal or external, in according to
SAFESEL bit.
$01 SYS_CFG
SAFSEL, bit 3
Config. in INIT state
0 = internal safing engine
1 = external safing engine - default
In case of external safing engine (SAFESEL=1), the signals to be considered are FENH,
active high, and FENL, active low.
Note:
If the external safing engine is used, FENH and FENL drive directly the output. So, if their
status changes during a deployment, passing from their active state to their inactive state,
the deployment is immediately interrupted.
If the internal safing engine is chosen, FENH and FENL are ignored.
Note:
The internal arming signals (ARM1INT, ARM2INT) drive, at the same time, the high side and
the low side;
The external arming signals (FENH, FENL) drive the high side and the low side separately.
Note:
If the internal safing engine is used, it is recommended keeping FENH and FENL in their
inactive status, FENH=L, FENL=H to prevent that in case of safing internal engine fault, the
arming signal is set.
In case of internal safing engine (SAFESEL=0), the signals to be considered are ARM1INT,
ARM2INT, ARM1_Lx, ARM2_LX.
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Deployment
AN4437
ARM1_Lx, ARM2_Lx signals are used to link the ARM signals, to the deployment loop.
Case x=1
$6E LOOP_MATRIX_ARM1
Config. in DIAG state
ARM1_L3, bit 3
0 = ARM1 not associated to loop 3
1 = ARM1 associated to loop 3
ARM1_L2, bit 2
0 = ARM1 not associated to loop 2
1 = ARM1 associated to loop 2
ARM1_L1, bit 1
0 = ARM1 not associated to loop 1
1 = ARM1 associated to loop 1
ARM1_L0, bit 0
0 = ARM1 not associated to loop 0
1 = ARM1 associated to loop 0
The same for the other ARM2, mapped on register
$6F LOOP_MATRIX_ARMx, x=2
8.1.4
DEPLOYMENT driver
Figure 42. Driver's DEPLOYMENT signals
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Deployment
List of the requirements to deploy
1. high side and low side are enabled, see previous point (ENABLE_HS & ENABLE_LS =1)
2. no problem on SSM reset that means internal voltage references are at their correct
value (POR=0), VDD5 & VDD3V3 voltage regulators at their correct value too
(WSM_reset=0) and WD asserted or overridden (SSM_reset=0).
3. IC in ARMING or SAFING state
4. SPI DEPREQx, x=0, 1, 2, 3
$12 DEPCOM
Config. in SAFING and ARMING state
CHxDEPREQ, bit x
5.
0 = no change to deploy. control ch x
1 = clear and start the expiration timer in ARMING, SAFING and
DEP_ENABLED state
DEP_ENABLE_STATE SPI, unlock command:
$25 SPIDEPEN
Config. in SAFING and ARMING state
DEPEN_WR, bit [15:0]
$0FF0 = LOCK enter deploy disable state
$F00F = UNLOCK enter deploy enable state
As the SSM_Reset is released, to perform the deployment the DEPEN_WR = UNLOCK
(F00F) is required for the channel that has to deploy.
After a deploy, the next deployment requires a toggle DEPEN_WR = UNLOCK(F00F) LOCK(0FF0)-UNLOCK (F00F) for the channel that has to deploy.
The same is necessary in case of a multiple deployment request, after each deployment
event.
Figure 43 summarizes these requirements:
Figure 43. DEPLOYMENT enable/disable
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Once the 5 above points are satisfied, the Expiration time counter starts.
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Deployment
AN4437
This counter takes into account the feature of the IC to accept a deploy command even if
the arming is not yet serviced. If the arm command occurs inside the expiration time, the
deployment takes place otherwise the deployment command is discharged.
Dep_exp_time is defined in DRCx (x=0-3) registers, together with the Deploy_timer and
Dep_current,
$06 DCRx → x=0 channel 0
$07 DCRx → x=2, channel 1
$08 DCRx → x=3, channel 2
$09 DCRx → x=4, channel 3
Case x=0:
$06 DCR0
Dep_current, bit [5:4]
Deploy_timer, bit [7:6]
Dep_expire_time, bit [3:2]
Config. in DIAG, SAFING, SCRAP, ARMING state
00 - 11= not used
01 = 1.75A min
10 = 1.2A min
00 = no deploy
01 = 0.5ms
10 = 0.7ms
11 = 2ms
00 = 500ms
01 = 250ms
10 = 125ms
11 = 0ms
Once the deployment is started, any DEP_EN = $0FF0 (that means deploy disable), is
ignored. If the same command arrives before the deployment has been started, the
deployment is really disabled and the deploy command ignored.
Once the deployment is started, it can be interrupted by
over-current in the low side
GND loss
SSM reset
End of deployment time
Status of the deployment is reported to the microcontroller through SPI read out in
deployment status register:
$13 DSRx register, x=0, channel 0
$14 DSRx register, x=1, channel 1
$15 DSRx register, x=2, channel 2
$16 DSRx register, x=3, channel 3
Case x=0, the same for the others:
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Deployment
$13 DSR0
CH0STAT, bit [14]
0 = deployment not in progress
1 = deployment in progress
CH0DS, bit [15]
0 = deployment not successful
1 = deployment successful
If the deployment command lasts for the programmed deploy time, the flag CHxDS (deploy
success) is set.
MISO BIT
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
MISO
SPIFLT
DEPOK
RSFLT
WDTDIS_S
ERSTATE
POWERFLT
FLT
CONVRDY2
CONVRDY1
ERR_WID
ERR_RID
The event is also reported in GSW, DEPOK bit that is the "OR" of the deployment success
of all the four channels.
GSW BIT
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
GSW
DEPOK, bit 30 (bit 9 of GSW)
0 = all DSR_x / CHxDS bits are = 0 (no deployment success on all channel)
1 = at least a deployment successful on the channels.
In case the deploy success=1, this doesn't mean that the current is really passed through
the squib for the programmed time.
This bit means only that no inhibition of deployment has been received (in external safing
engine FENH/FENL could have disabled the high side or the low side).
In order to know if the current is really passed through the squib the Deploy Current_Mon
registers have to be read.
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8.1.5
AN4437
Deployment current monitor
Each High Side (SFx) has a current comparator to indicate when the current flowing through
is greater than the deployment current threshold (ITHDEPL=90%IDEPLx) and for each
channel there is a timer (Current_Mon_Timer) that measures, with 16us resolution, how
long the current is at high level. This parameter is considered useful for the microcontroller
to identify if the deployment has been effective or not.
During a deploy event, if the current falls momentarily below the threshold, the timer stops
(timer pause), and continues to count as the current turns high.
The time value obtained is stored into two registers, $1F DCMTS01 and $20 DCMTS23.
Current_Mon_Timer is refreshed upon read or a new DEPCOM command on the channel is
received for the channel. For this reason, the microcontroller reads the data after the
deployment event and before a new deployment command. The current measurement
stops at the end of the deployment time.
$1F DCMTSxy (x=0, y=1)
$20 DCMTSxy (x=2, y=3)
Current_mon_timer_y bit [15:8]
Current_mon_timer_x bit [7:0]
Figure 44. Current measurement during deploy
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AN4437
Deployment
In case of a short to ground of the Low Side during the deployment, the current is limited by
the High Side avoiding the device's damage.
The same protection is available if an open load condition occurs, followed by a short to
ground of the Low Side.
If a deployment is required, but arming (internal safing logic or FENH/FENL signal) is not
satisfied, deploy command is terminated following the expiration time criteria.
If the arming condition is satisfied, but the deploy command is not received, the arming is
disabled at the end of DWELL time. The remaining pulse stretcher time values are reported
in the two registers AEPSTS_ARMi, i = 1,2.
8.2
$73 AEPSTS_ARM1
Timer count [9:0]
$74 AEPSTS_ARM2
Timer count [9:0]
Deployment driver protection
In order to avoid to damage the IC due to eventual free wheeling, two protections are
implemented.
1. after a deployment, once the High Side is switched off, the low side is kept on for
tDEL_SD_LS (50 μs min.) in order to allow fly-back.
2. once low side is switched off, a protection against the overvoltage through a clamp
structure is implemented.
On the Low Side there is a current limitation and overcurrent protection circuit that attends
limiting the current at ILIM_SR (2.2 A ÷ 4 A) IOC_SR (2.2 A ÷ 4 A) avoiding, in case of pin
short to battery, the channel's damage. If the malfunction lasts over tFLT_ILIM_LS (100 μs
typ) the whole channel (High and Low Side) is switched off until a new deployment
command, via SPI_DEPEN occurs.
The squib driver can stand the short to ground of the pins during the deployment, because
the high side current is limited by the high side itself.
It can manage also the case of SR short to ground after an open circuit, because it is able to
detect the open circuit condition and then limiting the current overshoot as the open circuit
disappears.
In case of squib's intermittence during deployment phase, current limitation is ensured by
the Low Side current limitation, ILIM_SR. If the condition lasts longer than tLIMOS (20 μs max)
the High Side is switched off for tOFF_OS_HS (4 μs ÷ 12 μs) and then on again.
This allows distinguish Open Load and Low Side short to battery cases and then proper
manage them.
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Deployment driver example
Table 4. Deployment driver example
Register
(1)
(2)
15 14 13 12 11 10
DocID025845 Rev 2
$01 SYS_CFG
I
W
X
$04 SYS_STATE
-
R
$2A WDTCR
I
W
2C WD_STATE
-
R
2B WDIT
-
W
$04 SYS_STATE
-
R
$7F SAF_ENABLE
(I)
W
X
X
X
X
$80 SAF_REQ_MASK_1
D
W
0
1
1
$93 SAF_REQ_TARGET_1
D
W
0
1
$A6 SAF_RESP_MASK_1
D
W
1
$B9 SAF_RESP_TARGET_1
D
W
$CC SAF_DATA_MASK_1
D
W
X
X
0
X
0
X
1
X
1
9
8
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
7
0
0
6
0
0
5
0
0
4
X
1
3
0
1
2
1
0
Description
0
X
1
10: 01=short time
9: RSU switch
8, 7: 8 sample DC-squib-temp
measure
6, 5: 4 sample
3: internal saf eng
2: VSF=20V
0:timeout disable
0
1
0
10, 9, 8 000=INIT
2, 1, 0: 010=RUN
0
0
1
14: WDTMODE = FAST
13÷7: WDTMIN = 400us
6÷0: WDT DELTA = 200us
Deployment
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8.3
10÷8: WD1_STATE=INITIAL
Service watchdog A/B/A….
0
1
0
10, 9, 8: 001=DIAG
2, 1, 0: 010=RUN
0
0
0
1
3÷0: SAF1 enabled, other disabled
0
0
0
0
0
14÷8: chose RID [6:0] bit
0
0
0
0
0
0
14÷8: RID [6:0] bit selection
(50=RSU1)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
15÷10: chose RSU status bit
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
15÷10: expected bit status of RSU
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
9÷0: 10 data RSO data bit selection
0
0
1
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
AN4437
Register
(2)
15 14 13 12 11 10
0
0
1
X
0
0
9
0
8
0
7
X
6
X
5
1
4
1
3
1
2
0
DocID025845 Rev 2
1
0
Description
1
14, 15: 00=arming on ARMP or
ARMN
13: 1=last 16 bit in
RESP_MASK/DATA_MASK
11: DATA RANGE LIMIT 0=disable
10: COMB 0=disabled
1 9, 8: DWELL 00 = 2048ms
5: 1=SAF_RECORD_1 assigned to
ARM2INT
4: 1=SAF_RECORD_1 assigned to
ARM1INT
3÷1: 101=SPI_CS
0: 1=SPI MISO answer in frame
$EF SAF_CONTROL_1
D
W
$DF SAF_THRESHOL_1
D
W
Set threshold
D
W
0
X
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
$6E LOOP_MATRIX_ARM1
D
W
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
1
0
1
0
3, 1: ARM1 assigned to L1 and L3
$6F LOOP_MATRIX_ARM2
D
W
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
0
1
0
1
2, 4: ARM2 assigned to L0 and L2
X
9: ERBOOST=23V
7: ER_CHARGE ON
X 6: ER_BOOST ON
5: VSUP ON
4: SPI_OFF not required
$02 SYS_CTL
-
W
X
X
X
X
X
X
0
X
1
1
1
0
X
X
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Deployment
$66 SAF_ALGO_CONF
15: counter reset
13÷10: 0011=NEGATIVE EVENT
COUNT=3
9÷6: 0011=POSITIVE EVENT
COUNT=3
5÷3: 011=-3
2÷0: 001=1
AN4437
Table 4. Deployment driver example (continued)
(1)
Register
$05 POWER STATE
-
(2)
R
15 14 13 12 11 10
0
0
0
0
0
0
9
0
8
1
7
1
6
X
5
X
4
0
3
1
2
1
1
1
Description
1
15: 0=VIN>VINGOOD expected
14: 0=CDD3V3>VDD3V3_UV
expected
13: 0= CDD3V3<VDD3V3_OV
expected
12: 0=ER_BOOST>ER_BOOST_OK
expected
11: 0= VDD5>VDD5_UV expected
10: 0=VDD5<VDD5_OV expected
9: 0=VTHLSUP<VSUP<VTHHSUP
expected
8: 1=ERBOOST ON expected
7: 1=ER_CHARGE ON expected
4: 0=ER_SWITCH OFF expected
3: 1=VDD5 ramp up or ON expected
2: 1= VSUP ramp up or ON expected
1: 1=VSUP ON expected
0: 1= VSF_EN=1 expected
DocID025845 Rev 2
0
(3)
19
18
17
16
1
0
0
0
19: 1=WAKEUP>WU_on expected
18: 0=VBATMON>VBBAD expected
17: 0=VBATMON>VBGOOD
expected
16: 0=VIN>VINBAD expected
D
W
X
X
X
X
X
0
X
X
X
X
X
X
0
0
1
0
10: blanktime=5ms
3÷0: 0010=PSI5async, 10bit, 125khz
$4E RSCTRL
(I)
W
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
0
X
1
X
3: 0=CH1EN OFF
1: 1= CH0EN ON
X
7, 6: 01=0.5ms deploy time
5, 4: 01=1.75A deploy current
X
3, 2: 00=500ms deploy expiration
time
(I)
W
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
0
1
0
1
0
0
AN4437
$4A RSCR1
$06 DCR_0
Deployment
96/201
Table 4. Deployment driver example (continued)
(1)
Register
$07 DCR_1
$08 DCR_2
(I)
(I)
(2)
W
W
15 14 13 12 11 10
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
0
1
0
1
0
0
DocID025845 Rev 2
X
7, 6: 01=0.5ms deploy time
5, 4: 01=1.75A deploy current
X
3, 2: 00=500ms deploy expiration
time
X
7, 6: 10=0.7ms deploy time
5, 4: 10=1.2A deploy current
X
3, 2: 00=500ms deploy expiration
time
$15 DSR_2
-
R
0
13: 0=CH2DD correct time/current
expected
$16 DSR_3
-
R
0
13: 0=CH3DD correct time/current
expected
$31 SAFING_STATE
D
W
$04 SYS_STATE (4)
-
R
$6A ARM_STATE
-
R
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
15÷0: ACAC from DIAG to SAFING
state
0
1
0
10, 9, 8: 010=SAFING expected
2, 1, 0: 010=RUN expected
1
3: 1=ARMINT_2 ok expected
2: 1=ARMINT_1 ok expected
97/201
15: FLT=0 expected
14: ON/OFF=1 expected
13÷10: LCID 0000 expected
9÷0: DATA
Deployment
0
0
X
13: 0=CH1DD correct time/current
expected
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
7, 6: 10=0.7ms deploy time
5, 4: 10=1.2A deploy current
X
3, 2: 00=500ms deploy expiration
time
R
0
1
0
Description
-
0
0
1
0
$14 DSR_1
1
1
0
1
13: 0=CH0DD correct time/current
expected
R
X
1
2
0
-
X
X
3
R
1
X
X
4
-
0
X
X
5
$13 DSR_0
1
X
X
6
W
0
X
X
7
(I)
1
X
X
8
$09 DCR_3
$50 RSDR0 (5)
X
X
9
AN4437
Table 4. Deployment driver example (continued)
(1)
Register
$FF SAF_CC
(5)
$25 SPIDEPEN
(2)
-
R
S, A
W
15 14 13 12 11 10
1
1
1
1
0
0
9
0
8
0
7
0
6
0
5
0
4
0
3
2
1
0
Description
1
1
1
1
3: 1=CC_4 expected
2: 1=CC_3 expected
1: 1=CC_2 expected
0: 1=CC_1 expected
1
1
1
1
$F00F=UNLOCK
S, A
W
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
3: 1=CH3DEPLOY
2: 1= CH2DEPLOY
1: 1= CH1DEPLOY
0: 1= CH0DEPLOY
$25 SPIDEPEN
-
R
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
$0FF0=LOCK
$13 DSR_0
-
R
1
15: 1=CH0DS deployment successful
$14 DSR_1
-
R
1
15: 1=CH1DS deployment successful
$15 DSR_2
-
R
1
15: 1=CH2DS deployment successful
$16 DSR_3
-
R
1
15: 1=CH3DS deployment successful
$12 DEPCOM
Deployment
98/201
Table 4. Deployment driver example (continued)
(1)
DocID025845 Rev 2
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES (I) = no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING
2. R = READ
W = WRITE
3. Further bit over the 16 standard.
4. Once a deployment successful, restart from point *5 if no parameters have to be changed.
5. repeat the sequence read $50 read $FF up to the data received is greater than threshold or lower than the -threshold defined in $DF for a number of time equal to that
defined in $66.
AN4437
AN4437
9
Diagnostic
Diagnostic
For all channels the following diagnostics are implemented:

High voltage leak test, for SFx, SRx oxide isolation

Leakage to battery/ground for SFx SRx with/ without squib

Loop to loop short diagnostic

Squib resistance measurement -leakage cancellation

High squib resistance, 500 ÷ 2000

SSxy, SFx, VER voltage monitor

High & Low FET diagnostics

High side driver diagnostic

Loss of ground

High Side Safing FET diagnostic

Deployment timer diagnostic
These diagnostics data are elaborated by a 10 bit ADC converter.
Diagnostic can be done in two ways: high level or low level.
In high level diagnostic, the set-up for each requested measurement is managed by the
device itself.
In low level diagnostic, the set-up for each requested measurement is managed by an
external logic, step by step.
The choice of high level or low level diagnostic is done via SPI:
$38 LPDIAGREQ
DIAG_LEVEL, bit 16
Config. in DIAG, SAFING, SCRAP, ARMING state
0 = low level
1 = high level
In the next figure the relevant blocks used for the diagnostic are reported.
In particular there are a Voltage Regulator Current Monitor (VRCM) and three current
generators that withstand diagnostic operations, ISRC (40 mA), ISNK (limit 70 mA), pulldown (1mA).
DocID025845 Rev 2
99/201
200
Diagnostic
AN4437
Figure 45. Diagnostic - blocks overview
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100/201
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
9.1
Diagnostic
Low level
1.
2.
3.
ER charge has to be previously turned ON before running the diagnostic;
verify that the IC is in DIAG state, reading register $04;
decide, writing the appropriate bit in reg. $38, which diagnostic mode is used;
(1) (2)
1
2
$02 SYS_CTL
$04 SYS_STATE
15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
- W X X X
R
0 0 1
3 $38 LPDIAGREQ (I) W 0
4
$37 LPDIAGSTAT
(3)
19 18 17 16
$3xDIAGCTRL_x
X=A, B, C, D
4 (3)
19 18 17 16
1
0 X 1 1 0 0 X X X X 12:, VIN_TH_SEL depends on
application;
11,10: VBATMON_TH_SEL
depend on application;
9: ER_BST_V
0=23V, 1=33V
7: ER_CUR_EN
0=OFF, 1=ON
6: ER_BST_EN
0=OFF, 1=ON,
5: VSUP_EN
0=OFF, 1=ON
4: SPI_OFF
0=no effect, 1=POWER OFF
required
R 0
W
10, 9, 8 001=DIAG
2, 1, 0: 010=RUN
14:0 define the test, see next chapters
15: 0=LOW LEVEL diag setup
14:0 define the test, see next chapters
15: 0=LOW LEVEL
diag
X X X X X X X X
16:10 ADC address
6:0 ADC address
9:0 ADC result
19:1=conversion finished
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING.
2. R = READ
W = WRITE.
3. Further bit over the 16 standard.
In low level mode, the IC performs the measurement, following external requests. Each test
set-up is driven, step by step, by the microcontroller and the timing for the measurement is
fixed by the microcontroller too.
DocID025845 Rev 2
101/201
200
Diagnostic
9.1.1
AN4437
High voltage leak test, oxide isolation IC-car chassis
Figure 46. High voltage leak test, oxide isolation IC-car chassis
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This test is mandatory and verifies that no leakages are present on SFx or SRx pins when
high voltage is applied.
ISRC current generator is ON and addressed on SFx.
If there is no leakage, SFx raises up to VRESDIAG and, being the impedance between SFx
and SRx very low (squib connected), SRx follows SFx.
Confirmation of this is done through an ADC measurement request of SFx voltage value.
Supply= VRESDIAG
SET-UP, see Figure 46.
102/201
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
Diagnostic
(1) (2)
15 14 13 12 11 10 9
3 $38 LPDIAGREQ (I) W 0
X
1
0
1
0
0
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0 RES_MEAS_C LEAK_CHSEL 15: 0=DIAG LOW LEVEL
HSEL
0100:1111
13:1= pull-down curr. OFF
0000 = ch0
all ch
0001 = ch1
12,11: 01=ISRC=40mA
RES_MEAS_CHSEL,
0010 = ch2
OFF for the others
0011 = ch3
10: 0= ISINK all OFF
9,8:00 VRCM not
connected
7:4 RES_MEAS_CHSEL
3:0 0100-1111 not selected
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I) = no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING.
2. R = READ
W = WRITE.
SFx voltages and VRESGIAG are readable by the microcontroller through the ADC
converter in the registers
$3X DIAGCTRL_X → X=A, B, C, D
Case X=A:
(1) (2)
$3A DIAGCTRL_A
(3)
15 14 13 12 11 10 9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
- W X X X X X X X X X ADCREQ_A
$46 = SF0
$47 = SF1
$48 = SF2
$49 = SF3
$42 = VRESDIAG
19 18 17 16
0
0
ADCREQ_A
1
-
R ADCREQ_A
$46 = SF0
$47 = SF1
$48 = SF2
$49 = SF3
$42 = VRESDIAG
ADCREQ_A 10bit ADC result
19:1=conversion finished
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I) = no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING
2. R = READ
W = WRITE.
3. Further bit over the 16 standard.
Once read the ADC measurement, to obtain the voltage value it is necessary to consider the
divider ratio of the ADC. In case of SFx and VRESDIAG, it is 15:1.
DocID025845 Rev 2
103/201
200
Diagnostic
AN4437
Table 5. VRESDIAG and SFx measurement of the value ratio ADC
Divider Ratio
Measurements
15:1
VRESDIAG
√
SFx
√
10:1
7:1
4:1
1:1
As a conversion example, let's consider the case where the VRESDIAG conversion has
been requested and the readout of the ADC register is done.
VRESDIAG = 22.6 V measured
ADC = (100110100)2 = (616)10
In order to obtain the result in Volt, being the ADC characteristic linear,
[
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9
*$3*36
Considering the divider ratio (DR) stated above, the result is x * DR = 1.5 * 15 = 22.6 V
Test result:
In case of leakage on High (SFx) or Low Side (SRx), SFx voltage is not able to reach
VRESDIAG and the microcontroller can detect the leakage problem, both on the high side
or on the low side, with no possibility, at this stage, to distinguish which of them is involved in
the problem.
9.1.2
VRCM test validation
Before using VRCM block, that is used in many IC diagnostic, it is necessary a test for its
validation. The test is done through short to battery and short to ground flag verification.
Measurement set-up is composed by 2 steps:
VRESDIAG supplied
104/201
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
Diagnostic
1st step
Figure 47. Diagnostic - VRCM test validation (1)
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For set up, refer to Figure 47.
3 $38 LPDIAGREQ
(1)
(2)
(I)
W
15 14 13 12 11 10 9
0
X
1
0
0
8
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
1 VRCM RES_MEAS LEAK_CHSE 15: 0=DIAG LOW LEVEL
L
_CHSEL
13: 1=pulldown curr OFF
01
0000 = ch0 0000 = ch0 all ch
0001 = ch1 0001 = ch1 12,11: 01=ISRC=40mA
0010 = ch2 0010 = ch2 (RES_MEAS_CHSEL),
0011 = ch3 0011 = ch3 OFF for the others
10: 0= ISINK all OFF
9,8:01 VRCM connected
to SFx (LEAK_CHSEL ch)
7:4 RES_MEAS_CHSEL
3:0 LEAK_CHSEL
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING
2. R=READ / W = WRITE
RES_MEAS_CHSEL, bit[7:4] and LEAK_CHSEL, bit[3:0] must refer to the same channel.
DocID025845 Rev 2
105/201
200
Diagnostic
AN4437
Test result:
Being ISRC and VRCM connected to SFx, if VRCM works correctly, short to battery,
readable in LPDIAGSTAT register, is asserted for the channel selected:
(1)
4 $37 LPDIAGSTAT
(3)
19 18 17 16
0
X
(2)
15 14 13 12 11 10 9
R
R
0
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
RES_MEAS_C X
HSEL
0000 = ch0
0001 = ch1
0010 = ch2
0011 = ch3
X
1
1 LEAK_CHSEL 19: 0= LOW LEVEL
5: 1=STB expected
0000 = ch0
4: 1=test on SFx
0001 = ch1
0010 = ch2
0011 = ch3
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING
2. R=READ / W = WRITE
3. further bit over the 16 standard
If the first step of VRCM test is passed, proceed with the second step.
2nd step
Figure 48. Diagnostic - VRCM test validation (2)
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106/201
DocID025845 Rev 2
*$3*36
AN4437
Diagnostic
For set up, refer to Figure 48.
(1) (2)
15 14 13 12 11 10 9
3 $38 LPDIAGREQ (I) W 0
X
1
0
0
8
7
6
5
4
1 VRCM RES_MEAS_
CHSEL
10
0000 = ch0
0001 = ch1
0010 = ch2
0011 = ch3
3
2
1
0
LEAK_CHSEL 15: 0=DIAG LOW LEVEL
13: 1=pulldown curr OFF
all ch
0000 = ch0
12,11: 00/11=ISRC OFF
0001 = ch1
all channel
0010 = ch2
10: 1= ISINK ON
0011 = ch3
(RES_MEAS_CHSEL)
9,8:10 VRCM connected
to SRx (LEAK_CHSEL)
7:4 RES_MEAS_CHSEL
3:0 LEAK_CHSEL
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING
2. R = READ
W = WRITE
RES_MEAS_CHSEL, bit[7:4] and LEAK_CHSEL, bit[3:0] must refer to the same channel.
Test result:
Being ISNK and VRCM connected to SRx, if VRCM works correctly, short to ground,
readable in LPDIAGSTAT register, is asserted for the channel selected:
(1)
4 $37 LPDIAGSTAT
(3)
19 18 17 16
0
X
(2)
R
R
0
15 14 13 12 11 10 9
8
7
RES_MEAS_
CHSEL
0000 = ch0
X
0001 = ch1
0010 = ch2
0011 = ch3
6
1
5
X
4
3
2
1
0
0
LEAK_CHSEL 19: 0= LOW LEVEL
6: 1=STG expected
0000 = ch0
4: 0=test on SRx
0001 = ch1
0010 = ch2
0011 = ch3
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING
2. R = READ
W = WRITE
3. further bit over the 16 standard
If the second step of VRCM test is passed too, VRCM test is validated.
DocID025845 Rev 2
107/201
200
Diagnostic
9.1.3
AN4437
Leakage test - High side
Figure 49. Diagnostic - leakage test - high side
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For set up, refer to Figure 49.
ISRC and ISINK are kept off and VRCM is connected to SFx, chosen through
LEAK_CHSEL.
(1) (2)
15 14 13 12 11 10 9
3 $38 LPDIAGREQ (I) W 0 X 0
0
0
0
0
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1 RES_MEAS_ LEAK_CHSEL 15: 0=DIAG LOW LEVEL
CHSEL
13: 0=pulldown curr OFF
for VRCM ch; ON the
0000 = ch0
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others
0001 = ch1
12,11: 00/11=ISRCOFF on
0010 = ch2
all channel
0011 = ch3
10: 0= ISINK all OFF
9,8:01 VRCM to SFx
(LEAK_CHSEL)
7:4 0100-1111 no selection
3:0 LEAK_CHSEL
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING
2. R = READ
W = WRITE
108/201
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
Diagnostic
Test result:
If there is no leakage on the high side, SFx voltage is equal to VREF=2.5V and no current is
detected by VRCM itself.
SFx voltage is readable addressing the ADC read out on it. The registers involved in this
operation are the four DIAGCTRL_x
$3X DIAGCTRL_X → X = A, B, C, D
Case X = A:
(1) (2)
$3A DIAGCTRL_A
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
- W X X X X X X X X X ADCREQ_A
$46 = SF0
$47 = SF1
$48 = SF2
$49 = SF3
19 18 17 16
1
0
0
ADCREQ_A
(3)
15 14 13 12 11 10 9
-
R ADCREQ_A
$46 = SF0
$47 = SF1
$48 = SF2
$49 = SF3
ADCREQ_A 10bit ADC result
19:1=conversion finished
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING
2. R = READ
W = WRITE
3. further bit over the 16 standard
Once read the ADC measurement, to obtain the voltage value it is necessary to consider the
divider ratio of the ADC. In case of SFx and VRESDIAG, it is 15:1 (see Table 5).
In case of a leakage (to ground or to battery), VRCM will sink or source a current to maintain
SFx at VREF. As a consequence, STG or STB is set:
(1) (2)
4
$37 LPDIAGSTAT
R
(3)
R
19 18 17 16
0
X
0
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8 7 6 5 4 3
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0
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CHSEL
0000 = ch0
0100-1111
0001 = ch1
0010 = ch2
0011 = ch3
19: 0 = LOW LEVEL
6: 1=STG if leak vs GND
5: 1= STB if leak vs
BATT
4: 1 = test on SFx
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING
2. R = READ
W = WRITE
3. further bit over the 16 standard
Note:
Pull-down current (1mA) is active on all the channels except the one under analysis. So, the
STG requires further investigation to understand if it comes from a real short to ground of
the channel itself or it comes from a short between the channel itself and another one.
DocID025845 Rev 2
109/201
200
Diagnostic
9.1.4
AN4437
Leakage test - low side
Figure 50. Diagnostic - leakage test - low side
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For set up, refer to Figure 50.
ISRC and ISINK are kept off and VRCM is connected to SRx, chosen through LEAK_CHSEL.
(1) (2)
15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
3 $38 LPDIAGREQ (I) W 0 X 0 0 0 0 1 0 RES_MEAS_CHSEL LEAK_CHSEL 15: 0=DIAG LOW LEVEL
13: 0=pulldown curr OFF for
0100:1111
0000 = ch0
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0001 = ch1
12,11: 00/11=ISRCOFF on
0010 = ch2
all channel
0011 = ch3
10: 0= ISINK all OFF
9,8:10 VRCM to SRx
7:4 0100-1111 no selection
3:0 channel selection
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING
2. R = READ
W = WRITE
110/201
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
Diagnostic
Test result:
If there is no leakage on the high side, SRx voltage is equal to VREF=2.5V and no current is
detected by VRCM itself.
Only if the squib is connected, SFx and SRx pin are at the same voltage, so SRx voltage is
readable indirectly through SFx voltage, as done in case of high side leakage test.
SFx voltage is readable addressing the ADC read out on it. The registers involved in this
operation are the four DIAGCTRL_x.
$3X DIAGCTRL_X → X=A, B, C, D
Case X = A:
(1) (2)
$3A DIAGCTRL_A
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
- W X X X X X X X X X ADCREQ_A
$46 = SF0
$47 = SF1
$48 = SF2
$49 = SF3
19 18 17 16
1
0
0
ADCREQ_A
(3)
15 14 13 12 11 10 9
-
R ADCREQ_A
$46 = SF0
$47 = SF1
$48 = SF2
$49 = SF3
ADCREQ_A 10bit ADC result
19:1=conversion finished
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING
2. R = READ
W = WRITE
3. further bit over the 16 standard.
Once read the ADC measurement, to obtain the voltage value it is necessary to consider the
divider ratio of the ADC. In case of SFx and VRESDIAG, it is 15:1 (see Table 5).
If the squib between SFx and SRx pin is not connected, SRx voltage read out is not
possible, as it is not mapped into ADC request command.
DocID025845 Rev 2
111/201
200
Diagnostic
AN4437
In case of a leakage (to ground or to battery), VRCM will sink or source a current to maintain
SFx at VREF. As a consequence, STG or STB is set:
(1)
4 $37 LPDIAGSTAT
(3)
19 18 17 16
0
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15 14 13 12 11 10 9
R
8
RES_MEAS_
CHSEL
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0
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6
X
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4
1
3
2
1
0
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0000 = ch0
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0010 = ch2
0011 = ch3
19: 0= LOW LEVEL
6: 1=STG if leak vs
GND
5: 1= STB if leak vs
BATT
4: 0=test on SFx
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING
2. R = READ
W = WRITE
3. Further bit over the 16 standard.
Note:
Pull-down current (1mA) is active on all the channels except the one under analysis. So, the
case of STG detection, further investigation is necessary to understand if it comes from a
real short to ground of the channel or it comes from a short of the channel with another one.
9.1.5
Leakage test - low side IPD
Figure 51. Diagnostic - leakage test - low side IPD
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112/201
DocID025845 Rev 2
*$3*36
AN4437
Diagnostic
For set up, refer to Figure 51.
After having verified that no HS/LS leakage is present, it is possible to verify if IPD is
correctly working.
VRCM is connected to SRx, chosen through LEAK_CHSEL. IPD is switched on for that
channel.
(1) (2)
15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
3 $38 LPDIAGREQ (I) W 0 X 0 0 0 0 1 1 RES_MEAS_ LEAK_CHSEL 15: 0=DIAG LOW LEVEL
CHSEL
13: 0=pulldown curr OFF for
0000 = ch0
VRCM ch; ON the others
0100:1111
0001 = ch1
12,11: 00/11=ISRC OFF on all
0010 = ch2
channel
0011 = ch3
10: 0= ISINK all OFF
9,8:11 VRCM to SRx
7:4 0100-1111 no selection
3:0 channel selection
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING.
2. R = READ
W = WRITE
Test result:
If IPD is working, SRx voltage is equal to VOUT_VRCM and VRCM shows STG.
If, in this condition, STG is not set, it means that there is something not correctly working in
IPD.
(1)
4 $37 LPDIAGSTAT
(3)
19 18 17 16
0
X
(2)
15 14 13 12 11
10
9
8
R
R
0
RES_MEAS_CHSEL
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7 6 5 4 3
2
1
0
X 1 1 0 LEAK_CHSEL
0000 = ch0
0001 = ch1
0010 = ch2
0011 = ch3
19: 0= LOW LEVEL
6: 1=STG if OK
5: 0 STB
4: 1=test on SRx
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING.
2. R = READ
W = WRITE
3. Further bit over the 16 standard.
DocID025845 Rev 2
113/201
200
Diagnostic
9.1.6
AN4437
Short between loops
Supposing the external squib is connected, a short to ground flag of SRx or SFx can be read
as:
Short of the pin with SR or SF of another channel, both SR and SF
Real short of the pin SRx or SFx to GND
Below, four possible cases are presented.
Case 1
Figure 52. Diagnostic - short between loops, HSi, HSx, ix (case 1)
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114/201
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
Diagnostic
SFi and SFx, ix, squib on channel x connected.
If the squib on SFx is not connected, there is no path between SFi (0 in the example) and
ground through SFx, squib, SRx and pull down current generator, so the short of a high side
SFi with another high side SFx is not detectable.
Case 2
Figure 53. Diagnostic - short between loops, HSi, LSx, ix (case 2)
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SFi and SRx, ix, squib on channel x not necessary connected.
DocID025845 Rev 2
115/201
200
Diagnostic
AN4437
Case 3
Figure 54. Diagnostic - short between loops, LSi, HSx, ix (case 3)
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SRi and SFx, ix, squib on channel x connected
If the squib on SFx, is not connected, there is no path between SRi (0 in the example) and
ground through SFx, squib, SRx and pull down current generator, so the short of a low side
SRi with another high side SFx is not detectable.
116/201
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
Diagnostic
Case 4
Figure 55. Diagnostic - short between loops, LSi, LSx, ix (case 4)
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SRi and SRx, ix, squib on channel x not necessary.
If a STG has been detected, to identify its origin, it is necessary to understand if it is a real
short to ground of the channel or a short between loops.
With respect to the case of STG investigation, in this test the pull down current generators
are switched off for all channels. If the STG is still present, it means a real STG of the
channel under test, otherwise the STG is a short between loops.
DocID025845 Rev 2
117/201
200
Diagnostic
AN4437
Figure 56. Diagnostic - HS short to Ground
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Real SFi STG in case of STG flag still set and SR pull-down current switched off for all
channels.
118/201
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
Diagnostic
Figure 57. Diagnostic - LS short to Ground
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Real SRi STG in case of STG flag still set and SR pull-down current switched off for all
channels.
In order to understand which pairs loops are involved in the short, each pair has to be
checked. Correspondent set up is done by setting $38 LPDIAG properly:
DocID025845 Rev 2
119/201
200
Diagnostic
AN4437
(1) (2)
15 14 13 12 11 10 9
3 $38 LPDIAGREQ (I) W 0
0
1
0
0
8 7 6 5 4 3
2
1
0
0 0/1 1/0 RES_MEA LEAK_CHSEL 15: 0=DIAG LOW LEVEL
S_CHSEL 0000 = ch0
14: 0=ISRC=40mA
0100:1111 0001 = ch1
13: 1=pulldown curr OFF for
all channels
0010 = ch2
12,11: 00/11=ISRCOFF on
0011 = ch3
all channel
10: 0= ISINK all OFF
9,8:01= VRCM to SFx
10 VRCM to SRx
7:4 0100-1111 no selection
3:0 channel selection
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING.
2. R = READ
W = WRITE.
120/201
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
9.1.7
Diagnostic
Squib resistance measurement
IC allows measuring the squib resistance value in the range of 1 Ω ÷10 Ω with overall 8%
precision.
This is a two-step process:
1st step
Figure 58. Diagnostic - Squib resistance measurement (1)
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For set up, refer to Figure 58.
Through this set-up, the ISRC is connected to the SFx.
The squib is correctly connected between SFx and SRx.
SRx is internally connected to ISINK that is able to sink the current.
DocID025845 Rev 2
121/201
200
Diagnostic
AN4437
(1) (2)
15 14 13 12 11 10 9
3 $38 LPDIAGREQ (I) W 0 X 1
0
1
1
0
8 7 6 5 4
3
2
1
0
0 RES_MEAS LEAK_CHSEL 15: 0=DIAG LOW LEVEL
_CHSEL
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0000 = ch0
ch
0001 = ch1
12,11: 01=ISRC=40mA
(RES_MEAS_CH), OFF in
0010 = ch2
the others
0011 = ch3
10: 1= ISINK
(RES_MEAS_CH) ON, OFF
the others
9,8:00 VRCM not connected
7:4 RES_MEAS_CHSEL
3:0 0100-1111 not selected
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING.
2. R = READ
W = WRITE.
The first step of the measurement is the read out of the voltage between SFx and SRx that
is named resistance into ADC addressing.
This parameter is readable by the microcontroller, via 10bit ADC, through a dedicated request.
The registers to be read are still the four DIAGCTRL_x. Again the explanation of the first
register (x=A) is true also for the other three registers:
$3X DIAGCTRL_X → X=A, B, C, D
Case X=A:
(1)
$3A DIAGCTRL_A
15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7
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5
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2
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0
-
W X X X X X X X X X ADCREQ_A
$06 = squib x resistance
-
R ADCREQ_A
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resistance
19 18 17 16
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0
0
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(3)
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ADCREQ_A 10bit ADC result
19:1=conversion finished
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING.
2. R = READ
W = WRITE.
3. Further bit over the 16 standard.
Once read the ADC measurement, to obtain the value it is necessary to consider the divider
ratio of the ADC. In case of resistance x, it is 1:1.
Table 6. Squib x resistance measurement of the value ratio ADC
Measurements
Divider Ratio
15:1
Squib x resistance
122/201
10:1
7:1
4:1
1:1
√
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
Diagnostic
2nd step
Figure 59. Diagnostic - Squib resistance measurement (2)
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For set up, refer to Figure 59.
The set-up is the ISRC connected to the SRx. The squib is correctly connected between
SFx and SRx. SRx is internally connected to ISINK that is able to sink the current.
(1)
(2)
15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
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CHSEL
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ch
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pass (RES_MEAS_CH),
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OFF in the others
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the others
9,8:00 VRCM not connected
7:4 RES_MEAS_CHSEL
3:0 0100-1111 not selected
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING
2. R = READ
W = WRITE.
DocID025845 Rev 2
123/201
200
Diagnostic
AN4437
The second step of the measurement is the read out of the voltage between SFx and SRx,
named resistance into ADC addressing.
This measurement takes into account the leakage that may be present on SFx SRx pins.
As the previous measurement, also this is readable by the microcontroller, via 10bit ADC,
through the same dedicated request.
The registers to be read are still the four DIAGCTRL_x. Again the explanation of the first
register (x=A) is true also for the other three registers:
$3X DIAGCTRL_X → X=A, B, C, D
Case X=A:
(1) (2)
$3A DIAGCTRL_A -
15 14 13 12 11 10 9
W X
X
X
X
X
X
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
X X X ADCREQ_A
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1
0
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R ADCREQ_A
ADCREQ_A 10bit ADC result
$06 = squib x resistance
19:1=conversion finished
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING.
2. R = READ
W = WRITE.
3. Further bit over the 16 standard.
Once read the ADC measurement, to obtain the value it is necessary to consider the divider
ratio of the ADC. In case of resistance x, it is 1:1.
Measurements
Divider Ratio
15:1
10:1
7:1
4:1
Squib x resistance
1:1
√
In LPDIAGSTAT is possible to verify on which channel the resistance measurement has
been performed:
(1)
4 $37 LPDIAGSTAT
(3)
19 18 17 16
(2)
R
R
0
15 14 13 12 11 10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
0
RES_MEAS_CH X X X X LEAK_CHSEL 19: 0= LOW LEVEL
SEL
0000 = ch0
0001 = ch1
0010 = ch2
0011 = ch3
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING
2. R = READ
W = WRITE.
3. Further bit over the 16 standard.
124/201
1
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
Diagnostic
Having the microcontroller these two measurements (that are two voltage drops across SF
and SR), the squib resistance is so calculated:
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G = 5.25 ±2% differential amplifier gain
ISRC = 40 mA ±5%
Let's consider an example where
ADC1ST CONVERSION = (0100111000)2 = (312)10
ADC2ND CONVERSION = (0010000001)2 = (129)10
ΔADC = 312-129 = 183
In order to obtain the result in Volt, being the ADC characteristic linear,
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Note:
Immediately after the ADC read-out, ISRC is automatically switched OFF to reduce the
power consumption.
DocID025845 Rev 2
125/201
200
Diagnostic
9.1.8
AN4437
High squib resistance diagnostic
The aim of the test is to understand if the squib resistor is below 200 Ω, between 500 Ω and
2000 Ω or beyond 5000 Ω
In case of a very high squib resistance, there is the possibility to set a lower ISRC current,
through ISRC_CURR_SEL bit, bit 14, $LPDIAGREQ. In this way, ADC maintains a good
dynamic.
The following description, referred to ISRC = 40 mA, is true also in case of ISRC = 8 mA.
Figure 60. Diagnostic - High squib resistance diagnostic
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For set up, refer to Figure 60.
The set-up is the ISINK connected to the SRx. The squib is correctly connected between
SFx and SRx. SRx is internally connected to ISINK that is able to sink the current.
126/201
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
Diagnostic
(1) (2)
15 14 13 12 11 10 9
3 $38 LPDIAGREQ (I) W 0 X 1 0/1 0/1 1
0
8 7
6
5
4
1 RES_MEAS_
CHSEL
0000 = ch0
0001 = ch1
0010 = ch2
0011 = ch3
3
2
1
0
LEAK_CHSEL
0000 = ch0
0001 = ch1
0010 = ch2
0011 = ch3
15: 0=DIAG LOW LEVEL
13:1= pull down curr OFF
all ch
12,11: 00 or 11 ISRC OFF
all channels
10: 1= ISINK
(RES_MEAS_CH) ON,
OFF the others
9,8:01 VRCM SFx
LEAK_CHSEL)
7:4 RES_MEAS_CHSEL
3:0 LEAK_CHSEL
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING.
2. R = READ
W = WRITE.
Note:
ISINK and VRCM have to be addressed to the same channel, that means
RES_MEAS_CHSEL, bit[7:4] and LEAK_CHSEL, bit[3:0]are equal.
If there is a wrong selection in the two fields RES_MEAS_CHSEL / LEAK_CHSEL, there is
no notice of the mistake.
Test result:
Through this set-up, the VRCM is connected to SFx and ISINK to SRx. Current flowing
through SFx is measured and compared with ISRlow, ISRhigh thresholds to identify in which
range the resistor measured is.
HSR HIGH = RSqhigh = 2 kΩ ÷ 5 kΩ
HSR LOW = RSqlow = 200 Ω ÷ 500 Ω
In case of low resistance value, VRCM sees a path from SRx and GND so STG (very low
impedance towards ground) could be detected.
Read out of these bit has to be done before the next diagnostic request, because these bits
are not latched.
DocID025845 Rev 2
127/201
200
Diagnostic
AN4437
(1) (2)
4 $37 LPDIAGSTAT
(3)
19 18 17 16
15 14 13 12 11 10 9
R
R
0
8
7
0/1 0/1 RES_MEAS_ X
CHSEL
0000 = ch0
0001 = ch1
0010 = ch2
0011 = ch3
6
5
0/1 X
4
3
2
1
0/1 LEAK_CHSEL
0000 = ch0
0001 = ch1
0010 = ch2
0011 = ch3
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING.
2. R = READ
W = WRITE.
3. Further bit over the 16 standard.
128/201
DocID025845 Rev 2
0
19: 0= LOW LEVEL
13:
0 = resis < HSR HIGH
1 = resis > HSR HIGH
12:
0 = resis < HSR LOW
1 = resis > HSR LOW
6: STG 1=yes/0=no
4:VRCM connected to:
0= SR
1=SF
AN4437
9.1.9
Diagnostic
High side FET diagnostic
The test is possible only in the diagnostic phase (see Section 4.2).
These are two tests performed separately for the high side and the low side, with dedicated
commands.
Note:
Before running this test, VRCM has to be previously validated (see Section 9.1.2: VRCM
test validation) and leakage tests have to be already performed with no fails found (see
Section 9.1.3: Leakage test - High side and Section 9.1.4: Leakage test - low side).
Only if these mentioned tests have been successfully done, the HIGH SIDE (and LOW
SIDE) FET tests can be performed.
Figure 61. Diagnostic - High side FET diagnostic
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For set up, refer to Figure 61.
ISRC and ISINK are kept off and VRCM is connected to SFx, chosen through
LEAK_CHSEL.
DocID025845 Rev 2
129/201
200
Diagnostic
AN4437
(1) (2)
15 14 13 12 11 10 9
3 $38 LPDIAGREQ (I) W 0
X
1
0
0
0
0
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1 RES_MEAS_ LEAK_CHSEL 15: 0=DIAG LOW
LEVEL
CHSEL
0000 = ch0
13: 1=pulldown curr
0100:1111
0001 = ch1
OFF for all ch.
0010 = ch2
12,11: 00/11=ISRCOFF
0011 = ch3
on all channel
10: 0= ISINK all OFF
9,8: 01 VRCM to SFx
(LEAK_CHSEL)
7:4 0100-1111 no
selection
3:0 LEAK_CHSEL
3 $36 SYSDIAGREQ D W X X X X X X X X
0
1
1
1 0111: DSTEST=HSFET
active
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING.
2. R = READ
W = WRITE.
Test result:
High side FET test turns ON the HS power: if it turns ON correctly, SFx is connected to SSxy
which is at VER voltage through the resistor R in parallel to the safing FET.
During the test, the device monitors the current flowing through VRCM.
If the high side FET works properly, this current exceeds the thresholds IHSFET (high side)
and the channel is immediately turned off,
IHSFET = 1.8mA ± 10%
In case the current doesn't exceed the limit mentioned, after a fixed time, TFETTIMEOUT, the
test is terminated and the output is turned off.
TFETTIMEOUT = 200 μs
During TFETTIMEOUT period, FET activation is flagged through a bit, FETON, readable via
SPI:
In any condition, current in SFx doesn't exceed ISVRCM and during the FET test the energy
provided to the squib is limited at EFETtest.
ISVRCM: ILIM_SRC = -20mA ÷ -10mA; ILIM_SNK = 10mA ÷ 20mA
EFETtest < 170μJ
130/201
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
Diagnostic
(1) (2)
4 $37 LPDIAGSTAT
(3)
19 18 17 16
0
X
R
15 14 13 12 11 10 9
0/1
R
0
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
RES_MEAS_C 0 0/1 0/1 1 LEAK_CHSEL
HSEL
0000 = ch0
0100-1111
0001 = ch1
0010 = ch2
0011 = ch3
19: 0= LOW LEVEL
15:
0=FET OFF during diag
1= 0=FET ON during
diag
6: 0=STG
5: 1=STB
4: 1=test on SFx
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING.
2. R = READ
W = WRITE.
3. Further bit over the 16 standard.
Possible results for high side:
STB=1 & STG=0
ok
STB=0 or STG=1
missing SSxy connection during FET test or high side not
switched ON or short to GND during FET test
STG & STB, after FET test, are latched.
They are cleared through a new LPDIAGREQ or a new SYSDIAGREQ.
Note:
If VRCM is not previously connected to the SFx and the test is run, a dangerous condition
could happen.
In case of SRx shorted to GND, when the HS is turned ON, even if the current flowing
through the squib is greater than IHSFET, the HS is not immediately turned off and the current
flows through the squib until TFETTIMEOUT expires: this could determine an undesired
deployment.
Figure 62. Diagnostic - High side FET diagnostic, SR short to GND
P)WR P)
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DocID025845 Rev 2
131/201
200
Diagnostic
9.1.10
AN4437
Low side FET diagnostic
Figure 63. Diagnostic - Low side FET diagnostic
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For set up, refer to Figure 63.
ISRC and ISINK are kept off and VRCM is connected to SRx, chosen through
LEAK_CHSEL.
(1) (2)
3 $38 LPDIAGREQ
15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3
2
1
0
(I) W 0 X 1 0 0 0 1 0 RES_MEA LEAK_CHSE 15: 0=DIAG LOW LEVEL
S_CHSEL L
13: 1=pulldown curr OFF for all ch.
0100:1111 0000 = ch0
12,11: 00/11=ISRCOFF on all
channel
0001 = ch1
10: 0= ISINK all OFF
0010 = ch2
9,8: 10 VRCM to SRx
0011 = ch3
(LEAK_CHSEL)
7:4 0100-1111 no selection
3:0 LEAK_CHSEL
3 $36 SYSDIAGREQ D W X X X X X X X X
1
0
0
0
1000: DSTEST=LSFET
active
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING.
2. R = READ
W = WRITE.
132/201
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
Diagnostic
Test result:
Low side FET test turns ON the low side. If the low side turns ON correctly, SRx is
connected to SGxy.
During the test, the device monitors the current flowing through VRCM.
If the FET works properly, this current exceeds the thresholds ILSFET and the channel is
immediately turned off,
ILSFET = 450μA ± 10%
In case the current doesn't exceed the limit mentioned, after a fixed time, TFETTIMEOUT, the
test is terminated and the output is turned off.
TFETTIMEOUT = 200 μs
During TFETTIMEOUT period, FET activation is flagged through a bit, FETON, readable via
SPI.
In any condition, current in SRx doesn't exceed ISVRCM and during the FET test the energy
provided to the squib is limited at EFETtest.
ISVRCM: ILIM_SRC = -20mA ÷ -10mA; ILIM_SNK = 10mA ÷ 20mA
EFETtest < 170uJ
(1)
4
$37
LPDIAGSTAT
(3)
19 18 17 16
0
X
(2)
R
15 14 13 12 11 10 9
0/1
R
0
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
RES_MEAS_ 0 0/1 0/1 1 LEAK_CHSEL
CHSEL
0000 = ch0
0100-1111
0001 = ch1
0010 = ch2
0011 = ch3
19: 0= LOW LEVEL
15:
0=FET OFF during diag
1= 0=FET ON during diag
6: 1=STG
5: 0=STB
4: 0=test on SRx
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING
2. R = READ
W = WRITE.
3. Further bit over the 16 standard.
Possible results for low side:
STB=0 and STG=1
ok
STB=1 or STG=0
short to battery in LS or low side not switched ON.
Note:
Ground loss (SGxy) is not detected through FET test, because there is a diode between
SGxy and the substrate.
STG & STB, after FET test, are latched.
They are cleared through a new LPDIAGREQ or a new SYSDIAGREQ.
Note:
If VRCM is not previously connected to the SRx and the test is run, a dangerous condition
could happen.
In case of SFx shorted to SSxy, when the LS is turned ON, even if the current flowing
through the squib is greater than ILSFET, the LS is not immediately turned off and the current
DocID025845 Rev 2
133/201
200
Diagnostic
AN4437
flows through the squib until TFETTIMEOUT expires: this could determine an undesired
deployment.
Figure 64. Diagnostic - Low side FET diagnostic, SF short to Battery
P)WR P)
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Note:
If VRCM is not previously connected to the SRx and the test is run, a dangerous condition
could happen.
In case of SRx shorted to SSxy, when the LS is turned ON, even if the current flowing
through the squib is greater than ILSFET, the LS is not immediately turned off and the current
flows through the squib until TFETTIMEOUT expires: such a high current could damage the LS
power.
134/201
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
Diagnostic
Figure 65. Diagnostic - Low side FET diagnostic, SR short to Battery
P)WR P)
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DocID025845 Rev 2
135/201
200
Diagnostic
9.1.11
AN4437
High side driver diagnostic
The aim of the test is to check the functionality of the high side FET and the external squib
connection. Current flowing through the high side is internally limited at IHSdiag, lower than
the normal deployment current.
Figure 66. Diagnostic - High side driver diagnostic
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For set up, refer to Figure 66.
136/201
DocID025845 Rev 2
*$3*36
AN4437
Diagnostic
ISRC is kept off; ISINK is 70mA limited and VRCM is disconnected.
Through this test, the HS regulates a current IHSdiag.
(1) (2)
15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
3 $38 LPDIAGREQ (I) W 0 X 1 0 0 1 0 0 RES_MEAS LEAK_CHS 15: 0=DIAG LOW LEVEL
EL
_CHSEL
13: 1=pulldown curr OFF for all
ch.
0000 = ch0 0100:1111
12,11: 00/11=ISRCOFF on all
0001 = ch1
channel
0010 = ch2
10: 1= ISINK
0011 = ch3
(RES_MEAS_CHSEL) ON, OFF
the others.
9,8: 00 VRCM not connected
7:4 RES_MEAS_CHSEL
3:0 0100-1111 no selection
3 $36 SYSDIAGREQ D W X X X X X X X X
1 0 1 0 1010: DSTEST=HS driver FET
test active
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING.
2. R = READ
W = WRITE.
Test result:
As the current flowing through the high side exceeds 90% of IHSdiag value, the driver is
considered well-functioning and HS_DRV_OK bit in LPDIAGSTAT is set:
(1) (2)
4 $37 LPDIAGSTAT
(3)
19 18 17 16
0
X
15 14 13 12 11 10 9
R
R
0
1
8
7
6
5
RES_MEAS_
CHSEL
0000 = ch0
0001 = ch1
0010 = ch2
0011 = ch3
4
3
2
1
0
1 LEAK_CHSEL 19: 0= LOW LEVEL
0100-1111
14:
0= HS squib driver full
path test not completed
successfully
1= HS squib driver full
path test completed
successfully STB
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING.
2. R = READ
W = WRITE.
3. Further bit over the 16 standard.
DocID025845 Rev 2
137/201
200
Diagnostic
9.1.12
AN4437
LOSS of Ground
This test is based on the voltage of ground pin, SGxy, during the squib resistor
measurement or the high side driver diagnostic, refers to those sketches.
Any voltage shift of SGxy pin over VSGopen is considered loss of ground, readable in
LP_GNDLOSS register.
VSGopen = 400-600-800 mV
(1) (2)
4 $26 LP_GNDLOSS
(3)
19 18 17 16
0
X
0
15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4
3
2
1
0
R 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 CH3 CH2 CH1 CH0 0 = no loss of ground
1 = loss of ground
R
i: chi i=3:0
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING.
2. R = READ
W = WRITE.
3. Further bit over the 16 standard.
GNDLOSSx is set considering tSGopen filter time and it is cleared upon read
tSGopen = 46 μs - 50 μs - 54 μs
Note:
138/201
Only two GND pins are available, SG01, SG23; IC is able to detect GND loss on CHx or
CHy basing on the channel selected either for Section 9.1.7: Squib resistance measurement
or Section 9.1.11: High side driver diagnostic.
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
Diagnostic
9.1.13
Safing FET diagnostic
The aim of the test is to verify the VSF and SSxy voltage level.
VSF is turned ON via SPI.
Set up
(1)
(2)
15 14 13 12 11 10 9
8
3 $36 SYSDIAGREQ D
W
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
1
1
0 0110: DSTEST= VSF
regulator active
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING.
2. R = READ
W = WRITE.
Test result:
VSF and SSxy voltage are readable by the microcontroller through the ADC converter in the
registers:
$3X DIAGCTRL_X → X=A, B, C, D
Case X = A:
(1) (2)
$3A DIAGCTRL_A
(3)
15 14 13 12 11 10 9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
- W X X X X X X X X X ADCREQ_A
$36 = SS0
$37 = SS1
$38 = SS2
$399 = SS3
$2A = VSF
19 18 17 16
0
-
0
ADCREQ_A
1
R ADCREQ_A
$36 = SS0
$37 = SS1
$38 = SS2
$399 = SS3
$2A = VSF
ADCREQ_A 10bit ADC result
19:1=conversion finished
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING.
2. R = READ
W = WRITE.
3. Further bit over the 16 standard.
DocID025845 Rev 2
139/201
200
Diagnostic
AN4437
Once read the ADC measurement, to obtain the voltage value it is necessary to consider the
divider ratio of the ADC. In case of SS and VSF, it is 15:1.
Table 7. VSF and SS measurement of the value ratio ADC
Divider Ratio
Measurements
15:1
VSF
√
SSx
√
10:1
7:1
4:1
1:1
In the schematics here below a possible solution to perform the test is represented: such a
solution allows performing SAFING FET test only if the external reserve capacitor CER has
been charged.
Figure 67. Diagnostic - Safing FET
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The solution is based on the reading of the voltage on SSxy pins through ADC; it also
requires an external component network and two commands from the microcontroller,
140/201
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
Diagnostic
μP_cmd1 and μP_com2. Depending on the status of the VSF (ON or OFF) and on the
commands from the microcontroller, the cases described below can occur.
Figure 68. Cases of status of the VSF (on or off) and on the commands from the
microcontroller
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In the first case of the table reported above, external FET is working in voltage regulator
mode (VSF ON, μp_cmd1, μp_cmd2 set) and voltage on SSxy pin is:
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The expected value read on ADC, depending on all the parameter variation, is in the range
of 10V÷22V.
In the second case the low side command of the diagnostic is enabled and voltage on SSxy
pin is:
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The expected value read on ADC, depending on all the parameter variation, is in the range
of 4V÷7V.
In the last case everything is disabled so the voltage on SSxy is expected to be close to
VER.:
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In case of an ADC reading out of the expected range, it has to be considered as a faulty
condition.
Note:
Once μp_cmd2 is active, capacitors on SSxy pins are discharged through 4.7k which
requires about 1ms to reach steady state so a proper time should be elapsed before running
ADC conversion.
Besides, in order to guarantee more safety, it is possible to read the voltage on VDEPLOY net
through a voltage divider which is sensed by ADC of the microcontroller.
In order to guarantee redundancy on safing FET enabling, two independent conditions must
be verified. The assertion of the two conditions must come from two separate activation
logics.
In the solution here presented, the first condition (VSF switch ON) comes from the IC in
arming state while the second one (up_cmd1 asserted) comes from the microcontroller.
DocID025845 Rev 2
141/201
200
Diagnostic
AN4437
In case the ARMING algorithm is run by the microcontroller, the circuit which turns ON the
safing FET can be removed (both MUN5332DW1 and S1G diode): VSF can be connected
directly to the FET gate and μp_cmd1 can be used to drive FENH and FENL.
9.1.14
Deployment time diagnostic
The aim of the test is to pass to the microcontroller the deploy time information that the IC
has stored with the previous SPI commands (see DEPLOYMENT REQUIREMENT chapter
8.1).
Set up, only in DIAG state
(1)
(2)
15 14 13 12 11 10 9
3 $36 SYSDIAGREQ D
W
X X X X X X X X
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
0
0
1 1001: DSTEST= output
timing on ARM pin
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING.
2. R = READ
W = WRITE.
Note:
Once $36 SYSDIAGREQ register is set for output timing on ARM pin check, even if the test
has been performed, it is not possible any modification in the deployment channel
configuration, $06 DCR0, $07 DCR1, $08 DCR2, $09 DCR3.
This feature prevent any modification in the deployment time and deployment current after
the test has been performed and, as a consequence, is no longer visible by the
microcontroller.
To modify again the deployment channel configuration ($06 DCR0, $07 DCR1, $08 DCR2,
$09 DCR3) it is first necessary to change the DSTEST request, and secondly to modify the
deployment channel configuration itself as previously done.
Test result:
Once the test is ongoing, a signal 0V ->5/3.3V (depending on VDDQ) is output on ARM pin,
which reports in sequence, from channel 0 to channel 3, the deployment time programmed,
with a 8ms delay between each channel: starting from ch0, ARM signal is high for the
deploy time of ch0; then remains low until the next pulse corresponding to the channel 1
occurs (8 ms delay between each pulse to start); the same happens with the next channels
2, 3.
The microcontroller can test the latest deployment time programmed in DRCx (see
Section 8.1: Deployment requirement) measuring the duration of high ARM pulse.
If the test is performed on a channel with no deployment time previously configured, the
high ARM pulse lasts 8 μs.
If the combination time/current deployment programmed for a channel is wrong, then, as
explained in the DRCx (see Section 8.1: Deployment requirement) the combination
time/current deployment turns back to the default value. In case the deployment time is then
monitored through ARM signal, the default one is output.
142/201
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
Diagnostic
Figure 69. Deployment timer diagnostic sequence
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37B705 38/6(B7(67[ 38/6(B7(67 37
37
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37B705 38/6(B7(67[ 38/6(B7(67 *$3*36
Figure 70. Deployment timer - no programmation
DocID025845 Rev 2
143/201
200
Diagnostic
AN4437
Figure 71. Deployment timer
144/201
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
Diagnostic
9.2
High level
Figure 72. High level loop diagnostic flow 1
/2:/(9(/GLDJQRVWLF
VHOHFWE/3',$*5(4LV
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QRPRUHSUHVHQW
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DocID025845 Rev 2
*$3*36
145/201
200
Diagnostic
AN4437
Figure 73. High level loop diagnostic flow 2
/2:/(9(/GLDJQRVWLF
VHOHFWE/3',$*5(4LV
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Device performs the measurement, as requested by the microcontroller, through
LPDIAGREQ register.
Based on the requests from the microcontroller, diagnostics run according to the setups
described for the low level mode but each test set up is driven step by step by the IC itself.
IC timing schedule is selected through HI_LEV_DIAG_TIME bit in INIT:
146/201
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
Diagnostic
(1) (2)
$01 SYS_CFG
I
W
15 14 13 12 11 10 9
X
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
10: HI_LEV_DIAG_TIME
0=short time
1=long time
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING.
2. R = READ
W = WRITE.
(1) (2)
15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
3 $38 LPDIAGREQ (I) W 1 X X X X X X X HIGH_LEVEL SQP LOOP_DIAG_ 15: 1=DIAG HIGH LEVEL
CHSEL
_DIAG_SEL
4 SQP 0=SRx 1= SFx
0000 = ch0
000=No diag
sel
0001 = ch1
001=VRCM
0010 = ch2
Check
0011 = ch3
010=Leakage
Check
011=Short Btw
Loops Check
100 = Unused
101=Squib
resist range
Check
110=Squib
resist measure
111=FET test
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING.
2. R = READ
W = WRITE.
In case of high level diagnostic selection, the IC automatically schedules the preparatory
tasks to be eventually run in order to perform the required diagnostic.The following flow
chart shows the time sequence implemented:
DocID025845 Rev 2
147/201
200
Diagnostic
AN4437
Figure 74. Diagnostic - Safing FET flow
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FP bit in LPDIAGSTAT register is available only in case of high level diagnostic selected; it
is stuck at 0 otherwise.
Once a test which requires preliminary measurement phases is selected (ie leakage test,
FET test), this bit is set if the diagnostic procedure has been stopped because of a fault
recorded in such a preliminary steps.
148/201
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
9.2.1
Diagnostic
VRCM check - High side
Figure 75. Diagnostic - VRCM check - High side
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For set up, refer to Figure 75.
(1) (2)
15 14 13 12 11 10 9
8
7
6
5
4 3
2
1
0
3 $38 LPDIAGREQ (I) W 1 X X X X X X X HIGH_LEVE 1 LOOP_DIAG_ 15: 1=DIAG HIGH LEVEL
CHSEL
L_DIAG_SEL
4: SQP 0=SRx 1= SFx
0000 = ch0
001=VRCM
Check
0001 = ch1
0010 = ch2
0011 = ch3
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING.
2. R = READ
W = WRITE.
DocID025845 Rev 2
149/201
200
Diagnostic
AN4437
Figure 76. Diagnostic - VRCM check - High side waveform
Test result:
(1) (2)
4 $37 LPDIAGSTAT
(3)
19 18 17 16
1
0
0
15 14 13 12 11 10 9
R 0
R
0
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
HIGH_LEVEL
_DIAG_SEL
001=VRCM
Check
0
0
1
1 LEAK_CHSEL
0000 = ch0
0001 = ch1
0010 = ch2
0011 = ch3
19: 1= HIGH LEVEL
18: TIP 0= high level diagn
not running
16: FP no fault before test
15: 0=FET off during diagn
7: SBL 0= no short loops
6: STG 0= no short GND
5: STB 1=short to battery
4:SQP=1 SFx
3:0 LEAK_CHSEL
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING.
2. R = READ
W = WRITE.
3. Further bit over the 16 standard.
Note:
150/201
VRCM check, once required, is not run one shot on both HS and LS, but microcontroller
selects through SQP bit the high side or the low side.
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
9.2.2
Diagnostic
VRCM check - Low side
Figure 77. Diagnostic - VRCM check - Low side
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For set up, refer to Figure 77.
(1) (2)
15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
3 $38 LPDIAGREQ (I) W 1 X X X X X X X HIGH_LEVEL 0 LOOP_DIAG_ 15: 1=DIAG HIGH LEVEL
CHSEL
_DIAG_SEL
4: SQP 0=SRx 1= SFx
0000 = ch0
001=VRCM
Check
0001 = ch1
0010 = ch2
0011 = ch3
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING.
2. R = READ
W = WRITE.
Test result:
Being ISRC and VRCM connected to SFx, if VRCM works correctly, short to battery,
readable in LPDIAGSTAT register, is asserted for the channel selected:
DocID025845 Rev 2
151/201
200
Diagnostic
AN4437
(1) (2)
4 $37 LPDIAGSTAT
(3)
19 18 17 16
1
0
0
15 14 13 12 11
R 0
R
0
10
9
8
7 6 5 4
3
2
1
0
HIGH_LEVEL_DIA 0 1 0 0 LEAK_CHSEL
G_SEL
0000 = ch0
001=VRCM Check
0001 = ch1
0010 = ch2
0011 = ch3
19: 1= HIGH LEVEL
18: TIP 0= high level diagn
not running
16: FP no fault before test
15: 0=FET off during diagn
7: SBL 0= no short loops
6: STG 1= short GND
5: STB 0=no short to
battery
4:SQP=0 SRx
3:0 LEAK_CHSEL
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING.
2. R = READ
W = WRITE.
3. Further bit over the 16 standard.
Note:
152/201
VRCM check, once required, is not run one shot on both HS and LS, but microcontroller
selects through SQP bit the high side or the low side.
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
9.2.3
Diagnostic
Leakage check - High side
Figure 78. Diagnostic - Leakage check - High side
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Figure 79. Diagnostic - Leakage check - High side waveform
For set up, refer to Figure 78.
DocID025845 Rev 2
153/201
200
Diagnostic
AN4437
(1) (2)
15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
3 $38 LPDIAGREQ (I) W 1 X X X X X X X HIGH_LEVEL 1 LOOP_DIAG_CH 15: 1=DIAG HIGH LEVEL
_DIAG_SEL
SEL
4: SQP 0=SRx 1= SFx
010=leakage
0000 = ch0
test
0001 = ch1
0010 = ch2
0011 = ch3
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING.
2. R = READ
W = WRITE.
Test result:
(1) (2)
4 $37 LPDIAGSTAT
(3)
19 18 17 16
1
0
0
15 14 13 12 11 10
R 0
R
0
9
8
7 6 5 4 3
2
1
0
HIGH_LEVEL_ 0 0 0 1 LEAK_CHSEL
DIAG_SEL
0000 = ch0
010=LEAKAGE
0001 = ch1
Check
0010 = ch2
0011 = ch3
19: 1= HIGH LEVEL
18: TIP 0= high level diagn
not running
16: FP no fault before test
15: 0=FET off during diagn
7: SBL 0= no short loops
6: STG 0= no short GND
5: STB 0= no short to batt.
4:SQP=1 SFx
3:0 LEAK_CHSEL
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING.
2. R = READ
W = WRITE.
3. Further bit over the 16 standard.
Depending on the value of the capacitors mounted on the ECU, the same high level
diagnostic can be performed setting HI_LEV_DIAG_TIME bit in order to increase the time of
the internal diagnostic finite state machine operation.
This bit can be written only in INIT state.
Note:
154/201
In case HI_LEV_DIAG_TIME has to be written, microcontroller should do it before the RST
activation after the initial 500ms are expired.
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
Diagnostic
It could be necessary to disable the watchdog time out function through bit WD1_TOVR as
described in Section 5.1.
$01 SYS_CFG
(1)
(2)
I
W
15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
X
1
1 10: HI_LEV_DIAG_TIME
0=short time
1=long time
0: WD1_TOVR 1=timeout
disabled
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING.
2. R = READ
W = WRITE.
Figure 80. Diagnostic - Leakage check - High side waveform, long time
DocID025845 Rev 2
155/201
200
Diagnostic
9.2.4
AN4437
Leakage check - Low side
Figure 81. Diagnostic - Leakage check - Low side
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For set up, refer to Figure 81.
(1) (2)
15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
3 $38 LPDIAGREQ (I) W 1 X X X X X X X HIGH_LEVEL 0 LOOP_DIAG_CH 15: 1=DIAG HIGH LEVEL
SEL
_DIAG_SEL
4: SQP 0=SRx 1= SFx
0000 = ch0
010=leakage
test
0001 = ch1
0010 = ch2
0011 = ch3
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING.
2. R = READ
W = WRITE.
156/201
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
Diagnostic
Test result:
(1) (2)
4 $37 LPDIAGSTAT
(3)
R 0
19 18 17 16
1
0
0
15 14 13 12 11 10
R
0
9
8
7 6 5 4 3
2
1
0
HIGH_LEVEL_ 0 0 0 0 LEAK_CHSEL
DIAG_SEL
0000 = ch0
010=LEAKAGE
0001 = ch1
Check
0010 = ch2
0011 = ch3
19: 1= HIGH LEVEL
18: TIP 0= high level diagn
not running
16: FP no fault before test
15: 0=FET off during diagn
7: SBL 0= no short loops
6: STG 0=no short GND
5: STB 0=no short to batt.
4:SQP=0 SRx
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING.
2. R = READ
W = WRITE.
3. Further bit over the 16 standard.
9.2.5
Short between loops
To be selected if the test is on SFx or SRx via SQP bit:
(1) (2)
15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
3 $38 LPDIAGREQ (I) W 1 X X X X X X X HIGH_LEVEL 0/1 LOOP_DIAG_C 15: 1=DIAG HIGH LEVEL
HSEL
_DIAG_SEL
4: SQP 0=SRx 1= SFx
0000 = ch0
011=short
between loop
0001 = ch1
0010 = ch2
0011 = ch3
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING.
2. R = READ
W = WRITE.
DocID025845 Rev 2
157/201
200
Diagnostic
AN4437
Test result:
(1) (2)
4 $37 LPDIAGSTAT
(3)
19 18 17 16
1
0
0
15 14 13 12 11 10 9
8 7 6 5 4
3
2
1
0
19: 1= HIGH LEVEL
18: TIP 0= high level diagn
not running
16: FP no fault before test
15: 0=FET off during diagn
7: SBL 0= no short loops
6: STG 0=no short GND
5: STB 0=no short to batt.
4:SQP=0 SRx/1=SFz
3:0 LEAK_CHSEL
HIGH_LEVEL 0 0 0 0/ LEAK_CHSEL
1 0000 = ch0
_DIAG_SEL
011=short
0001 = ch1
between loop
0010 = ch2
0011 = ch3
R 0
R
0
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING.
2. R = READ
W = WRITE.
3. Further bit over the 16 standard.
9.2.6
Squib resistance range
Figure 82. Diagnostic - Squib resistance range
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For set up, refer to Figure 82.
158/201
DocID025845 Rev 2
*$3*36
AN4437
Diagnostic
(1) (2)
15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
3 $38 LPDIAGREQ (I) W 1 X X X X X X X HIGH_LEVEL 1 LOOP_DIAG_CH 15: 1=DIAG HIGH LEVEL
_DIAG_SEL
SEL
4: SQP 0=SRx 1= SFx
101=squib
0000 = ch0
res range
0001 = ch1
0010 = ch2
0011 = ch3
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING.
2. R = READ
W = WRITE.
Test result (2 Ω squib):
(1) (2)
4 $37 LPDIAGSTAT
(3)
19 18 17 16
1
0
0
15 14 13 12 11 10
R 0
R
0
0
9
8
7 6 5 4 3
2
1
0
1 HIGH_LEVEL_ 0 1 0 1 LEAK_CHSEL
DIAG_SEL
0000 = ch0
101=squib res
0001 = ch1
range
0010 = ch2
0011 = ch3
19: 1= HIGH LEVEL
18: TIP 0= high level diagn
not running
16: FP no fault before test
15: 0=FET off during diagn
7: SBL 0= no short loops
6: STG 1= short GND
5: STB 0=no short to batt.
4:SQP=1 SFx
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING.
2. R = READ
W = WRITE.
3. Further bit over the 16 standard.
STG=1 in case the squib has a very low resistive value
SQP=1 means that VRCM is connected to the high side
DocID025845 Rev 2
159/201
200
Diagnostic
9.2.7
AN4437
Squib resistance measurement
IC allows measuring the squib resistance value in the range of [1-10]Ω with overall 8%
precision.
Two steps of the measurement described below are managed by the IC, which makes also
ADC conversion results available.
Figure 83. Diagnostic - Squib resistance measurement (1)
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160/201
DocID025845 Rev 2
*$3*36
AN4437
Diagnostic
Figure 84. Diagnostic - Squib resistance measurement (2)
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IC triggers at the end of each step above an ADC conversion; once the high level diagnostic
has been performed, results of ADC conversions have to be read in the registers $3C, $3D
DIAGCTRL_x by selection of SQUIB resistance measurement (bit [6:0]=$06).
For set up, refer to Figure 84.
(1) (2)
15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
3 $38 LPDIAGREQ (I) W 1 X X X X X X X HIGH_LEVEL X LOOP_DIAG_CH 15: 1=DIAG HIGH LEVEL
SEL
_DIAG_SEL
0000 = ch0
110=squib res
meas
0001 = ch1
0010 = ch2
0011 = ch3
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING.
2. R = READ
W = WRITE.
Test result:
The registers to be read are still the four DIAGCTRL_x. Again the explanation of the first
register (x=A) is true also for the other three registers:
$3X DIAGCTRL_X → X= C, D
DocID025845 Rev 2
161/201
200
Diagnostic
AN4437
Case X = C:
(1) (2)
$3C DIAGCTRL_C
- W X
X
X
X
X
5
4
3
2
1
0
X X X X ADCREQ_A
$06 = squib x resistance
19 18 17 16
1
0
0
ADCREQ_A
(3)
15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6
-
R ADCREQ_A
ADCREQ_A 10bit ADC result
$06 = squib x resistance
19:1=conversion finished
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING.
2. R = READ
W = WRITE.
3. Further bit over the 16 standard.
Results read in the bit[9:0] will be named in the following as ADC1ST CONVERSION.
Case X = D:
(1) (2)
$3C DIAGCTRL_D
- W X
X
X
X
X
5
4
3
2
1
0
X X X X ADCREQ_A
$06 = squib x resistance
19 18 17 16
1
0
0
ADCREQ_A
(3)
15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6
-
R ADCREQ_A
ADCREQ_A 10bit ADC result
$06 = squib x resistance
19:1=conversion finished
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING.
2. R = READ
W = WRITE.
3. Further bit over the 16 standard.
Results read in the bit[9:0] will be named in the following as ADC2ND CONVERSION.
Once read the ADC measurement, to obtain the value it is necessary to consider the divider
ratio of the ADC. In case of resistance x, it is 1:1.
Table 8. Resistance measurement of the value ratio ADC
Divider Ratio
Measurements
15:1
RESISTANCE
162/201
10:1
7:1
4:1
1:1
√
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
Diagnostic
Being two measurements, the squib resistance is so calculated:
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G= 5.25 ±2% differential amplifier gain
ISRC = 40 mA ±5%
Let's consider an example where
ADC1ST CONVERSION = (0100111000)2 = (312)10
ADC2ND CONVERSION = (0010000001)2 = (129)10
ΔADC = 312 - 129 = 183
In order to obtain the result in Volt, being the A2D characteristic linear,
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DocID025845 Rev 2
Ÿ
*$3*36
163/201
200
Diagnostic
9.2.8
AN4437
High side FET diagnostic
The test is possible only in the diagnostic phase (see Section 4.2: Diagnostic).
These are two tests performed separately for the high side and the low side, with dedicated
commands.
Before running this test, IC validates VRCM, then performs leakage test and in case of no
failures, high side FET tests is performed.
Figure 85. Diagnostic - High side FET test
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For set up, refer to Figure 85.
164/201
DocID025845 Rev 2
*$3*36
AN4437
Diagnostic
Before selecting FET test, a writing access to the register $36 must be done, as it is shown
here below:
(1) (2)
15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
3 $38 LPDIAGREQ (I) W 1 X X X X X X X HIGH_LEVEL S LOOP_DIAG_CH 15: 1=DIAG HIGH LEVEL
_DIAG_SEL Q SEL
4 SQP 0=SRx 1= SFx
111=FET test P 0000 = ch0
0001 = ch1
0010 = ch2
0011 = ch3
3 $36 SYSDIAGREQ D W X X X X X X X X
0
1
1
1 0111: DSTEST=HSFET
active
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING.
2. R = READ
W = WRITE.
High side FET test turns ON the HS power: if it turns ON correctly, SFx is connected to SSxy
which is at VER voltage through the resistor R in parallel to the safing FET.
During the test, the device monitors the current flowing through VRCM.
If the high side FET works properly, this current exceeds the thresholds IHSFET (high side)
and the channel is immediately turned off,
IHSFET = 1.8 mA ± 10%
In case the current doesn't exceed the limit mentioned, after a fixed time, TFETTIMEOUT, the
test is terminated and the output is turned off.
TFETTIMEOUT = 200 μs
Test result:
Possible results for high side, readable in register $37:
STB=1 & STG=0
ok
STB=0 or STG=1
missing SSxy connection during FET test or high side not
switched ON or short to GND during FET test
DocID025845 Rev 2
165/201
200
Diagnostic
AN4437
(1) (2)
4 $37 LPDIAGSTAT
(3)
R 1
19 18 17 16
1
0
0
15 14 13 12 11 10
0
R
0
9
8
7 6 5 4 3
2
1
0
1 HIGH_LEVEL_ 0 1 0 1 LEAK_CHSEL
DIAG_SEL
0000 = ch0
111 = FET test
0001 = ch1
0010 = ch2
0011 = ch3
19: 1= HIGH LEVEL
18: TIP 0= high level diagn
not running
16: FP no fault before test
15: 1=FET off during diagn
7: SBL 0= no short loops
6: STG 0=no short GND
5: STB 1=short to batt.
4:SQP=1 SFx
3:0 LEAK_CHSEL
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING.
2. R = READ
W = WRITE.
3. Further bit over the 16 standard.
STG & STB, after FET test, are latched. They are cleared through a new LPDIAGREQ or a
new SYSDIAGREQ.
9.2.9
Low side FET diagnostic
Before running this test, IC validates VRCM, then performs leakage test and in case of no
failures, low side FET test is performed.
Figure 86. Diagnostic - Low side FET test
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166/201
DocID025845 Rev 2
*$3*36
AN4437
Diagnostic
For set up, refer to Figure 86.
Before selecting FET test, a writing access to the register $36 must be done, as it is shown
here below:
(1) (2)
15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
3 $38 LPDIAGREQ (I) W 1 X X X X X X X HIGH_LEVEL S LOOP_DIAG_CH 15: 1=DIAG HIGH LEVEL
_DIAG_SEL Q SEL
4 SQP 0=SRx 1= SFx
111FET test P 0000 = ch0
0001 = ch1
0010 = ch2
0011 = ch3
3 $36SYSDIAGREQ D W X X X X X X X X
0
1
1
1 1000: DSTEST=LSFET
active
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING.
2. R = READ
W = WRITE.
Low side FET test turns ON the low side. If the low side turns ON correctly, SRx is
connected to SGxy.
During the test, the device monitors the current flowing through VRCM.
If the FETs work properly, this current exceeds the thresholds ILSFET and the channel is
immediately turned off,
ILSFET = 450 μA ±10%
In case the current doesn't exceed the limit mentioned, after a fixed time, TFETTIMEOUT, the
test is terminated and the output is turned off.
TFETTIMEOUT = 200 μs
DocID025845 Rev 2
167/201
200
Diagnostic
AN4437
Test result:
Possible results for low side:
STB = 0 and STG = 1
ok
STB = 1 or STG = 0
short to battery in LS or low side not switched ON.
(1) (2)
4 $37 LPDIAGSTAT
(3)
19 18 17 16
1
0
0
15 14 13 12 11 10
R 1
R
0
0
9
8
7 6 5 4 3
2
1
0
1 HIGH_LEVEL_ 0 1 0 1 LEAK_CHSEL
DIAG_SEL
0000 = ch0
111 = FET test
0001 = ch1
0010 = ch2
0011 = ch3
19: 1= HIGH LEVEL
18: TIP 0= high level diagn
not running
16: FP no fault before test
15: 1=FET on during diagn
7: SBL 0= no short loops
6: STG 1=short GND
5: STB 0=no short to batt
4:SQP=1 SFx
3:0 LEAK_CHSEL
1. I=INIT / D=DIAG / S=SAFING / C=SCRAP / A=ARMING / - = ALL STATES
(I)=no in INIT / (D)= no in DIAG / (S)= no in SAFING / (C)= no in SCRAP / (A)= no in ARMING.
2. R = READ
W = WRITE.
3. Further bit over the 16 standard.
Note:
Ground loss (SGxy) is not detected through FET test, because there is a diode between
SGxy and the substrate.
STG & STB, after FET test, are latched. They are cleared through a new LPDIAGREQ or a
new SYSDIAGREQ.
168/201
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
10
Remote sensor interface - L9678-S only
Remote sensor interface - L9678-S only
This feature is available only for L9678-S version.
The 2 remote sensor interfaces (RSU0, RSU1) support protocol asynchronous PSI-5 1.3
version, 8 or 10 bit.
The two channels are independent from each other and a fault on a channel does not
influence the other.
Each channel supplies an independently current limited DC voltage to its remote sensor
derived from VSUP, and monitors the current to extract encoded data.
PSI5 (Peripheral Sensor Interface) is a two-wire protocol, where the active sensor
modulates the load current in order to encode data to be transmitted It is a two current
protocol, where the sensor applies a high level step superimposed to its normal current
consumption.
Current level detection threshold is automatically and independently defined for each
channel by the IC.
The information, Manchester 2 encoded, is brought through current transitions in the middle
of a bit time:
current rising slope = 0
current falling slope = 1
Figure 87. Manchester bit encoding
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3TARTBITS
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µ¶
,OGICgg
µ¶
µ¶
µ¶
µ¶
-ANCHESTER
03)
'!0'03
Features:

Transmission speed: 125 k baud or 189 k baud

Word data length: 8 & 10 bit

1 bit even parity
Registers:

RSU configuration is done in DIAG state only:
$4A = RSCR1 Register
Config only in DIAG state
STARTBIT MEAS_DIS, bit 13 0 = used START bit period
1 = not used START bit period
DocID025845 Rev 2
169/201
200
Remote sensor interface - L9678-S only
AN4437
This bit allows to decide the bit period based on the first two start bit (STARTBIT
MEAS_DIS, bit 13 =0) or based on the sensor parameter reported in the bit STSx[3:0] that
means 1/125k or 1/189k.
$4A = RSCR1 Register
Config only in DIAG state
BLKTxSEL, x=1, bit 10 0 = 5ms blanking time
1 = 10ms blanking time
The same is for $4B register related to RSCR2
Blanking time is active at each channel power-up and masks the inrush current eventually
needed to charge capacitors mounted on the line in order to avoid communication error
wrong detection.
Figure 88. In rush current
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STSx(3:0) bit to select the PSI5 characteristics: data length, transmission speed and parity
bit.
$4A = RSCR1 Register
Config only in DIAG state
STSx, x=1, bit [3:0] 0000 = Async. PSI-5, parity 8bit, 125k
0001 = Async. PSI-5, parity 8bit, 189k
0010 = Async. PSI-5, parity 10bit, 125k
0011-1111 = Async. PSI-5, parity 10bit, 189k
170/201
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
Remote sensor interface - L9678-S only
Control of RSU is in register $4E:
$4E RSCTRL Register
Config in DIAG, SAFING, SCRAP, ARMING state
CH1EN, bit 3 0 = OFF
1 = ON
CH0EN, bit 1 0 = OFF
1 = ON
Received data are stored into two stages FIFO readable by microcontroller via SPI
(RSDRx).
Remote sensor data and fault are reported into two registers, one for each channel ($50 and
$51). Content of these registers depends on the status of bit 15.
$50 RSDR0 Register
FLT, bit 15 0 = no fault
1 = fault present
FLT = 0
$50 RSDR0 Register
FLT, bit 15 0 = no fault
On/off, bit 14 0 = off
1 = on
LCID, bit[13:10] 0000 = RSU 0
0100 = RSU 1
DATA, bit[9:0] Data
CRC, bit[19:17] Calculated on the entire data received bit[16:0].
Polynomial calculation:
g(x) = 1+x+x3, initialized at 111
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AN4437
FLT = 1
When a fault condition occurs, RSFLT bit in GSW (bit 8 of GSW that is bit 29 of MISO frame)
is set.
$50 RSDR0 Register
FLT, bit 15 1 = fault present
On/off, bit 14 0 = off
1 = on
LCID, bit[13:10] 0000 = RSU 0
0100 = RSU 1
STG, bit9 0= no fault
1 = short to ground (in current limit condition)
STB, bit8 0= no fault
1 = short to battery
CURRENT_HI, bit7 0= no fault
1 = channel current exceeds ILKGG for a determined
time
OPENDET, bit6 0= no fault
1 = open sensor detected
RSTEMP, bit5 0= no fault
1 = over temperature detected
INVALID, bit4 0= no fault
(Cleared by STG, STB, CURRENT_HI, 1 = frame with data length error or parity or bit time
OPENDET, RSTEMP) error.
NODATA, bit3 0= no fault
(Cleared by STG, STB, CURRENT_HI, 1 = FIFO data empty
OPENDET, RSTEMP)
Whatever fault occurs, data stored into the 2 stages FIFO are lost and the fault occurred is
immediately flagged via SPI.
If no fault has occurred, but no more data are received by the sensor, reading access to the
register $50 determines a two stages FIFO pop event: once the FIFO is empty, a NODATA
fault is flagged via SPI.
When a fault condition occurs, (except a NODATA), RSFLT bit in GSW (bit 8 of GSW that is
bit 29 of MISO frame) is also set.
For the leakage to ground flag described above, the threshold is the following:
ILKGG = 36mA ÷ 45mA
The above description referred to $50 RSDR0 is valid for $51 RSDR2 too.
Data stored into RSDRx register are latched until read via SPI.
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10.1
Remote sensor interface - L9678-S only
Fault protection, short to GND, current limit
Each channel is separately protected against high current.
If the output current exceeds ILIMTH for at least TILIMTH STG (bit9) register $50 RSDR1
and/or $51RSDR2 is set; the channel involved in the problem is then switched OFF.
ILIMTH = 65mA ÷ 100mA
For what concerns the parameter TILIMTH, it depends on the operative state of the IC. At
channel power-up, the inrush current due to the capacitive load must be masked so a short
to ground condition is masked for a time period depending on the selection programmed via
SPI (register $4A, 4B bit 10, BLKTxSEL)
TILIMTH = 5ms min if BLKTxSEL=0
TILIMTH = 10ms min if BLKTxSEL=1
Once initial blanking time is elapsed, the IC validates a short to ground condition after a time
period
TILIMTH = 500 μs ÷ 600 μs
Once the channel has been switched off due to an overcurrent condition, in order to
reactivate the channel, OFF/ON sequence is necessary.
Timer to count TILIMTH has a resolution of 25μs.
STG of RSU doesn't interfere with the normal operation of the IC.
10.2
Fault protection, short to battery
Each channel is separately protected against short to battery condition, disconnecting the
channel from its supply rail.
Short to battery condition is detected when RSUx voltage pin rises over VSUP for at least
TSTBTH time. STB (bit8) register $50 RSDR1 and/or $51RSDR2 is set.
TSTBTH = 12 μs ÷ 16 μs
The counter is cleared if the STB condition is not present for at least 1.5 μs
STB condition doesn't shut-down the channel involved in the STB condition.
STB bit is cleared upon read through SPI.
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10.3
AN4437
Cross link
This allows the verification of short between RSUx channels.
To perform the verification, one channel is turned ON, while the other is kept OFF and the
voltage on the OFF channel is read.
$4E RSCTRL Register
Config in DIAG, SAFING, SCRAP, ARMING state
CH1EN, bit 3 0 = OFF
1 = ON
CH2EN, bit 1 0 = OFF
1 = ON
To read the pin voltage on the other channel:
$3A DIAGCTRL_A
Config. in DIAG, SAFING, SCRAP, ARMING state
NEWDATA[19] 0 = cleared on read
new data available from the conversion 1 = conversion finished - expected
ADCREQ_A, bit [6:0] $32 = RSU0
request (MOSI) $33 = RSU1
ADCREQ_A, bit [16:10] $32 = RSU0
readout (through MISO), $33 = RSU1
ADCRES_A, bit [9:0] 10bit ADC result correspondent to the ADCREQ_A, bit [9:0]
The same for the other registers, the choice depends on the user:
$3B DIAGCTRL, x = B
$3C DIAGCTRL, x = C
$3D DIAGCTRL, x = D
Once read the ADC measurement, to obtain the voltage value it is necessary to consider the
divider ratio of the ADC. In case of RSUxx, it is 4:1.
Table 9. RSUx measurement to obtain the voltage value
Divider Ratio
Measurements
15:1
RSUx
10:1
7:1
4:1
1:1
√
An external logic has to manage the RSUx voltage read out and to distinguish the value
expected with respect to the value read and then declare or not the cross link between loops
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AN4437
10.4
Remote sensor interface - L9678-S only
Leakage to battery / open condition
Open condition or leakage to battery is detected in the same way: current through RSUx
falls down lower than ILKGB for at least TRSUOP_FILT, being
ILKGB = 2 mA ÷ 3 mA
TRSUOP_FILT: 10 μs ÷ 15 μs
When detected this fault OPENDET (bit 6), register $50 RSDR1 and/or $51RSDR2 is set.
The channel involved in the problem is not switched OFF.
$50 RSDR0 Register
FLT, bit 15 1 = fault present
OPENDET, bit6 0= no fault
1 = open sensor detected
10.5
Leakage to ground
The leakage to ground is detected through high current, greater than ILKGG, for at least
TRSUCH_FILT, being
ILKGG for = 36 mA ÷ 45 mA
TRSUCH_FILT: 10 μs ÷ 15 μs
When detected this fault, CURRENT_HI (bit7), register $50 RSDR1 and/or $51RSDR2 is
set.
The channel involved in the problem is not switched OFF.
$50 RSDR0 Register
FLT, bit 15 1 = fault present
CURRENT_HI, bit7 0= no fault
1 = channel current exceeds ILKGG for a determined time
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10.6
AN4437
Thermal shut-down
Each channel is equipped with its dedicated over-temperature detection, each one
independent from the other.
If the over-temperature on a channel is detected, the channel itself is switched off, without
influencing the other.
In correspondence RSTEMP bit of register $50 RSDR1 and/or $51 RSDR2 is set.
$50 RSDR0 Register
FLT, bit 15 1 = fault present
RSTEMP, bit5 0= no fault
1 = over temperature detected
To reactivate the channel after an over-temperature, the sequence OFF-ON of the channel
($4E RSCTRL register, bit 3 and/or1) is required.
10.7
Manchester decoding
PSI5 protocol encodes messages by modulating current sunk by the sensor through
Manchester 2 codification: IC is able to sense current and decode the messages, in order to
provide data via SPI register.
Once two valid start bits are detected, IC provides error detection mechanism by monitoring
the period and the number of the bit sent in the frame.
10.8
MISO BIT
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
MISO
SPIFLT
DEPOK
RSFLT
WDTDIS_S
ERSTATE
POWERFLT
FLT
CONVRDY2
CONVRDY1
ERR_WID
ERR_RID
Remote sensor interface errors are reported in the GSW bit8, RSFLT, that corresponds to bit
29 in MISO
GSW BIT
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Trip current auto adjust
Depending on the number of sensors connected to the line, the quiescent current sunk from
each RSU interface may change.
IC provides the means to detect such a variation and is able to put an adaptive threshold in
order to recognize the current transitions due to the signal modulation.
Once the quiescent current value has been detected, the IC recognizes a transition
low → high if the current sunk by the sensor is higher than
IRSUxTH = IBO+ ITH
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Remote sensor interface - L9678-S only
Where IBO the base current which can span from 2.5mA up to 41mA covering PSI-5
specification range and ITH is in the range of
[(12-9%),(12+9%)]mA
Referring to the current sensing auto adjust, there is the possibility to choose the counter
frequency, see Figure 89, setting SLOWTRACK bit in register RSCR1 (the same for RSCR2
register)
$4A = RSCR1 Register
SLOWTRACK, bit 14
Config only in DIAG state
0: 8μs/1μs
1: 16μs/2μs
Figure 89. Remote sensor current auto adjust
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DC sensor interface
11
AN4437
DC sensor interface
These four interfaces are dedicated to positioning sensors (as, for example presence of the
person on the seat, seat belt fasten and so on). They can be Hall Effect sensors, resistive
sensors or simply switches.
Each channel has an internal pull down (100uA), default active, that is deactivated by
switching ON the channel, or by requiring voltage measurement or by setting
DCS_PD_CURR bit channel per channel or all the channels together.
In DIAG, SAFING; SCRAP or ARMING state, each channel, selected through CHID bit, is
controlled and configured via SPI:
$39 SWCTRL register
CDS_PD_CURR, bit7
SWOEN, bit6
CHID, bit [3:0]
Config in DIAG, SAFING; SCRAP or ARMING state
0 = pull down OFF for the channel under voltage or current
measurement, ON for all the others
1 = pull down OFF for all the channels
0 = OFF
1 = ON (40mA)
0000 = channel 0
0001 = channel 1
0010 = channel 2
0011 = channel 3
0100-1111 = not used
It is possible, through ADC, for each channel, to require the following measurements:

Current measurement

Voltage measurement, with the channel ON or OFF

Resistor measurement
Current and resistor measurement require the channel ON (SWOEN=1).
As the measure has been performed, the channel is automatically switched off (to prevent
power dissipation) or not, following the system configuration:
$01 SYS_CFG register
Config in INIT state
EN_AUTO_SWITCH_OFF, bit15
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0 = auto switch off disable
1= auto switch off disable
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AN4437
DC sensor interface
Current measurement
Before running the current measurement, it is previously necessary to switch on the channel
by accessing to register $39 as showed above.
The result of the measurement is addressed on $3x DIAGCTRLx, x = A...D.
Case X = A:
$3A DIAGCTRL_A
Config. in DIAG, SAFING, SCRAP, ARMING state
NEWDATA[19]
new data available from the conversion
0 = cleared on read
1 = conversion finished
ADCREQ_A, bit [6:0]
request (MOSI)
$04 DCSi current
ADCREQ_A, bit [16:10]
readout (through MISO),
$04 DCSi current
ADCRES_A, bit [9:0]
(MISO)
10bit ADC result
Once the current measurement on the channel is completed, the channel is automatically
switched off or not based on EN_AUTO_SWITCH_OFF bit configuration.
Current measurement is possible both in the range of 2mA÷22mA with a total error ±12%
(including all errors which affect ADC measurement) or in the range of 1mA÷2mA: in this
case the accuracy of the measurement becomes ±30%.
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Example 1
Let's consider an example where 3kΩ resistor is mounted on DCSx:
when the channel is ON a voltage of typ 6.25 V is regulated so current flowing is ~2.1 mA
$3A DIAGCTRL_A, ADCRES_A, bit [9:0]:
ADC = (0001001000)2 = (72)10
In order to obtain the result in A, being the ADC characteristic linear,
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DC sensor interface
Note:
AN4437
In case of a low value resistor mounted on DCSx channel, the current may be higher than
IDCS_LIMIT_L = 24 mA ÷30 mA
In this case the IC is no more able to regulate 6.125 V on the channel but the current
measurement still works fine.
Example 2
Let's consider an example where 65 Ω resistor is mounted on DCSx:
when the channel is ON a voltage of ~1.8 V is present with a current flowing ~27 mA (out of
regulation)
$3A DIAGCTRL_A, ADCRES_A, bit [9:0]:
ADC = (1110101001)2 = (937)10
In order to obtain the result in A, being the ADC characteristic linear,
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Voltage measurement
IC is able to perform voltage measurement in the range of 1.5V÷10V with a total error ±8%
(including all errors which affect ADC measurement).
For the voltage measurement, it is possible to run such a diagnostic both with channel on
and off.: a double step measurement (ch ON and OFF) is recommended in order to reach a
good precision by means of offset compensation.
In case of channel ON measurement, the channel has to be switched on, then the result of
the measurement is addressed on $3x DIAGCTRLx, x=A...D.
Case X = A:
$3A DIAGCTRL_A
Config. in DIAG, SAFING, SCRAP, ARMING state
NEWDATA[19]
new data available from the conversion
ADCREQ_A, bit [6:0]
request (MOSI)
$03 DCSi voltage
ADCREQ_A, bit [16:10]
readout (through MISO),
$03 DCSi voltage
ADCRES_A, bit [9:0]
(MISO)
180/201
0 = cleared on read
1 = conversion finished
10bit ADC result
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
DC sensor interface
Once this measurement is completed, the channel is not automatically switched off, but if
necessary, it can be switched off by the microcontroller.
Voltage measurement with the channel OFF is done through DCSx bit, registers $3x
DIAGCTRLx, x=A...D:
Case x = A
$3A DIAGCTRL_A
Config. in DIAG, SAFING, SCRAP, ARMING state
NEWDATA[19]
new data available from the conversion
0 = cleared on read
1 = conversion finished
ADCREQ_A, bit [6:0]
request (MOSI)
$0B DCS0 voltage pin, channel off
$0C DCS1 voltage pin, channel off
$0D DCS2 voltage pin, channel off
$0E DCS3 voltage pin, channel off
ADCREQ_A, bit [16:10]
readout (through MISO),
$0B DCS0 voltage pin, channel off
$0C DCS1 voltage pin, channel off
$0D DCS2 voltage pin, channel off
$0E DCS3 voltage pin, channel off
ADCRES_A, bit [9:0]
(MISO)
10bit ADC result
In order to calculate the real voltage value from the result coming from an ADC conversion,
7.125 typ scaling factor must be taken into account.
Example 3
Let's consider an example where DCSx is at its voltage regulation value 6.25V typ
ADCCHON = (0111101011)2 = (491)10
ADCCHOFF = (0010001011)2 = (139)10
ΔADC = ADCCHON – ADCCHOFF = (352)10
In order to obtain the result in V, being the ADC characteristic linear,
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Considering typical scaling factor
VDCSx = x · 7.125 = 6.12 V
Note:
The voltage measurement is still available in case the current load is higher than
IDCS_LIMIT_L = 24 mA ÷ 30 mA and channel is no more able to regulate 6.25 V typ.
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DC sensor interface
AN4437
Resistor measurement
IC is able to perform resistor measurement in the range of 65 Ω ÷ 3000 Ω with a total error
defined by the combination of the accuracy obtained on the voltage and current
measurements.
IC gives possibility to run one shot the resistor measurement by single access to the ADC.
In order to perform such measurement, the channel under test has to be previously
switched on in the register $39.
Note:
The one shot resistor measurement can be run only through $3A DIAGCTRL_A access.
$3A DIAGCTRL_A
Config. in DIAG, SAFING, SCRAP, ARMING state
NEWDATA[19]
new data available from the conversion
0 = cleared on read
1 = conversion finished
ADCREQ_A, bit [6:0]
request (MOSI)
$05 DCSx resistance
ADCREQ_A, bit [16:10]
readout (through MISO),
$05 DCSx resistance
ADCRES_A, bit [9:0]
(MISO)
10bit ADC result
Once the one shot measurement is completed, the results are available in the register $3A
DIACTRL_A (for the current flowing through the channel) and $3B DIACTRL_B (for the
channel voltage).
Note:
The result which is read on the register $3B corresponds to the voltage with channel ON. It
is recommended to subtract from this voltage the offset which can be read with channel
OFF.
Once current and voltage are available, the resistor can be computed as per the following:
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Let's consider an example where a 3 kΩ resistor is mounted on DCSx
DIAGCTRLn(ADCCHOFF) = (001000101)2 = (139)10
DIAGCTRLn(ADC$3BCHON) = (0111101010)2 = (490)10
DIAGCTRLn(ADC$3A) = (0001000111)2 = (71)10
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182/201
í DocID025845 Rev 2
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AN4437
DC sensor interface
Once the channel resistor measurement is completed, the channel is automatically switched
off or not based on EN_AUTO_SWITCH_OFF bit configuration
Note:
The resistor measurement is still available in case the current load is higher than
IDCS_LIMIT_L = 24 mA ÷ -30 mA and channel is no more able to regulate 6.25 V typ.
DCSx tolerate external ground shift up to ±1 V.
Short between channels:
By means of channel pull-down disabling, the IC in combination with the microcontroller can
detect a short between channels, enabling one channel
$39 SWCTRL register
Config in DIAG, SAFING; SCRAP or ARMING state
DCS_PUCURR [bit 7]
SWOEN, bit6
CHID, bit [3:0]
0 = pull down OFF for the channel under voltage or current
measurement, ON for all the others
1 = ON
0000 = channel 0
0001 = channel 1
0010 = channel 2
0011 = channel 3
and measuring the voltage of the others
$3X DIAGCTRL_X → X = A, B, C, D
Case X = A:
$3A DIAGCTRL_A
Config. in DIAG, SAFING, SCRAP, ARMING state
NEWDATA[19]
new data available from the conversion
0 = cleared on read
1 = conversion finished
ADCREQ_A, bit [6:0]
request (MOSI)
$0B DCS0 voltage pin, channel off
$0C DCS1 voltage pin, channel off
$0D DCS2 voltage pin, channel off
$0E DCS3 voltage pin, channel off
ADCREQ_A, bit [16:10]
readout (through MISO),
$0B DCS0 voltage pin, channel off
$0C DCS1 voltage pin, channel off
$0D DCS2 voltage pin, channel off
$0E DCS3 voltage pin, channel off
ADCRES_A, bit [9:0]
(MISO)
10bit ADC result
Once read the ADC measurement, to obtain the voltage value it is necessary to consider the
divider ratio that is 7.125 in this measurement.
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AN4437
Protections:
Each channel is protected against:
–
Overload
–
Ground shift (±1V)
–
Loss ECU battery
–
Loss ground
–
Short to ground.
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GPO drivers
12
GPO drivers
There are two GPO drivers configurable as high side or low side drivers.
Their configuration is done via SPI:
$42 GPOCR register
Config. in DIAG state only
GPO1HS, bit1
0 = high side driver configured for ch1
1 = low side driver configured for ch1
GPO0HS, bit0
0 = high side driver configured for ch0
1 = low side driver configured for ch0
Low side
GPODx to the external load (that is connected to battery)
GPOSx to ground
x = 0, 1
Figure 90. GPO low side configuration
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GPO drivers
AN4437
High side
GPODx to battery
GPOSx to the external load (that is connected to ground)
x = 0, 1
Figure 91. GPO high side configuration
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GPOx are OFF by default.
Once they have been configured as high side or low side, they can be independently
switched ON through GPOCTRLx register, GPOxPWM bit:
$43 GPOCTRL0 register
GPOxPWM bit[5:0]
$44 GPOCTRL1 register
GPO1PWM bit[5:0]
186/201
Config. in DIAG, SAFING, SCRAP, ARMING state
PWM duty cycle, 1.6% per count
Config. in DIAG, SAFING, SCRAP, ARMING state
PWM duty cycle, 1.6% per count
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
GPO drivers
In case the channels are switched on without their configuration as high or low side, a fault
bit (LAMPS_NOT_CONF in GPOFLTSR register) is set:
$46 GPOFLT register
LAMPS_NOT_CONF
bit 15
0= channels configured, activation permitted
1= channels not configured (default), activation not permitted
Output can work in a PWM configuration (125 kHz, 0-100% duty-cycle, depending on the
GPOxPWM value).
Driver is kept OFF in case of 0% duty cycle programmed, full ON in case of 100% duty cycle
programmed.
When both channels (it doesn't care HS or LS configuration) are used in PWM with the
same duty-cycle, they are synchronized to provide parallel configuration capability.
Protections:
–
Each channel can withstand -1V on the pin and +1V as reverse voltage across
source and drain.
–
Each channel is protected against short circuit
–
Each channel is protected against thermal overload condition
All the diagnostics related to GPOx are reported in GPOFLTSR register
$46 GPOFLTSR
GPO1TEMP, bit9
GPO0TEMP, bit4
0 = no fault
1 = fault
GPO1LIM, bit8
GPO0LIM, bit3
0 = no fault
1 = fault
GPO1OPN, bit7
GPO0OPN, bit2
0 = no fault
1 = fault
All faults (except thermal overload) are latched in the register until it is read.
Protection against short circuit is implemented by means of current limitation ILIM, until
thermal fault condition is detected.
ILIM = 80 mA ÷ 140 mA
The limitation flag, GPOxLIM, is also asserted.
In case of thermal fault, the correspondent flag, GPO0TEMP, is asserted.
Thermal overload fault lasts until the over-temperature condition disappears: a hysteresis is
applied for the cool down
TJSD = 150°C ÷ 190°C
THYS_JSD
= 5°C ÷ 15°C
The IC is able to detect open load in ON condition, comparing the current flowing into the
output pin with a threshold
IOpenload = 3mA
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GPO drivers
AN4437
If the current through the pin is lower than the threshold, the open load flag, GPOxOPN, is
asserted.
For further diagnostics, IC provides the means to read via ADC the voltage on both drain
and source pin for each GPOx driver. The registers involved in this operation are the four
$3x DIAGCTRL_x → x=A, B, C, D
Case x = A
$3A DIAGCTRL_A
Config. in DIAG, SAFING, SCRAP, ARMING state
NEWDATA[19]
new data available from the conversion
0 = cleared on read
1 = conversion finished
ADCREQ_A, bit [6:0]
request (MOSI)
$2C = GPO D0
$2D = GPO S0
$2E = GPO D1
$2F = GPO S1
ADCREQ_A, bit [16:10]
readout (through MISO),
$2C = GPO D0
$2D = GPO S0
$2E = GPO D1
$2F = GPO S1
ADCRES_A, bit [9:0]
10bit ADC result correspondent to the ADCREQ_A, bit
[9:0]
Once read the ADC measurement, to obtain the voltage value it is necessary to consider the
divider ratio of the ADC.
Table 10. GPODx and GPOSx measurement of the value ratio ADC
Divider Ratio
Measurements
15:1
188/201
10:1
GPODx
√
GPOSx
√
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7:1
4:1
1:1
AN4437
13
ISO9141 transceiver
ISO9141 transceiver
Figure 92. ISO9141 transceiver block diagram
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ISOTX is pulled up to VDDQ to guarantee the output is disabled in case of an open load.
ISOK is an output pin, connected to BATTERY through an external resistor (510 Ω)
ISORX is an output pin referred to VDDQ. Value of this pin depends on the value of ISOK,
and then on the value of ISOTX.
If ISOK is above ISOK input receiver threshold, VTH_REC, ISORX is high, otherwise it is low.
VTH_REC = VIN*0.5 ÷ VIN*0.6 (typ = VIN*0.55)
Protections:

against short circuit

current limitation detection, ILIM 50mA ÷ 100mA

thermal shutdown
In $47 ISOFLTSR register the diagnostic results are reported:
$47 ISOFLTSR register
ISOTEMP, bit1
0 = no fault
1 = fault
ISOLIM, bit0
0 = no fault
1 = fault
In current limit condition, the output stage runs until the thermal shutdown is reached.
Thermal shutdown switches OFF the output until the temperature falls down below limit
threshold temperature, considering the hysteresis.
TJSD = 150°C ÷ 190°C
THYS_JSD = 5°C ÷ 15°C
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System voltage diagnostic
14
AN4437
System voltage diagnostic
IC is equipped with a 10 bit ADC running at 16 MHz.
Different measurements can be performed and then read via four dedicated commands,
$3x_DIAGCTRL_x, x = A ÷ D.
All measurements can be addressed in one of these four registers, with the exception of:
DCS resistance measurement
available in $3A_DIAGCTRL_A
Squib resistance measurement
available in $3C_DIAGCTRL_C
In case of DCS resistance measurement, in $3A_DIAGCTRL_A is reported the current
flowing through the pin and in $3B_DIAGCTRL_B is reported the voltage of the pin, as
explained in DC SENSOR INTERFACE section, chapter 11.
In case of squib resistance measurement, result of ADC conversion is available in registers
$3C_DIAGCTRL_C (current) and $3D_DIAGCTRL_D (voltage of the pin), see section
SQUIB RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT, chapters 9.1.6, 9.2.7.
Structure of DIAGCTRL_A same for the other three registers.
$3A, DIAGCTRL_A
19
18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9
MOSI
MISO
X
NEWDATA_A
0
0
X
X
X
X
X
X
8
7
X
X
ADCREQ_A [6:0]
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ADCREQ_A [6:0]
ADC_RES_A [9:0]
To get four measurements, the four $3x, DIAGCTRL_x, x = A ÷ D commands have to be
sent, regardless their order.
If the voltage to be measured requires a certain time to be stable, the requirement has to be
done in advance. This is the case of:
Squib resistance measurement and diagnostic
DCS measurement
NEW_DATA_x =1 indicates that the conversion required is finished and the new data is
available.
NEW_DATA_x is reported in GSW, elaborated in this way:
CONVRDY_0 = NEW_DATA_A or NEW_DATA_B
190/201
MISO BIT
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
MISO
SPIFLT
DEPOK
RSFLT
WDTDIS_S
ERSTATE
POWERFLT
FLT
CONVRDY2
CONVRDY1
ERR_WID
ERR_RID
CONVRDY_1 = NEW_DATA_C or NEW_DATA_D
GSW BIT
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
System voltage diagnostic
Once the conversion has been read via SPI, bit NEW_DATA_x is cleared and results of
conversion done, ADC_RES_A [9:0], is kept until a new conversion is available.
In case a new conversion command is received while a conversion is still running, a 4
stages FIFO queue is available in order to service all conversions commands with the
integrated ADC.
Figure 93. FIFO filling
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FIFO management, in a case of 4 conversion commands requested sequentially, is reported
in the example above.
In case a new conversion is required (ie on DIAGCTRL_C) while a conversion is still
running, the new request (Ck+1) overwrites the previous one (Ck) and a new conversion
request is located at the end of the queue.
Voltage measurements require a proper scaling, as summarized here below:
Table 11. Voltage measurements
Divider Ratio
Measurements
15:1
VER
√
ERBOOST
√
VSF
√
SSxy
√
SFx
√
10:1
GPODx
√
GPOSx
√
VIN
√
VBATMON
√
WAKEUP
√
VSUP
7.125:1
7:1
4:1
1:1
√
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System voltage diagnostic
AN4437
Table 11. Voltage measurements (continued)
Divider Ratio
Measurements
15:1
10:1
7.125:1
WDTDIS
4:1
1:1
√
RSUx
√
DCSx
14.1
7:1
√
VDD5
√
VDD3V3
√
VINT3V3
√
Band-gap (BGR/BGM)
√
TEMP
√
ADC algorithm
10 bit data are internally filtered.
The number of samples that is filtered depends on set-up of VMEAS bit (default 4 samples)
in SYS_CFG register,
$01 SYS_CFG register
VMEAS, bit[6:5]
Config in INIT state only
00 = 4 samples
01 = 16 samples
10 = 8 samples
11 = 2 sample
Reference voltage for ADC is 2.5V.
Conversion times takes into account several factors:
–
Number of measurements loaded into the queue
–
Numbers of sample taken for each measurement
–
Settling time
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15
Temperature sensor
Temperature sensor
The aim of this sensor is to have a reference for the average junction temperature on the
silicon on the surface.
The sensor is localized far from the power stages.
Temperature is available through ADC conversion, ADRREQ_x = $0A.
Once the temperature is available, the formula for the conversion is:
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DocID025845 Rev 2
$KH[
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200
Footprint
16
AN4437
Footprint
L9678 and the other two devices of the same family have a concentric footprint, see next
figures:
Figure 94. Footprint L9678-L9680
194/201
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AN4437
Footprint
Figure 95. Footprint L9678-L9679
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Energy reserve capacitor
Appendix A
AN4437
Energy reserve capacitor
Energy reserve capacitor stores the necessary energy to operate the Airbag ECU during
loss of battery.
System operating requirements influence device selection and calculations. The following
example makes general operating assumptions and changing the assumptions may effect
calculations and results.
During loss of battery operation, energy reserve operation can be mechanized as shown. To
continue the analysis, system functional operating assumptions must be determined. These
assumptions are shown in the drawing below. Operation assumes three states, sensing,
deploy and shutdown. During sensing state, all functions operate normally. In deploy state,
all functions remain operational and all squib deployment channels are fired. The final state,
shutdown, reduces operation to only the microcontroller.
Figure 96. Blocks active in Autarchy mode
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196/201
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
Energy reserve capacitor
Figure 97. Energy reserve capacitor depletion - timing diagram
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9
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7
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At t = T0 = 0, V0 = VER – ISYS • (RESR + RCO)
Where,
VER = Energy reserve voltage just prior to loss of battery detection and crossover operation
ISYS = System current consumption, L96xx bias, Voltage regulators, RSUs, DC Sensors
RESR = Energy capacitor's ESR
RCO = Crossover Switch Resistance
¤9 í9 ³
, 6<6 & ¥ ´
¦ 7 í 7 µ
9
Equation 1
9
9 í
*$3*36
, 6<6 7 í 7 9 (5 í , 6<6 5(65 5&2 í
&
*$3*36
, 6<6 7
&
*$3*36
Deployment begins at T1, thus increasing energy reserve current and effects due to ESR
Equation 2
V2 = V1 – IDEPLOY • RESR
Where IDEPLOY = total deployment current controlled by L96xx
Substituting (1) into (2):
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Energy reserve capacitor
AN4437
Equation 3
9
9 (5 í , 6<6 5(65 5&2 í
, 6<6 7
&
í , '(3/2< 5(65
*$3*36
During deployment phase, reserve voltage behavior is characterized as:
, 6<6 , '(3/2<
Equation 4
9
9 í
&
9 í9
7 í 7
*$3*36
7'(3/2< , 6<6 , '(3/2< &
*$3*36
Substituting (3) into (4):
9
9 (5 í , 6<6 5(65 5&2 í
, 6<6 7
&
í , '(3/2< 5(65 í
7'(3/2< , 6<6 , '(3/2< &
*$3*36
Once deployment is complete, the airbag module enters its final state, shutdown. Reserve
current is reduced causing reserve voltage to increase due to less loss in capacitor CER
and Cross over switch. The change in reserve voltage is calculated as:
Equation 5
9 9 , '(3/2< 5(65 , '&6(1625 , 568 5(65 5&2 *$3*36
Equation 6
9
9 (5 í , 6<6 5(65 5&2 í
, 6<6 7 , 6<6 7 '(3/2< , '(3/2< 7 '(3/2< &
í , '(3/2< 5(65 , '(3/2< 5(65 , '&6(1625 , 568 5(65 5&2 *$3*36
In equation (5) above, the system disables current to all deployment drivers, DC sensor and
Remote Sensor Interfaces.
During shutdown phase, only Voltage regulator and device (L96xx) bias current is needed
from reserve.
To complete energy reserve capacitor estimate, the analysis must assume a final reserve
voltage requirement. In the study, energy reserve must be higher than VDDx dropout
voltage where VDDx is the supply of the microcontroller.
By assuming this requirement, the system is designed to operate for the desired reserve
time.
Equation 7 V5 > VDDxDROPOUT
Reserve voltage behavior follows as:
Equation 8
198/201
,6+87'2:1
&
9í9
7í 7
DocID025845 Rev 2
*$3*36
AN4437
Energy reserve capacitor
Where ISHUTDOWN = IVDD + IBIAS
Re-arranging (8)
ISHUTDOWN • (T3 – T2) C • V4 – V5)
Substituting (6) and (7):
,6+87'2:1 7 í 7 & 9 (5 í , 6<6 5(65 5&2 í
, 6<6 7 , 6<6 7'(3/2< , '(3/2< 7'(3/2< &
í , '(3/2< 5(65 , '(3/2< 5(65 , '&6(1625 , 568 5(65 5&2 í 9''[ '523287 *$3*36
Simplify and arrange
&
, 6+87'2:1 7 í 7 , 6<6 7 , 6<6 7'(3/2< , '(3/2< 7'(3/2< 9 (5 í , 6<6 5(65 5&2 , '&6(1625 , 568 5(65 5&2 í 9''[
'523287
*$3*36
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200
Revision history
AN4437
Revision history
Table 12. Document revision history
200/201
Date
Revision
Changes
15-Apr-2014
1
Initial release.
06-Mar-2015
2
Modified in Section 9.1: Low level on page 101 for “$04
SYS_STATE” 010=DIAG in 001=DIAG.
DocID025845 Rev 2
AN4437
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