dm00265383

AN4825
Application note
Ultra-compact high-performance eCompass module
based on the LSM303AGR
Introduction
This document is intended to provide usage information and application hints related to ST's
eCompass module.
The LSM303AGR is a 3D digital magnetometer and 3D digital accelerometer system-inpackage with a digital I2C and 3-wire SPI interface standard output, performing at 250 μA in
combo high-resolution mode and no more than 60 μA in combo low-power mode. Thanks to
the ultra-low noise performance of the magnetometer and to the ultra-low power of the
accelerometer, the device combines always-on low-power features with superior sensing
precision for an optimal motion experience for the consumer. The device features ultra lowpower operational modes that allow advanced power saving and smart sleep-to-wake and
return-to-sleep functions.
The device has a magnetic field dynamic range of ±50 gauss and a user-selectable fullscale acceleration range of ±2g/±4g/±8g/±16g.
The LSM303AGR can be configured to generate an interrupt signal for magnetic field
detection and to automatically compensate for hard-iron offsets provided from the higher
application layer. It can be configured to generate interrupt signals by detecting an
independent inertial wakeup/free-fall event as well as by the position of the device itself.
Thresholds and timing of the interrupt generator are programmable by the end user on the
fly. Automatic programmable sleep-to-wake-up and return-to-sleep functions are also
available for enhanced power saving.
The LSM303AGR has an integrated 32-level first in first out (FIFO) buffer allowing the user
to store accelerometer data in order to limit intervention by the host processor.
The LSM303AGR is available in a small thin plastic land grid array package (LGA) and it is
guaranteed to operate over an extended temperature range from -40 °C to +85 °C.
The ultra-small size and weight of the SMD package make it an ideal choice for handheld
portable applications such as smartphones, IoT connected devices, and wearables or any
other application where reduced package size and weight are required.
April 2016
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Contents
Contents
1
Pin description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2
Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3
Magnetometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.1
Operating modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.1.1
Idle mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.1.2
High-resolution mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.1.3
Low-power mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.1.4
Single measurement mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.2
Magnetometer low-pass filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.3
Reading output data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.3.1
Startup sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.3.2
Using the status register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.3.3
Using the data-ready signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.3.4
Using the block data update (BDU) feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.3.5
Understanding output data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Example of output data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
3.4
Magnetometer offset cancellation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.5
Magnetometer hard-iron compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
3.6
Interrupt generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
3.7
4
Interrupt pin configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3.6.2
Event status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3.6.3
Threshold interrupt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Magnetometer self-test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Accelerometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
4.1
4.2
2/65
3.6.1
Operating modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
4.1.1
Power-down mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
4.1.2
High-resolution mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
4.1.3
Normal mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
4.1.4
Low-power mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4.1.5
Switching modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Startup sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
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4.2.1
Reading acceleration data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Using the status register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
Using the data-ready (DRY) signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
Using the block data update (BDU) feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
4.2.2
Understanding acceleration data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Data alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
Big-little endian selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
Example of acceleration data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
4.3
High-pass filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
4.3.1
Filter configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Normal mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
Reference mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Autoreset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
4.4
Interrupt generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
4.4.1
4.5
Interrupt pin configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Inertial interrupt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
4.5.1
Duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
4.5.2
Threshold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
4.5.3
Free-fall and wake-up interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Inertial wake-up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
HP filter bypassed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
Using the HP filter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
4.5.4
4.6
4.7
Free-fall detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
6D/4D orientation detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
4.6.1
6D orientation detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
4.6.2
4D direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Click and double-click recognition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
4.7.1
Single click . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
4.7.2
Double click . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
4.7.3
Register description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
CLICK_CFG_A (38h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
CLICK_SRC_A (39h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
CLICK_THS_A (3Ah) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
TIME_LIMIT_A (3Bh) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46
TIME_LATENCY_A (3Ch) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46
TIME_WINDOW_A (3Dh) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46
CTRL_REG3_A [Interrupt CTRL register] (22h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
4.7.4
Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Playing with TAP_TimeLimit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
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Playing with TAP_Latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
Playing with TAP_Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50
4.8
First-in first-out (FIFO) buffer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
4.8.1
FIFO description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
4.8.2
FIFO registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Control register 5 (0x24) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52
FIFO control register (0x2E) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53
FIFO source register (0x2F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54
4.8.3
FIFO modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Bypass mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
FIFO mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
Stream mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56
Stream-to-FIFO mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59
5
4/65
4.8.4
Watermark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
4.8.5
Retrieving data from FIFO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
4.9
Temperature sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
4.10
Accelerometer self-test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Revision history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
DocID028927 Rev 1
List of tables
List of tables
Table 1.
Table 2.
Table 3.
Table 4.
Table 5.
Table 6.
Table 7.
Table 8.
Table 9.
Table 10.
Table 11.
Table 12.
Table 13.
Table 14.
Table 15.
Table 16.
Table 17.
Table 18.
Table 19.
Table 20.
Table 21.
Table 22.
Table 23.
Table 24.
Table 25.
Table 26.
Table 27.
Table 28.
Table 29.
Table 30.
Table 31.
Table 32.
Table 33.
Table 34.
Table 35.
Table 36.
Table 37.
Table 38.
Table 39.
Table 40.
Table 41.
Table 42.
Table 43.
Table 44.
Table 45.
Table 46.
Table 47.
Pin description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Registers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Current consumption of operating modes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Operative modes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Maximum ODR in single measurement mode (HR and LP modes) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
LPF, relative bandwidth and noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
CFG_REG_C_M register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
INT_CTRL_REG_M register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Operating mode selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Data rate configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Current consumption of operating modes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Turn-on time for operating mode transition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Output data registers content vs. acceleration (FS = 2 g) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
High-pass filter mode configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Low power mode - high-pass filter cutoff frequency [Hz] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Reference mode LSB value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
CTRL_REG3_A register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
CTRL_REG3 description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
CTRL_REG6 register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
CTRL_REG6 register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Interrupt mode configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Duration LSB value in normal mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Threshold LSB value. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
INT1_SRC_A register in 6D position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
CLICK_CFG_A register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
CLICK_CFG_A description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Truth table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
CLICK_SRC_A register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
CLICK_SRC_A description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
CLICK_THS_A register. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
CLICK_THS_A description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
TIME_LIMIT_A register. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
TIME_LIMIT_A register. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
TIME_LATENCY_A register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
TIME_LATENCY_A description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
TIME_WINDOW_A register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
TIME_LATENCY_A description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
CTRL_REG3_A register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
CTRL_REG3_A description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
FIFO buffer full representation (32nd sample set stored) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
FIFO overrun representation
(33rd sample set stored and 1st sample discarded) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
FIFO enable bit in CTRL_REG5_A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
FIFO_CTRL_REG_A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
FIFO_SRC_REG_A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
FIFO_SRC_REG_A behavior assuming FTH[4:0] = 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
CTRL_REG3_A (0x22) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Document revision history. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
DocID028927 Rev 1
5/65
65
List of figures
List of figures
Figure 1.
Figure 2.
Figure 3.
Figure 4.
Figure 5.
Figure 6.
Figure 7.
Figure 8.
Figure 9.
Figure 10.
Figure 11.
Figure 12.
Figure 13.
Figure 14.
Figure 15.
Figure 16.
Figure 17.
Figure 18.
Figure 19.
Figure 20.
Figure 21.
Figure 22.
Figure 23.
Figure 24.
Figure 25.
Figure 26.
Figure 27.
Figure 28.
Figure 29.
Figure 30.
Figure 31.
Figure 32.
Figure 33.
Figure 34.
Figure 35.
6/65
Pin connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Interrupt function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Magnetometer self-test procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Data-ready signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
High-pass filter connections block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
REFERENCE/DATACAPTURE_A reads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Reference mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Autoreset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Interrupt signals and interrupt pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Free-fall, wake-up interrupt generator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Free-fall, wake-up configuration - high and low . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Inertial wake-up interrupt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Free-fall interrupt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
ZH, ZL, YH, YL, XH, and XL behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
6D movement vs. 6D position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
6D recognized positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Single-click event with non-latched interrupt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Single and double-click recognition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Double-click recognition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Short TimeLimit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Long TimeLimit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Short latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Long latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Short window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Long window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
FIFO_EN connection block diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
FIFO mode behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Stream mode fast reading behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Stream mode slow reading behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Stream mode slow reading (zoom) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Stream-to-FIFO mode: interrupt not latched . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Stream-to-FIFO mode: interrupt latched . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Watermark behavior - FTH[4:0] = 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
FIFO read - FTH[4:0] = 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Accelerometer self-test procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
DocID028927 Rev 1
Pin description
Pin description
Figure 1. Pin connections
=
,17BB;/
9GGB,2
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,17BB;/
6&/63&
;
7239,(:
&6B;/
9GG
&6B0$*
,17B0$*'5'<
=
&
*1'
',5(&7,212)
'(7(&7$%/(
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1
6'$6',6'2
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7239,(:
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'(7(&7$%/(
0$*1(7,&),(/'6
DocID028927 Rev 1
7/65
65
Pin description
Table 1. Pin description
Pin#
Name
Pin status
I C serial clock (SCL)
SPI serial port clock (SPC)
Default: input without pull-up
CS_XL
Accelerometer: SPI enable
I2C/SPI mode selection
1: SPI idle mode / I2C communication enabled;
0: SPI communication mode / I2C disabled
Default: input without pull-up
3
CS_MAG
Magnetometer: SPI enable
I2C/SPI mode selection
1: SPI idle mode / I2C communication enabled;
0: SPI communication mode / I2C disabled
Default: input without pull-up
4
SDA
SDI
SDO
I2C serial data (SDA)
SPI serial data input (SDI)
3-wire interface serial data output (SDO)
Default: input without pull-up
5
C1
6
GND
1
2
7
SCL
SPC
Function
2
Capacitor connection (C1 = 220 nF)
0 V supply
INT_MAG/DRDY Magnetometer interrupt/data-ready signal
High impedance
8
GND
0 V supply
9
Vdd
Power supply
10
Vdd_IO
Power supply for I/O pins
11
INT_2_XL
Accelerometer interrupt 2
Output forced to ground
12
INT_1_XL
Accelerometer interrupt 1
Output forced to ground
8/65
DocID028927 Rev 1
2
Registers
Table 2. Registers
Register name
STATUS_REG_AUX_A
RESERVED
Address
Bit7
Bit6
Bit5
Bit4
Bit3
Bit2
Bit1
Bit0
07h
-
TOR
-
-
-
TDA
-
-
D2
D1
D0
08h-0Bh
DocID028927 Rev 1
0Ch
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
OUT_TEMP_H_A
0Dh
D15
D14
D13
D12
D11
INT_COUNTER_REG_A
0Eh
IC7
IC6
IC5
IC4
IC3
IC2
IC1
IC0
WHO_AM_I_A
0Fh
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
TEMP_CFG_REG_A
1Fh
TEMP_EN1
TEMP_EN0
0
0
0
0
0
0
CTRL_REG1_A
20h
ODR3
ODR2
ODR1
ODR0
LPen
Zen
Yen
Xen
CTRL_REG2_A
21h
HPM1
HPM0
HPCF2
HPCF1
FDS
HPCLICK
HPIS2
HPIS1
CTRL_REG3_A
22h
I1_CLICK
I1_AOI1
I1_AOI2
I1_DRDY1
I1_DRDY2
I1_WTM
I1_OVERRUN
-
CTRL_REG4_A
23h
BDU
BLE
FS1
FS0
HR
ST1
ST0
SPI_ENABLE
CTRL_REG5_A
24h
BOOT
FIFO_EN
-
-
LIR_INT1
D4D_INT1
LIR_INT2
D4D_INT2
CTRL_REG6_A
25h
I2_CLICKen
I2_INT1
I2_INT2
BOOT_I2
P2_ACT
-
H_LACTIVE
-
REFERENCE
/DATACAPTURE_A
26h
Ref7
Ref6
Ref5
Ref4
Ref3
Ref2
Ref1
Ref0
STATUS_REG_A
27h
ZYXOR
ZOR
YOR
XOR
ZYXDA
ZDA
YDA
XDA
OUT_X_L_A
28h
XD7
XD6
XD5
XD4
XD3
XD2
XD1
XD0
OUT_X_H_A
29h
XD15
XD14
XD13
XD12
XD11
XD10
XD9
XD8
OUT_Y_L_A
2Ah
YD7
YD6
YD5
YD4
YD3
YD2
YD1
YD0
OUT_Y_H_A
2Bh
YD15
YD14
YD13
YD12
YD11
YD10
YD9
YD8
OUT_Z_L_A
2Ch
ZD7
ZD6
ZD5
ZD4
ZD3
ZD2
ZD1
ZD0
OUT_Z_H_A
2Dh
ZD15
ZD14
ZD13
ZD12
ZD11
ZD10
ZD9
ZD8
2E
FM1
FM0
TR
FTH4
FTH3
FTH2
FTH1
FTH0
FIFO_CTRL_REG_A
Registers
9/65
OUT_TEMP_L_A
Table 2. Registers (continued)
Register name
DocID028927 Rev 1
Address
Bit7
Bit6
Bit5
Bit4
Bit3
Bit2
Bit1
Bit0
FIFO_SRC_REG_A
2F
WTM
OVRN_FIFO
EMPTY
FSS4
FSS3
FSS2
FSS1
FSS0
INT1_CFG_A
30h
AOI
6D
ZHIE/
ZUPE
ZLIE/
ZDOWNE
YHIE/
YUPE
YLIE/
YDOWNE
XHIE/
XUPE
XLIE/
XDOWNE
INT1_SRC_A
31h
0
IA
ZH
ZL
YH
YL
XH
XL
INT1_THS_A
32h
0
THS6
THS5
THS4
THS3
THS2
THS1
THS0
INT1_DURATION_A
33h
0
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
INT2_CFG_A
34h
AOI
6D
ZHIE
ZLIE
YHIE
YLIE
XHIE
XLIE
INT2_SRC_A
35h
0
IA
ZH
ZL
YH
YL
XH
XL
INT2_THS_A
36h
0
THS6
THS5
THS4
THS3
THS2
THS1
THS0
INT2_DURATION_A
37h
0
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
CLICK_CFG_A
38h
-
-
ZD
ZS
YD
YS
XD
XS
CLICK_SRC_A
39h
-
IA
Dclick
Sclick
Sign
Z
Y
X
CLICK_THS_A
3Ah
-
Ths6
Ths5
Ths4
Ths3
Ths2
Ths1
Ths0
TIME_LIMIT_A
3Bh
-
TLI6
TLI5
TLI4
TLI3
TLI2
TLI1
TLI0
TIME_LATENCY_A
3Ch
TLA7
TLA6
TLA5
TLA4
TLA3
TLA2
TLA1
TLA0
TIME_WINDOW_A
3Dh
TW7
TW6
TW5
TW4
TW3
TW2
TW1
TW0
Act_THS_A
3Eh
-
Acth6
Acth5
Acth4
Acth3
Acth2
Acth1
Acth0
Act_DUR_A
3Fh
ActD7
ActD6
ActD5
ActD4
ActD3
ActD2
ActD1
ActD0
RESERVED
40h-44h
Offset_X_5
Offset_X_4
Offset_X_3
45h
Offset_X_7
Offset_X_6
Offset_X_2
Offset_X_1
Offset_X_0
OFFSET_X_REG_H_M
46h
Offset_X_15
Offset_X_14 Offset_X_13 Offset_X_12 Offset_X_11 Offset_X_10
Offset_X_9
Offset_X_8
OFFSET_Y_REG_L_M
47h
Offset_Y_7
Offset_Y_6
Offset_Y_2
Offset_Y_1
Offset_Y_0
OFFSET_Y_REG_H_M
48h
Offset_Y_15
Offset_Y_14 Offset_Y_13 Offset_Y_12 Offset_Y_11 Offset_Y_10
Offset_Y_9
Offset_Y_8
OFFSET_Z_REG_L_M
49h
Offset_Z_7
Offset_Z_6
Offset_Z_2
Offset_Z_1
Offset_Z_0
OFFSET_Z_REG_H_M
4Ah
Offset_Z_15
Offset_Z_14 Offset_Z_13 Offset_Z_12 Offset_Z_11 Offset_Z_10
Offset_Z_9
Offset_Z_8
Offset_Y_5
Offset_Z_5
Offset_Y_4
Offset_Z_4
Offset_Y_3
Offset_Z_3
Registers
10/65
OFFSET_X_REG_L_M
Table 2. Registers (continued)
Register name
DocID028927 Rev 1
Address
Bit7
Bit6
Bit5
Bit4
Bit3
Bit2
Bit1
Bit0
WHO_AM_I_M
4Fh
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
CFG_REG_A_M
60h
COMP_
TEMP_EN
REBOOT
SOFT_RST
LP
ODR1
ODR0
MD1
MD0
CFG_REG_B_M
61h
0
0
0
0
INT_on_
DataOFF
Set_FREQ
OFF_CANC
LPF
CFG_REG_C_M
62h
0
INT_MAG_
PIN
I2C_DIS
BDU
BLE
0
Self_test
INT_MAG
INT_CTRL_REG_M
63h
XIEN
YIEN
ZIEN
0
0
IEA
IEL
IEN
INT_SOURCE_REG_M
64h
P_TH_S_X
P_TH_S_Y
P_TH_S_Z
N_TH_S_X
N_TH_S_Y
N_TH_S_Z
MROI
INT
INT_THS_L_REG_M
65h
TH7
TH6
TH5
TH4
TH3
TH2
TH1
TH0
INT_THS_H_REG_M
66h
TH15
TH14
TH13
TH12
TH11
TH10
TH9
TH8
STATUS_REG_M
67h
Zyxor
zor
yor
xor
Zyxda
zda
yda
xda
OUTX_L_REG_M
68h
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
OUTX_H_REG_M
69h
D15
D14
D13
D12
D11
D10
D9
D8
OUTY_L_REG_M
6Ah
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
OUTY_H_REG_M
6Bh
D15
D14
D13
D12
D11
D10
D9
D8
OUTZ_L_REG_M
6Ch
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
OUTZ_H_REG_M
6Dh
D15
D14
D13
D12
D11
D10
D9
D8
Registers
11/65
Magnetometer
3
Magnetometer
3.1
Operating modes
The magnetic module provides two power modes: high-resolution (HR) mode and lowpower (LP) mode.
After the power supply is applied, the magnetometer is automatically configured in idle
mode.
The LP and MD bits of CFG_REG_A_M are used to select the power and operating modes
of the device.
The table below summarizes the current consumption of the two power modes with offset
cancellation disabled/enabled.
Table 3. Current consumption of operating modes
Current consumption
(μA)
Current consumption
(μA)
Current consumption
(μA)
Current consumption
(μA)
(CFG_REG_A_M
[LP] = 0)
high-resolution
(CFG_REG_A_M
[LP] = 1)
low-power
(CFG_REG_A_M
[LP] = 0)
high-resolution
(CFG_REG_A_M
[LP] = 1)
CFG_REG_B_M
[OFF_CANC] = 0
CFG_REG_B_M
[OFF_CANC] = 0
CFG_REG_B_M
[OFF_CANC] = 1
CFG_REG_B_M
[OFF_CANC] = 1
10
100
25
120
50
20
200
50
235
100
50
475
125
575
235
100
950
250
1130
460
ODR
(Hz)
low-power
The operative modes of the device can be set using the MD bits (refer to the table below). In
continuous mode the device continuously performs measurements and places the result in
the data register. When single measurement mode is selected, the device performs a single
measurement, sets DRDY high and returns to idle mode.
Table 4. Operative modes
12/65
MD1
MD0
0
0
Continuous mode
0
1
Single mode
1
0
Idle mode
1
1
Idle mode
DocID028927 Rev 1
Mode
Magnetometer
3.1.1
Idle mode
When the magnetometer is in idle mode, almost all internal blocks of the device are
switched off to minimize power consumption. Digital interfaces (I2C and SPI) are still active
to allow communication with the device. The content of the configuration registers is
preserved and the output data registers are not updated, keeping the last data sampled in
memory before going into idle mode.
3.1.2
High-resolution mode
In HR mode, the magnetometer circuitry is periodically turned on/off with a duty cycle that is
a function of the selected ODR. Data interrupt generation is active.
3.1.3
Low-power mode
In low-power mode, as for high-resolution mode, the magnetometer circuitry is periodically
turned on/off with a duty cycle that is a function of the selected ODR. Data interrupt
generation is active.
The difference is in the number of samples used to generate each output sample, which is
four times less than the number used in high-resolution mode, thus ensuring a lower power
consumption.
3.1.4
Single measurement mode
The LSM303AGR offers single measurement mode in both high-resolution and low-power
modes.
Single measurement mode is enabled by writing bits MD[1:0] to '01' in CFG_REG_A_M
(60h).
In single measurement mode, once the measurement has been performed, the DRDY pin is
set to high, data is available in the output register and the LSM303AGR is automatically
configured in idle mode by setting the MD[1] bit to '1'.
Single measurement is independent of the programmed ODR but depends on the frequency
at which the MD[1:0] bits are written by the microcontroller/application processor. Maximum
ODR frequency achievable in single mode measurement is given in the following table.
Table 5. Maximum ODR in single measurement mode (HR and LP modes)
Maximum ODR
Power mode (CFG_REG_A_M[LP])
100 Hz
High resolution (LP = ‘0’)
150 Hz
Low power (LP = ‘1’)
In single measurement mode, for ODR < 10 Hz, current consumption can be calculated with
the following formula:
(Current_consumption_10Hz - Current_consumption_in_power_down) / (10 Hz / ODR) +
Current_consumption_in_power_down
DocID028927 Rev 1
13/65
65
Magnetometer
3.2
Magnetometer low-pass filter
The use of a digital low-pass filter reduces noise. The filter can be enabled by setting the
LPF bit in the CFG_REG_B_M register. The table below shows the bandwidth and the
reduced noise using the filter.
Table 6. LPF, relative bandwidth and noise
LPF
Bandwidth [Hz]
LP
Noise RMS [mG]
0
ODR / 2
0
4.5
1
ODR / 4
0
3
0
ODR / 2
1
9
1
ODR / 4
1
6
3.3
Reading output data
3.3.1
Startup sequence
Upon power-up of the device, the magnetometer is configured by default in power-down
mode.
To turn on the magnetometer and gather magnetic data, it is necessary to select one of the
operating modes through the CFG_REG_A_M register.
The following general-purpose sequence can be used to configure the magnetometer:
1. Write CFG_REG_A_M = 00h
// Mag = 10 Hz (HR and continuous mode)
2. Write CFG_REG_C_M = 01h
// Mag data-ready interrupt enable
Writing 01h in CFG_REG_A_M instead of 00h will set the device to operate in single read
mode instead of continuous mode.
14/65
DocID028927 Rev 1
Magnetometer
3.3.2
Using the status register
The device is provided with a STATUS_REG_M register which should be polled to check
when a new set of data is available. The Zyxda bit is set to 1 when a new set of data is
available from the magnetometer output.
The reads should be performed as follows:
1. Read STATUS_REG_M
2. If Zyxda = 0, then go to 1
3. Read OUTX_L_REG_M
4. Read OUTX_H_REG_M
5. Read OUTY_L_REG_M
6. Read OUTY_H_REG_M
7. Read OUTZ_L_REG_M
8. Read OUTZ_H_REG_M
9. Data processing
10. Go to 1
If the device is configured in single measurement mode instead of continuous mode, the
routine will be stuck at step 1 after one execution, since the device performs a single
measurement, sets DRDY high and returns to idle mode. Please note that the MD bits return
to idle mode bit values. It is possible to trigger another single read by setting the MD bits to
01h.
3.3.3
Using the data-ready signal
The device can be configured to have one HW signal to determine when a new set of
measurement data is available for reading.
The data-ready signal is represented by the Zyxda bit of the STATUS_REG_M register. The
signal can be driven to the INT_MAG/DRDY pin by setting to 1 the INT_MAG bit of the
CFG_REG_C_M register.
The data-ready signal rises to 1 when a new set of data has been generated and it is
available for reading. The signal gets reset when the higher part of one of the channels has
been read (69h, 6Bh, 6Dh).
3.3.4
Using the block data update (BDU) feature
If reading the magnetometer data is particularly slow and cannot be synchronized (or it is
not required) with either the Zyxda event bit in the STATUS_REG_M register or with the
DRDY signal driven to the INT_MAG/DRDY pin, it is strongly recommended to set the BDU
(block data update) bit to 1 in the CFG_REG_C_M register.
This feature avoids reading values (most significant and least significant parts of output
data) related to different samples. In particular, when the BDU is activated, the data
registers related to each channel always contain the most recent output data produced by
the device, but, in case the read of a given pair (i.e. OUTX_H_REG_M and
OUTX_L_REG_M, OUTY_H_REG_M and OUTY_L,_REG_M, OUTZ_H_REG_M and
OUTZ_L_REG_M) is initiated, the refresh for that pair is blocked until both MSB and LSB
parts of the data are read.
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Magnetometer
Note:
BDU only guarantees that the LSB part and MSB part have been sampled at the same
moment. For example, if the reading speed is too slow, X and Y can be read at T1 and Z
sampled at T2.
3.3.5
Understanding output data
The measured magnetic data are sent to the OUTX_H_REG_M, OUTX_L_REG_M,
OUTY_H_REG_M, OUTY_L_REG_M, OUTZ_H_REG_M, and OUTZ_L_REG_M registers.
These registers contain, respectively, the most significant part and the least significant part
of the magnetic signals acting on the X, Y, and Z axes.
The complete output data for the X, Y, Z channels is given by the concatenation
OUTX_H_REG_M & OUTX_L_REG_M, OUTY_H_REG_M & OUTY_L_REG_M,
OUTZ_H_REG_M & OUTZ_L_REG_M and it is expressed as a two's complement number.
Magnetic data is represented as 16-bit numbers, called LSB. It must be multiplied by the
proper sensitivity parameter, M_So = 1.5, in order to obtain the corresponding value in mG.
Example of output data
Hereafter is a simple example of how to use the LSB data and transform it into mG.
Get raw data from the sensor:
OUTX_L_REG_M: 21h
OUTX_H_REG_M: 00h
OUTY_L_REG_M: 1Dh
OUTY_H_REG_M: FFh
OUTZ_L_REG_M: CBh
OUTZ_H_REG_M: FEh
Do registers concatenation:
OUTX_H_REG_M & OUTX_L_REG_M: 0021h
OUTY_H_REG_M & OUTY_L_REG_M: FF1Dh
OUTZ_H & OUTZ_L: FECBh OUTZ_H_REG_M & OUTZ_L_REG_M
Calculate signed decimal value (two's complement format):
X: +33
Y: -227
Z: -309
Apply sensitivity:
X: +33 * 1.5 = +49.5 mG
Y: -227 * 1.5 = -340.5 mG
Z: -309 * 1.5 = -463.5 mG
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Magnetometer
3.4
Magnetometer offset cancellation
Offset cancellation is the result of performing a set and reset in the magnetic sensor.
The offset cancellation technique is defined as follows:
Hn – Hn – 1
H out = -------------------------2
where Hn and Hn-1 are two consecutive magnetic field measurements, one after a set pulse,
the other after a reset pulse.
Considering a magnetic offset (Hoff), the two magnetic field measurements are:

Set: Hn = H + Hoff

Reset: Hn-1 = –H + Hoff
The offset is cancelled according to the offset cancellation technique:
Hn – Hn – 1
2H + H off +  – H off 
- = ------------------------------------------------- = H
H out = -------------------------2
2
In the device the offset cancellation is enabled by setting the OFF_CANC bit to '1' in
CFG_REG_B_M. If the offset cancellation is disabled, a set of the magnetic sensor is
performed anyway. The set pulse frequency can be configured by setting the Set_FREQ bit
in CFG_REG_B_M. If Set_FREQ is set to '0', the set pulse is released every 63 ODR,
otherwise if Set_FREQ is set to '1', the set pulse is released only at power-on after powerdown.
If the user performs single reads, in order to enable the offset cancellation, OFF_CANC
must be set to ‘1’ also in CFG_REG_B_M. Enabling this bit, the impulse polarity is inverted
between a single read and the next one. If this feature is enabled, the user has to remove
the offset manually using the formula below:
Hn + Hn – 1
H out = --------------------------2
Offset cancellation using single reads is effective only if the reads are close in time, thus
ensuring the offset does not drift between two consecutive reads.
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Magnetometer
3.5
Magnetometer hard-iron compensation
Hard-iron distortion occurs when a magnetic object is placed near the magnetometer and
appears as a permanent bias in the sensor's outputs. The hard-iron correction consists of
compensating magnetic data from hard-iron distortion.
The operation is defined as follows:
H out = H read – H HI
where:

Hread is the generic uncompensated magnetic field data, as read by the sensor;

HHI is the hard-iron distortion field;

Hout is the compensated magnetic data.
The computation of the hard-iron distortion field should be performed by an external
processor. After the computation of the hard iron-distortion field has been performed, the
measured magnetic data can be compensated.
The device offers the possibility of storing hard-iron data inside six dedicated registers from
45h to 4Ah.
Each register contains eight bits so that the hard-iron data can be expressed as a 16-bit
two's complement number. The OFFSET_axis_REG_H_M registers contain the MSBs of
the hard-iron data, while the OFFSET_axis_REG_L_M registers contain the LSBs. Hardiron data have the same format and weight of the magnetic output data. The hard-iron
values stored in dedicated registers are automatically subtracted from the output data.
3.6
Interrupt generation
The device interrupt generation is based on the comparison between data and a
programmable threshold. For interrupt-generation purposes, the magnetometer sensor has
to be in active operating mode (not in power-down).
In order to enable the interrupt function, the IEN bit in the INT_CTRL_REG_M register must
be set to '1'.
The user can select the axis/axes for which the interrupt function is to be enabled. In order
to do this, the XIEN, YIEN and ZIEN bits in INT_CTRL_REG_M need to be set properly. The
threshold value can be programmed by setting the INT_THS_L_REG_M and
INT_THS_H_REG_M registers. The threshold is an absolute value as a 15-bit unsigned
number. The threshold has the same sensitivity as magnetic data and is common to all the
output values of the three axes: it is considered as an absolute value, but magnetic field
measurements on either side of the threshold are calculated as positive or negative values.
The interrupt signals can be driven independently to the INT_MAG/DRDY pin or checked by
reading the dedicated source register bits.
The IEA bit in the INT_CTRL_REG_M register must be used to select the polarity of the
interrupt pin. If this bit is set to '0' (default value), the interrupt pin is active low and both the
bit and pin change from high to low level when the related interrupt condition is verified.
Otherwise, if the bit is set to '1' (active high), the interrupt pin is normally at low level and
they change from low to high when the interrupt condition is reached.
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Magnetometer
The IEL bit of INT_SOURCE_REG_M allows applying the latched mode to the interrupt
signals. When the IEL bit is set to '1' once the interrupt pin is asserted, it must be reset by
reading INT_SOURCE_REG_M. If the IEL bit is set to '0', the interrupt signal is
automatically reset when the interrupt condition is no longer verified.
3.6.1
Interrupt pin configuration
The device is provided with one pin that can be activated to generate either data-ready or
interrupt signals. The functionality of the pin is selected through specified bits of the
CFG_REG_C_M register.
Table 7. CFG_REG_C_M register


b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
0
INT_MAG
_PIN
I2C_DIS
BDU
BLE
0
Self_test
INT_MAG
INT_MAG_PIN: if enabled, the interrupt signal (INT bit in INT_SOURCE_REG_M) is
driven on the INT_MAG/DRDY pin;
INT_MAG: if enabled, the magnetometer DRDY pin is configured as a digital output.
The interrupt control register is used to enable and to configure the interrupt recognition.
Table 8. INT_CTRL_REG_M register






3.6.2
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
XIEN
YIEN
ZIEN
0
0
IEA
IEL
IEN
XIEN: enables the interrupt configuration for the X-axis;
YIEN: enables the interrupt configuration for the Y-axis;
ZIEN: enables the interrupt configuration for the Z-axis;
IEA: controls the polarity of the INT bit;
IEL: controls whether the INT bit is latched or pulsed;
IEN: enables the interrupt generation
Event status
If multiple interrupt signals are routed on the INT_MAG_PIN, the logic level of this pin is the
"OR" combination of the selected interrupt signals. In order to know which event has
generated the interrupt condition, the application should read the status register
INT_SOURCE_REG_M (64h) which also will clear the event.
3.6.3
Threshold interrupt
The magnetometer threshold interrupt can be enabled setting the IEN bit to '1' and enabling
the recognition on the specified axes using the XIEN, YIEN and ZIEN bits. The interrupt
threshold can be programmed using the INT_THS_L_REG_M and INT_THS_H_REG_M
registers. When magnetic data exceeds the positive or the negative threshold, the interrupt
signal is generated and the information about the type of interrupt is stored in the
INT_SOURCE_REG_M register. In particular, when magnetic data exceeds the positive
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Magnetometer
threshold, the P_TH_S_axis bit is set to '1', while if data exceeds the negative threshold, the
N_TH_S_axis bit is set to '1'. If magnetic data lay between the positive and the negative
thresholds, no interrupt signal is released.
Figure 2. Interrupt function
The interrupt event signal can be routed to the INT_MAG/DRDY pin by setting to 1 the
corresponding bit of the CFG_REG_C_M register; it can also be checked by reading the INT
bit of the INT_SOURCE_REG_M register.
If latch mode is disabled (IEL bit of INT_CTRL_REG_M is set to '0'), the interrupt signal is
automatically reset when the overthreshold condition is no longer verified. If latch mode is
enabled and the interrupt signal is driven to the interrupt pin, once an overthreshold event
has occurred and the interrupt pin is asserted, it must be reset by reading the
INT_SOURCE_REG_M register.
Two different approaches for the interrupt function are available:

Typical: comparison is between magnetic data read by the sensor and the
programmable threshold;

Advanced: comparison is made between magnetic data after hard-iron correction and
the programmable threshold.
These approaches are configurable by setting the INT_on_DataOFF bit in CFG_REG_B_M.
If INT_on_DataOFF is set to '0' the typical approach is selected, otherwise if it is set to '1',
the advanced approach is selected.
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A basic SW routine for threshold event recognition is given below.
1. Write 00h in CFG_REG_A_M
// Turn on the magnetometer
// ODR = 10 Hz
2. Write 40h in CFG_REG_C_M
// Interrupt driven on INT_MAG/DRDY pin
3. Write 80h in INT_THS_L_REG_M // Set a threshold equal to 128 (expressed in LSB)
4. Write E7h in INT_CTRL_REG_M
// Enable a latched active-high interrupt on the three
axes
The sample code exploits a threshold set to 192 mG (128 LSB * 1.5 mG / LSB) and the
event is notified by hardware through the INT_MAG/DRDY pin.
3.7
Magnetometer self-test
The embedded self-test function allows checking device functionality without moving it.
When the magnetometer self-test is enabled, a current is forced into a coil inside the device.
This current will generate a magnetic field that will produce a variation of the magnetometer
output signals. If the output signals change within the amplitude limits, then the sensor is
working properly and the parameters of the interface chip are within the defined
specifications.
The magnetometer self-test function is off when the Self_test bit of the CFG_REG_C_M
register is disabled; setting the Self_test bit enables the self-test.
When the magnetometer self-test is activated, the sensor output level is given by the
algebraic sum of the signals produced by the magnetic field acting on the sensor and by the
current forced.
The procedure consists of:
1. enabling the magnetometer;
2. averaging five samples before enabling the self-test;
3. averaging five samples after enabling the self-test;
4. computing the difference in the module for each axis and verifying that it falls in the
given range: the min and max value are provided in the datasheet.
The complete magnetometer self-test procedure is indicated in Figure 3.
Note:
Keep the device still during the self-test procedure.
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Figure 3. Magnetometer self-test procedure
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Accelerometer
4
Accelerometer
4.1
Operating modes
The LSM303AGR provides three different operating modes: high-resolution mode, normal
mode, and low-power mode.
After the power supply is applied, the LSM303AGR performs a 5 ms boot procedure to load
the trimming parameter. After the boot is completed, the accelerometer is automatically
configured in power-down mode.
Referring to the LSM303AGR datasheet, the low-power enable (LPen) bit of
CTRL_REG1_A and the HR bit of CTRL_REG4_A are used to select the operating modes
(power-down mode, normal mode and low-power mode) and output data rate (ODR[3:0])
(see Table 9 and Table 10).
Table 9. Operating mode selection
CTRL_REG1_A[3]
CTRL_REG4_A[3]
(LPen bit)
(HR bit)
Low-power mode
(8-bit data output)
1
0
ODR/2
1
16
Normal mode
(10-bit data output)
0
0
ODR/2
1.6
4
High-resolution mode
(12-bit data output)
0
1
ODR/9
7/ODR
1
Not allowed
1
1
--
--
--
Operating mode
BW [Hz]
Turn-on So @ ±2 g
time [ms] [mg/digit]
Table 10. Data rate configuration
ODR3
ODR2
ODR1
ODR0
Power mode selection
0
0
0
0
Power-down mode
0
0
0
1
HR / Normal / Low-power mode (1 Hz)
0
0
1
0
HR / Normal / Low-power mode (10 Hz)
0
0
1
1
HR / Normal / Low-power mode (25 Hz)
0
1
0
0
HR / Normal / Low-power mode (50 Hz)
0
1
0
1
HR / Normal / Low-power mode (100 Hz)
0
1
1
0
HR / Normal / Low-power mode (200 Hz)
0
1
1
1
HR/ Normal / Low-power mode (400 Hz)
1
0
0
0
Low-power mode (1.620 kHz)
1
0
0
1
HR/ Normal (1.344 kHz);
Low-power mode (5.376 kHz)
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Accelerometer
Table 11 shows the typical values of the power consumption for the different operating
modes.
Table 11. Current consumption of operating modes
ODR [Hz]
4.1.1
Low-power mode
(8-bit data output)
[μA]
Normal mode
(10-bit data output)
[μA]
High resolution
(12-bit data output)
[μA]
1
3.7
3.7
3.7
10
4.4
5.4
5.4
25
5.6
8
8
50
7.7
12.6
12.6
100
11.7
22
22
200
20
40
40
400
36
75
75
1344
--
185
185
1620
102
--
--
5376
186
--
--
Power-down mode
When the device is in power-down mode, almost all internal blocks of the device are
switched off to minimize power consumption. Digital interfaces (I2C and SPI) are still active
to allow communication with the device. The content of the configuration registers is
preserved and output data registers are not updated, therefore keeping the last data
sampled in memory before going into power-down mode.
4.1.2
High-resolution mode
In HR mode, data are generated at the data rate (ODR) selected through the ODR bits and
for the axis enabled through the Zen, Yen and Xen bits of CTRL_REG1_A. Data generated
for a disabled axis is 00h.
Data Interrupt generation is active and configured through the INT1_CFG_A and
INT2_CFG_A registers.
In HR mode, the numbers of samples used to generate the output sample is four times
greater than the number used for low-power mode and the bandwidth is ODR/9.
4.1.3
Normal mode
In normal mode, data are generated at the data rate (ODR) selected through the ODR bits
and for the axis enabled through the Zen, Yen, and Xen bits of CTRL_REG1_A. Data
generated for a disabled axis is 00h.
Data interrupt generation is active and configured through the INT1_CFG_A and
INT2_CFG_A registers.
In normal mode, the numbers of samples used to generate the output sample is four times
greater than the number used for low-power mode and the bandwidth is ODR/2.
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Accelerometer
4.1.4
Low-power mode
In low-power mode, data are generated at the data rate (ODR) selected through the ODR
bits and for the axis enabled through the Zen, Yen, and Xen bits of CTRL_REG1_A. Data
generated for a disabled axis is 00h.
Data interrupt generation is active and configured through the INT1_CFG_A and
INT2_CFG_A registers.
In low-power mode, the numbers of samples used to generate the output sample is four
times less than the number used for HR and normal mode and the bandwidth is ODR/2.
4.1.5
Switching modes
The turn-on time to transition to another operating mode is given in Table 12.
Table 12. Turn-on time for operating mode transition
Operating mode change
4.2
Turn-on time [ms]
12-bit mode to 8-bit mode
1/ODR
12-bit mode to 10-bit mode
1/ODR
10-bit mode to 8-bit mode
1/ODR
10-bit mode to 12-bit mode
7/ODR
8-bit mode to 10-bit mode
1/ODR
8-bit mode to 12-bit mode
7/ODR
Startup sequence
Once the device is powered-up, it automatically downloads the calibration coefficients from
the embedded flash to the internal registers. When the boot procedure is completed, i.e.
after approximately 5 milliseconds, the device automatically enters power-down mode. To
turn on the device and gather acceleration data, it is necessary to select one of the
operating modes through CTRL_REG1_A and to enable at least one of the axes.
The following general-purpose sequence can be used to configure the device:
1.
Write to CTRL_REG1_A
2.
Write to CTRL_REG2_A
3.
Write to CTRL_REG3_A
4.
Write to CTRL_REG4_A
5.
Write to CTRL_REG5_A
6.
Write to CTRL_REG6_A
7.
Write to REFERENCE/DATACAPTURE_A
8.
Write to INT1_THS_A
9.
Write to INT1_DUR_A
10. Write to INT1_CFG_A
11. Write to CTRL_REG5_A
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Accelerometer
4.2.1
Reading acceleration data
Using the status register
The device is provided with a STATUS_REG_A which should be polled to check when a
new set of data is available. The reading procedure should be the following:
1.
Read STATUS_REG_A
2.
If STATUS_REG_A(3) = 0 then go to 1
3.
If STATUS_REG_A(7) = 1 then some data have been overwritten
4.
Read OUTX_L_A
5.
Read OUTX_H_A
6.
Read OUTY_L_A
7.
Read OUTY_H_A
8.
Read OUTZ_L_A
9.
Read OUTZ_H_A
10. Data processing
11. Go to 1
The check performed at step 3 allows understanding whether the reading rate is adequate
compared to the data production rate. If one or more acceleration samples have been
overwritten by new data, because of an insufficient reading rate, the ZYXOR bit of
STATUS_REG_A is set to 1.
The overrun bits are automatically cleared when all the data present inside the device have
been read and new data have not been produced in the meantime.
Using the data-ready (DRY) signal
The device may be configured to have one HW signal to determine when a new set of
measurement data is available for reading. This signal is represented by the XYZDA bit of
STATUS_REG_A. The signal can be driven to the INT1 pin by setting the I1_DRDY1 bit of
CTRL_REG3_A to 1 and its polarity set to active-low or active-high through the H_LACTIVE
bit of CTRL_REG6_A.
The data-ready signal rises to 1 when a new set of acceleration data has been generated
and is available for reading.The interrupt is reset when the higher part of the data of all the
enabled channels has been read (29h, 2Bh, 2Dh).
Figure 4. Data-ready signal
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Using the block data update (BDU) feature
If the reading of the acceleration data is particularly slow and cannot be synchronized (or it
is not required) with either the XYZDA bit present inside the STATUS_REG_A or with the
RDY signal, it is strongly recommended to set the BDU (block data update) bit in
CTRL_REG4_A to 1.
This feature avoids the reading of values (most significant and least significant parts of the
acceleration data) related to different samples. In particular, when the BDU is activated, the
data registers related to each channel always contain the most recent acceleration data
produced by the device, but, in case the read of a given pair (i.e. OUT_X_H_A and
OUT_X_L_A, OUT_Y_H_A and OUT-Y_L_A, OUT_Z_H_A and OUT_Z_L_A) is initiated,
the refresh for that pair is blocked until both MSB and LSB parts of the data are read.
Note:
BDU only guarantees that OUT_X(Y, Z)_L_A and OUT_X(X,Z)_H _A have been sampled at
the same moment. For example, if the reading speed is too slow, it may read X and Y
sampled at T1 and Z sampled at T2.
4.2.2
Understanding acceleration data
The measured acceleration data are sent to the OUT_X_H_A, OUT_X_L_A, OUT_Y_H_A,
OUT_Y_L_A, OUT_Z_H_A, and OUT_Z_L_A registers. These registers contain,
respectively, the most significant part and the least significant part of the acceleration
signals acting on the X, Y, and Z axes.
The complete acceleration data for the X (Y, Z) channel is given by the concatenation
OUT_X_H_A & OUT_X_L_A (OUT_Y_H_A & OUT_Y_L_A, OUT_Z_H_A & OUT_Z_L_A)
and it is expressed as a 2’s complement number.
Data alignment
Acceleration data are represented as 16-bit numbers and are left-justified.
Big-little endian selection
The LSM303AGR allows swapping the content of the lower and the upper part of the
acceleration registers (i.e. OUT_X_H_A with OUT_X_L_A), to be compliant with both littleendian and big-endian data representations.
“Little Endian” means that the low-order byte of the number is stored in memory at the
lowest address, and the high-order byte at the highest address. (The little end comes first).
This mode corresponds to bit BLE in CTRL_REG4_A reset to 0 (default configuration).
On the contrary, “Big Endian” means that the high-order byte of the number is stored in
memory at the lowest address, and the low-order byte at the highest address.
Example of acceleration data
Table 13 provides a few basic examples of the data that is read in the data registers when
the device is subject to a given acceleration. The values listed in the table are given under
the hypothesis of perfect device calibration (i.e. no offset, no gain error,....) and practically
show the effect of the BLE bit.
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Table 13. Output data registers content vs. acceleration (FS = 2 g)
BLE = 0
Acceleration
Register address
values
4.3
BLE = 1
28h
29h
28h
29h
0g
00h
00h
00h
00h
350 mg
E0h
15h
15h
E0h
1g
00h
04h
04h
00h
-350 mg
20h
EAh
EAh
20h
-1 g
00h
C0h
C0h
00h
High-pass filter
The LSM303AGR provides an embedded high-pass filtering capability to easily delete the
DC component of the measured acceleration. As shown in Figure 5, through the FDS,
HPIS2 and HPIS1 bits of the CTRL_REG2_A configuration, it is possible to independently
apply the filter on the output data and/or on the interrupts data. This means that it is
possible, for example, to get filtered data while the interrupt generation works on unfiltered
data.
Figure 5. High-pass filter connections block diagram
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4.3.1
Filter configuration
Referring to Table 14, two operating modes are possible for the high-pass filter:
Table 14. High-pass filter mode configuration
HPM1
HPM0
High-pass filter mode
0
0
Normal mode (reset by reading the REFERENCE/DATACAPTURE_A register)
0
1
Reference signal for filtering
1
0
Normal mode
1
1
Autoreset on interrupt event
The bandwidth of the high-pass filter depends on the selected ODR and on the settings of
HPCF[2:1] bits of CTRL_REG2_A. The high-pass filter cutoff frequencies (ft) are shown in
Table 15.
Table 15. Low power mode - high-pass filter cutoff frequency [Hz]
ft [Hz]
ft [Hz]
ft [Hz]
ft [Hz]
@ 50Hz
@
100Hz
@
200Hz
@
400Hz
@ 1.6
kHz
@ 5 kHz
0.5
1
2
4
8
32
100
0.08
0.2
0.5
1
2
4
16
50
0.004
0.04
0.1
0.2
0.5
1
2
8
25
0.002
0.02
0.05
0.1
0.2
0.5
1
4
12
ft [Hz]
ft [Hz]
ft [Hz]
ft [Hz]
@ 1Hz
@ 10Hz
@ 25Hz
00
0.02
0.2
01
0.008
10
11
HPC
ft [Hz]
Normal mode
In this configuration the high-pass filter can be reset by reading the
REFERENCE/DATACAPTURE_A register, instantly deleting the DC component of the
acceleration.
Figure 6. REFERENCE/DATACAPTURE_A reads
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Reference mode
In this configuration the output data is calculated as the difference between the input
acceleration and the content of the REFERENCE/DATACAPTURE_A register. This register
is in 2’s complement representation and the value of 1 LSB of these 7-bit registers depends
on the selected full scale (Table 16).
Table 16. Reference mode LSB value
Full scale
Reference mode LSB value (mg)
2
~16
4
~31
8
~63
Figure 7. Reference mode
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In this configuration the filter is automatically reset when the configured interrupt event
occurs. REFERENCE/DATACAPTURE_A is, however, used to set the filter instantaneously.
Note:
The XYZ dataset used to reset the filter is the one after the interrupt.
Figure 8. Autoreset
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4.4
Interrupt generation
The LSM303AGR interrupt signals can behave as free-fall, wake-up, 6D and 4D orientation
detection, and click detection. Those signals can be driven to the two interrupt pins (INT1
and INT2).
4.4.1
Interrupt pin configuration
The device is provided with two pins which can be activated to generate either the dataready or the interrupt signals. The functionality of the pins is selected through
CTRL_REG3_A (22h) and CTRL_REG6_A (25h). Refer to Table 17 and Table 18 and to the
block diagram given in Figure 9.
Table 17. CTRL_REG3_A register
I1_CLICK
I1_AOI1
I1_AOI2
I1_DRDY1
I1_DRDY2
I1_WTM
I1_OVERRUN
-
Table 18. CTRL_REG3 description
I1_CLICK
CLICK interrupt on INT1. Default value 0
(0: disable; 1: enable)
I1_AOI1
AOI1 interrupt on INT1 pin. Default value 0
(0: disable; 1: enable)
I1_AOI2
AOI2 interrupt on INT1 pin. Default value 0
(0: disable; 1: enable)
I1_DRDY1
DRDY1 interrupt on INT1 pin. Default value 0
(0: disable; 1: enable)
I1_DRDY2
DRDY2 interrupt on INT1 pin. Default value 0
(0: disable; 1: enable)
I1_WTM
I1_OVERRUN
FIFO watermark interrupt on INT1. Default value 0.
(0: disable; 1: enable)
FIFO overrun interrupt on INT1. Default value 0.
(0: disable; 1: enable)
Table 19. CTRL_REG6 register
I2_CLICKen
I2_INT1
I2_INT2
BOOT_I2
P2_ACT
-
H_LACTIVE
-
Table 20. CTRL_REG6 register
I2_CLICKen
Click interrupt on INT2 pin. Default value: 0
(0: disable; 1: enable)
I2_INT1
Interrupt 1 function enable on INT2 pin. Default value: 0
(0: disable; 1: enable)
I2_INT2
Interrupt 2 function enable on INT2 pin. Default value: 0
(0: disable; 1: enable)
BOOT_I2
Boot on INT2 pin enable. Default value: 0
(0: disable; 1: enable)
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Table 20. CTRL_REG6 register (continued)
P2_ACT
HL_ACTIVE
Activity interrupt enable on INT2 pin. Default value: 0
(0: disable; 1: enable)
Interrupt active. Default value: 0
0: interrupt active high; 1: interrupt active low
Figure 9. Interrupt signals and interrupt pins
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4.5
Inertial interrupt
The LSM303AGR can provide two inertial interrupt signals and offers several possibilities to
personalize those signals. The registers involved in the interrupt generation behavior are
INT1_CFG_A, INT1_THS_A and INT1_DURATION_A.
Table 21. Interrupt mode configuration
AOI
6D
Interrupt mode
0
0
OR combination of interrupt events
0
1
6-direction movement recognition
1
0
AND combination of interrupt events
1
1
6-direction position recognition
Whenever an interrupt condition is verified, the interrupt signal is generated and by reading
the INT1_SRC_A register it is possible to understand which condition happened.
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4.5.1
Duration
The content of the duration registers sets the minimum duration of the interrupt event to be
recognized. Duration steps and maximum values depend on the ODR chosen.
Duration time is measured in N/ODR, where N is the content of the duration register and
ODR is 50, 100, 400, 1000 Hz.
Table 22. Duration LSB value in normal mode
4.5.2
ODR (Hz)
Duration LSB value (ms)
1
1000
10
100
25
40
50
20
100
10
200
5
400
2.5
1000
1
1344
0.744
1620
0.617
Threshold
The threshold registers define the reference accelerations used by the interrupt generation
circuitry. The value of 1 LSB of these 7-bit registers depends on the selected full scale
(Table 23).
Table 23. Threshold LSB value
Full scale
Threshold LSB value (mg)
2
~16
4
~31
8
~63
16
~125
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4.5.3
Free-fall and wake-up interrupts
The LSM303AGR interrupt signals can behave as free-fall and wake-up. Whenever an
interrupt condition is verified, the interrupt signal is generated and by reading the
INT1_SRC_A register it is possible to understand which condition happened.
The free-fall signal (FF) and wake-up signal (WU) interrupt generation block is represented
in Figure 10.
The FF or WU interrupt generation is selected through the AOI bit in the INT1_CFG_A
register. If the AOI bit is ‘0’, signals coming from comparators for the axis enabled through
the INT1_CFG_A register are put in logical OR. In this case, the interrupt is generated when
at least one of the enabled axis exceeds the threshold written in the module in the
INT1_THS_A registers. Otherwise, if the AOI bit is ‘1’, signals coming from comparators
enter a “NAND” port. In this case an interrupt signal is generated only if all the enabled axes
exceed the threshold written in the INT1_THS_A register.
The LIR_INT1 and LIR_INT2 bits of CTRL_REG5_A allow deciding if the interrupt request
must be latched or not. If the LIR_INT1 bit is ‘0’ (default value), the interrupt signal goes high
when the interrupt condition is satisfied and returns to low immediately if the interrupt
condition is no longer verified. Otherwise, if the LIR_INT1 bit is ‘1’, whenever an interrupt
condition is applied, the interrupt signal remains high even if the condition returns to a noninterrupt status until a read of the INT1_SRC_A register is performed.
The ZHIE, ZLIE, YHIE, YLIE, XHIE, and HLIE bits of the INT1_CFG_A register allow
deciding on which axis the interrupt decision must be performed and on which direction the
threshold must be exceeded to generate the interrupt request.
Figure 10. Free-fall, wake-up interrupt generator
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The threshold module which is used by the system to detect any free-fall or inertial wake-up
event is defined by the INT1_THS_A register. The threshold value is expressed over 7 bits
as an unsigned number and is symmetrical around the zero-g level. XH (YH, ZH) is true
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when the unsigned acceleration value of the X (Y, Z) channel is higher than INT1_THS_A.
Similarly, XL (YL, ZL) low is true when the unsigned acceleration value of the X (Y, Z)
channel is lower than INT1_THS_A. Refer to Figure 11 for more details.
Figure 11. Free-fall, wake-up configuration - high and low
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Inertial wake-up
The wake-up interrupt refers to a specific configuration of the Act_THS_A register that
allows interrupt generation when the acceleration on the configured axis exceeds a defined
threshold (Figure 12).
Figure 12. Inertial wake-up interrupt
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HP filter bypassed
This paragraph provides a basic algorithm which shows the practical use of the inertial
wake-up feature. In particular, with the code below, the device is configured to recognize
when the absolute acceleration along either the X or Y axis exceeds a preset threshold
(250 mg used in the example). The event which triggers the interrupt is latched inside the
device and its occurrence is signaled through the use of the INT1 pin.
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1
Write A7h into CTRL_REG1_A
// Turn on the sensor and enable X, Y, and Z
// ODR = 100 Hz
2
Write 00h into CTRL_REG2_A
// High-pass filter disabled
3
Write 40h into CTRL_REG3_A
// Interrupt driven to INT1 pad
4
Write 00h into CTRL_REG4_A
// FS = 2 g
5
Write 08h into CTRL_REG5_A
// Interrupt latched
6
Write10h into INT1_THS_A
// Threshold = 250 mg
7
Write 00h into INT1_DURATION_A
// Duration = 0
8
Write 0Ah into INT1_CFG_A
// Enable XH and YH interrupt generation
9
Poll INT1 pad; if INT1=0 then go to 8
// Poll RDY/INT pin waiting for the
// wake-up event
10
Read INT1_SRC_A
// Return the event that has triggered the
// interrupt
11
(Wake-up event has occurred; insert
your code here)
// Event handling
12
Go to 8
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Using the HP filter
The code provided below gives a basic routine which shows the practical use of the inertial
wake-up feature performed on high-pass filtered data. In particular the device is configured
to recognize when the high-frequency component of the acceleration applied along either
the X, Y, or Z axis exceeds a preset threshold (250 mg used in the example).
The event which triggers the interrupt is latched inside the device and its occurrence is
signaled through the use of the INT1 pin.
1
Write A7h into CTRL_REG1_A
// Turn on the sensor, enable X, Y, and Z
// ODR = 100 Hz
2
Write 09h into CTRL_REG2_A
// High-pass filter enabled on data and interrupt1
3
Write 40h into CTRL_REG3_A
// Interrupt driven to INT1 pad
4
Write 00h into CTRL_REG4_A
// FS = 2 g
5
Write 08h into CTRL_REG5_A
// Interrupt latched
6
Write 10h into INT1_THS_A
// Threshold = 250 mg
7
Write 00h into INT1_DURATION_A
// Duration = 0
8
Read REFERENCE/DATACAPTURE_A
// Dummy read to force the HP filter to
// current acceleration value
// (i.e. set reference acceleration/tilt value)
9
Write 2Ah into INT1_CFG_A
// Configure desired wake-up event
10
Poll INT1 pad; if INT1 = 0 then go to 9
// Poll INT1 pin waiting for the
// wake-up event
11
(Wake-up event has occurred; insert your
code here)
12
Read INT1_SRC_A
// Return the event that has triggered the
// interrupt and clear interrupt
13
(Insert your code here)
// Event handling
14
Go to 9
// Event handling
At step 8, a dummy read of the REFERENCE/DATACAPTURE_A register is performed to
set the current/reference acceleration/tilt state against which the device performed the
threshold comparison.
This read may be performed any time it is required to set the orientation/tilt of the device as
a reference state without waiting for the filter to settle.
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4.5.4
Free-fall detection
Free-fall detection refers to a specific configuration of INT1_CTRL registers that allows to
recognize when the device is free falling: the acceleration measure along all the axes goes
to zero. In a real case a “free-fall zone” is defined around the zero-g level where all the
accelerations are small enough to generate the interrupt (Figure 13).
Figure 13. Free-fall interrupt
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This paragraph provides the basics for the use of the free-fall detection feature. In particular,
the SW routine that configures the device to detect free-fall events and to signal them is the
following:
1
Write A7h into CTRL_REG1_A
// Turn on the sensor, enable X, Y, and Z
// ODR = 100 Hz
2
Write 00h into CTRL_REG2_A
// High-pass filter disabled
3
Write 40h into CTRL_REG3_A
// Interrupt driven to INT1 pad
4
Write 00h into CTRL_REG4_A
// FS = 2 g
5
Write 08h into CTRL_REG5_A
// Interrupt latched
6
Write 16h into INT1_THS_A
// Set free-fall threshold = 350 mg
7
Write 03h into INT1_DURATION_A
// Set minimum event duration
8
Write 95h into INT1_CFG_A
// Configure free-fall recognition
9
Poll INT1 pad; if INT1 = 0 then go to 10
// Poll INT1 pin waiting for the free-fall event
10
(Free-fall event has occurred; insert your
code here)
// Event handling
11
Read INT1_SRC_A register
// Clear interrupt request
12
Go to 9
The code sample exploits a threshold set at 350 mg for free-fall recognition and the event is
notified by the hardware signal INT1. At step 7, the INT1_DURATION_A register is
configured like this to ignore events that are shorter than 3/DR = 3/100 ~= 30 msec in order
to avoid false detections.
Once the free-fall event has occurred, a read of the INT1_SRC_A register clears the request
and the device is ready to recognize other events.
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4.6
6D/4D orientation detection
The LSM303AGR provides advanced capability to detect the orientation of the device in
space, enabling easy implementation of an energy saving procedure and automatic image
rotation for handheld devices.
4.6.1
6D orientation detection
The 6D orientation direction function can be enabled through the AOI and 6D bits of the
INT1_CFG_A register. When configured for 6D function, the ZH, ZL, YH, YL, XH, and XL
bits of INT1_SRC_A give information about the value of the acceleration generating the
interrupt when it is greater than the threshold, and about its sign. In more detail:

ZH (YH, XH) is 1 when the sensed acceleration is greater than the threshold in the
positive direction

ZL (YL, XL) is 1 when the sensed acceleration is greater than the threshold in the
negative direction.
Figure 14. ZH, ZL, YH, YL, XH, and XL behavior
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There are two possible configurations for the 6D direction function:

6D movement recognition: In this configuration the interrupt is generated when the
device moves from a direction (known or unknown) to a different known direction. The
interrupt is active only for 1/ODR

6D position recognition: In this configuration the interrupt is generated when the device
is stable in a known direction. The interrupt is active as long as position is maintained
(Figure 15, (a) and (b)).
Referring to Figure 15, the 6D movement line shows the behavior of the interrupt when the
device is configured for 6D movement recognition on the X and Y axis (INT1_CFG_A =
0x4Ah), while the 6D position line shows the behavior of the interrupt when the device is
configured for 6D position recognition on the X and Y axis (INT1_CFG_A = 0xCAh).
INT1_THS_A is set to 0x21.
Referring to Figure 16, the device has been configured for 6D position function on the X, Y,
and Z axes. Table 24 shows the content of the INT1_SRC_A register for each position.
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Figure 15. 6D movement vs. 6D position
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Table 24. INT1_SRC_A register in 6D position
4.6.2
Case
IA
ZH
ZL
YH
YL
XH
XL
(a)
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
(b)
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
(c)
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
(d)
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
(e)
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
(f)
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
4D direction
The 4D direction function is a subset of the 6D function especially defined to be
implemented in handheld devices. It can be enabled by setting the D4D_INT1 bit of
CTRL_REG5_A to 1 when the 6D bit on INT1_CFG_A is set to 1. In this configuration, the
Z-axis position detection is disabled, therefore reducing position recognition to cases (a),
(b), (c), and (d) of Table 24.
4.7
Click and double-click recognition
The single click and double-click recognition functions featured in the LSM303AGR help to
create a man-machine interface with little software loading. The device can be configured to
output an interrupt signal on a dedicated pin when tapped in any direction.
If the sensor is exposed to a single input stimulus, it generates an interrupt request on
inertial interrupt pin INT1 and/or INT2. A more advanced feature allows the generation of an
interrupt request when a double input stimulus with programmable time between the two
events is recognized, enabling a mouse button-like function.
This function can be fully programmed by the user in terms of expected amplitude and
timing of the stimuli by means of the dedicated set of registers described in Section 4.7.3.
Single and double-click recognition works independently on the selected output data rate.
4.7.1
Single click
If the device is configured for single click event detection, an interrupt is generated when the
input acceleration on the selected channel exceeds the programmed threshold, and returns
below it within a time window defined by the TIME_LIMIT_A register.
If neither LIR_INT1 nor LIR_INT2 of CTRL_REG_5_A is set, the interrupt is kept high for the
duration of the latency window. If either LIR_INT1 or LIR_INT2 is set, the interrupt is kept
high until CLICK_SRC_A is read.
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Figure 17. Single-click event with non-latched interrupt
(a)
(b)
In Figure 17(a) the click has been recognized, while in Figure 17(b) the click has not been
recognized because the acceleration falls below the threshold after the Time Limit has
expired.
4.7.2
Double click
If the device is configured for double-click event detection, an interrupt is generated when,
after a first click, a second click is recognized. The recognition of the second click occurs
only if the event satisfies the rules defined by the latency and windows registers.
In particular, after the first click has been recognized, the second click detection procedure
is delayed for an interval defined by the latency register. This means that after the first click
has been recognized, the second click detection procedure starts only if the input
acceleration exceeds the threshold after the latency window but before the window has
expired (Figure 18 (a)), or if the acceleration is still above the threshold after the latency has
expired (Figure 19 (b)).
Once the second click detection procedure is initiated, the second click is recognized with
the same rule as the first: the acceleration must return below the threshold before the Time
Limit has expired.
It is important to appropriately define the latency window to avoid unwanted clicks due to
spurious bouncing of the input signal.
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Figure 18. Single and double-click recognition
(a)
(b)
Figure 18 illustrates a single-click event (a) and a double-click event (b). The device is able
to distinguish between (a) and (b) by changing the settings of the CLICK_CFG_A register
from single to double-click recognition.
Figure 19. Double-click recognition
(a)
(b)
In Figure 19 (a) the double click event has been correctly recognized, while in Figure 19 (b)
the interrupt has not been generated because the input acceleration exceeds the threshold
after the window interval has expired.
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4.7.3
Register description
CLICK_CFG_A (38h)
Table 25. CLICK_CFG_A register
-
-
ZD
ZS
YD
YS
XD
XS
Table 26. CLICK_CFG_A description
ZD
Enable interrupt double-click on Z-axis. Default value: 0
(0: disable interrupt request; 1: enable interrupt request on measured accel. value higher
than preset threshold)
ZS
Enable interrupt single-click on Z-axis. Default value: 0
(0: disable interrupt request; 1: enable interrupt request on measured accel. value higher
than preset threshold)
YD
Enable interrupt double-click on Y-axis. Default value: 0
(0: disable interrupt request; 1: enable interrupt request on measured accel. value higher
than preset threshold)
YS
Enable interrupt single-click on Y-axis. Default value: 0
(0: disable interrupt request; 1: enable interrupt request on measured accel. value higher
than preset threshold)
XD
Enable interrupt double-click on X-axis. Default value: 0
(0: disable interrupt request; 1: enable interrupt request on measured accel. value higher
than preset threshold)
XS
Enable interrupt single-click on X-axis. Default value: 0
(0: disable interrupt request; 1: enable interrupt request on measured accel. value higher
than preset threshold)
Table 27. Truth table
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ZD / YD / XD
ZS / YS / XS
Click output
0
0
0
0
1
Single
1
0
Double
1
1
Single or double
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CLICK_SRC_A (39h)
Table 28. CLICK_SRC_A register
-
IA
DClick
SClick
Sign
Z
Y
X
Table 29. CLICK_SRC_A description
IA
Interrupt active. Default value: 0
(0: no interrupt has been generated; 1: one or more interrupts have been generated)
DClick
Double-click detection enable. Default value: 0
(0: double-click detection disable, 1: double-click detection enable)
SClick
Single-click detection enable. Default value: 0
(0: single-click detection disable, 1: single-click detection enable)
Sign
Click sign. 0: positive detection, 1: negative detection
Z
Z click detection. Default value: 0
(0: no interrupt, 1: Z high event has occurred)
Y
Y click detection. Default value: 0
(0: no interrupt, 1: Y high event has occurred)
X
X click detection. Default value: 0
(0: no interrupt, 1: X high event has occurred)
CLICK_THS_A (3Ah)
Table 30. CLICK_THS_A register
-
THS6
THS5
THS4
THS3
THS2
THS1
THS0
Table 31. CLICK_THS_A description
THS6-THS0
Click threshold. Default value: 000 0000
1 LSB = full scale/128.
THS6 through THS0 define the threshold which is used by the system to start the click
detection procedure. The threshold value is expressed over 6 bits as an unsigned number.
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TIME_LIMIT_A (3Bh)
Table 32. TIME_LIMIT_A register
-
TLI6
TLI5
TLI4
TLI3
TLI2
TLI1
TLI0
Table 33. TIME_LIMIT_A register
TLI7-TLI0
Click time limit. Default value: 000 0000
1 LSB = 1/ODR.
TLI7 through TLI0 define the maximum time interval that can elapse between the start of the
click detection procedure (the acceleration on the selected channel exceeds the
programmed threshold) and when the acceleration falls back below the threshold.
TIME_LATENCY_A (3Ch)
Table 34. TIME_LATENCY_A register
TLA7
TLA6
TLA5
TLA4
TLA3
TLA2
TLA1
TLA0
Table 35. TIME_LATENCY_A description
TLA7-TLA0
Click time latency. Default value: 000 0000
1 LSB = 1/ODR.
TLA7 through TLA0 define the time interval that starts after the first click detection where the
click detection procedure is disabled, in cases where the device is configured for double
click detection.
TIME_WINDOW_A (3Dh)
Table 36. TIME_WINDOW_A register
TW7
TW6
TW5
TW4
TW3
TW2
TW1
TW0
Table 37. TIME_LATENCY_A description
TW7-TW0
Click time window
1 LSB = 1/ODR.
TW7 through TW0 define the maximum interval of time that can elapse after the end of the
latency interval in which the click detection procedure can start, in cases where the device is
configured for double-click detection.
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CTRL_REG3_A [Interrupt CTRL register] (22h)
Table 38. CTRL_REG3_A register
I1_CLICK
I1_AOI1
I1_AOI2
I1_DRDY1 I1_DRDY2
I1_WTM
I1_OVERRUN
-
Table 39. CTRL_REG3_A description
I1_CLICK
Click interrupt on INT1 pin. Default value: 0
(0: disable; 1: enable)
I1_AOI1
AOI1 interrupt on INT1 pin. Default value: 0
(0: disable; 1: enable)
I1_AOI2
AOI2 interrupt on INT1 pin. Default value: 0
(0: disable; 1: enable)
I1_DRDY1
DRDY1 interrupt on INT1 pin. Default value: 0
(0: disable; 1: enable)
I1_DRDY2
DRDY2 interrupt on INT1 pin. Default value: 0
(0: disable; 1: enable)
I1_WTM
I1_OVERRUN
FIFO watermark interrupt on INT1 pin. Default value: 0
(0: disable; 1: enable)
FIFO overrun interrupt on INT1 pin. Default value: 0
(0: disable; 1: enable)
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4.7.4
Examples
The following figures show the click interrupt generation in different conditions. The
illustrations have been captured on a PC running the demonstration kit GUI interface with
ODR set to 400 Hz and full scale to 4 g. The content of the LSM303AGR registers have
been modified via the dedicated panel of the software interface that allows the user to
evaluate all the different settings and features of the click embedded function. In the
following examples, only the X-axis has been enabled for the click interrupt generation.
Playing with TAP_TimeLimit
Figure 20 shows an acquisition carried out with TAP_TimeLimit = 01h (2.5 ms). With this
setting, the single-click recognition window is short and often the acceleration does not fall
below the threshold in time.
In Figure 21 an acquisition done with TAP_TimeLimit = 33h (127 ms) is shown. With this
setting the single-click recognition window is longer, and it is easier for the event to be
recognized.
Figure 20. Short TimeLimit
Figure 21. Long TimeLimit
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Playing with TAP_Latency
Figure 22 illustrates an acquisition done with TAP_Latency = 15h (52 ms). With this setting
the device recognizes nearly every acceleration peak as a click.
In Figure 23 an acquisition carried out with TAP_Latency = FFh (637 ms) is displayed. With
this setting the device recognizes one peak in every two as a click.
Figure 22. Short latency
Figure 23. Long latency
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Playing with TAP_Window
In cases of double-click recognition, the TAP_Latency + TAP_Window defines the maximum
distance between two consecutive clicks to be recognized as a double-click event. By fixing
the latency to avoid spurious bouncing of the signal, it is possible to play with the
TAP_Window as with the “double-click speed” settings of the mouse properties on the PC.
Figure 24 shows an acquisition done with TAP_Window = 42h (1065 ms). With this setting
the two consecutive peaks of acceleration are too far apart and the second one occurs
outside of the window.
In Figure 25 an acquisition carried out with TAP_Window = FFh (637 ms) is shown. With this
setting the device correctly generates the double-click interrupt after the second
acceleration peak.
Figure 24. Short window
Figure 25. Long window
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4.8
First-in first-out (FIFO) buffer
In order to limit intervention by the host processor and facilitate post-processing data for
event recognition, LSM303AGR embeds a first-in first-out buffer (FIFO) for each of the three
output channels, X, Y, and Z.
FIFO use allows a consistent power saving for the system, it can wake-up only when
needed and burst the significant data out from the FIFO.
The FIFO buffer can work according to four different modes that guarantee a high-level of
flexibility during application development: Bypass mode, FIFO mode, Stream mode, and
Stream-to-FIFO mode.
The programmable watermark level and FIFO overrun event can be enabled to generate
dedicated interrupts on the INT1 pin.
4.8.1
FIFO description
The FIFO buffer is able to store up to 32 acceleration samples of 10 bits for each channel;
data are stored in the 16-bit 2’s complement left-justified representation.
The data sample set consists of 6 bytes (Xl, Xh, Yl, Yh, Zl, and Zh) and they are released to
the FIFO at the selected output data rate (ODR).
The new sample set is placed in the first empty FIFO slot until the buffer is full, therefore, the
oldest value is overwritten.
Table 40. FIFO buffer full representation (32nd sample set stored)
Output
registers
0x28h
0x29h
0x2Ah
0x2Bh
0x2Ch
0x2Dh
Xl(0)
Xh(0)
Yl(0)
Yh(0)
Zl(0)
Zh(0)
FIFO index
FIFO sample set
FIFO(0)
Xl(0)
Xh(0)
Yl(0)
Yh(0)
Zl(0)
Zh(0)
FIFO(1)
Xl(1)
Xh(1)
Yl(1)
Yh(1)
Zl(1)
Zh(1)
FIFO(2)
Xl(2)
Xh(2)
Yl(2)
Yh(2)
Zl(2)
Zh(2)
FIFO(3)
Xl(3)
Xh(3)
Yl(3)
Yh(3)
Zl(3)
Zh(3)
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
FIFO(30)
Xl(30)
Xh(30)
Yl(30)
Yh(30)
Zl(30)
Zh(30)
FIFO(31)
Xl(31)
Xh(31)
Yl(31)
Yh(31)
Zl(31)
Zh(31)
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Table 41. FIFO overrun representation
(33rd sample set stored and 1st sample discarded)
Output
registers
0x28h
0x29h
0x2Ah
0x2Bh
0x2Ch
0x2Dh
Xl(1)
Xh(1)
Yl(1)
Yh(1)
Zl(1)
Zh(1)
FIFO index
FIFO sample set
FIFO(0)
Xl(1)
Xh(1)
Yl(1)
Yh(1)
Zl(1)
Zh(1)
FIFO(1)
Xl(2)
Xh(2)
Yl(2)
Yh(2)
Zl(2)
Zh(2)
FIFO(2)
Xl(3)
Xh(3)
Yl(3)
Yh(3)
Zl(3)
Zh(3)
FIFO(3)
Xl(4)
Xh(4)
Yl(4)
Yh(4)
Zl(4)
Zh(4)
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
FIFO(30)
Xl(31)
Xh(31)
Yl(31)
Yh(31)
Zl(31)
Zh(31)
FIFO(31)
Xl(32)
Xh(32)
Yl(32)
Yh(32)
Zl(32)
Zh(32)
Table 40 represents the FIFO full status when 32 samples are stored in the buffer while
Table 41 represents the next step when the 33rd sample is inserted into FIFO and the 1st
sample is overwritten. The new oldest sample set is made available in the output registers.
When FIFO is enabled and the mode is other than Bypass, the LSM303AGR output
registers (28h to 2Dh) always contain the oldest FIFO sample set.
4.8.2
FIFO registers
The FIFO buffer is managed by three different accelerometer registers, two of these allow
enabling and configuring FIFO behavior, the third provides information about the buffer
status.
Control register 5 (0x24)
The FIFO_EN bit in CTRL_REG5_A must be set to 1 in order to enable the internal first-in
first-out buffer; when this bit is set, the accelerometer output registers (28h to 2Dh) don’t
contain the current acceleration value but they always contain the oldest value stored in
FIFO.
Table 42. FIFO enable bit in CTRL_REG5_A
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b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
X
FIFO_EN
X
X
X
X
X
X
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Accelerometer
Figure 26. FIFO_EN connection block diagram
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FIFO control register (0x2E)
This register is dedicated to FIFO mode selection and watermark configuration.
Table 43. FIFO_CTRL_REG_A
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
FM1
FM0
TR
FTH4
FTH3
FTH2
FTH1
FTH0
The FM[1:0] bits are dedicated to define the FIFO buffer behavior selection:
1. FM[1:0] = (0,0): Bypass mode
2. FM[1:0] = (0,1): FIFO mode
3. FM[1:0] = (1,0): Stream mode
4. FM[1:0] = (1,1): Stream-to-FIFO mode
The trigger used to activate Stream-to-FIFO mode is related to the IA bit value of the
selected INT1_SRC_A register and does not depend on the interrupt pin value and polarity.
The trigger is generated also if the selected interrupt is not driven to an interrupt pin.
The FTH[4:0] bits are intended to define the watermark level; when FIFO content exceeds
this value, the WTM bit is set to “1” in the FIFO source register.
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FIFO source register (0x2F)
This register is updated at every ODR and provides information about the FIFO buffer
status.
Table 44. FIFO_SRC_REG_A




b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
WTM
OVRN_FIFO
EMPTY
FSS4
FSS3
FSS2
FSS1
FSS0
WTM bit is set high when FIFO content exceeds the watermark level.
OVRN_FIFO bit is set high when FIFO buffer is full, this means that the FIFO buffer
contains 32 unread samples. At the following ODR a new sample set replaces the
oldest FIFO value. The OVRN_FIFO bit is reset when the first sample set has been
read.
EMPTY flag is set high when all FIFO samples have been read and FIFO is empty.
FSS[4:0] field always contains the current number of unread samples stored in the
FIFO buffer. When FIFO is enabled, this value increases at ODR frequency until the
buffer is full, whereas, it decreases every time that one sample set is retrieved from
FIFO.
The content of the register is updated synchronous to the FIFO write and read operation.
Table 45. FIFO_SRC_REG_A behavior assuming FTH[4:0] = 15
WTM
OVRN_FIFO
EMPTY
FSS[4:1]
Unread FIFO samples
Timing
0
0
1
00000
0
t0
0
0
0
00001
1
t0 + 1/ODR
0
0
0
00010
2
t0 + 2/ODR
...
...
...
...
...
...
0
0
0
01111
15
t0 + 15/ODR
1
0
0
10000
16
t0 + 16/ODR
...
...
...
...
...
...
1
0
0
11110
30
t0 + 30/ODR
1
0
0
11111
31
t0 + 31/ODR
1
1
0
11111
32
t0 + 32/ODR
The watermark flag and FIFO overrun event can be enabled to generate a dedicated
interrupt on the INT1 pin by configuring CTRL_REG3_A.
Table 46. CTRL_REG3_A (0x22)


b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
X
X
X
X
X
I1_WTM
I1_OVERRUN
X
I1_WTM bit drives watermark flag (WTM) on the INT1 pin.
I1_OVERRUN bit drives overrun event (OVRN) on the INT1 pin.
If both bits are set to “1”, the INT1 pin status is the logical OR combination of the two
signals.
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4.8.3
FIFO modes
The LSM303AGR FIFO buffer can be configured to operate in four different modes
selectable by the FM[1:0] field in FIFO_CTRL_REG_A. Available configurations ensure a
high-level of flexibility and extend the number of functions usable in application
development.
Bypass, FIFO, Stream, and Stream-to-FIFO modes are described in the following
paragraphs.
Bypass mode
When Bypass mode is enabled, FIFO is not operational: the buffer content is cleared, output
registers (0x28 to 0x2D) are frozen at the last value loaded, and the FIFO buffer remains
empty until another mode is selected.
Follow these steps for Bypass mode configuration:
1. Turn on FIFO by setting the FIFO_En bit to “1” in control register 5 (0x24). After this
operation the FIFO buffer is enabled but isn’t collecting data, output registers are
frozen to the last samples set loaded.
2. Activate Bypass mode by setting the FM[1:0] field to “00” in the FIFO control register
(0x2E). If this mode is enabled, FIFO source register (0x2F) is forced equal to 0x20.
Bypass mode must be used in order to stop and reset the FIFO buffer when a different
mode is operating. Note that placing the FIFO buffer into Bypass mode clears the whole
buffer content.
FIFO mode
In FIFO mode, the buffer continues filling until full (32 sample sets stored,) then it stops
collecting data and the FIFO content remains unchanged until a different mode is selected.
Follow these steps for FIFO mode configuration:
1. Turn on FIFO by setting the FIFO_EN bit to “1” in control register 5 (0x24). After this
operation the FIFO buffer is enabled but isn’t collecting data, output registers are
frozen to the last samples set loaded.
2. Activate FIFO mode by setting the FM[1:0] field to “01” in the FIFO control register
(0x2E).
By selecting this mode, FIFO starts data collection and source register (0x2F) changes
according to the number of samples stored. At the end of the procedure, the source register
is set to 0xDF and the OVRN flag generates an interrupt if the I1_OVERRUN bit is selected
in control register 3. Data can be retrieved when OVRN_FIFO is set to “1”, performing a
32 sample set read from the output registers, data can be retrieved also on the WTM flag
instead of OVRN if the application requires a lower number of samples. Communication
speed is not so important in FIFO mode because data collection is stopped and there is no
risk of overwriting acquired data. Before restarting FIFO mode, at the end of the reading
procedure it is necessary to exit Bypass mode.
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The recommended procedure is as follows:
1. Set FIFO_EN = 1: Enable FIFO
2. Set FM[1:0] = (0,1): Enable FIFO mode
3. Wait OVRN or WTM interrupt
4. Read data from the accelerometer output registers
5. Set FM[1:0] = (0,0): Enable Bypass mode
6. Repeat from point 2
Figure 27. FIFO mode behavior
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If FIFO mode is enabled, the buffer starts to collect data and fill all the 32 slots (from F0 to
F31) at the selected output data rate. When the buffer is full, the OVRN_FIFO bit goes high
and data collection is permanently stopped; the user can decide to read FIFO content at any
time because it is maintained unchanged until Bypass mode is selected. The reading
procedure is composed of a 32 sample set of 6 bytes for a total of 192 bytes and retrieves
data starting from the oldest sample stored in FIFO (F0). The OVRN_FIFO bit is reset when
the first sample set has been read. The Bypass mode setting resets FIFO and allows the
user to enable FIFO mode again.
Stream mode
In Stream mode FIFO continues filling, when the buffer is full, the FIFO index restarts from
the beginning and older data is replaced by the current. The oldest values continue to be
overwritten until a read operation frees FIFO slots. Host processor reading speed is most
important in order to free slots faster than new data is made available. FM[1:0] bypass
configuration is used to stop this mode.
Follow these steps for FIFO mode configuration:
1. Turn on FIFO by setting the FIFO_EN bit to “1” in control register 5 (0x24). After this
operation the FIFO buffer is enabled but isn’t collecting data, output registers are
frozen to the last samples set loaded.
2. Activate stream mode by setting the FM[1:0] field to “10” in the FIFO control register
(0x2E).
As described, for FIFO mode, data can be retrieved when OVRN_FIFO is set to”1”
performing a 32 sample set reading from the output registers, data can be retrieved also on
the WTM flag if the application requires a smaller number of samples.
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Figure 28. Stream mode fast reading behavior
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In Stream mode, the FIFO buffer is continuously filling (from F0 to F31) at the selected
output data rate. When the buffer is full the OVRN flag goes high and the recommendation
is to read all FIFO samples (192 bytes) faster than 1*ODR, in order to free FIFO slots for the
new acceleration samples. This allows avoiding loss of data and limiting intervention by the
host processor, thus increasing system efficiency. If the reading procedure is not fast
enough, three different cases can be observed:
1. FIFO sample set (6 bytes) reading faster than 1*ODR: data are correctly retrieved
because a free slot is made available before new data is generated.
2. FIFO sample set (6 bytes) reading synchronous to 1*ODR: data are correctly retrieved
because a free slot is made available before new data is generated but FIFO benefits
are not exploited. This case is equivalent to reading data on the data ready interrupt
and does not limit the intervention by the host processor compared to standard
accelerometer reading.
3. FIFO sample set (6 bytes) reading slower than 1*ODR: in this case some data is lost
because data recovery is not fast enough to free slots for new acceleration data
Figure 29. The number of correctly recovered samples is related to the difference
between the current ODR and the FIFO sample set reading rate.
Figure 29. Stream mode slow reading behavior
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Figure 30. Stream mode slow reading (zoom)
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After Stream mode enable, FIFO slots are filled at the end of each ODR time frame. The
reading procedure must start as soon as the OVRN flag is set to “1”, data are retrieved from
FIFO at the beginning of the reading operation. When a read command is sent to the device,
the output registers content is moved to the SPI/I2C register and the current oldest FIFO
value is shifted into the output registers in order to allow the next read operation. In the case
of a reading slower than 1*ODR, some data can be retrieved from FIFO after that new
sample is inserted into the addressed location. In Figure 30 the fourth read command starts
after the refresh of the F3 index and this generates a disconnect in the data read. The
OVRN flag advises the user that this event has taken place. In this example, three correct
samples have been read, the number of correctly recovered samples is dependent on the
difference between the current ODR and the FIFO sample set reading timeframe.
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Stream-to-FIFO mode
This mode is a combination of the Stream and FIFO modes described previously. In Streamto-FIFO mode, the FIFO buffer starts operating in Stream mode and switches to FIFO mode
when the selected interrupt occurs.
Follow these steps for Stream-to-FIFO mode configuration:
1. Configure desired interrupt generator using register INT1_CFG_A (0x30).
2. Set the TR bit in the FIFO control register (0x2E) according to the configured interrupt
generator: TR = “0” in order to select interrupt 1, TR = “1” in order to select interrupt 2.
3. Turn on FIFO by setting the FIFO_EN bit to “1” in control register 5 (0x24). After this
operation the FIFO buffer is enabled but isn’t collecting data, output registers are
frozen to the last samples set loaded.
4. Activate Stream-to-FIFO mode by setting the FM[1:0] field to “11” in the FIFO control
register (0x2E).
The interrupt trigger is related to the IA bit in the INT1_SRC_A register and it is generated
even if the interrupt signal is not driven to an interrupt pad. Switching modes is performed if
both the IA and I1_OVERRUN bits are set high. Stream-to-FIFO mode is sensitive to the
trigger level and not to the trigger edge, this means that if Stream-to-FIFO is in FIFO mode
and the interrupt condition disappears, the FIFO buffer returns to Stream mode because the
IA bit becomes zero. It is recommended to latch the interrupt signal used as the FIFO trigger
in order to avoid losing interrupt events. If the selected interrupt is latched, the register
INT1_SRC_A must be read to clear the IA bit; after reading, the IA bit takes 2*ODR to go
low.
In Stream mode the FIFO buffer continues filling, when the buffer is full, the OVRN_FIFO bit
is set high and the next samples overwrite the oldest. When a trigger occurs, two different
cases can be observed:
1.
2.
If the FIFO buffer is already full (OVRN_FIFO = “1”), it stops collecting data at the first
sample after trigger. FIFO content is composed of #30 samples collected before the
trigger event, the sample that has generated the interrupt event and one sample after
trigger.
If FIFO isn’t yet full (initial transient), it continues filling until it is full (OVRN_FIFO = “1”)
and then, if the trigger is still present, it stops collecting data.
Figure 31. Stream-to-FIFO mode: interrupt not latched
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Figure 32. Stream-to-FIFO mode: interrupt latched
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Stream-to-FIFO can be used in order to analyze the samples history that generate an
interrupt; the standard operation is to read FIFO content when FIFO mode is triggered and
the FIFO buffer is full and stopped.
4.8.4
Watermark
The watermark is a configurable flag that can be used to generate a specific interrupt in
order to know when the FIFO buffer contains at least the number of samples defined as the
watermark level. The user can select the desired level in a range from 0 to 31 using the
FTH[4:0] field in the FIFO control register while the FIFO source register FSS[4:0] always
contains the number of samples stored in FIFO.
If FSS[4:0] is greater than FTH[4:0], the WTM bit is set high in the FIFO source register, on
the contrary, WTM is driven low when the FSS[4:0] field becomes lower than FTH[4:0].
FSS[4:0] increases by one step at the ODR frequency and decreases by one step every
time that a sample set reading is performed by the user.
Figure 33. Watermark behavior - FTH[4:0] = 10
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In Figure 33, the first row indicates the FSS[4:0] value, the second row indicates the relative
FIFO slot and last row shows the incremental FIFO data. Assuming FTH[4:0] = 10, the WTM
flag changes from “0” to “1” when the eleventh FIFO slot is filled (F10). Figure 34 shows that
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Accelerometer
the WTM flag goes low when the FIFO content is less than FTH[4:0], which means that nine
unread sample sets remain in FIFO. The watermark flag (WTM) can be enabled to generate
a dedicated interrupt on the INT1 pin by setting the I1_WTM bit high in CTRL_REG3_A.
4.8.5
Retrieving data from FIFO
When FIFO is enabled and the mode is different to Bypass, reading output registers (28h to
2Dh) return the oldest FIFO sample set.
Whenever output registers are read, their content is moved to the SPI/I2C output buffer.
FIFO slots are ideally shifted up one level in order to release room for a new sample
reception and output registers load the current oldest value stored in the FIFO buffer.
The entire FIFO content is retrieved by performing 32 read operations from the
accelerometer output registers, every other reading operation returns the same last value
until a new sample set is available in the FIFO buffer.
Data can be retrieved from FIFO using every reading byte combination in order to increase
application flexibility (ex: 196 single byte reads, 32 reads of 6 bytes, 1 multiple read of 196
bytes, etc.).
It is recommended to read all FIFO slots in a multiple byte read of 196 bytes (6 output
registers by 32 slots) faster than 1*ODR. In order to minimize communication between the
master and slave the read address is automatically updated by the device; it rolls back to
0x28 when register 0x2D is reached.
In order to avoid losing data, the right ODR must be selected according to the serial
communication rate available. In the case of standard I2C mode being used (max rate
100 kHz), a single sample set read takes 830 μs while total FIFO download is about
17.57 ms. I2C speed is slower than SPI and it needs about 29 clock pulses to start
communication (Start, Slave Address, Device Address+Write, Restart, Device
Address+Read) plus an additional 9 clock pulses for every byte to read. If this
recommendation were followed, the complete FIFO read would be performed faster than
1*ODR, which means that using a standard I2C, the selectable ODR must be lower than
57 Hz. If a fast I2C mode is used (max rate 400 kHz), the selectable ODR must be lower
than 228 Hz.
Figure 34. FIFO read - FTH[4:0] = 10
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65
Accelerometer
4.9
Temperature sensor
The is supplied with an internal temperature sensor. Temperature data can be enabled by
setting the TEMP_EN[1:0] bits to ‘1’ in the TEMP_CFG_REG_A (1Fh) register.
To retrieve the temperature sensor data the BDU bit in CTRL_REG4_A (23h) must be set
to ‘1’.
Both the OUT_TEMP_L_A (0Ch), OUT_TEMP_H_A (0Dh) registers must be read.
Temperature data is stored inside OUT_TEMP_H as two’s complement data in 8-bit format
left-justified.
4.10
Accelerometer self-test
The self-test allows the user to check the sensor functionality without moving it. When the
self-test is enabled, an actuation force is applied to the sensor, simulating a definite input
acceleration. In this case the sensor outputs will exhibit a change in their DC levels which
are related to the selected full scale through the device sensitivity. When the self-test is
activated, the device output level is given by the algebraic sum of the signals produced by
the acceleration acting on the sensor and by the electrostatic test-force. If the output signals
change within the given range (the min and max values are provided in the datasheet), then
the sensor is working properly and the parameters of the interface chip are within the
defined specifications.
The self-test procedure is described in the following figure.
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Figure 35. Accelerometer self-test procedure
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Accelerometer
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Revision history
5
Revision history
Table 47. Document revision history
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Date
Revision
12-Apr-2016
1
Changes
Initial release
DocID028927 Rev 1
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