16A

Technical
S pecification
NQ16W50xMA16
6.0-16.0V
Input
0.75-5.0V
Outputs
16 Amp
Current
Non
Isolated
SIP
Single Inline Pins
Th e N iQo r ® S M T D C / D C c o n v e r t e r i s a n o n - i s o l a t e d b u c k
re gu la tor, wh ich e mplo ys synchro no us recti ficat ion to
ach i ev e ext rem ely h i gh c onv ers ion eff i ci enc y. T h e N iQor
Non-Isolated
fa m ily o f c on v e rt e rs are us ed p re d om i n at e ly i n D PA sys t em s
usi ng a front end DC /DC high p ower br ick (48 Vin to low
vo l ta ge bu s) . Th e n o n -i so la te d Ni Qo r c on v e rt e rs a re t h e n
used a t t he poi n t of load t o crea t e t h e low v olt a ge out p ut s
requ ired by t h e desi gn . T he wi de t ri m m odu le ca n b e pro gram m ed t o a v ari et y of ou t pu t v olt a ges t hr ough t he u se of
a single external resistor. RoHS compliant (see page 12 ).
NiQor wide trim module
Operational Features
• Ultra high efficiency, up to 94% at full rated load
• Delivers up to 16 Amps of output current with minimal
derating - no heatsink required
• Input Voltage Range : 6.0 - 16.0V
• Fast transient response time
• On-board input and output filter capacitor
• No minimum load requirement means no preload resistors required
Mechanical Features
• DOSA standard pin-out configuration
• Industry standard size: 2” x 0.5” x 0.288” (50.8 x
12.7 x 7.32 mm)
• Total weight: 0.3 oz. (9.4 grams), lower mass greatly reduces vibration and shock problems
• Open frame construction maximizes air flow cooling
• Also available in SIP packaging
Contr ol Features
• On/Off control
• Output voltage trim (industry standard) permits custom
voltages and voltage margining
• Remote Sense (standard option)
Product # NQ16W50xMA16
Phone 1-888-567-9596
www.synqor.com
Pr otection Features
• Input under-voltage lockout disables converter at low
input voltage conditions
• Temperature compensated over-current shutdown protects converter from excessive load current or short circuits
• Output over-voltage protection protects load from damaging voltages
• Thermal shutdown protects converter from abnormal
environmental conditions
Safety Features
• UL/cUL 60950-1 recognized (US & Canada)
• TUV certified to EN60950-1
• Meets 72/23/EEC and 93/68/EEC directives which
facilitates CE Marking in user’s end product
• Board and plastic components meet UL94V-0 flammability requirements
Doc.# 005-2NV12WE Rev. C
03/23/10
Page 1
Input:
Outputs:
Current:
Package:
Technical Specification
MECHANICAL
DIAGRAM
6.0 - 16.0V
0.75 - 5.0V
16A
SIP
Vertical Mount
Side View
Front View
0.288
2.00
(7.32)
(50.8)
0.315 Max
0.185
(8.0 Max)
(4.7)
0.197 Max
(5.0 Max)
0.500
0.050 Ref.
(12.70)
1
2
3
4
5
A
6
7
8
(1.27)
0.160
9 10 11
(4.06)
0.050
0.040 PCB Ref.
(1.27)
(1.02)
0.120
(3.05)
0.025 + 0.003
(0.64 + 0.076)
0.000
0.100
0.200
0.300
0.400
1.300
1.400 1.500 1.600 1.700 1.800
1.900
(0.00)
(2.54)
(5.08)
(7.62)
(10.16)
(33.02)
(35.56) (38.10) (40.64) (43.18) (45.72)
(48.26)
NOTES
SQ. Typ.
PIN DESIGNATIONS
1) All pins are 0.025” (0.64mm) +0.003 (0.076mm) square.
2) All Pins: Material - Copper Alloy
Finish - Tin over Nickel plate
3) Vertical, horizontal, vertical with reverse pins and surface
mount options (future) available.
4) Undimensioned components are shown for visual
reference only.
6) All dimensions in inches (mm)
Tolerances: x.xx +0.02 in. (x.x +0.5mm)
x.xxx +0.010 in. (x.xx +0.25mm)
7) Weight: 0.30 oz. (9.4 g) typical
8) Workmanship: Meets or exceeds IPC-A-610C Class II
Pin Connection Notes:
1. Pin 10 - for fixed resistors, connect between Trim and
Common (Ground).
Pin No.
Name
Function
1
Vout(+)
Positive output voltage
2
Vout(+)
Positive output voltage
3
SENSE(+)
Positive remote sense
4
Vout(+)
Positive output voltage
5
Common
A
N/C
6
Common
7
Vin(+)
Positive input voltage
8
Vin(+)
Positive input voltage
9
N/C
No Connection
10
TRIM1
Output voltage trim (trim-up only)
11
ON/OFF2
LOGIC input to turn the converter
on and off.
2. Pin 11 - see section on Remote ON/OFF pin for description of enable logic options.
No Connection
Pins in Italics Shaded text are Optional
Product # NQ16W50xMA16
Phone 1-888-567-9596
www.synqor.com
Doc.# 005-2NV12WE Rev. C
03/23/10
Page 2
Input:
Outputs:
Current:
Package:
Technical Specification
MECHANICAL
DIAGRAM
6.0 - 16.0V
0.75 - 5.0V
16A
SIP
Horizontal Mount
Front View
Side View
0.288
2.00
(7.32)
(50.8)
0.315 Max
0.185
(8.0 Max)
(4.7)
0.197 Max
(5.0 Max)
0.025 + 0.003
0.500
(0.64 + 0.076)
(12.70)
1
2
3
4
5
A
6
7
8
9
0.050 Ref.
SQ. Typ.
10 11
(1.27)
0.128 Min
0.050
0.040 PCB Ref.
(3.25 Min)
(1.27)
(1.02)
0.330
(8.38)
0.000
0.100
0.200
0.300
0.400
1.300
1.400 1.500 1.600 1.700 1.800
1.900
(0.00)
(2.54)
(5.08)
(7.62)
(10.16)
(33.02)
(35.56) (38.10) (40.64) (43.18) (45.72)
(48.26)
See previous page for notes and pin designations.
Product # NQ16W50xMA16
Phone 1-888-567-9596
www.synqor.com
Doc.# 005-2NV12WE Rev. C
03/23/10
Page 3
Input:
Outputs:
Current:
Package:
Technical Specification
6.0 - 16.0V
0.75 - 5.0V
16A
SIP
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS - NQ16W50xMA16 Series
TA=25°C, airflow rate=300 LFM, Vin=12Vdc unless otherwise noted; full operating temperature range is -40°C to +105°C ambient temperature with appropriate power derating. Specifications subject to change without notice.
Parameter
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
Input Voltage
Non-Operating
Operating
Operating Temperature
Storage Temperature
Voltage at ON/OFF input pin
RECOMMENDED OPERATING CONDITIONS
Input Voltage Range
Input Fuse Rating
External Input Capacitance
Output Voltage
Output Current
INPUT CHARACTERISTICS
Input Under-Voltage Lockout
Turn-On Voltage Threshold
Turn-Off Voltage Threshold
Lockout Hysteresis
Maximum Input Current
“
“
No-Load Input Current
“
“
Disabled Input Current
Inrush Current Transient Rating
Input Filter Capacitor Value
Input Reflected-Ripple Current
“
“
OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS
Output Voltage Set Point
Output Voltage Range
Operating Output Current Range
Output Voltage Regulation
Over Line
Over Load
Over Temperature
Total Output Voltage Range
Output Voltage Ripple and Noise (pk-pk\RMS)
“
“
Output DC Over Current Shutdown
External Output Capacitance
DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS
Input Voltage Ripple Rejection
Output Voltage during Current Transient
For a Step Change in Output Current (0.1A/µs)
For a Step Change in Output Current (3A/µs)
Settling Time
Turn on Transient
Inhibit Time
Rise Time
Output Voltage Overshoot
EFFICIENCY
100% Load
“
“
50% Load
“
“
Product # NQ16W50xMA16
Module
Min.
All
All
All
All
All
0
All
All
All
All
All
-40
-55
-3
6
100
0.75
0
All
All
All
0.75V
2.5V
5.0V
0.75V
2.5V
5.0V
All
All
All
0.75V
2.5V
5.0V
5.35
4.50
0.75V
All
All
0.745
0.75
0
All
All
All
All
1.0V
2.5V
5.0V
All
All
Typ.
Max.
Units
18
16
105
125
15
V
V
°C
°C
V
16
20
V
A
µF
V
A
5.5
16
5.73
4.73
1
6.10
4.95
2.8
7.5
14.0
31
71
132
3
0.1
30
36
68
98
17
0
0.75
35\9.0
55\15.0
87\25.0
21
V
V
V
A
A
A
mA
mA
mA
mA
A 2s
µF
mA
mA
mA
Notes & Conditions
Continuous
Continuous
Fast blow external fuse recommended
ESR<1.5W
6Vin, 100% load
“
“
12Vin
“
“
With min. output capacitance
12Vin, 100% load, pk-pk value
“
“
0.755
5.0
16
V
V
A
0.5
0.5
1
3
%
%
%
%
mV
mV
mV
A
µF
With sense pin
“
“
With sense pin, over sample, line, load, temp. & life
Full load; 20MHz bandwidth
“
“
28
5000
12Vin 50% load
Set output by Rtrim-up
>0.5mW
All
50
dB
120Hz
All
All
All
180
180
100
mV
mV
µs
50%-75%-50% Iout max; 100uF
50%-75%-50% Iout max; 470uF
To within 1.5% Vout nom.
ms
ms
V
Resistive load
“
“
All
All
All
0.75V
2.5V
5.0V
0.75V
2.5V
5.0V
Phone 1-888-567-9596
2
2
4
6
0
77.0
90.0
94.0
81.0
91.5
94.0
www.synqor.com
%
%
%
%
%
%
Doc.# 005-2NV12WE Rev. C
03/23/10
Page 4
Input:
Outputs:
Current:
Package:
Technical Specification
6.0 - 16.0V
0.75 - 5.0V
16A
SIP
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued) - NQ16W50xMA16 Series
Parameter
Module
TEMP LIMITS FOR POWER DERATING
Semiconductor Junction Temperature
Board Temperature
FEATURE CHARACTERISTICS
Switching Frequency
ON/OFF Control
Open Logic (O) ON/OFF Control
Off-State Voltage
On-State Voltage
Input Resistance
Positive Logic (P) ON/OFF Control
Logic Low Voltage Range
Logic High Voltage Range (internal pullup)
Pull-up Voltage
Pull-up Resistance
Output Voltage Trim Range
Output Over-Voltage Protection
Over-Temperature Shutdown
Over-Temperature Shutdown Restart Hysteresis
RELIABILITY CHARACTERISTICS
Calculated MTBF (Telcordia)
Calculated MTBF (MIL-217)
Field Demonstrated MTBF
Min.
Typ.
All
All
All
275
All
All
All
1.5
-3.0
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
-0.2
2.2
300
Max.
Units
Notes & Conditions
125
125
°C
°C
Package rated to 150°C
UL rated max operating temp 130°C
325
kHz
Half on small duty cycle (e.g. 16Vin; 0.75Vout)
6.5
0.6
V
V
kW
1.0
Vin
V
V
V
kW
V
V
°C
°C
See Figure A
20
Open collector/drain input; see Figure A
Vin
20
0.75
5.6
All
All
All
6.0
128
10
5.5
6.4
Measured Vout+ to common pins
Over full temp range
Average PCB Temperature
106 Hrs. TR-NWT-000332; 100% load, 200LFM, 40oC Ta
106 Hrs. MIL-HDBK-217F; 100% load, 200LFM, 40oC Ta
106 Hrs. See our website for details
15.6
10.0
STANDARDS COMPLIANCE
Parameter P
Notes
STANDARDS COMPLIANCE
UL/cUL 60950-1
EN60950-1
72/23/EEC
93/68/EEC
Needle Flame Test (IEC 695-2-2)
IEC 61000-4-2
GR-1089-CORE
Telcordia (Bellcore) GR-513
File # E194341
Certified by TUV
Test on entire assembly; board & plastic components UL94V-0 compliant
ESD test, 8kV - NP, 15kV air - NP (Normal Performance)
Section 7 - electrical safety, Section 9 - bonding/grounding
• An external input fuse must always be used to meet these safety requirements. Contact SynQor for official safety
certificates on new releases or download from the SynQor website.
QUALIFICATION TESTING
Parameter P
QUALIFICATION TESTING
Life Test
Vibration
Mechanical Shock
Temperature Cycling
Power/Thermal Cycling
Design Marginality
Humidity
Solderability
# Units
32
5
5
10
5
5
5
15 pins
Test Conditions
95% rated Vin and load, units at derating point, 1000 hours
10-55Hz sweep, 0.060” total excursion,1 min./sweep, 120 sweeps for 3 axis
100g minimum, 2 drops in x and y axis, 1 drop in z axis
-40°C to 100°C, unit temp. ramp 15°C/min., 500 cycles
Toperating = min to max, Vin = min to max, full load, 100 cycles
Tmin-10°C to Tmax+10°C, 5°C steps, Vin = min to max, 0-105% load
85°C, 85% RH, 1000 hours, continuous Vin applied except 5min./day
MIL-STD-883, method 2003
• Extensive characterization testing of all SynQor products and manufacturing processes is performed to ensure that we supply
robust, reliable product. Contact the factory for official product family qualification documents.
OPTIONS
PATENTS
SynQor provides various options for Packaging, Enable Logic,
and Feature Set for this family of DC/DC converters. Please consult the last page for information on available options.
SynQor is protected under various patents. Please consult the
last page for further details.
Product # NQ16W50xMA16
Phone 1-888-567-9596
www.synqor.com
Doc.# 005-2NV12WE Rev. C
03/23/10
Page 5
Input:
Outputs:
Current:
Package:
Technical Specification
100
6.0 - 16.0V
0.75 - 5.0V
16A
SIP
5
95
4
Power Dissipation (W)
Efficiency (%)
90
85
80
75
70
5.0 Vout
1.8 Vout
0.9 Vout
65
3
2
5.0 Vout
1.8 Vout
1
0.9 Vout
60
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
0
Load Current (A)
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
Load Current (A)
Figure 1: Efficiency at nominal output voltage vs. load current for nominal input voltage at 25°C.
Figure 2: Power dissipation at nominal output voltage vs. load current
for nominal input voltage at 25°C.
18
16
14
Iout (A)
12
10
8
6
400 LFM (2.0 m/s)
300 LFM (1.5 m/s)
4
200 LFM (1.0 m/s)
2
100 LFM (0.5 m/s)
Semiconductor junction temperature is
within 1°C of surface temperature
0
0
25
40
55
70
85
Ambient Air Temperature (°C)
Figure 3: Maximum output power derating curves for 0.75Vo, 1.2Vo,
1.5Vo units under various thermal conditions and nominal input voltage.
Figure 4: Thermal plot of 0.75Vo, 1.2Vo converters at nominal Vin and
16 amp load current mounted on a 85°C, 6-Layer, 2 oz. copper board
(typical installation).
18
16
14
Iout (A)
12
10
8
6
400 LFM (2.0 m/s)
300 LFM (1.5 m/s)
4
200 LFM (1.0 m/s)
2
100 LFM (0.5 m/s)
Semiconductor junction temperature is
within 1°C of surface temperature
0
0
25
40
55
70
85
Ambient Air Temperature (°C)
Figure 5: Maximum output power derating curves for 1.8Vo, 2.5Vo
units under various thermal conditions and nominal input voltage.
Product # NQ16W50xMA16
Phone 1-888-567-9596
Figure 6: Thermal plot of 1.8Vo, 2.5Vo converters at nominal Vin and
16 amp load current mounted on a 70°C, 6-Layer, 2 oz. copper board
(typical installation).
www.synqor.com
Doc.# 005-2NV12WE Rev. C
03/23/10
Page 6
Input:
Outputs:
Current:
Package:
Technical Specification
6.0 - 16.0V
0.75 - 5.0V
16A
SIP
18
16
14
Iout (A)
12
10
8
6
400 LFM (2.0 m/s)
300 LFM (1.5 m/s)
4
200 LFM (1.0 m/s)
2
100 LFM (0.5 m/s)
Semiconductor junction temperature is
within 1°C of surface temperature
0
0
25
40
55
70
85
Ambient Air Temperature (°C)
Figure 7: Maximum output power derating curves for 3.3Vo, 5.0Vo
units under various thermal conditions and nominal input voltage.
Figure 8: Thermal plot of 3.3Vo, 5.0Vo converters at nominal Vin and
16 amp load current mounted on a 70°C, 6-Layer, 2 oz. copper board
(typical installation).
5.0Vout
5.0Vout
3.3Vout
3.3Vout
1.8Vout
1.8Vout
0.9Vout
0.9Vout
on/off
on/off
Figure 9: Turn-on transient at full load (resistive load) (2 ms/div).
Ch 1: ON/OFF input (5V/div)
Ch 2-4: Vout (1V/div)
Figure 10: Turn-on transient at zero load (2 ms/div).
Ch 1: ON/OFF input (5V/div)
Ch 2-4: Vout (1V/div)
5.0Vout
5.0Vout
1.8Vout
1.8Vout
0.9Vout
0.9Vout
Iout
Iout
Figure 11: Output voltage response for 0.9V, 1.8V, 5V units to step-change in
load current (50-75-50% of Iout max; di/dt=0.1A/µ s). Load cap: 100µ F,
100mW ESR tant, 10µ F cer. Ch 1: Iout (10A/div), Ch 2-4: Vout (100mV/div).
Product # NQ16W50xMA16
Phone 1-888-567-9596
Figure 12: Output voltage response for 0.9V, 1.8V, 5V units to step-change in
load current (50-75-50% of Iout max; di/dt=3A/µ s). Load cap: 470µ F, 100mW
ESR tant, 10µ F cer. Ch 1: Iout (10A/div), Ch 2-4: Vout (100mV/div).
www.synqor.com
Doc.# 005-2NV12WE Rev. C
03/23/10
Page 7
Input:
Outputs:
Current:
Package:
Technical Specification
6.0 - 16.0V
0.75 - 5.0V
16A
SIP
See Fig. 14
1 µH
source
impedance
0.9Vout
See Fig. 15
See Fig. 16
iS
VIN
VSOURCE
DC/DC
Converter
1.8Vout
VOUT
3.3Vout
22 µF
C*
ceramic
capacitor
5.0Vout
* See values for recommended external input capacitance.
Inductor optional as needed.
Figure 13: Test set-up diagram showing measurement points for Input
Reflected Ripple Current (Figure 14), Input Terminal Ripple Voltage
(Figure 15), and Output Voltage Ripple (Figure 16).
Figure 14: Input Reflected Ripple Current, is, through a 1 µ H source
inductor at nominal input voltage and rated load current (100 mA/div).
See Figure 13.
0.9Vout
0.9Vout
1.8Vout
1.8Vout
3.3Vout
3.3Vout
5.0Vout
5.0Vout
Figure 15: Input Terminal Ripple Voltage at nominal input voltage and
rated load current (200 mV/div). Load capacitance: 22µ F ceramic cap.
Bandwidth: 20 MHz. See Figure 13.
Figure 16: Output Voltage Ripple at nominal input voltage and rated
load current (50 mV/div). Load capacitance: 22µ F ceramic cap.
Bandwidth: 20 MHz. See Figure 13.
1
0
0.1
0.01
0.001
-20
Forward Transmission (dB)
Output Impedance (ohms)
-10
5.0 Vout
1.8 Vout
0.9 Vout
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
-80
5.0 Vout
-90
0.9 Vout
1.8 Vout
-100
0.0001
10
100
1,000
10,000
100
100,000
Figure 17: Magnitude of incremental output impedance (Zout =
vout/iout) for nominal input voltage at full rated power.
Product # NQ16W50xMA16
Phone 1-888-567-9596
1,000
10,000
100,000
1,000,000
Hz
Hz
Figure 18: Magnitude of incremental forward transmission (FT =
vout/vin) for nominal input voltage at full rated power.
www.synqor.com
Doc.# 005-2NV12WE Rev. C
03/23/10
Page 8
Input:
Outputs:
Current:
Package:
15
100
5
10
Input Impedance (ohms)
Reverse Transmission (dB)
Technical Specification
-5
-15
-25
5.0 Vout
-35
1
0.1
0.01
5.0 Vout
1.8 Vout
0.001
1.8 Vout
6.0 - 16.0V
0.75 - 5.0V
16A
SIP
0.9 Vout
0.9 Vout
-45
0.0001
10
100
1,000
10,000
100,000
1,000,000
10
Hz
Phone 1-888-567-9596
1,000
10,000
100,000
Hz
Figure 19: Magnitude of incremental reverse transmission (RT =
iin/iout) for nominal input voltage at full rated power.
Product # NQ16W50xMA16
100
Figure 20: Magnitude of incremental input impedance (Zin = vin/iin)
for nominal input voltage at full rated power.
www.synqor.com
Doc.# 005-2NV12WE Rev. C
03/23/10
Page 9
Input:
Outputs:
Current:
Package:
Technical Specification
BASIC OPERATION AND FEATURES
For a desired increase of the nominal output voltage, the value of
the resistor should be:
The NiQor series non-isolated converter uses a buck-converter
that keeps the output voltage constant over variations in line,
load, and temperature. The NiQor modules employ synchronous
rectification for very high efficiency.
Rtrim-up =
CONTROL FEATURES
REMOTE ON/OFF: The ON/OFF input permits the user to control when the converter is on or off. There are currently two
options available for the ON/OFF input described in the table
below. Others may become available if demand exists.
Option
P Logic
O Logic
Pin-Open
Float
Voltage
5
0
Description
Positive/Open
Negative/Open
Pin-Open
Converter
State
On
On
Pin Action
Pull Low = Off
Pull High = Off
OUTPUT VOLTAGE TRIM: The TRIM input permits the user to
adjust the output voltage according to the trim range specifications by using an external resistor. If the TRIM feature is not being
used, leave the TRIM pin disconnected.
TRIM-UP: To increase the output voltage from the nominal setpoint of 0.7525V using an external resistor, connect the resistor
Rtrim-up between the TRIM and the Ground pin according to the
diagram below.
On/Off
Gnd
VDES - 0.7525
_ 1000 (W)
VOUT = 0.7525 +
where
10500
Rtrim-up + 1000
(W)
VDES = Desired Output Voltage
To maintain the accuracy of the output voltage over load current,
it is vital that any trim-up resistor be terminated directly to the converter's ground foot, not at the connection to the load. A separate Kelvin connection to the PCB pad for the ground foot is optimal. Trim-down resistors should be terminated at the converter's
Sense+ pin.
We do not recommend bypassing the trim pin directly to ground
with a capacitor. The voltage gain from the trim pin to output is
rather large, 15:1. Ground bounce through a bypass capacitor
could introduce significant noise to the converter's control circuit.
PROTECTION FEATURES
Input Under-Voltage Lockout: The converter is designed to
turn off when the input voltage is too low, helping avoid an input
system instability problem, described in more detail in the application note titled “Input System Instability”. The lockout circuitry
is a comparator with DC hysteresis. When the input voltage is
rising, it must exceed the typical Turn-On Voltage Threshold value
(listed on the specification page) before the converter will turn
on. Once the converter is on, the input voltage must fall below
the typical Turn-Off Voltage Threshold value before the converter
will turn off.
Output Current Limiting: To provide protection in an output
over load fault condition, the unit is equipped with internal overcurrent protection. When the over-current protection is triggered,
the unit enters hiccup mode. The units operate normally once the
fault condition is removed.
Vout
Sense+
Vin
10500
or
Dissipation throughout the converter is so low that it does not
require a heatsink or metal baseplate for operation. The NiQor
converter can thus be built more simply and reliably using high
yield surface mount techniques on a single PCB substrate.
The NiQor series of SIPs and SMT converters uses the established
industry standard footprint and pin-out configurations.
6.0 - 16.0V
0.75 - 5.0V
16A
SIP
Trim
Rtrim-up
Internal Over-Voltage Protection: To fully protect from
excessive output voltage, the NQ16 series contains an Output
Over-Voltage Shutdown circuitry.
This OVP is independent of the trimmed setpoint. As such, the
converter's load is protected from faults in the external trim circuitry (such as a trim pin shorted to ground). Since the setpoint
of this OVP does not track trim, it is set at 6.0V, in the wide-trim
W50 model.
Product # NQ16W50xMA16
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Doc.# 005-2NV12WE Rev. C
03/23/10
Page 10
Input:
Outputs:
Current:
Package:
Technical Specification
The shutdown point is fixed on standard option. These converters also offer adjustable OVP set point. For more detailed information contact SynQor technical support.
Over-Temperature Shutdown: A temperature sensor on the
converter senses the average temperature of the module. The
thermal shutdown circuit is designed to turn the converter off
when the temperature at the sensed location reaches the OverTemperature Shutdown value. It will allow the converter to turn
on again when the temperature of the sensed location falls by the
amount of the Over-Temperature Shutdown Restart Hysteresis
value.
APPLICATION CONSIDERATIONS
Input and Output Filtering: SynQor recommends an external
input capacitor of either a tantalum, polymer or aluminum electrolytic type on the input of the NQ16 series non-isolated converters. This capacitance and resistance primarily provides
damping of the input filter, reduces the source impedance and
guarantees input stability (see SynQor application note "Input
System Instability"). The input filter is formed by any source or
wiring inductance and the converter’s input capacitance. The
external capacitance also provides an additional benefit of ripple voltage reduction.
A modest sized capacitor would suffice in most conditions, such
as a 330µF, 16V tantalum, with an ESR of approximately 50 mW.
The NiQor family converters have an internal ceramic input
capacitor to reduce ripple current stress on the external capacitors. An external ceramic capacitor of similar size (330µF) with
a series resistor of approximately 50 mW would also suffice and
would provide the filter damping.
Additional ceramic capacitance may be needed on the input, in
parallel with the tantalum capacitor, to relieve ripple current
stress on the tantalum capacitors. The external capacitance forms
a current divider with the 40µF internal ceramic capacitance. At
300 kHz., the impedance of the internal capacitance is about
15mW capacitive. At that frequency, an SMT 330µF tantalum
capacitor would have an impedance of about 50mW resistive,
essentially just the ESR.
In this example, at full load, that would stress the tantalum input
capacitor to about 3A rms ripple current, possibly beyond its rating. Placing an additional 40µF of ceramic in parallel with that
capacitor would reduce the ripple current to about 1.5A, probably within its rating at 85oC. The input ripple current is proportional to load current, so this example should be scaled down
according to the actual load current.
Additional input capacitance equal to half of the output capaciProduct # NQ16W50xMA16
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6.0 - 16.0V
0.75 - 5.0V
16A
SIP
tance is recommended when operating with more than 1000uF
of output capacitance on lower voltage outputs when trimming
down by more than half of the trim-down allowance (e.g., further
than -2.5% on a 0.9V, or -5% on a 1.2V).
Input inductance should be reduced for maintaining input stability when operating with large output capacitance (>1000µF).
Reducing input inductance to <0.3µH provides for good phase
margin with up to the 4000µF maximum output capacitance. If
the input inductance must be increased up to 1µH even with large
output capacitance (>1000µF), an input capacitance equal to or
greater than the output capacitance may be needed to compensate the input impedance.
If no inductor is used to isolate the input ripple of the NiQor converters from the source or from inputs of other NiQor converters,
then this external capacitance might be provided by the DC/DC
converter used as the power source. SynQor's PowerQor series
converters typically have tantalum and ceramic output capacitors
that would provide the damping.
An input inductor would help isolate the ripple currents and voltages from the source or other NiQor style converters on the voltage supply rail. If an input inductor is used, the recommended
capacitance should guarantee stability and control the ripple current for up to 1.0µH of input inductance.
The input inductor need not have very high inductance. A value
of 250 nanohenries would equate to almost 500 miliohm of
series impedance at the switching frequency of 300 kHz. This
would be working against an assumed capacitive ESR of 30mW
on the supply side of the inductor, providing significant isolation
and ripple reduction.
No external capacitance is required at the output, however, the
ripple voltage can be further reduced if ceramic and tantalum
capacitors are added at the output. Since the internal output
capacitance is about 50µF, approximately that amount of ceramic capacitance would be needed to produce a noticeable reduction in output ripple. The value of the tantalum capacitors is both
to provide a high capacitance for pulsed loads and to provide
damping of the distribution network with their inherent ESR,
which is low, but higher than ceramics. Additional output capacitance in the range of 300-500µF is beneficial for reducing the
deviation in response to a fast load transient.
Input Over-Voltage Prevention: The power system designer must take precautions to prevent damaging the NiQor converters by input overvoltage. This is another reason to be careful
about damping the input filter so that no ringing occurs from an
underdamped filter. The voltage must be prevented from exceeding the absolute maximum voltage indicated in the Electrical
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Doc.# 005-2NV12WE Rev. C
03/23/10
Page 11
Input:
Outputs:
Current:
Package:
Technical Specification
6.0 - 16.0V
0.75 - 5.0V
16A
SIP
Specifications section of the data sheet under all conditions of
turn-on, turn-off and load transients and fault conditions. The
power source should have an over voltage shutdown threshold as
close as reasonably possible to the operating point.
Additional protection can come from additional input capacitance, perhaps on the order of 1,000µF, but contingent on the
source inductance value. A large source inductance would
require more capacitance to keep the input voltage below the
absolute maximum, if the load current were interrupted suddenly.
This can be caused by either a shutdown of the NiQor from a
fault or from the load itself, for example when a card is hotswapped out, suddenly dropping the load to zero. This is further
justification for keeping the source inductance low, as mentioned
above. When the power source is configured with remote sensing, the series resistance of the filter inductor and any other conductors or devices between the source and the sense point will
result in a voltage drop which, in the event of a load current interruption, would add to the NiQor input voltage.
A TVS device could also be used to clamp the voltage level during these conditions, but the relatively narrow range between
operating voltage and the absolute maximum voltage restrict the
use of these devices to lower source current levels that will not
drive the transient voltage suppressor above the voltage limit
when all the source current is flowing into the clamp. A TVS
would be a good supplemental control, in addition to careful
selection of inductance and capacitance values.
Equivalent Model for Input Ripple: A simple but reasonably accurate model of input ripple is to treat the NiQor input as
a pulsed AC current source at 300 kHz.in parallel with a very
low ESR capacitor, see Figure E. The peak-to-peak current of the
source model is equal to the NiQor load current, representing the
peak current in the NiQor's smoothing choke. The capacitor represents the 40µF input ceramic capacitance of the NiQor converter, with a nearly negligible ESR of less than 1 mW. A further
refinement can be made by setting the duty cycle of the pulsed
source to the output voltage divided by the input voltage.
The only error in this simplified model is that it ignores the ripple
current in the choke, usually less than 20% of the load current,
and it ignores the resistive losses inside the NiQor converter,
which would alter the duty cycle very slightly.
The model is a good guide for calculating the effects of external
input capacitors and other filter elements on ripple voltage and
ripple current stress on capacitors.
Product # NQ16W50xMA16
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30µF
I p-p
INPUT
<1mW
I p-p = I Load
Figure E: Equivalent model for input ripple
Layout Suggestion: When using a fixed output NiQor converter, the designer may chose to use the trim function and would
thus be required to reserve board space for a trim resistor. It is
suggested that even if the designer does not plan to use the trim
function, additional space should be reserved on the board for a
trim resistor. This will allow the flexibility to use the wide output
voltage trim range NiQor module at a later date. Any trim resistor should connect to the ground or output node at one of the
respective pins of the NiQor, so as to prevent the trim level from
being affected by load drops through the ground or power
planes.
OPTIONAL FEATURES
REMOTE SENSE(+) (Pin 3 - Optional): The optional
SENSE(+) input corrects for voltage drops along the conductors
that connect the converter’s output pins to the load.
Pin 3 should be connected to Vout(+) at the point on the board
where regulation is desired. A remote connection at the load can
adjust for a voltage drop only as large as that specified in this
datasheet, that is
Vout(+) – SENSE(+) < Sense Range % x Vout
Pin 3 must be connected for proper regulation of the output voltage. If these connections are not made, the converter will deliver an output voltage that is slightly higher than its specified value.
Note: the output over-voltage protection circuit senses the voltage
across the output (pins 1, 2 and 4) to determine when it should
trigger, not the voltage across the converter’s sense lead (pin 3).
RoHS Compliance: The EU led RoHS (Restriction of Hazardous
Substances) Directive bans the use of Lead, Cadmium,
Hexavalent Chromium, Mercury, Polybrominated Biphenyls
(PBB), and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) in Electrical
and Electronic Equipment. This SynQor product is 6/6 RoHS
compliant. For more information please refer to SynQor’s RoHS
addendum available at our RoHS Compliance / Lead Free
Initiative web page or e-mail us at [email protected]
www.synqor.com
Doc.# 005-2NV12WE Rev. C
03/23/10
Page 12
6.0 - 16.0V
0.75 - 5.0V
16A
SIP
Input:
Outputs:
Current:
Package:
Technical Specification
PART NUMBERING SYSTEM
ORDERING INFORMATION
The part numbering system for SynQor’s NiQor DC/DC converters follows the format shown in the example below.
The tables below show the valid model numbers and ordering
options for converters in this product family. When ordering
SynQor converters, please ensure that you use the complete
15 character part number consisting of the 12 character base
part number and the additional 3 characters for options.
A “-G” suffix indicates the product is 6/6 RoHS compliant.
NQ 16 W50 V M A 16 P R S - G
6/6 RoHS
Options
(see
Ordering Information)
Output Current
Thermal Design
Model Number
Input Voltage
NQ16W50p MA16xyz -G
6.0 - 16.0 V
Output Max Output
Voltage
Current
0.75-5.0 V
16 A
Performance Level
The following option choices must be included in place of the
x y z spaces in the model numbers listed above.
Package Size
Output Voltage
Input Voltage
Packaging: p
Product Family
The first 12 characters comprise the base part number and the
last 3 characters indicate available options. A “-G” suffix
indicates the product is 6/6 RoHS compliant.
Options Description: x y z
Packaging
Enable Logic
Pin Style
Feature Set
V - Vert. Mount SIP
H - Horz. Mount SIP
P - Pos./Open
O - Neg./Open
R - 0.160"
S - Sense
N - None
(Standard)
Application Notes
A variety of application notes and technical white papers can
be downloaded in pdf format from our website.
PATENTS
SynQor holds the following U.S. patents, one or more of which apply
to each product listed in this document. Additional patent applications
may be pending or filed in the future.
5,999,417
6,222,742
6,545,890
6,577,109
6,594,159
6,731,520
6,894,468
6,896,526
6,927,987
7,050,309
7,072,190
7,085,146
7,119,524
7,269,034
7,272,021
7,272,023
7,558,083
7,564,702
Contact SynQor for further information:
Phone:
Toll Free:
Fax:
E-mail:
Web:
Address:
Product # NQ16W50xMA16
978-849-0600
888-567-9596
978-849-0602
[email protected]
www.synqor.com
155 Swanson Road
Boxborough, MA 01719
USA
Phone 1-888-567-9596
Warranty
SynQor offers a three (3) year limited warranty. Complete warranty
information is listed on our website or is available upon request from
SynQor.
Information furnished by SynQor is believed to be accurate and reliable.
However, no responsibility is assumed by SynQor for its use, nor for any
infringements of patents or other rights of third parties which may result
from its use. No license is granted by implication or otherwise under any
patent or patent rights of SynQor.
www.synqor.com
Doc.# 005-2NV12WE Rev. C
03/23/10
Page 13
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