40A/600W

Technical
Specification
PQ60150HZx40
35-75V
100V
15V
600W
2250V dc
Half-brick
Input
Transient Input
Output
Max Power
Isolation
DC-DC Converter
The PQ60150HZx40 PowerQor Zeta Half-brick
converter is a next-generation, board-mountable,
isolated, fixed switching frequency DC/DC converter.
The Zeta series offers industry leading power density
for standard isolated DC/DC converters with both a
wide input range and a tightly regulated output. This
module supplies an isolated step down voltage from
35-75V to 15V and is available in openframe and
encased versions. RoHS Compliant (see last page).
Protection Features
• Input under-voltage lockout disables converter at low Vin conditions
• Output current limit and short circuit protection protects
converter and load from permanent damage and
consequent hazardous conditions
• Active back bias limit provides smooth startup with
external load induced pre-bias
• Auto-recovery output over-voltage protection protects load from
damaging voltages
• Thermal shutdown protects converter from abnormal
environmental conditions
Mechanical Features
• Industry standard half-brick pin-out configuration
• Size: 2.30" x 2.40" x 0.428", 58.4 x 61.0 x 10.9 mm
• Total weight: 2.6 oz. (75 g)
PQ60150HZx40 Model
Operational Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
High efficiency, 94% at full rated load current
Delivers up to 40A of output current (600W)
Input voltage range: 35-75V
Fixed frequency switching provides predictable EMI performance
No minimum load requirement means no preload resistors required
Wide output voltage trim range (-50%, +10%), see trim section
Optional: Active current share for parallel applications
Control Features
• On/Off control referenced to input side
(positive and negative logic options are available)
• Remote sense for the output voltage
Page No.
Safety Features
• UL 60950-1:R2011-12
• EN60950-1/A12:2011
• CAN/CSA-C22.2 No. 60950-1/A1:2011
Product # PQ60150HZx40
Contents
Phone 1-888-567-9596
Mechanical Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Electrical Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Standards & Qualifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Technical Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Applications Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Ordering Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
www.synqor.com
Doc.# 005-0005985 Rev. D
03/04/14
Page 1
Input: 35-75V
Output: 15V
Current: 40A
Package: Half-brick
Open Frame Mechanical
2.40 [61]
1.400 [35,56]
1.000 [25,4]
.700 [17,78]
.400 [10,16]
2.30
[58,4]
.059 .028
[1,5 0,71]
BOTTOMSIDE
CLEARANCE
9
8
7
6
5
TOP VIEW
1.900
[48,26]
.19
[4,8]
SIDE VIEW
1
2
B
3
4
.400 [10,16]
.800 [20,32]
.50 [12,7]
.428 .018
[10,87 0,45]
OVERALL HEIGHT
.180
[4,57]
SEE NOTE 3
1.000 [25,4]
1.400 [35,56]
NOTES
1)
2)
PIN DESIGNATIONS
Pins 1-4, 6-8, and B are 0.040” (1.02mm) diameter, with 0.080”
(2.03mm) diameter standoff shoulders.
Pins 5 and 9 are 0.080” (2.03 mm) diameter with 0.125” (3.18mm)
diameter standoff shoulders.
3)
Other pin extension lengths available.
4)
All Pins: Material - Copper Alloy
Finish: Matte Tin over Nickel plate
Undimensioned components are shown for visual reference only.
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
All dimensions in inches (mm)
'Tolerances: x.xx +/-0.02 in. (x.x +/-0.5mm)
x.xxx +/-0.010 in. (x.xx +/-0.25mm)
Open Frame Weight:2.6 oz. (75 g)
Workmanship: Meets or exceeds IPC-A-610 Class II
UL/TUV standards require a clearance greater than 0.04” 1.02mm)
between input and output for Basic insulation. This issue should be
considered if any copper traces are on the top side of the user’s
board. Note that the ferrite cores are considered part of the input/
primary circuit.
Product # PQ60150HZx40
Phone 1-888-567-9596
Pin
Name
1
Vin(+)
2
ON/OFF
B
SHARE(+)
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
SHARE(-)
Vin(–)
Vout(–)
SENSE(–)
TRIM
SENSE(+)
Vout(+)
Function
Positive input voltage
TTL input to turn converter on and off,
referenced to Vin(–), with internal pull up.
Active current share differential pair
(See note 4)
Negative input voltage
Negative output voltage
Negative remote sense (See note 1)
Output voltage trim (See note 2)
Positive remote sense (See note 3)
Positive output voltage
Notes:
1)
SENSE(–) should be connected to Vout(–) either remotely or at the converter.
2)
Leave TRIM pin open for nominal output voltage.
3)
SENSE(+) should be connected to Vout(+) either remotely or at the converter.
4)
Full-Featured option only. Pin 3 and Pin B not populated on standard model.
www.synqor.com
Doc.# 005-0005985 Rev. D
03/04/14
Page 2
Input: 35-75V
Output: 15V
Current: 40A
Package: Half-brick
Encased Mechanical
2.486
2.00
1.400
1.000
[63.14
0.5]
SIDE VIEW
[35.56 ]
[17.78 ]
.400
[10.16 ]
[
.243
[6.17
8
6
7
.020
0.5]
.243
[6.17
.020
0.5]
2
B
4
3
.400
[10.16 ]
.800
[20.32 ]
1.00
[25.4 ]
1.400
.543 .020
[13.79
0.5]
THRU HOLE
M3 (SEE NOTE 8)
STANDOFFS (4)
Applied torque per screw should not exceed 6in-lb. (0.7 Nm).
2)
Baseplate flatness tolerance is 0.004" (.10 mm) TIR for surface.
Pin
Name
1
Vin(+)
Pins 1-4, 6-8, and B are 0.040” (1.02mm) diameter, with 0.080”
(2.03mm) diameter standoff shoulders.
Pins 5 and 9 are 0.080” (2.03 mm) diameter with 0.125”
(3.18 mm) diameter standoff shoulders.
All Pins: Material - Copper Alloy; Finish - Matte Tin over Nickel plate
Undimensioned components are shown for visual reference only.
Weight: 5 oz. (142g) typical
Threaded and Non-Threaded options available
All dimensions in inches (mm).
Tolerances:
x.xx +/-0.02 in. (x.x +/-0.5mm)
x.xxx +/-0.010 in. (x.xx +/-0.25mm)
unless otherwise noted.
10) Recommended pin length is 0.03" (0.76 mm) greater than the PCB
thickness.
11) Workmanship: Meets or exceeds IPC-A-610C Class II
Product # PQ60150HZx40
[
]
PIN DESIGNATIONS
1)
6)
7)
8)
9)
+.007
-.010
+0.17
0.69
-0.25
BOTTOMSIDE CLEARANCE
.027
[35.56 ]
NOTES
5)
.020
0.5]
1.90
[48.3 ]
1
4)
.163
[4.14 ]
TOP VIEW
1.90
[48.3 ]
3)
]
5
.020
0.5]
.233
[5.92
+.002
.512
-.005
+0.05
13
-0.12
OVERALL
HEIGHT
[25.4 ]
.700
9
2.386
[60.6
.020
[50.8 ]
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2
ON/OFF
B
SHARE(+)
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
SHARE(-)
Vin(–)
Vout(–)
SENSE(–)
TRIM
SENSE(+)
Vout(+)
Function
Positive input voltage
TTL input to turn converter on and off,
referenced to Vin(–), with internal pull up.
Active current share differential pair
(See note 4)
Negative input voltage
Negative output voltage
Negative remote sense (See note 1)
Output voltage trim (See note 2)
Positive remote sense (See note 3)
Positive output voltage
Notes:
1)
SENSE(–) should be connected to Vout(–) either remotely or at the converter.
2)
Leave TRIM pin open for nominal output voltage.
3)
SENSE(+) should be connected to Vout(+) either remotely or at the converter.
4)
Full-Featured option only. Pin 3 and Pin B not populated on standard model.
www.synqor.com
Doc.# 005-0005985 Rev. D
03/04/14
Page 3
Input: 35-75V
Output: 15V
Current: 40A
Package: Half-brick
Technical Specifications
PQ60150HZx40 Electrical Characteristics
Ta = 25 °C, airflow rate = 300 LFM, Vin = 48V dc unless otherwise noted; full operating temperature range is -40 °C to +100 °C baseplate temperature
with appropriate power derating. Specifications subject to change without notice.
Parameter
Min.
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
Input Voltage
Non-Operating
Operating
Operating Transient Protection
Isolation Voltage
Input to Output
Operating Temperature
Storage Temperature
Voltage at ON/OFF input pin
INPUT CHARACTERISTICS
Operating Input Voltage Range
Input Under-Voltage Lockout
Turn-On Voltage Threshold
Turn-Off Voltage Threshold
Lockout Voltage Hysteresis
Maximum Input Current
No-Load Input Current
Disabled Input Current (Option N)
Disabled Input Current (Option P)
Response to Input Transient
Input Reflected Ripple Current
Input Terminal Ripple Current
Recommended Input Fuse
Recommended External Input Capacitance
Input Filter Component Values (C1\Lin\C2)
OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS
Output Voltage Set Point
Output Voltage Regulation
Over Line
Over Load
Over Temperature
Total Output Voltage Range
Output Voltage Ripple and Noise
Peak-to-Peak
RMS
Operating Output Current Range
Output DC Current-Limit Inception
Output DC Current-Limit Shutdown Voltage
Back-Drive Current Limit while Enabled
Back-Drive Current Limit while Disabled
Maximum Output Capacitance Electrolytic
EFFICIENCY
100% Load
50% Load
Product # PQ60150HZx40
Typ.
-1
-40
-45
-2
Max.
Units Notes & Conditions
100
80
100
V
V
V
2250
100
125
18
V
°C
°C
V
35
48
75
V
32.0
30.0
1.5
33.0
31.0
2.0
34.0
32.0
2.5
21
250
8
40
V
V
V
A
mA
mA
mA
V
mA
mA
A
µF
nF\µH\µF
20
200
5
30
2.3
15
150
40
220
22\0.75\11
14.75
15.00
15.21
V
195
15.45
%
%
mV
V
±0.25
±0.25
-195
14.55
180
25
0
44.0
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0
48.0
6.0
13
3
360
50
40
54.0
94
95
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5
10
Continuous
Continuous
1 s transient, square wave
100% Load, 35V Vin, trimmed up 10%
0.50V/μs input transient, full load,100 μF load cap
RMS thru 4.7μH inductor
RMS
Fast acting external fuse recommended
Typical ESR 0.1-0.2Ω; Figure 13
Internal values
See note 1
See note 1
mV
mV
A
A
V
A
mA
mF
Over sample, line, load, temperature & life
20MHz bandwidth; see Note 2
Full load
Full load
Subject to thermal derating
Output Voltage 10% Low
See note 3
Negative current drawn from output
Negative current drawn from output
Nominal Vout at full load (resistive load)
%
%
Figures 1 - 2
Figures 1 - 2
Doc.# 005-0005985 Rev. D
03/04/14
Page 4
Input: 35-75V
Output: 15V
Current: 40A
Package: Half-brick
Technical Specifications
PQ60150HZx40 Electrical Characteristics (continued)
Ta = 25 °C, airflow rate = 300 LFM, Vin = 48V dc unless otherwise noted; full operating temperature range is -40 °C to +100 °C baseplate temperature
with appropriate power derating. Specifications subject to change without notice.
Parameter
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Units Notes & Conditions
DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS
Output Voltage during Load Current Transient
Step Change in Output Current (0.1A/µs)
350
mV
50% to 75% to 50% Iout max, 15 μF load cap
Step Change in Output Current (2A/µs)
1
V
50% to 75% to 50% Iout max, 15 μF load cap
µs
Settling time
500
To within 1% Vout nom
Turn-On Transient
Turn-On Time
15
25
35
ms
Vout=90% nom, Figures 9 & 10; see note 5
Output Voltage Overshoot
2
%
ISOLATION CHARACTERISTICS
Isolation Voltage (dielectric strength)
2250
V
See Absolute Maximum Ratings
Isolation Resistance
30
MΩ
Isolation Capacitance (input to output)
1000
pF
See Note 4
TEMPERATURE LIMITS FOR POWER DERATING CURVES
Semiconductor Junction Temperature
125
°C
Package rated to 150°C
Board Temperature
125
°C
UL rated max operating temp 130°C
Transformer Temperature
125
°C
FEATURE CHARACTERISTICS
Switching Frequency Regulation Stage
230
240
250
kHz
Switching Frequency Isolation Stage
115
120
125
kHz
ON/OFF Control (Option P)
Off-State Voltage
-2.0
0.8
V
On-State Voltage
2.4
18.0
V
ON/OFF Control (Option N)
Off-State Voltage
2.4
18.0
V
On-State Voltage
-2.0
0.8
V
ON/OFF Control (Either Option)
Application notes; Figures A & B
Pull-Up Voltage
15
18
V
Pull-Up Resistance
49.9
kΩ
Output Voltage Trim Range
-50
10
%
Measured across Pins 8 & 6; Figure C
Output Over-Voltage Protection
118
123
128
%
Over Full Temperature Range; % of nominial Vout
Over-Temperature Shutdown
120
°C
Average PCB Temperature
Over-Temperature Shutdown Restart Hysteresis
10
°C
RELIABILITY CHARACTERISTICS
Calculated MTBF (Telcordia)
2.1
106 Hrs. TR-NWT-000332; 80% load, 300LFM, 40°C Ta
Calculated MTBF (MIL-217)
1.9
106 Hrs. MIL-HDBK-217F; 80% load, 300LFM, 40°C Ta
Field Demonstrated MTBF
106 Hrs. See our website for details
Note 1: Line and load regulation is limited by duty cycle quantization and does not indicate a shift in the internal voltage reference.
Note 2: For applications requiring reduced output voltage ripple and noise, consult SynQor applications support (e-mail: [email protected])
Note 3: If the output voltage falls below the Output DC Current Limit Shutdown Voltage for more than 50ms, then the unit will enter into hiccup mode,
with a 500ms off-time.
Note 4: Higher values of isolation capacitance can be added external to the module.
Note 5: Additional 25ms between enable and start of Turn-On time for N logic full-featured units to set up communication.
Product # PQ60150HZx40
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www.synqor.com
Doc.# 005-0005985 Rev. D
03/04/14
Page 5
Input: 35-75V
Output: 15V
Current: 40A
Package: Half-brick
Technical Specifications
Standards Compliance & Qualification Testing
Parameter
Notes & Conditions
STANDARDS COMPLIANCE
UL 60950-1:R2011-12
Basic insulation
EN60950-1/A12:2011
CAN/CSA-C22.2 No. 60950-1/A1:2011
Note: An external input fuse must always be used to meet these safety requirements. Contact SynQor for official safety certificates on new
releases or download from the SynQor website.
Parameter
QUALIFICATION TESTING
Life Test
Vibration
Mechanical Shock
Temperature Cycling
Power/Thermal Cycling
Design Marginality
Humidity
Solderability
Product # PQ60150HZx40
# Units
32
5
5
10
5
5
5
15 pins
Phone 1-888-567-9596
Test Conditions
95% rated Vin and load, units at derating point, 1000 hours
10-55 Hz sweep, 0.060" total excursion, 1 min./sweep, 120 sweeps for 3 axis
100g minimum, 2 drops in x, y and z axis
-40 °C to 100 °C, unit temp. ramp 15 °C/min., 500 cycles
Toperating = min to max, Vin = min to max, full load, 100 cycles
Tmin-10 °C to Tmax+10 °C, 5 °C steps, Vin = min to max, 0-105% load
85 °C, 95% RH, 1000 hours, continuous Vin applied except 5 min/day
MIL-STD-883, method 2003
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Doc.# 005-0005985 Rev. D
03/04/14
Page 6
Input: 35-75V
Output: 15V
Current: 40A
Package: Half-brick
100
100
95
95
90
90
85
85
Efficiency (%)
Efficiency (%)
Technical Figures
80
75
70
75 Vin
8
12
16
20
24
Load Current (A)
28
32
36
55º C
100
40
Figure 1: Efficiency at nominal output voltage vs. load current for minimum,
nominal, and maximum input voltage at 25°C.
200
300
400
Air Flow (LFM)
Figure 2: Efficiency at nominal output voltage and 60% rated power vs. airflow
rate for ambient air temperatures of 25°C, 40°C, and 55°C (nominal input
voltage).
60
60
50
50
Power Dissipation (W)
Power Dissipation (W)
25º C
60
60
4
70
65
48 Vin
0
75
40º C
35 Vin
65
80
40
40
30
30
20
20
35 Vin
10
25º C
40º C
10
48 Vin
55º C
75 Vin
0
0
0
4
8
12
16
20
24
Load Current (A)
28
32
36
40
Figure 3: Power Dissipation at nominal output voltage vs. load current for
minimum, nominal, and maximum input voltage at 25°C.
100
200
300
400
Air Flow (LFM)
Figure 4: Power Dissipation at nominal output voltage and 60% rated power
vs. airflow rate for ambient air temperatures of 25°C, 40°C, and 55°C (nominal
input voltage).
40
35
30
Iout(A)
25
20
15
400LFM(2.0m/s)
300LFM(1.5m/s)
10
200LFM(1.0m/s)
5
100LFM(0.5 m/S)
0
25
40
55
70
85
Semiconductor junction temperature is
within 1°C of surface temperature
Ambient Air Temperature(°C)
Figure 5: Thermal Derating (max output current vs. ambient air temperature)
for airflow rates of 100 LFM through 400 LFM with air flowing from pin 4 to pin
1 (nominal input voltage).
Product # PQ60150HZx40
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Figure 6: Thermal Image of converter at 18.5 amp load current (277.5W)
with 55°C air flowing at the rate of 200 LFM. Air is flowing from pin 4 to pin 1
(nominal input voltage).
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Doc.# 005-0005985 Rev. D
03/04/14
Page 7
Input: 35-75V
Output: 15V
Current: 40A
Package: Half-brick
Technical Figures
40
35
30
Iout(A)
25
20
15
400LFM(2.0m/s)
300LFM(1.5m/s)
10
200LFM(1.0m/s)
5
100LFM(0.5 m/S)
0
25
40
55
Ambient Air Temperature(°C)
70
85
Figure 7: Thermal Derating (max output current vs. ambient air temperature)
for airflow rates of 100 LFM through 400 LFM with air flowing lenghtwise from
input to output (nominal input voltage).
Figure 8: Thermal Image of converter at 20.3 amp load current (304.5W) with
55°C air flowing at the rate of 200 LFM. Air is flowing across the converter
from input to output (nominal input voltage).
Figure 9: Turn-on Transient at full load (resistive load) (20 ms/div). Input
voltage pre-applied. Top Trace: Vout (5V/div). Bottom Trace: ON/OFF
input(10V/div)
Figure 10: Turn-on Transient at zero load (20 ms/div). Top Trace: Vout (5V/
div). Bottom Trace: ON/OFF input (10V/div)
Figure 11: Output Voltage Response to Step-Change in Load Current (50%75%-50% of Iout(max); dI/dt = 0.1A/µs). Load cap: 15µF tantalum output
capacitance. Top trace: Vout (500mV/div). Bottom trace: Iout (10A/div).
Figure 12: Output Voltage Response to Step-Change in Load Current (50%75%-50% of Iout(max): dI/dt = 2A/µs). Load cap: 15µF tantalum output
capacitance. Top trace: Vout (1V/div). Bottom trace: Iout (10A/div).
Product # PQ60150HZx40
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www.synqor.com
Doc.# 005-0005985 Rev. D
03/04/14
Page 8
Input: 35-75V
Output: 15V
Current: 40A
Package: Half-brick
Technical Figures
Input
Reflected
Ripple
Current
source
impedance
Input
Terminal
Ripple
Current
iS
iC
Output
Voltage
Ripple
DC-DC
Converter
VOUT
VSOURCE
electrolytic
capacitor
ceramic electrolytic
capacitor capacitor
Figure 13: Test Set-up Diagram showing measurement points for Input Terminal
Ripple Current (Figure 14), Input Reflected Ripple Current (Figure 15) and
Output Voltage Ripple (Figure 16).
Figure 14: Input Terminal Ripple Current, ic, at full rated output current and
nominal input voltage with 4.7µH source impedance and 220µF electrolytic
capacitor (Ch.1 500mA/div, 2µs/div). (See Figure 13).
Figure 15: Input Reflected Ripple Current, is, through a 4.7 µH source inductor
at nominal input voltage and rated load current (10 mA/div, 2µs/div). (See
Figure 13).
Figure 16: Output Ripple voltage at nominal input voltage and rated load
current (100 mV/div, 2µs/div). Load capacitance: one 1.0µF ceramic capacitor
and one 15µF tantalum capacitor. Bandwidth: 20 MHz. (See Figure 13).
16
14
Output Voltage (V)
12
10
8
6
Current-Limit
Shutdown
4
35Vin
2
48Vin
75Vin
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Load Current (A)
Figure 17: Output I-V Characteristics (output voltage vs. load current) showing
typical current limit curves and converter shutdown points.
Product # PQ60150HZx40
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Figure 18: Output Short Load Current (50A/div) as a function of time when the
converter attempts to turn on into a 1 mΩ short circuit (20ms/div).
www.synqor.com
Doc.# 005-0005985 Rev. D
03/04/14
Page 9
Input: 35-75V
Output: 15V
Current: 40A
Package: Half-brick
Applications Section
BASIC OPERATION AND FEATURES
CONTROL FEATURES
This converter series uses a two-stage power conversion topology.
The first stage keeps the output voltage constant over variations in
line, load, and temperature. The second stage uses a transformer
to provide the functions of input/output isolation and voltage stepdown to achieve the low output voltage required.
REMOTE ON/OFF (Pin 2): The ON/OFF input, Pin 2, permits
the user to control when the converter is on or off. This input is
referenced to the return terminal of the input bus, Vin(-).
In negative logic versions, the ON/OFF signal is active low (meaning
that a low voltage turns the converter on). In positive logic versions,
the ON/OFF input is active high (meaning that a high voltage turns
the converter on). Figure A details possible circuits for driving the
ON/OFF pin. Figure B is a detailed look of the internal ON/OFF
circuitry. See Ordering Information page for available enable logics.
REMOTE SENSE Pins 8(+) and 6(-): The SENSE(+) and SENSE(-)
inputs correct for voltage drops along the conductors that connect
the converter’s output pins to the load.
Both the first stage and the second stage switch at a fixed frequency
for predictable EMI performance. Rectification of the transformer’s
output is accomplished with synchronous rectifiers. These devices,
which are MOSFETs with a very low on-state resistance, dissipate
significantly less energy than Schottky diodes, enabling the
converter to achieve high efficiency.
Dissipation throughout the converter is so low that it does not
require a heatsink or even a baseplate for operation in many
applications; however, adding a heatsink provides improved thermal
derating performance in extreme situations. To further withstand
harsh environments and thermally demanding applications, certain
models are available totally encased. See Ordering Information
page for available thermal design options.
SynQor half-brick converters use the industry standard footprint
and pin-out.
ON/OFF
ON/OFF
ON/OFF
Vin(_)
Vin(_)
Vin(_)
Remote Enable Circuit
Negative Logic
(Permanently
Enabled)
5V
ON/OFF
Positive Logic
(Permanently
Enabled)
TTL/
CMOS
ON/OFF
Direct Logic Drive
5V
100%
–2
Δ%
Δ% =
|
Vnominal – Vdesired
) kΩ
Vnominal
| × 100%
To increase the output voltage, the user should connect a resistor
between Pin 7 (TRIM) and Pin 8 (SENSE(+) input). For a desired
increase of the nominal output voltage, the value of the resistor
should be:
50k
ON/OFF
(
Vin(_)
Figure A: Various circuits for driving the ON/OFF pin.
18V(max)
Rtrim-down =
where
Vin(_)
Open Collector Enable Circuit
Pin 8 should be connected to Vout(+) and Pin 6 should be connected
to Vout(-) at the point on the board where regulation is desired. If
these connections are not made, the converter will deliver an output
voltage that is slightly higher than its specified value.
Note: The Output Over-Voltage Protection circuit senses the voltage
across the output (Pins 9 and 5) to determine when it should trigger,
not the voltage across the converter’s sense leads (Pins 8 and 6).
Therefore, the resistive drop on the board should be small enough
so that output OVP does not trigger, even during load transients.
OUTPUT VOLTAGE TRIM (Pin 7): The TRIM input permits the
user to adjust the output voltage across the sense leads up or down
according to the trim range specifications. SynQor uses industry
standard trim equations.
To decrease the output voltage, the user should connect a resistor
between Pin 7 (TRIM) and Pin 6 (SENSE(–) input). For a desired
decrease of the nominal output voltage, the value of the resistor
should be:
10k
TTL
Rtrim-up =
Vin(_)
(
)
Vnominal
– 2 × Vdesired + Vnominal
kΩ
1.225
Vdesired – Vnominal
Figure B: Internal ON/OFF pin circuitry
Product # PQ60150HZx40
Phone 1-888-567-9596
www.synqor.com
Doc.# 005-0005985 Rev. D
03/04/14
Page 10
Input: 35-75V
Output: 15V
Current: 40A
Package: Half-brick
Applications Section
The Trim Graph in Figure C shows the relationship between the
trim resistor value and Rtrim-up and Rtrim-down, showing the total
range the output voltage can be trimmed up or down.
Note: The TRIM feature does not affect the voltage at which the
output over-voltage protection circuit is triggered. Trimming the
output voltage too high may cause the over-voltage protection
circuit to engage, particularly during transients.
It is not necessary for the user to add capacitance at the TRIM pin.
The node is internally filtered to eliminate noise.
Total DC Variation of Vout: For the converter to meet its full
specifications, the maximum variation of the DC value of Vout, due
to both trimming and remote load voltage drops, should not be
greater than that specified for the output voltage trim range.
100,000.0
Trim Resistance (kOhms)
10,000.0
1,000.0
100.0
10.0
1.0
0.1
0.0
0
5
10
15
20
% increase Vout
25
30
35
Figure C: Trim Graph
Product # PQ60150HZx40
40
% decrease Vout
Phone 1-888-567-9596
45
50
Protection Features
Input Under-Voltage Lockout (UVLO): The converter is
designed to turn off when the input voltage is too low, helping to
avoid an input system instability problem, which is described in
more detail in the application note titled “Input System Instability”
on the SynQor website. When the input is rising, it must exceed
the typical “Turn-On Voltage Threshold”* before the converter will
turn on. Once the converter is on, the input must fall below the
typical "Turn-Off Voltage Threshold"* before the converter will
turn off.
Output Current Limit (OCP): If the output current exceeds
the “Output DC Current Limit Inception” value*, then a fast linear
current limit controller will reduce the output voltage to maintain
a constant output current. If as a result, the output voltage falls
below the “Output DC Current Limit Shutdown Voltage”* for more
than 50 ms, then the unit will enter into hiccup mode, with a 500
ms off-time. The unit will then automatically attempt to restart.
Back-Drive Current Limit: If there is negative output current
of a magnitude larger than the “Back-Drive Current Limit while
Enabled” specification*, then a fast back-drive limit controller will
increase the output voltage to maintain a constant output current.
If this results in the output voltage exceeding the “Output OverVoltage Protection” threshold*, then the unit will shut down.
Output Over-Voltage Limit (OVP): If the voltage across
the output pins exceeds the "Output Over-Voltage Protection"
threshold*, the converter will immediately stop switching. This
prevents damage to the load circuit due to 1) excessive series
resistance in output current path from converter output pins
to sense point, 2) a release of a short-circuit condition, or 3) a
release of a current limit condition. Load capacitance determines
exactly how high the output voltage will rise in response to these
conditions. After 500 ms the converter will automatically restart
for all but the S Feature Set option, which is latching and will not
restart until input power is cycled or the ON/OFF input is toggled.
During an output over-voltage condition, the converter's LED will
illuminate. For units with latching OVP (S Feature Set), once
the over-voltage condition has been removed the LED will flash
steadily until the input power or the ON/OFF input is toggled.
Over-Temperature Shutdown (OTP): A thermister on the
converter senses the average temperature of the module. The
thermal shutdown circuit is designed to turn the converter off
when the temperature at the sensed location reaches the “OverTemperature Shutdown” value*. It will allow the converter to turn
on again when the temperature of the sensed location falls by the
amount of the “Over-Temperature Shutdown Restart Hysteresis”*.
Startup Inhibit Period: The Startup Inhibit Period ensures that
the converter will remain off for approximately 500 ms when it is
shut down due to a fault. This generates a 2 Hz “hiccup mode,”
preventing the converter from overheating. There are multiple
ways the converter can be shut down, initiating a Startup Inhibit
Period:
• Output Over-Voltage Protection
• Current Limit
• Short Circuit Protection
* See Electrical Characteristics section.
www.synqor.com
Doc.# 005-0005985 Rev. D
03/04/14
Page 11
Input: 35-75V
Output: 15V
Current: 40A
Package: Half-brick
Applications Section
APPLICATION CONSIDERATIONS
Input System Instability: This condition can occur because any
DC-DC converter appears incrementally as a negative resistance
load. A detailed application note titled “Input System Instability” is
available on the SynQor website which provides an understanding
of why this instability arises, and shows the preferred solution for
correcting it.
Thermal Considerations: For baseplated and encased versions,
the max operating baseplate temperature, TB, is 100ºC. Refer to
the Thermal Derating Curves in the Technical Figures section to
see the available output current at baseplate temperatures below
100ºC.
A power derating curve can be calculated for any heatsink that is
attached to the base-plate of the converter. It is only necessary to
determine the thermal resistance, RTHBA, of the chosen heatsink
between the baseplate and the ambient air for a given airflow rate.
This information is usually available from the heatsink vendor. The
following formula can the be used to determine the maximum
power the converter can dissipate for a given thermal condition if
its base-plate is to be no higher than 100ºC.
Application Circuits: A typical circuit diagram, Figure D below
details the input filtering and voltage trimming.
Input Filtering and External Input Capacitance: Figure
E below shows the internal input filter components. This filter
dramatically reduces input terminal ripple current, which otherwise
could exceed the rating of an external electrolytic input capacitor.
The recommended external input capacitance is specified in the
Input Characteristics section of the Electrical Specifications. More
detailed information is available in the application note titled “EMI
Characteristics” on the SynQor website.
Pdiss
100ºC - TA
RTHBA
This value of maximum power dissipation can then be used in
conjunction with the data shown in the Power Dissipation Curves
in the Technical Figures section to determine the maximum load
current (and power) that the converter can deliver in the given
thermal condition.
max
Output Filtering and External Output Capacitance: The
internal output filter components are shown in Figure E below. This
filter dramatically reduces output voltage ripple. Some minimum
external output capacitance is required, as specified in the Output
Characteristics area of the Electrical Characteristics section. No
damage will occur without this capacitor connected, but peak
output voltage ripple will be much higher.
For convenience, Thermal Derating Curves are provided in the
Technical Figures section.
Vin(+)
Vin
Vout(+)
Vsense(+)
Electrolytic
Capacitor
External
Input
Filter
=
ON/OFF
Trim
Vsense(_)
Vin(_)
Rtrim-up
or
Rtrim-down
Cload
Iload
Vout(_)
Figure D: Typical Application Circuit (negative logic unit, permanently enabled).
Lin
Vin(+)
Vout(+)
C1
C2
Regulation
Stage
Current
Sense
Isolation
Stage
Vin(_)
Vout(-)
Figure E: Internal Input and Output Filter Diagram (component values listed in Electrical Characteristics section)
Product # PQ60150HZx40
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Doc.# 005-0005985 Rev. D
03/04/14
Page 12
Input: 35-75V
Output: 15V
Current: 40A
Package: Half-brick
Applications Section
Active Current Share Application Section
Overview: The full-featured option, which is specified by an “F” as
the last character of the part number, supports current sharing by
adding two additional pins: SHARE(+) and SHARE(-)
• Input power pins and output power pins should be tied
together between units, preferably with wide overlapping
copper planes, after any input common-mode choke.
• The SHARE(+) and SHARE(-) pins should be routed
between all paralleled units as a differential pair.
• The ON/OFF pins should be connected in parallel, and rise/fall
times should be kept below 2 ms.
• The SENSE(+) and SENSE(-) pins should be connected either
locally at each unit or separately to a common sense point. If
an output common-mode choke is used, sense lines should be
connected on the module-side of the choke.
• If the TRIM pin is used, then each unit should have its own
trim resistor connected locally between TRIM and SENSE(+)
or SENSE(-).
Connection of Paralleled Units: Up to 100 units can be placed
in parallel. In this current share architecture, one unit is dynamically
chosen to act as a master, controlling all other units. It cannot be
predicted which unit will become the master at any given time, so
units should be wired symmetrically (see Figures F & G).
Vin(+)
Sense(+)
On/Off
≥1 nF
Elec.
Cap.
A
A
Share(+)
Trim
Vin(-)
Vout(-)
Vin(+)
Vout(+)
Sense(+)
On/Off
Load
≥10 μF
Share(-)
Sense(-)
Electrolytic
Capacitor
470 nH (nom)
Vout(+)
B
B
470 nH (nom)
A
Trim
Share(+)
≥10 μF
Share(-)
Sense(-)
Vin(-)
B
Vout(-)
Up to 100 Units
Vin(+)
On/Off
Electrolytic
Capacitor
Share(+)
470 nH (nom)
Vout(+)
Sense(+)
A
Trim
≥10 μF
Share(-)
Sense(-)
Vin(-)
B
Vout(-)
Figure F: Typical Application Circuit for Paralleling of Full-Featured Units with an Input Common-Mode Choke. If an input common-mode choke is used, Vin(-)
MUST be tied together AFTER the choke for all units. 470 nH (nominal) inductor or an output common-mode choke is required for outputs >18 V. See Figure G for
output common-mode choke configuration.
Product # PQ60150HZx40
Phone 1-888-567-9596
www.synqor.com
Doc.# 005-0005985 Rev. D
03/04/14
Page 13
Input: 35-75V
Output: 15V
Current: 40A
Package: Half-brick
Applications Section
Automatic Configuration: The micro-controller inside each power
converter unit is programmed at the factory with a unique chip number.
In every other respect, each shared unit is identical and has the same
orderable part number.
On initial startup (or after the master is disabled or shuts down),
each unit determines the chip number of every other unit currently
connected to the shared serial bus formed by the SHARE(+) and
SHARE(-) pins. The unit with the highest chip number dynamically
reconfigures itself from slave to master. The rest of the units (that do
not have the highest chip number) become slaves.
The master unit then broadcasts its control state over the shared serial
bus on a cycle-by-cycle basis. The slave units interpret and implement
the control commands sent by the master, mirroring every action of
the master unit.
If the master is disabled or encounters a fault condition, all units will
immediately shut down, and if the master unit is unable to restart,
then the unit with the next highest chip number will become master. If
a slave unit is disabled or encounters a fault condition, all other units
continue to run, and the slave unit can restart seamlessly.
Automatic Interleaving: The slave units automatically lock
frequency with the master, and interleave the phase of their switching
transitions for improved EMI performance. To obtain the phase angle
relative to the master, each slave divides 360 degrees by the total
number of connected units, and multiples the result by its rank among
chip numbers of connected units.
ORing Diodes placed in series with the converter outputs must also
have a resistor smaller than 500 Ω placed in parallel. This resistor
keeps the output voltage of a temporarily disabled slave unit consistent
with the active master unit. If the output voltage of the slave unit
were allowed to totally discharge, and the slave unit tried to restart, it
would fail because the slave reproduces the duty cycle of the master
unit, which is running in steady state and cannot repeat an output
voltage soft-start.
Common-Mode Filtering must be either a single primary side choke
handling the inputs from all the paralleled units, or multiple chokes
placed on the secondary side. This ensures that a solid Vin(-) plane
is maintained between units. Adding a common-mode choke at the
output eliminates the need for the 470 nH indcutor at the output of
shared units when Vout > 18 V. If an output common-mode choke
is used, sense connections must be made on the module-side of the
choke.
Resonance Between Output Capacitors is Possible: When
multiple higher-voltage modules are paralleled, it is possible to
excite a series resonance between the output capacitors internal to
the module and the parasitic inductance of the module output pins.
This is especially likely at higher output voltages where the module
internal capacitance is relatively small. This problem is independent
of external output capacitance. For modules with an output voltage
greater than 18 V, to ensure that this resonant frequency is below the
switching frequency it is recommended to add a nominal 470 nH of
inductance, located close to the module, in series with each converter
output. There must be at least 10 ¼F of capacitance per converter,
located on the load-side of that inductor. The inductance could be from
the leakage inductance of a secondary-side common-mode choke; in
which case the output capacitor should be appropriately sized for the
chosen choke. When using an output common-mode choke, the Sense
lines must be connected on the module-side of the common-mode
choke (see Figure G).
Product # PQ60150HZx40
Phone 1-888-567-9596
RS-485 Physical Layer: The internal RS-485 transceiver includes
many advanced protection features for enhanced reliability:
• Current Limiting and Thermal Shutdown for
Driver Overload Protection
• IEC61000 ESD Protection to +/- 16.5 kV
• Hot Plug Circuitry – SHARE(+) and SHARE(-)
Outputs Remain Tri-State During Power-up/Power-down
Internal Schottky Diode Termination: Despite signaling at high
speed with fast edges, external termination resistors are not necessary.
Each receiver has four Schottky diodes built in, two for each line in the
differential pair. These diodes clamp any ringing caused by transmission
line reflections, preventing the voltage from going above about 5.5 V
or below about -0.5 V. Any subsequent ringing then inherently takes
place between 4.5 and 5.5 V or between -0.5 and 0.5 V. Since each
receiver on the bus contains a set of clamping diodes to clamp any
possible transmission line reflection, the bus does not necessarily need
to be routed as a daisy-chain.
Pins SHARE(+) and SHARE(-) are referenced to Vin(-), and therefore
should be routed as a differential pair near the Vin(-) plane for optimal
signal integrity. The maximum difference in voltage between Vin() pins of all units on the share-bus should be kept within 0.3 V to
prevent steady-state conduction of the termination diodes. Therefore,
the Vin(-) connections to each unit must be common, preferably
connected by a single copper plane.
Share Accuracy: Inside each converter micro-controller, the duty
cycle is generated digitally, making for excellent duty cycle matching
between connected units. Some small duty cycle mismatch is caused
by (well controlled) process variations in the MOSFET gate drivers.
However, the voltage difference induced by this duty cycle mismatch
appears across the impedance of the entire power converter, from
input to output, multiplied by two, since the differential current flows
out of one converter and into another. So, a small duty cycle mismatch
yields very small differential currents, which remain small even when
100 units are placed in parallel.
In other current-sharing schemes, it is common to have a currentsharing control loop in each unit. However, due to the limited bandwidth
of this loop, units do not necessarily share current on startup or during
transients before this loop has a chance to respond. In contrast, the
current-sharing scheme used in this product has no control dynamics:
control signals are transmitted fast enough that the slave units can
mirror the control state of the master unit on a cycle-by-cycle basis,
and the current simply shares properly, from the first switching cycle
to the last.
www.synqor.com
Doc.# 005-0005985 Rev. D
03/04/14
Page 14
Input: 35-75V
Output: 15V
Current: 40A
Package: Half-brick
Vin(+)
Vout(+)
Sense(+)
On/Off
≥1 nF
Elec.
Cap.
Share(+)
Trim
Load
Share(-)
Sense(-)
Vin(-)
Vout(-)
Vin(+)
Vout(+)
Sense(+)
On/Off
Electrolytic
Capacitor
Share(+)
Trim
Share(-)
Sense(-)
Vin(-)
Vout(-)
Up to 100 Units
Vin(+)
On/Off
Electrolytic
Capacitor
Vout(+)
Sense(+)
Share(+)
Trim
Share(-)
Sense(-)
Vin(-)
Vout(-)
Figure G: Typical Application Circuit for Paralleling of Full-Featured Units with an Output Common-Mode Choke. When using an output common-mode choke,
SENSE lines must be connected on the module-side of the choke. See Figure F for configuration with an input common-mode choke.
Product # PQ60150HZx40
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Doc.# 005-0005985 Rev. D
03/04/14
Page 15
Technical
Specification
PQ60150HZx40
Ordering Information
Part Numbering System
Ordering Information
The part numbering system for SynQor’s dc-dc converters follows the format
shown in the example below.
The tables below show the valid model numbers and ordering options for
converters in this product family. When ordering SynQor converters, please
ensure that you use the complete 15 character part number consisting of
the 12 character base part number and the additional characters for options.
Add “-G” to the model number for 6/6 RoHS compliance.
PQ 6 0 1 5 0 H Z A 4 0 N R A - G
6/6 RoHS
Options
(see
Ordering Information)
Model Number
Input Voltage
PQ60150HZw40xyz-G
35-75V
Output
Voltage
15V
Max Output
Current
40A
Output Current
Thermal Design
The following options must be included in place of the w x y z spaces in the
model numbers listed above.
Performance Level
Options Description: w x y z
Thermal Design
Enable Logic Pin Style
Package Size
Output Voltage
A - Open Frame
C - Encased
D - Encased with NonThreaded Baseplate
Input Voltage
Product Family
The first 12 characters comprise the base part number and the last 3
characters indicate available options. The “-G” suffix indicates 6/6 RoHS
compliance.
N - Negative
P - Positive
Feature Set
K - 0.110"
N - 0.145" A - Standard
R - 0.180" F - Full Featured
Y - 0.250"
Not all combinations make valid part numbers, please contact SynQor for
availability. See the Product Summary web page for more options.
Application Notes
A variety of application notes and technical white papers can be downloaded
in pdf format from our website.
RoHS Compliance: The EU led RoHS (Restriction of Hazardous
Substances) Directive bans the use of Lead, Cadmium, Hexavalent
Chromium, Mercury, Polybrominated Biphenyls (PBB), and Polybrominated
Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) in Electrical and Electronic Equipment. This SynQor
product is 6/6 RoHS compliant. For more information please refer to
SynQor’s RoHS addendum available at our RoHS Compliance / Lead Free
Initiative web page or e-mail us at [email protected]
PATENTS
SynQor holds the following U.S. patents, one or more of which apply to
each product listed in this document. Additional patent applications may
be pending or filed in the future.
Contact SynQor for further information and to order:
Phone:
Toll Free:
Fax:
E-mail:
Web:
Address:
Product # PQ60150HZx40
978-849-0600
888-567-9596
978-849-0602
[email protected]
www.synqor.com
155 Swanson Road
Boxborough, MA 01719
USA
Phone 1-888-567-9596
5,999,417
6,222,742
6,545,890
6,577,109
6,594,159
6,731,520
6,894,468
6,896,526
6,927,987
7,050,309
7,072,190
7,085,146
7,119,524
7,269,034
7,272,021
7,272,023
7,558,083
7,564,702
7,765,687
7,787,261
8,023,290
8,149,597
8,493,751
Warranty
SynQor offers a three (3) year limited warranty. Complete warranty
information is listed on our website or is available upon request from
SynQor.
Information furnished by SynQor is believed to be accurate and reliable.
However, no responsibility is assumed by SynQor for its use, nor for any
infringements of patents or other rights of third parties which may result
from its use. No license is granted by implication or otherwise under any
patent or patent rights of SynQor.
www.synqor.com
Doc.# 005-0005985 Rev. D
03/04/14
Page 16
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