60A/150W

Technical Specification
Half
Brick
48Vin 2.5Vout 60A
60 Amp, No Heatsink, Isolated DC/DC Converter
The PQ48025HTA60 PowerQor™ Tera converter
is a next-generation, board-mountable, isolated,
fixed switching frequency DC/DC converter that uses
synchronous rectification toachieve extremely high
conversion efficiency. The power dissipated by the
converter is so low that a heatsink is not required,
which saves cost, weight, height, and application effort.
The Tera series converters offer the maximum useable
output current for any standard “half-brick” module.
The Tera units also feature active current sharing for
N+1 and parallel applications.
PQ48025HTA60 Module
Operational Features
• Ultra-high efficiency, >87% at full rated load current
• Delivers up to 60 amps of output current with minimal derating - no heatsink required
• Wide input voltage range: 35V – 75V meets or
exceeds all 48V bus standards
• Fixed frequency switching provides predictable EMI
performance
Mechanical Features
• Industry standard half-brick pin-out configuration
• Industry standard footprint: 2.3” x 2.4”
• Total height only 0.43”, permits better airflow and
smaller card pitch
• Total weight: 2.6 oz. (75 grams)
Safety Features
• 2000V, 10 MΩ input-to-output isolation
• UL/cUL 60950 recognized (US & Canada), basic
insulation rating
• TUV certified to EN60950
• Meets 72/23/EEC and 93/68/EEC directives
• Meets UL94V-0 flammability requirements
Product # PQ48025HTA60
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Protection Features
• Input under-voltage lockout and over-voltage
shutdown protects against abnormal input voltages
• Output current limit and short circuit protection
• Output over-voltage protection
• Thermal shutdown
Control Features
• On/Off control referenced to input side (positive
and negative logic options are available)
• Remote sense for the output voltage compensates
for output distribution drops
• Output voltage trim permits custom voltages and
voltage margining
Optional Features (Full-Feature modules)
• Active current share for N+1 and parallel applications
• External Clock Synchronization pin for better EMI
characteristics
• Startup Synchronization pin for more consistent startup sequence
• ORing FET drive supply for efficient ORing protection
Doc.# 005-2HT425F Rev. Q
11/19/02
Page 1
Technical Specification
Half
48Vin 2.5Vout 60A
Brick
MECHANICAL
DIAGRAM
2.30
0.19
(4.8)
1.90
(58.4)
(48.3)
0.50
(12.7)
0.300 (7.62)
0.400
0.400
(10.16)
(10.16)
1.000
(25.40)
1.400
(35.56)
0.700
(17.78)
0.200 (5.08)
Top View
1.000
(25.40)
0.200 (5.08)
1.400
2.40
(35.56)
(61.0)
Max. Height
0.43
Bottom side
Clearance
(11.2)
See Note 10
Side View
0.037+/-0.029
(0.94+/-0.74)
Lowest
Component
Load Board
0.145
(3.68)
See Note 4
NOTES
PIN CONNECTIONS
1) Pins 1-4, 6-8, A-C are 0.040” (1.02mm) diameter. with
0.080” (2.03mm) diameter standoff shoulders.
2) Pins 5 and 9 are 0.080” (2.03 mm) diameter with
0.125” (3.18mm) diameter standoff shoulders.
3) Pins 3, A, B & C only included in Full-Feature models.
4) Other pin extension lengths available. Recommended pin
length is 0.03” (0.76mm) greater than the PCB thickness.
5) All Pins: Material - Copper Alloy
Finish - Tin/Lead over Nickel plate
6) Undimensioned components are shown for visual
reference only.
7) All dimensions in inches (mm)
Tolerances: x.xx +/-0.02 in. (x.x +/-0.5mm)
x.xxx +/-0.010 in. (x.xx +/-0.25mm)
8) Weight: 2.6 oz. (75g) typical
9) Workmanship: Meets or exceeds IPC-A-610C Class II
10) UL/TUV standards require a clearance greater than 0.04”
(1.02mm) between input and output for Basic insulation. This
issue should be considered if any copper traces are on the top
side of the user’s board. Note that the ferrite cores are considered part of the input/primary circuit.
Pin No. Name
Function
1
Vin(+)
Positive input voltage
2
ON/OFF
TTL input to turn converter
on and off, referenced to
Vin(-), with internal pull up.
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
A
B
C
I share
Vin(-)
Vout(-)
SENSE(-)
TRIM
SENSE(+)
Vout(+)
Clock Sync
Start Sync
OR Drive
Single wire parallel signal
Negative input voltage
Negative output voltage
Return remote sense
Output voltage trim
Positive remote sense
Positive output voltage
Clock synchronization
Startup synchronization
External OR-FET drive
Pins in Italics Shaded text are Optional
Product # PQ48025HTA60
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Doc.# 005-2HT425F Rev. Q
11/19/02
Page 2
Technical Specification
Half
48Vin 2.5Vout 60A
Brick
PQ48025HTA60 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
TA=25°C, airflow rate=300 LFM, Vin=48Vdc unless otherwise noted; full operating temperature range is -40°C to +100°C ambient
temperature with appropriate power derating. Specifications subject to change without notice.
Parameter
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Units
100
80
100
2000
100
125
18
18
V
V
V
V
°C
°C
V
V
Notes & Conditions
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
Input Voltage
Non-Operating
Operating
Operating Transient Protection
Isolation Voltage (input to output)
Operating Temperature
Storage Temperature
Voltage at ON/OFF input pin
Voltage at Clock Sync pin
-40
-55
-2
-15
INPUT CHARACTERISTICS
Operating Input Voltage Range
Input Under-Voltage Lockout
Turn-On Voltage Threshold
Turn-Off Voltage Threshold
Lockout Hysteresis Voltage
Input Over-Voltage Shutdown
Maximum Input Current
No-Load Input Current
Disabled Input Current
Inrush Current Transient Rating
Response to Input Transient
Input Reflected-Ripple Current
Recommended Input Fuse
Input Filter Component Values (C1\L\C2)
Recommended External Input Capacitance
OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS
Output Voltage Set Point
Output Voltage Regulation
Over Line
Over Load
Over Temperature
Total Output Voltage Range
Output Voltage Ripple and Noise
Peak-to-Peak
RMS
Operating Output Current Range
Output DC Current-Limit Inception
Output DC Current-Limit Shutdown Voltage
Current Share Accuracy (2 units paralleled)
Back-Drive Current Limit while Enabled
Back-Drive Current Limit while Disabled
Maximum Output Capacitance
35
48
75
V
31.5
29.5
2.2
76.7
33.3
31.0
2.3
78.3
34.4
32.4
2.4
79.5
5.0
95
5
V
V
V
V
A
mA
mA
A 2s
mV
mA
A
µF\µH\µF
µF
75
2
0.03
150
5
33
2.48
2.50
2.53
V
+0.05 \ 1
+0.1 \ 3
+15
+0.1 \ 3
+0.2 \ 5
+30
2.57
%\mV
%\mV
mV
V
50
10
100
20
60
74
mV
mV
A
A
V
%
A
mA
µF
2.44
0
64
0.5
0
DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS
Input Voltage Ripple Rejection
Output Voltage during Load Current Transient
Step Change in Output Current (0.1A/µs)
Step Change in Output Current (5A/µs)
Settling Time
Turn-On Transient
Turn-On Time
Start-Up Inhibit Time
Output Voltage Overshoot
180
EFFICIENCY
100% Load
50% Load
69
1.4
+2
2.0
10
+5
3.0
50
>50,000
see Figure 13
over sample, line, load, temperature & life
20MHz bandwidth; Fig. 13 & 16
Full Load, see Figures 13 & 16
Full Load, see Figures 13 & 16
Output Voltage 10% Low; Fig. 17
% of rated output current
Max negative current drawn from output
Max negative current drawn from output
2.5Vout at 60A Resistive Load
100
100
300
mV
mV
µs
50% to 75% to 50% Iout max; Figure 11
50% to 75% to 50% Iout max; Figure 12
to within 1% Vout nom
ms
ms
%
Full load, Vout=90% nom.; Figs. 9 & 10
-40°C to +125°C; Figure A
10,000 µF load capacitance, Iout = 0A
%
%
Figures 1 - 4
Figures 1 - 4
°C
°C
°C
Package rated to 150°C
UL rated max operating temp 130°C
See Figures 5 - 8 for derating curves
20
200
0
30
215
125
125
125
2000
10
3300
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1000V/ms input transient
RMS thru 10µH inductor; Figs. 13 & 15
fast blow external fuse recommended
internal values, see Figure E
120 Hz; Fig. 20
Semiconductor Junction Temperature
Board Temperature
Transformer Temperature
Isolation Voltage
Isolation Resistance
Isolation Capacitance
100% Load, 35 Vin
dB
87
89
ISOLATION CHARACTERISTICS
applies to Full Feature option only
80
TEMPERATURE LIMITS FOR POWER DERATING CURVES
Product # PQ48025HTA60
20
1.6\4\3.3
47
continuous
continuous
< 10µs
Basic insulation level, Pollution degree 2
V
MΩ
pF
Doc.# 005-2HT425F Rev. Q
11/19/02
Page 3
Technical Specification
Half
Brick
48Vin 2.5Vout 60A
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (Continued)
Parameter P
FEATURE CHARACTERISTICS
Switching Frequency
ON/OFF Control (Option P)
Off-State Voltage
On-State Voltage
ON/OFF Control (Option N)
Off-State Voltage
On-State Voltage
ON/OFF Control (Either Option)
Pull-Up Voltage
Pull-Up Resistance
Output Voltage Trim Range
Output Voltage Remote Sense Range
Output Over-Voltage Protection
Over-Temperature Shutdown
Over-Temperature Shutdown Restart Hysteresis
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Units
205
230
255
kHz
-2
2.7
0.8
18
V
V
2.7
-2
18
0.8
V
V
15
V
kΩ
%
%
%
°C
°C
-10
Vin/6
42
117
RELIABILITY CHARACTERISTICS
Calculated MTBF
Calculated MTBF
Demonstrated MTBF
+15
+15
130
123
120
10
Notes & Conditions
Figures A, B
Measured across Pins 9 & 5; Figure C
Measured across Pins 9 & 5
Over full temp range; % of nominal Vout
Average PCB Temperature
106 Hrs. Telcordia TR-NWT-000332; 80% load,300LFM, 40oC Ta
106 Hrs. MIL-HDBK-217F; 80% load, 300LFM, 40oC Ta
106 Hrs. Field demonstrated MTBF
2.2
1.3
>20
STANDARDS COMPLIANCE
Parameter P
Notes
STANDARDS COMPLIANCE
UL/cUL 60950
EN60950
72/23/EEC
93/68/EEC
Needle Flame Test (IEC 695-2-2)
IEC 61000-4-2
GR-1089-CORE
File # E194341, Basic insulation & pollution degree 2
Certified by TUV
test on entire assembly; board & plastic components UL94V-0 compliant
ESD test, 8kV - NP, 15kV air - NP
Section 7 - electrical safety, Section 9 - bonding/grounding
• An external input fuse must always be used to meet these safety requirements
QUALIFICATION TESTING
Parameter P
QUALIFICATION TESTING
Life Test
Vibration
Mechanical Shock
Temperature Cycling
Power/Thermal Cycling
Design Marginality
Humidity
Solderability
# Units
32
5
5
10
5
5
5
15 pins
Test Conditions
95% rated Vin and load, units at derating point, 1000 hours
10-55Hz sweep, 0.060” total excursion,1 min./sweep, 120 sweeps for 3 axis
100g minimum, 2 drops in x and y axis, 1 drop in z axis
-40°C to 100°C, unit temp. ramp 15°C/min., 500 cycles
Toperating = min to max, Vin = min to max, full load, 100 cycles
Tmin-10°C to Tmax+10°C, 5°C steps, Vin = min to max, 0-105% load
85°C, 85% RH, 1000 hours, 2 minutes on and 6 hours off
MIL-STD-883, method 2003
• Extensive characterization testing of all SynQor products and manufacturing processes is performed to ensure that we supply
robust, reliable product. Contact factory for more information about Proof of Design and Proof of Manufacturing processes.
OPTIONS
PATENTS
SynQor provides various options for Logic Sense, Pin Length and
Feature Set for this family of DC/DC converters. Please consult the
last page of this specification sheet for information on available
options.
SynQor is protected under various patents, including but not limited to U.S. Patent # 5,999,417.
Product # PQ48025HTA60
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Doc.# 005-2HT425F Rev. Q
11/19/02
Page 4
Performance Curves
Half
100
90
95
89
90
88
Efficiency (%)
Efficiency (%)
Brick
85
80
75
70
87
86
85
84
36 Vin
48 Vin
65
48Vin 2.5Vout 60A
25 C
40 C
55 C
83
75 Vin
60
82
0
6
12
18
24
30
36
42
48
54
60
0
100
Load Current (A)
200
300
400
500
Air Flow (LFM)
Figure 1: Efficiency at nominal output voltage vs. load current for minimum, nominal, and maximum input voltage at 25°C.
Figure 2: Efficiency at nominal output voltage and 60% rated power vs.
airflow rate for ambient air temperatures of 25°C, 40°C, and 55°C
(nominal input voltage).
24
12.0
22
11.0
Power Dissipation (W)
Power Dissipation (W)
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
36 Vin
4
48 Vin
2
10.0
9.0
8.0
7.0
6.0
25 C
5.0
40 C
55 C
75 Vin
0
4.0
0
6
12
18
24
30
36
42
48
54
60
0
100
Load Current (A)
200
300
400
500
Air Flow (LFM)
Figure 3: Power dissipation at nominal output voltage vs. load current
for minimum, nominal, and maximum input voltage at 25°C.
Figure 4: Power dissipation at nominal output voltage and 60% rated
power vs. airflow rate for ambient air temperatures of 25°C, 40°C, and
55°C (nominal input voltage).
60
Iout (A)
40
30
400 LFM (2.0 m/s)
20
300 LFM (1.5 m/s)
200 LFM (1.0 m/s)
10
100 LFM (0.5 m/s)
0 LFM (0 m/s)
0
0
25
40
55
70
85
Semiconductor junction temperature is
within 1°C of surface temperature
50
Ambient Air Temperature (oC)
Figure 5: Maximum output power derating curves vs. ambient air temperature for airflow rates of 0 LFM through 400 LFM with air flowing
from output to input (nominal input voltage).
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Figure 6: Thermal plot of converter at 50 amp load current with 55°C
air flowing at the rate of 200 LFM. Air is flowing across the converter
from output to input (nominal input voltage).
Doc.# 005-2HT425F Rev. Q
11/19/02
Page 5
Performance Curves
Half
Brick
48Vin 2.5Vout 60A
60
Iout (A)
40
30
20
400 LFM (2.0 m/s)
300 LFM (1.5 m/s)
200 LFM (1.0 m/s)
10
100 LFM (0.5 m/s)
0 LFM (0 m/s)
0
0
25
40
55
70
85
Semiconductor junction temperature is
within 1°C of surface temperature
50
o
Ambient Air Temperature ( C)
Figure 7: Maximum output power derating curves vs. ambient air temperature for airflow rates of 0 LFM through 400 LFM with air flowing
from input to output (nominal input voltage).
Figure 8: Thermal plot of converter at 48 amp load current with 55°C
air flowing at the rate of 200 LFM. Air is flowing across the converter
from input to output (nominal input voltage).
Figure 9: Turn-on transient at full load (resistive load) (10 ms/div).
Top Trace: Vout (1V/div)
Bottom Trace: ON/OFF input (5V/div)
Figure 10: Turn-on transient at zero load (10 ms/div).
Top Trace: Vout (1V/div)
Bottom Trace: ON/OFF input (5V/div)
Figure 11: Output voltage response to step-change in load current (50%-75%-50%
of Iout(max); dI/dt = 0.1A/µs). Load cap: 15µF, 450 mΩ ESR tantalum capacitor and
1µF ceramic capacitor. Top trace: Vout (100mV/div), Bottom trace: Iout (20A/div).
Product # PQ48025HTA60
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Figure 12: Output voltage response to step-change in load current (50%-75%-50%
of Iout(max): dI/dt = 5A/µs). Load cap: 480µF, 15 mΩ ESR tantalum capacitor and
1µF ceramic capacitor. Top trace: Vout (200mV/div), Bottom trace: Iout (20A/div).
Doc.# 005-2HT425F Rev. Q
11/19/02
Page 6
Performance Curves
Half
Brick
Figure 15
10 µH
Figure 14
source
impedance
Figure 16
iS
VSOURCE
48Vin 2.5Vout 60A
iC
DC/DC
Converter
VOUT
1 µF
47 µF,
<1Ω ESR
15 µF,
ceramic 450mΩ ESR
capacitor
tantalum
capacitor
electrolytic
capacitor
Figure 13: Test set-up diagram showing measurement points for Input
Terminal Ripple Current (Figure 14), Input Reflected Ripple Current
(Figure 15) and Output Voltage Ripple (Figure 16).
Figure 14: Input Terminal Ripple Current, ic, at full rated output current and nominal input voltage with 10µH source impedance and 47µF
electrolytic capacitor (100 mA/div). (See Figure 13)
Figure 15: Input reflected ripple current, is, through a 10 µH source
inductor at nominal input voltage and rated load current (5 mA/div).
(See Figure 13)
Figure 16: Output voltage ripple at nominal input voltage and rated
load current (20 mV/div). Load capacitance: 1µF ceramic capacitor
and 10µF tantalum capacitor. Bandwidth: 20 MHz. (See Figure 13)
3.00
Output Voltage (V)
2.75
2.50
2.25
2.00
1.75
35V
1.50
48 V
75 V
1.25
0.0
12.5
25.0
37.5
50.0
62.5
75.0
Load Current (A)
Figure 17: Output voltage vs. load current showing typical current limit
curves and converter shutdown points.
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Figure 18: Load current (20A/div) as a function of time when the converter attempts to turn on into a 1 mΩ short circuit. Top trace
(2ms/div) is an expansion of the on-time portion of the bottom trace.
Doc.# 005-2HT425F Rev. Q
11/19/02
Page 7
Performance Curves
Half
Brick
48Vin 2.5Vout 60A
0
0.1
-10
36 Vin
0.001
48 Vin
75 Vin
0.0001
Forward Transmission (dB)
Output Impedance (Ω )
-20
0.01
-30
-40
36 Vin
-50
48 Vin
-60
75 Vin
-70
-80
-90
-100
-110
0.00001
10
100
1,000
10,000
10
100,000
100
1,000
10,000
100,000
Hz
Hz
Figure 19: Magnitude of incremental output impedance (Zout =
vout/iout) for minimum, nominal, and maximum input voltage at full
rated power.
Figure 20: Magnitude of incremental forward transmission (FT =
vout/vin) for minimum, nominal, and maximum input voltage at full
rated power.
100
0
-20
36 Vin
48 Vin
75 Vin
-30
-40
Input Impedance (Ω )
Reverse Transmission (dB)
-10
10
36 Vin
48 Vin
75 Vin
1
-50
-60
0.1
10
100
1,000
10,000
100,000
Hz
100
1,000
10,000
100,000
Hz
Figure 21: Magnitude of incremental reverse transmission (RT =
iin/iout) for minimum, nominal, and maximum input voltage at full rated
power.
Product # PQ48025HTA60
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Figure 22: Magnitude of incremental input impedance (Zin = vin/iin)
for minimum, nominal, and maximum input voltage at full rated power.
Doc.# 005-2HT425F Rev. Q
11/19/02
Page 8
Technical Specification
Half
Brick
48Vin 2.5Vout 60A
BASIC OPERATION AND FEATURES
CONTROL FEATURES
The PowerQor series converter uses a two-stage power circuit
topology. The first stage is a buck-converter that keeps the output voltage constant over variations in line, load, and temperature. The second stage uses a transformer to provide the functions of input/output isolation and voltage step-down to achieve
the low output voltage required.
REMOTE ON/OFF (Pin 2): The ON/OFF input, Pin 2, permits the user to control when the converter is on or off. This
input is referenced to the return terminal of the input bus,
Vin(-). There are two versions of the converter that differ by the
sense of the logic used for the ON/OFF input.
Both the first stage and the second stage switch at a fixed frequency for predictable EMI performance. Rectification of the
transformer’s output is accomplished with synchronous rectifiers. These devices, which are MOSFETs with a very low onstate resistance, dissipate far less energy than Schottky diodes.
This is the primary reason that the PowerQor converter has such
high efficiency, even at very low output voltages and very high
output currents.
Dissipation throughout the converter is so low that it does not
require a heatsink for operation. Since a heatsink is not
required, the PowerQor converter does not need a metal baseplate or potting material to help conduct the dissipated energy
to the heatsink. The PowerQor converter can thus be built more
simply and reliably using high yield surface mount techniques
on a PCB substrate.
The PowerQor series of half-brick and quarter-brick converters
uses the industry standard footprint and pin-out configuration.
In the positive logic version, the ON/OFF input is active high
(meaning that a high turns the converter on). In the negative
logic version, the ON/OFF signal is active low (meaning that a
low turns the converter on). Figure A details five possible circuits for driving the ON/OFF pin. Figure B is a detailed look of
the internal ON/OFF circuitry.
REMOTE SENSE(+) (Pins 8 and 6): The SENSE(+) inputs
correct for voltage drops along the conductors that connect the
converter’s output pins to the load.
Pin 8 should be connected to Vout(+) and Pin 6 should be connected to Vout(-) at the point on the board where regulation is
desired. A remote connection at the load can adjust for a voltage drop only as large as that specified in this datasheet, that
is
[Vout(+) - Vout(-)] – [SENSE(+) - SENSE(-)] <
Sense Range % x Vout
Pins 8 and 6 must be connected for proper regulation of the output voltage. If these connections are not made, the converter
will deliver an output voltage that is slightly lower than its specified value.
ON/OFF
ON/OFF
ON/OFF
Vin(_)
Vin(_)
Vin(_)
Remote Enable Circuit
Negative Logic
(Permanently Enabled)
ON/OFF
Positive Logic
(Permanently Enabled)
5V
Vin(+)
5V
274k
ON/OFF
50k
TTL
TTL/
CMOS
ON/OFF
Vin(_)
Vin(_)
Open Collector Enable Circuit
Vin(_)
Direct Logic Drive
Figure A: Various circuits for driving the ON/OFF pin.
Product # PQ48025HTA60
100pF
50k
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Figure B: Internal ON/OFF pin circuitry
Doc.# 005-2HT425F Rev. Q
11/19/02
Page 9
Technical Specification
Half
Brick
Note: the output over-voltage protection circuit senses the voltage across the sense leads (pins 8 and 6) to determine when it
should trigger, not the voltage across the converter’s output pins
(pins 9 and 5).
OUTPUT VOLTAGE TRIM (Pin 7): The TRIM input permits
the user to adjust the output voltage across the sense leads up
or down according to the trim range specifications.
To decrease the output voltage, the user should connect a resistor between Pin 7 and Pin 6 (SENSE(-) input). For a desired
decrease of the nominal output voltage, the value of the resistor should be
Rtrim-down =
- 2 kΩ
(100%
∆ )
– Vdesired
(Vnominal
) x 100%
Vnominal
To increase the output voltage, the user should connect a resistor between Pin 7 and Pin 8 (SENSE(+) input). For a desired
increase of the nominal output voltage, the value of the resistor
should be
( VV
NOM
Rtrim-up =
REF
-2
VDES
-
)•V
DES
+ VNOM
kΩ
VNOM
Figure C graphs the relationship between the trim resistor value
and Rtrim-up and Rtrim-down, showing the total range the output voltage can be trimmed up or down.
10,000
Trim Resistance (kOhms)
output over-voltage protection circuit is triggered. Trimming the
output voltage too high may cause the over-voltage protection
circuit to engage, particularly during transients.
It is not necessary for the user to add capacitance at the Trim
pin. The node is internally bypassed to eliminate noise.
Total DC Variation of Vout: For the converter to meet its
full specifications, the maximum variation of the DC value of
Vout, due to both trimming and remote load voltage drops,
should not be greater than that specified for the output voltage
trim range.
PROTECTION FEATURES
where
∆% =
48Vin 2.5Vout 60A
Input Under-Voltage Lockout: The converter is designed
to turn off when the input voltage is too low, helping avoid an
input system instability problem, described in more detail in the
application note titled “Input System Instability”. The lockout circuitry is a comparator with DC hysteresis. When the input voltage is rising, it must exceed the typical Turn-On Voltage
Threshold value (listed on the specification page) before the
converter will turn on. Once the converter is on, the input voltage must fall below the typical Turn-Off Voltage Threshold value
before the converter will turn off.
Input Over-Voltage Shutdown: Available on PQ48 models only. The converter turns off when the input voltage is too
high, allowing the converter to withstand an input voltage as
high as 100V without destruction. The shutdown circuitry is a
comparator with DC hysteresis. When the input voltage
exceeds the typical Input Over-Voltage Shutdown value, the
converter will turn off. Once the converter is off, it will turn back
on when the input voltage falls below the minimum Input OverVoltage Shutdown value.
Output Current Limit: The maximum current limit remains
constant as the output voltage drops. However, once the
impedance of the short across the output is small enough to
make the output voltage drop below the specified Output DC
Current-Limit Shutdown Voltage, the converter turns off.
1,000
100
The converter then enters a “hiccup mode” where it repeatedly
turns on and off at a 5 Hz (nominal) frequency with a 5% duty
cycle until the short circuit condition is removed. This prevents
excessive heating of the converter or the load board.
10
1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
% Increase in Vout
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
% Decrease in Vout
Figure C: Trim Graph for 2.5Vout module
Note: the TRIM feature does not affect the voltage at which the
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Output Over-Voltage Limit: If the voltage across the output
pins exceeds the Output Over-Voltage Protection threshold, the
converter will immediately stop switching. This prevents damage to the load circuit due to 1) excessive series resistance in
output current path from converter output pins to sense point, 2)
Doc.# 005-2HT425F Rev. Q
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Technical Specification
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48Vin 2.5Vout 60A
Brick
ming.
a release of a short-circuit condition, or 3) a release of a current limit condition. Load capacitance determines exactly how
high the output voltage will rise in response to these conditions.
After 200 ms the converter will automatically restart.
Input Filtering and External Capacitance: Figure E
below provides a diagram showing the internal input filter
components. This filter dramatically reduces input terminal ripple current, which otherwise could exceed the rating of an
external electrolytic input capacitor. The recommended external input capacitance is specified in the “Input Characterisitcs”
section. More detailed information is available in the application note titled “EMI Characteristics” on the SynQor website.
Over-Temperature Shutdown: A temperature sensor on
the converter senses the average temperature of the module.
The thermal shutdown circuit is designed to turn the converter
off when the temperature at the sensed location reaches the
Over-Temperature Shutdown value. It will allow the converter to
turn on again when the temperature of the sensed location falls
by the amount of the Over-Temperature Shutdown Restart
Hysteresis value.
APPLICATION CONSIDERATIONS
Input System Instability: This condition can occur
because any DC/DC converter appears incrementally as a
negative resistance load. A detailed application note titled
“Input System Instability” is available on the SynQor web site
(www.synqor.com) which provides an understanding of why
this instability arises, and shows the preferred solution for
correcting it.
Application Circuits: Figure D below provides a typical circuit diagram which details the input filtering and voltage trim-
Electrolytic
Capacitor
33µF
ESR ≅1Ω
External
Input
Filter
Vin
Vin(+)
Vout(+)
Vsense(+)
ON/OFF
Trim
Vsense(_)
Vin(_)
Rtrim-up
or
Cload
Rtrim-down
Iload
Vout(_)
Figure D: Typical application circuit (negative logic unit, permanently enabled).
L
Vin(+)
C1
C2
Vin(_)
Figure E: Internal Input Filter Diagram (component values listed on page 3).
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Technical Specification
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Startup Inhibit Period: The Startup Inhibit Period ensures
that the converter will remain off for at least 200ms when it is
shut down for any reason. When an output short is present,
this generates a 5Hz "hiccup mode," which prevents the converter from overheating. In all, there are seven ways that the
converter can be shut down, initiating a Startup Inhibit Period:
48Vin 2.5Vout 60A
When the ON/OFF pin goes high after t2, the Startup Inhibit
Period has elapsed, and the output turns on within the typical
Turn-On Time.
FULL FEATURE APPLICATION NOTES
This section provides some basic application information for the
full-feature version of the PowerQor series converter. The pin-out
configuration for these optional feature pins is shown on page
2, and the part numbering format is shown on the last page of
this specification sheet.
• Input Under-Voltage Lockout
• Input Over-Voltage Shutdown (not present in Quarter-brick)
• Output Over-Voltage Protection
• Over Temperature Shutdown
• Current Limit
• Short Circuit Protection
• Turned off by the ON/OFF input
Figure F shows three turn-on scenarios, where a Startup Inhibit
Period is initiated at t0, t1, and t2:
Before time t0, when the input voltage is below the UVL threshold, the unit is disabled by the Input Under-Voltage Lockout feature. When the input voltage rises above the UVL threshold, the
Input Under-Voltage Lockout is released, and a Startup Inhibit
Period is initiated. At the end of this delay, the ON/OFF pin is
evaluated, and since it is active, the unit turns on.
At time t1, the unit is disabled by the ON/OFF pin, and it cannot be enabled again until the Startup Inhibit Period has
elapsed.
All units in this product family include back-drive protection to
simplify the use of multiple converters in a parallel or sequencing application. However, any voltage applied to the output of
the converter should be kept below 120% of the rated output
voltage of the converter.
In addition to back-drive protection, these units include the following features (pins):
Current Share (pin 3): The active current share feature
allows for N+1 and parallel applications. To achieve load sharing, directly connect the I share pins of multiple units. The load
current will share equally among the multiple units (±5% at full
rated current). It is important that the Vin(-) pins of the sharing
units be directly connected and NOT placed outside of an EMI
filter or other impedance path. The voltage at the I Share pin
will range from 0 to 5 volts (at full rated current), referenced to
Vin
Under-Voltage
Lockout Turn-On
Threshold
ON/OFF
(pos logic)
ON
OFF
OFF ON
ON
20ms (typical
Vout
turn on time)
200ms
(typical start-up
inhibit period)
t0
200ms
200ms
t1
t
t2
Figure F: Startup Inhibit Period (turn-on time not to scale)
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Technical Specification
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the primary-side ground, Vin(-).
Start Sync (pin B): The Start Synchronization pin will allow
a more consistent start-up sequence. To operate this feature,
connect together the Start-Sync pins of multiple current-sharing
units. This will permit immediate start-up with loads greater than
the current limit of a single unit. Without this connection, any
set of converters attempting to asynchronously start (or re-start)
with a load greater than the current limit of a single unit will
"hiccup". This “hiccup” mode will continue until one converter
attempts a start at the same time as the minimum number of
additional units necessary to sustain the load condition. For
example, three 50 amp units starting into a 90 amp load would
require two units to simultaneously attempt a start. The Start
Sync connection synchronizes these starting attempts and provides a more consistent and reliable start-up sequence. For
details about the "hiccup mode" or repeated startup attempts,
please see the "Startup Inhibit Period" note in this Technical
Specification.
Clock Sync (pin A): The External Clock Synchronization pin
provides the ability for the user to control the EMI signature and
synchronize sensitive circuitry to quiet periods in the converter
operation. With this option, the converter can be synchronized
to an external clock signal whose frequency is greater than that
of the free-running internal clock. However, substantially raising
the converter’s frequency will reduce its efficiency. Therefore,
the recommended frequency range for the external clock synchronization signal applied to this pin would be the lowest
value possible without dropping below the minimum frequencies listed below:
48Vin 2.5Vout 60A
Good" signal. This pin is referenced to the secondary-side
ground, Vsense(-). The voltage at this pin tracks the output voltage but has a value several times higher. For example, during
normal operation the OR Drive voltage is at least high enough
to fully gate on a standard MOSFET, whose source voltage is
equal to the output voltage of the converter. With nominal output voltage, the OR Drive signals are listed in the table below
for each output voltage. An internal 2.7 KΩ source resistance
will limit the current drawn from this pin. However, the user is
responsible for the overvoltage protection of the MOSFET or
other external circuitry driven by this voltage. It is recommended that the user include a zener diode between the gate
and source of the external MOSFET(s) driven by the OR Drive
pin. For more information, refer to the Full Feature Application
Note found on the SynQor web site (www.synqor.com).
OR-Drive Voltages
Vout
1.2
1.5
1.8
2.0
2.5
3.3
5.0
12
15
No Load
TBD
9
11
11
13
13
19
24
26
Full Load
TBD
12
14
16
21
16
20
26
28
275 KHz for the 1.5V and 3.3V units
225 KHz for the 1.8V and 2.0V units
255 KHz for the 2.5V, 5V, 12V and 15V units
The following requirements should also be met:
• The external clock signal should be referenced to the
negative input voltage, Vin(-).
• The high level of the signal should be between 3.5V
and 5.0V.
• The low level should be between -0.5V and +1.2V.
• Do not apply a clock signal lower than the specified
frequency.
OR Drive (pin C): This pin provides a signal which can be
used to drive an OR-ing FET and/or an auxiliary external control circuitry. This pin may also be used as a basic "PowerProduct # PQ48025HTA60
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Technical Specification
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Brick
48Vin 2.5Vout 60A
PART NUMBERING SYSTEM
ORDERING INFORMATION
The part numbering system for SynQor’s PowerQor DC/DC
converters follows the format shown in the example below.
The tables below show the valid model numbers and ordering options for converters in this product family. When
ordering SynQor converters, please ensure that you use the
complete 15 character part number consisting of the 12
character base part number and the additional 3 characters
for options.
PQ 48 025 H T A 60 N K S
Options (see
Ordering Information)
Output Current
Thermal Design
Performance Level
Package Size
Output Voltage
Input Voltage
Product Family
The first 12 characters comprise the base part number and
the last 3 characters indicate available options. Although
there are no default values for enable logic and pin length,
the most common options are negative logic and 0.145”
pins. These part numbers are more likely to be readily available in stock for evaluation and prototype quantities.
Application Notes
Model Number
Input Voltage
PQ60012HTA60xyz
PQ48015HTA60xyz
PQ48018HTA60xyz
PQ48020HTA60xyz
PQ48025HTA60xyz
PQ48033HTA50xyz
PQ48050HTA33xyz
PQ48120HTA14xyz
PQ48150HTA11xyz
35 - 75 V
35 - 75 V
35 - 75 V
35 - 75 V
35 - 75 V
35 - 75 V
35 - 75 V
35 - 75 V
35 - 75 V
Output Max Output
Voltage Current
1.2 V
60 A
1.5 V
60 A
1.8 V
60 A
2.0 V
60 A
2.5 V
60 A
3.3 V
50 A
5.0 V
33 A
12 V
13.75 A
15 V
11 A
The following option choices must be included in place of
the x y z spaces in the model numbers listed above.
Options Description: x y z
Enable
Logic
Pin
Length
K - 0.110"
P - Positive N - 0.145"
N - Negative R - 0.180"
Y - 0.250"
Feature
Set
S - Standard
F - Full Feature
A variety of application notes and technical white papers
can be downloaded in pdf format at www.synqor.com.
Contact SynQor for further information:
Phone:
Toll Free:
Fax:
E-mail:
Web:
Address:
Product # PQ48025HTA60
508-485-8434
888-567-9596
508-485-8414
[email protected]
www.synqor.com
188 Central Street
Hudson, MA 01749
Phone 1-888-567-9596
Warranty
SynQor offers a three (3) year limited warranty. Complete warranty
information is listed on our web site or is available upon request from
SynQor.
Information furnished by SynQor is believed to be accurate and reliable.
However, no responsibility is assumed by SynQor for its use, nor for any
infringements of patents or other rights of third parties which may result
from its use. No license is granted by implication or otherwise under any
patent or patent rights of SynQor.
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