60A/150W

Technical
S pecification
PQ60025QPA60
48V in
2.5Vout
60Amp
2000Vdc
Quar ter-brick
Input
Output
Current
Isolation
DC/DC Conver ter
The PQ60025QPA60 PowerQor ™ Peta quarter-bbrick con verter is a next-g
generation, board-m
mountable, isolated,
fixed switching frequency DC/DC converter that uses syn chronous rectification to achieve extremely high conversion
efficiency. The power dissipated by the converter is so
low that a heatsink is not required, which saves cost,
weight, height, and application effort. All of the power
and control components are mounted to the multi-llayer PCB
substrate with high-yyield surface mount technology. Since
the PowerQor converter has no explicit thermal interfaces,
it is extremely reliable. The Peta series offers industry lead ing output currents for any standard quarter-bbrick module.
PQ60025QPA60 Module
Operational Features
• Ultra-high efficiency, 91% half load, 89% full load
• Delivers up to 60 amps of output current with minimal
derating - no heatsink required
• Wide input voltage range: 35V – 75V, with 100V
100ms input voltage transient capability
• Fixed frequency switching provides predictable EMI
performance
• No minimum load requirement means no preload
resistors required
Mechanical Features
• Industry standard quarter-brick pin-out configuration
• Industry standard size: 1.45” x 2.3” (36.8x58.4mm)
• Total height less than 0.45” (11.4mm), permits better
airflow and smaller card pitch
• Total weight: 1.5 oz. (42 grams)
• Flanged pins designed to permit surface mount soldering (avoid wave solder) using FPiP technique
Contr ol Features
• On/Off control referenced to input side (positive and
negative logic options are available)
• Remote sense for the output voltage compensates for
output distribution drops
• Output voltage trim permits custom voltages and voltage margining
Product # PQ60025QPA60
Phone 1-888-567-9596
www.synqor.com
Pr otection Features
• Input under-voltage lockout disables converter at low
input voltage conditions
• Output current limit and short circuit protection protects
converter and load from permanent damage and consequent hazardous conditions
• Active back bias limit prevents damage to converter
from external load induced pre-bias
• Output over-voltage protection protects load from damaging voltages
• Thermal shutdown protects converter from abnormal
environmental conditions
Safety Features
• 2000V, 30 MΩ input-to-output isolation provides
input/output ground separation
• UL/cUL 60950 recognized (US & Canada), basic
insulation rating
• TUV certified to EN60950
• Meets 72/23/EEC and 93/68/EEC directives which
facilitates CE Marking in user’s end product
• Board and plastic components meet UL94V-0 flammability requirements
Doc.# 005-2QP625F Rev. A
12/10/04
Page 1
Input:
Output:
Current:
Package:
Technical Specification
MECHANICAL
DIAGRAM
35-75 V
2.5 V
60 A
Quarter-brick
2.30
(58.4)
0.450
(11.43)
0.14
(3.6)
0.300
2.00
(7.62)
(50.8)
0.150
(3.81)
0.425
(10.8)
1.45
(36.8)
0.600
0.300
0.600
(15.24)
(7.62)
0.750
Top View
(15.24)
(19.05)
0.900
(22.86)
0.45
Bottom side
Clearance
(11.4)
See Note 9
0.056 +.032
(1.42 +.81)
Lowest
Component
Flanged Pin
See Note 10
Load Board
Side View
0.145
(3.68)
See Note 3
NOTES
PIN DESIGNATIONS
1) Pins 1-3, 6-8 are 0.040” (1.02mm) diameter with 0.080”
(2.03 mm) diameter standoff shoulders.
2) Pins 4-5, 9-10 are 0.062” (1.57 mm) diameter with 0.100”
(2.54 mm) diameter standoff shoulders.
3) Other pin extension lengths available. Recommended pin
length is 0.03” (0.76mm) greater than the PCB thickness.
4) All Pins: Material - Copper Alloy
Finish - Tin/Lead over Nickel plate
5) Undimensioned components are shown for visual reference
only.
6) All dimensions in inches (mm)
Tolerances: x.xx +/-0.02 in. (x.x +/-0.5mm)
x.xxx +/-0.010 in. (x.xx +/-0.25mm)
7) Weight: 1.5 oz. (42 g) typical
8) Workmanship: Meets or exceeds IPC-A-610C Class II
9) UL/TUV standards require a clearance greater than 0.04”
(1.02mm) between input and output for Basic insulation. This issue
should be considered if any copper traces are on the top side of
the user’s board. Note that the ferrite cores are considered part of
the input/primary circuit.
10) The flanged pins are designed to permit surface mount
soldeing (avoiding the wave soldering process) through
the use of the flanged pin-in-paste technique.
Product # PQ60025QPA60
Phone 1-888-567-9596
Pin No.
Name
Function
1
Vin(+)
Positive input voltage
2
ON/OFF
TTL input to turn converter
on and off, referenced to
Vin(-), with internal pull up.
3
Vin(-)
Negative input voltage
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Vout(+)
Vout(-)
SENSE(-)
TRIM
SENSE(+)
Vout(+)
Vout(-)
Positive output voltage
Negative output voltage
Negative remote sense1
Output voltage trim2
Positive remote sense3
Positive output voltage
Negative output voltage
Pins in Italics Shaded text are Optional
Notes:
1. SENSE(-) may be connected to Vout(-) or left open.
2. Leave TRIM pin open for nominal output voltage.
3. SENSE(+) may be connected to Vout(+) or left open.
www.synqor.com
Doc.# 005-2QP625F Rev. A
12/10/04
Page 2
Input:
Output:
Current:
Package:
Technical Specification
35-75 V
2.5 V
60 A
Quarter-brick
PQ60025QPA60 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
TA=25°C, airflow rate=300 LFM, Vin=48Vdc unless otherwise noted; full operating temperature range is -40°C to +100°C ambient
temperature with appropriate power derating. Specifications subject to change without notice.
Parameter
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Units
100
80
100
2000
100
125
18
V
V
V
V
°C
°C
V
Notes & Conditions
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
Input Voltage
Non-Operating
Operating
Operating Transient Protection
Isolation Voltage (input to output)
Operating Temperature
Storage Temperature
Voltage at ON/OFF input pin
INPUT CHARACTERISTICS
Operating Input Voltage Range
Input Under-Voltage Lockout
Turn-On Voltage Threshold
Turn-Off Voltage Threshold
Lockout Voltage Hysteresis
Maximum Input Current
No-Load Input Current
Disabled Input Current
Inrush Current Transient Rating
Response to Input Transient
Input Reflected Ripple Current
Input Terminal Ripple Current
Recommended Input Fuse
Input Filter Component Values (L\C)
Recommended External Input Capacitance
OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS
Output Voltage Set Point
Output Voltage Regulation
Over Line
Over Load
Over Temperature
Total Output Voltage Range
Output Voltage Ripple and Noise1
Peak-to-Peak
RMS
Operating Output Current Range
Output DC Current-Limit Inception
Output DC Current-Limit Shutdown Voltage
Back-Drive Current Limit while Enabled
Back-Drive Current Limit while Disabled
Maximum Output Capacitance
-40
-55
-2
35
48
75
V
32
28.5
2.5
33
29.5
3.5
34
30.5
4.5
5.7
100
3
0.04
V
V
V
A
mA
mA
A 2s
mV
mA
mA
A
µH\µF
µF
75
1.6
250
15
110
2\6.6
47
2.475
2.427
0
64
0.5
0
DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS
Input Voltage Ripple Rejection
Output Voltage during Load Current Transient
For a Step Change in Output Current (0.1A/µs)
For a Step Change in Output Current (1A/µs)
Settling Time
Turn-On Transient
Turn-On Time
Start-Up Inhibit Time
Output Voltage Overshoot
EFFICIENCY
100% Load
50% Load
180
20
2.500
2.525
V
+0.1 \ 2
+0.1 \ 2
+13
+0.2 \ 5
+0.2 \ 5
+38
2.573
%\mV
%\mV
mV
V
70
10
100
20
60
70
mV
mV
A
A
V
A
mA
µF
67
1.36
1.8
10
2.5
50
25,000
1000V/ms input transient
pk-pk thru 10µH inductor; Figures 17 & 19
RMS; Figures 17 & 18
fast blow external fuse recommended
internal values, see Figure E
Typical ESR 0.1-0.2Ω, see Figure 17
over sample, line, load, temperature & life
500MHz bandwidth; Figures 17 & 20
Full Load, see Figures 17 & 20
Full Load, see Figures 17 & 20
Subject to thermal derating; Figures 5-12
Output Voltage 10% Low
Negative current drawn from output
Negative current drawn from output
2.5Vout at 60A Resistive Load
dB
120 Hz; Figure 24
80
190
400
mV
mV
µs
50% to 75% to 50% Iout max; Figure 15
50% to 75% to 50% Iout max; Figure 16
to within 1% Vout nom
ms
ms
%
Full load, Vout=90% nom.; Figures 13 & 14
-40°C to +125°C; Figure F
25,000 µF load capacitance, Iout = 0A
%
%
Figures 1 - 4
Figures 1 - 4
°C
°C
°C
Package rated to 150°C
UL rated max operating temp 130°C
See Figures 5 - 12 for derating curves
4
200
0
TEMPERATURE LIMITS FOR POWER DERATING CURVES
Semiconductor Junction Temperature
Board Temperature
Transformer Temperature
Isolation Voltage (dielectric strength)
Isolation Resistance
Isolation Capacitance2
100% Load, 35 Vin
71
8
240
89
91
ISOLATION CHARACTERISTICS
continuous
continuous
100ms transient, square wave
Basic insulation, Pollution Degree 2
125
125
125
2000
30
470
V
MΩ
pF
Note 1: For applications requiring reduced output voltage ripple and noise, consult SynQor applications support (e-mail: [email protected])
Note 2: Higher values of isolation capacitance can be added external to the module.
Product # PQ60025QPA60
Phone 1-888-567-9596
www.synqor.com
Doc.# 005-2QP625F Rev. A
12/10/04
Page 3
Input:
Output:
Current:
Package:
Technical Specification
35-75 V
2.5 V
60 A
Quarter-brick
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (Continued)
Parameter P
FEATURE CHARACTERISTICS
Switching Frequency
ON/OFF Control (Option P)
Off-State Voltage
On-State Voltage
ON/OFF Control (Option N)
Off-State Voltage
On-State Voltage
ON/OFF Control (Either Option)
Pull-Up Voltage
Pull-Up Resistance
Output Voltage Trim Range
Output Voltage Remote Sense Range
Output Over-Voltage Protection
Over-Temperature Shutdown
Over-Temperature Shutdown Restart Hysteresis
Load Current Scale Factor
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Units
250
270
290
kHz
-2
2.4
0.8
18
V
V
2.4
-2
18
0.8
V
V
9.2
V
kΩ
%
%
%
°C
°C
-20
117
Vin/6.5
40
122
125
10
1714
RELIABILITY CHARACTERISTICS
Calculated MTBF (Telcordia)
Calculated MTBF (MIL-217)
Field Demonstrated MTBF
+10
+10
127
Notes & Conditions
Regulation stage and Isolation stage
Figures A, B
Measured across Pins 9 & 5; Figure C; See Figure 27 & 28
Measured across Pins 9 & 5; See Figure 27 & 28
Over full temp range; % of nominal Vout
Average PCB Temperature
See App Note: Output Load Current Calc.
10 Hrs. TR-NWT-000332; 93% load,200LFM, 40oC Ta
106 Hrs. MIL-HDBK-217F; 93% load, 200LFM, 40oC Ta
106 Hrs. See website for latest values
6
2.37
1.75
STANDARDS COMPLIANCE
Parameter P
Notes
STANDARDS COMPLIANCE
UL/cUL 60950
EN60950
72/23/EEC
93/68/EEC
Needle Flame Test (IEC 695-2-2)
IEC 61000-4-2
GR-1089-CORE
Telcordia (Bellcore) GR-513
File # E194341, Basic insulation & pollution degree 2
Certified by TUV
test on entire assembly; board & plastic components UL94V-0 compliant
ESD test, 8kV - NP, 15kV air - NP (Normal Performance)
Section 7 - electrical safety, Section 9 - bonding/grounding
• An external input fuse must always be used to meet these safety requirements. Contact SynQor for official safety
certificates on new releases or download from the SynQor website.
QUALIFICATION TESTING
Parameter P
QUALIFICATION TESTING
Life Test
Vibration
Mechanical Shock
Temperature Cycling
Power/Thermal Cycling
Design Marginality
Humidity
Solderability
# Units
32
5
5
10
5
5
5
15 pins
Test Conditions
95% rated Vin and load, units at derating point, 1000 hours
10-55Hz sweep, 0.060” total excursion,1 min./sweep, 120 sweeps for 3 axis
100g minimum, 2 drops in x and y axis, 1 drop in z axis
-40°C to 100°C, unit temp. ramp 15°C/min., 500 cycles
Toperating = min to max, Vin = min to max, full load, 100 cycles
Tmin-10°C to Tmax+10°C, 5°C steps, Vin = min to max, 0-105% load
85°C, 85% RH, 1000 hours, 2 minutes on and 6 hours off
MIL-STD-883, method 2003
• Extensive characterization testing of all SynQor products and manufacturing processes is performed to ensure that we supply
robust, reliable product. Contact factory for official product family qualification document.
OPTIONS
PATENTS
SynQor provides various options for Logic Sense, Pin Length and
Feature Set for this family of DC/DC converters. Please consult the
last page of this specification sheet for information on available
options.
SynQor is protected under various patents, including but not limited to U.S. Patent numbers: 5,999,417; 6,222,742 B1;
6,594,159 B2; 6,545,890 B2.
Product # PQ60025QPA60
Phone 1-888-567-9596
www.synqor.com
Doc.# 005-2QP625F Rev. A
12/10/04
Page 4
Input:
Output:
Current:
Package:
Technical Specification
95
35-75 V
2.5 V
60 A
Quarter-brick
94
93
90
Efficiency (%)
Efficiency (%)
92
85
80
75
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
89
25 C
40 C
55 C
87
86
65
0
90
88
35 Vin
48 Vin
75 Vin
70
91
0
60
100
200
300
400
500
Air Flow (LFM)
Load Current (A)
Figure 1: Efficiency at nominal output voltage vs. load current for minimum, nominal, and maximum input voltage at 25°C (2 output pins).
Figure 2: Efficiency at nominal output voltage and 60% rated power vs.
airflow rate for ambient air temperatures of 25°C, 40°C, and 55°C
(nominal input voltage and 2 output pins).
22
12
20
11
Power Dissipation (W)
Power Dissipation (W)
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
35 Vin
4
75 Vin
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
8
25 C
40 C
55 C
6
0
0
9
7
48 Vin
2
10
0
60
100
200
300
400
500
Air Flow (LFM)
Load Current (A)
Figure 3: Power dissipation at nominal output voltage vs. load current
for minimum, nominal, and maximum input voltage at 25°C (2 output
pins).
Figure 4: Power dissipation at nominal output voltage and 60% rated
power vs. airflow rate for ambient air temperatures of 25°C, 40°C, and
55°C (nominal input voltage and 2 output pins).
60
55
50
45
Iout (A)
40
35
30
25
20
400 LFM (2.0 m/s)
15
300 LFM (1.5 m/s)
200 LFM (1.0 m/s)
10
100 LFM (0.5 m/s)
5
50 LFM (0.25 m/s)
0
0
25
40
55
70
Semiconductor junction temperature is
within 1°C of surface temperature
85
o
Ambient Air Temperature ( C)
Figure 5: Maximum output power derating curves vs. ambient air temperature for airflow rates of 50 LFM through 400 LFM with air flowing
from pin 3 to pin 1 (nominal input voltage and 2 output pins).
Product # PQ60025QPA60
Phone 1-888-567-9596
Figure 6: Thermal plot of converter at 51 amp load current with 55°C
air flowing at the rate of 200 LFM. Air is flowing across the converter
from pin 3 to pin 1 (nominal input voltage and 2 output pins).
www.synqor.com
Doc.# 005-2QP625F Rev. A
12/10/04
Page 5
Input:
Output:
Current:
Package:
Technical Specification
35-75 V
2.5 V
60 A
Quarter-brick
60
55
50
45
Iout (A)
40
35
30
25
20
400 LFM (2.0 m/s)
15
300 LFM (1.5 m/s)
200 LFM (1.0 m/s)
10
100 LFM (0.5 m/s)
5
50 LFM (0.25 m/s)
0
0
25
40
55
70
Semiconductor junction temperature is
within 1°C of surface temperature
85
Ambient Air Temperature (oC)
Figure 7: Maximum output power derating curves vs. ambient air temperature for airflow rates of 50 LFM through 400 LFM with air flowing
from output to input (nominal input voltage and 2 output pins).
Figure 8: Thermal plot of converter at 49 amp load current with 55°C
air flowing at the rate of 200 LFM. Air is flowing lengthwise from output to input (nominal input voltage and 2 output pins).
60
55
50
45
Iout (A)
40
35
30
25
20
400 LFM (2.0 m/s)
15
300 LFM (1.5 m/s)
200 LFM (1.0 m/s)
10
100 LFM (0.5 m/s)
5
50 LFM (0.25 m/s)
0
0
25
40
55
70
Semiconductor junction temperature is
within 1°C of surface temperature
85
o
Ambient Air Temperature ( C)
Figure 9: Maximum output power derating curves vs. ambient air temperature for airflow rates of 50 LFM through 400 LFM with air flowing
from pin 3 to pin 1 (nominal input voltage and 4 output pins).
Figure 10: Thermal plot of converter at 55 amp load current with 55°C
air flowing at the rate of 200 LFM. Air is flowing across the converter
from pin 3 to pin 1 (nominal input voltage and 4 output pins).
60
55
50
45
Iout (A)
40
35
30
25
20
400 LFM (2.0 m/s)
15
300 LFM (1.5 m/s)
200 LFM (1.0 m/s)
10
100 LFM (0.5 m/s)
5
50 LFM (0.25 m/s)
0
0
25
40
55
70
Semiconductor junction temperature is
within 1°C of surface temperature
85
o
Ambient Air Temperature ( C)
Figure 11: Maximum output power derating curves vs. ambient air temperature for airflow rates of 50 LFM through 400 LFM with air flowing
from output to input (nominal input voltage and 4 output pins).
Product # PQ60025QPA60
Phone 1-888-567-9596
Figure 12: Thermal plot of converter at 53 amp load current with 55°C
air flowing at the rate of 200 LFM. Air is flowing lengthwise from output to input (nominal input voltage and 4 output pins).
www.synqor.com
Doc.# 005-2QP625F Rev. A
12/10/04
Page 6
Input:
Output:
Current:
Package:
Technical Specification
35-75 V
2.5 V
60 A
Quarter-brick
Figure 13: Turn-on transient at full rated load (resistive load) (5
ms/div). Input voltage pre-applied. Ch 1: Vout (1V/div). Ch 2:
ON/OFF input (5V/div)
Figure 14: Turn-on transient at zero load current (5 ms/div). Ch 1:
Vout (1V/div). Ch 2: ON/OFF input (5V/div).
Figure 15: Output voltage response to step-change in load current (50%75%-50% of Iout(max); dI/dt = 0.1A/µs). Load cap: 10µF, 100 mΩ ESR tantalum cap and 1µF ceramic cap. Ch 1: Vout (100mV/div), Ch 2: Iout (20A/div).
Figure 16: Output voltage response to step-change in load current (50%75%-50% of Iout(max): dI/dt = 1A/µs). Load cap: 470µF, 30 mΩ ESR tantalum cap and 1µF ceramic cap. Ch 1: Vout (200mV/div), Ch 2: Iout (20A/div).
See Fig. 19
10 µH
source
impedance
See Fig. 18
See Fig. 20
iS
VSOURCE
iC
47 µF,
≅1Ω ESR
electrolytic
capacitor
DC/DC
Converter
VOUT
1 µF
10 µF,
ceramic 100mΩ ESR
capacitor
tantalum
capacitor
Figure 17: Test set-up diagram showing measurement points for Input
Terminal Ripple Current (Figure 18), Input Reflected Ripple Current
(Figure 19) and Output Voltage Ripple (Figure 20).
Product # PQ60025QPA60
Phone 1-888-567-9596
Figure 18: Input Terminal Ripple Current, ic, at full rated output current and nominal input voltage with 10µH source impedance and 47µF
electrolytic capacitor (200 mA/div). See Figure 17.
www.synqor.com
Doc.# 005-2QP625F Rev. A
12/10/04
Page 7
Input:
Output:
Current:
Package:
Technical Specification
Figure 19: Input reflected ripple current, is, through a 10 µH source
inductor at nominal input voltage and rated load current (5 mA/div).
See Figure 17.
35-75 V
2.5 V
60 A
Quarter-brick
Figure 20: Output voltage ripple at nominal input voltage and rated
load current (50 mV/div). Load capacitance: 1µF ceramic capacitor
and 10µF tantalum capacitor. Bandwidth: 500 MHz. See Figure 17.
3.0
Output Voltage (V)
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
35 V
48 V
0.5
75 V
0.0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Load Current (A)
Figure 21: Output voltage vs. load current showing typical current limit
curves and converter shutdown points.
Figure 22: Load current (20A/div) as a function of time when the converter attempts to turn on into a 1 mΩ short circuit. Top trace
(2ms/div) is an expansion of the on-time portion of the bottom trace.
0
0.1
0.01
35 Vin
48 Vin
75 Vin
0.001
Forward Transmission (dB)
Output Impedance (Ω )
-10
-20
-30
-40
35 Vin
-50
48 Vin
75 Vin
-60
-70
-80
-90
-100
0.0001
10
100
1,000
10,000
100
100,000
Hz
Phone 1-888-567-9596
10,000
100,000
Hz
Figure 23: Magntiude of incremental output impedance (Zout =
vout/iout) for minimum, nominal, and maximum input voltage at full
rated power.
Product # PQ60025QPA60
1,000
Figure 24: Magnitude of incremental forward transmission (FT =
vout/vin) for minimum, nominal, and maximum input voltage at full
rated power.
www.synqor.com
Doc.# 005-2QP625F Rev. A
12/10/04
Page 8
Input:
Output:
Current:
Package:
Technical Specification
0
35-75 V
2.5 V
60 A
Quarter-brick
100
-20
35 Vin
-30
48 Vin
75 Vin
-40
Input Impedance (Ω )
Reverse Transmission (dB)
-10
10
35 Vin
48 Vin
75 Vin
1
-50
-60
10
100
1,000
10,000
0.1
100,000
10
100
1,000
Hz
Hz
10
10
9
9
8
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
100% Load
7
6
5
4
3
2
50% Load
1
0% Load
100% Load
50% Load
0% Load
0
0
40.0
100,000
Figure 26: Magnitude of incremental input impedance (Zin = vin/iin)
for minimum, nominal, and maximum input voltage at full rated power.
Vout Trim-up (%)
Vout Trim-up (%)
Figure 25: Magnitude of incremental reverse transmission (RT =
iin/iout) for minimum, nominal, and maximum input voltage at full rated
power.
10,000
39.5
39.0
38.5
38.0
37.5
37.0
36.5
36.0
35.5
40.0
35.0
Figure 27: Achieveable trim-up percentage vs. input voltage at output
loads of 0%, 50% and full load (2 output pin unit).
Product # PQ60025QPA60
Phone 1-888-567-9596
39.5
39.0
38.5
38.0
37.5
37.0
36.5
36.0
35.5
35.0
Input Voltage (V)
Input Voltage (V)
Figure 28: Achieveable trim-up percentage vs. input voltage at output
loads of 0%, 50% and full load (4 output pin unit).
www.synqor.com
Doc.# 005-2QP625F Rev. A
12/10/04
Page 9
Input:
Output:
Current:
Package:
Technical Specification
35-75 V
2.5 V
60 A
Quarter-brick
BASIC OPERATION AND FEATURES
CONTROL FEATURES
The PowerQor series converter uses a two-stage power conversion topology. The first stage is a buck-converter that keeps the
output voltage constant over variations in line, load, and temperature. The second stage uses a transformer to provide the functions of input/output isolation and voltage step-down to achieve
the low output voltage required.
REMOTE ON/OFF (Pin 2): The ON/OFF input, Pin 2, permits
the user to control when the converter is on or off. This input is
referenced to the return terminal of the input bus,
Vin(-). There
are two versions of the converter that differ by the sense of the
logic used for the ON/OFF input.
Both the first stage and the second stage switch at a fixed frequency for predictable EMI performance. Rectification of the
transformer’s output is accomplished with synchronous rectifiers.
These devices, which are MOSFETs with a very low on-state resistance, dissipate far less energy than Schottky diodes. This is the
primary reason that the PowerQor converter has such high efficiency, even at very low output voltages and very high output currents.
Dissipation throughout the converter is so low that it does not
require a heatsink for operation. Since a heatsink is not required,
the PowerQor converter does not need a metal baseplate or potting material to help conduct the dissipated energy to the
heatsink. The PowerQor converter can thus be built more simply
and reliably using high yield surface mount techniques on a PCB
substrate.
The PowerQor series of half-brick, quarter-brick and eighth-brick
converters uses the industry standard footprint and pin-out configuration.
In the positive logic version, the ON/OFF input is active high
(meaning that a high turns the converter on). In the negative logic
version, the ON/OFF signal is active low (meaning that a low
turns the converter on). Figure A details five possible circuits for
driving the ON/OFF pin. Figure B is a detailed look of the internal ON/OFF circuitry.
REMOTE SENSE(+) (Pins 8 and 6): The SENSE(+) inputs correct for voltage drops along the conductors that connect the converter’s output pins to the load.
Pin 8 should be connected to Vout(+) and Pin 6 should be connected to Vout(-) at the point on the board where regulation is
desired. A remote connection at the load can adjust for a voltage
drop only as large as that specified in this datasheet, that is
[Vout(+) - Vout(-)] – [Vsense(+) - Vsense(-)] <
Sense Range % x Vout
Pins 8 and 6 must be connected for proper regulation of the output voltage. If these connections are not made, the converter will
deliver an output voltage that is slightly lower than its specified
value.
Note: the output over-voltage protection circuit senses the voltage
ON/OFF
ON/OFF
ON/OFF
Vin(_)
Vin(_)
Vin(_)
Remote Enable Circuit
Negative Logic
(Permanently Enabled)
ON/OFF
Positive Logic
(Permanently Enabled)
5V
Vin(+)
5V
274k
ON/OFF
50k
TTL
TTL/
CMOS
ON/OFF
Vin(_)
Vin(_)
Open Collector Enable Circuit
Vin(_)
Direct Logic Drive
Figure A: Various circuits for driving the ON/OFF pin.
Product # PQ60025QPA60
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50k
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Figure B: Internal ON/OFF pin circuitry
Doc.# 005-2QP625F Rev. A
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Input:
Output:
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Technical Specification
across the output (pins 9 and 5) to determine when it should trigger, not the voltage across the converter’s sense leads (pins 8
and 6). Therefore, the resistive drop on the board should be
small enough so that output OVP does not trigger, even during
load transients.
OUTPUT VOLTAGE TRIM (Pin 7): The TRIM input permits the
user to adjust the output voltage across the sense leads up or
down according to the trim range specifications.
To decrease the output voltage, the user should connect a resistor
between Pin 7 and Pin 6 (SENSE(-) input). For a desired decrease
of the nominal output voltage, the value of the resistor should be
Rtrim-down =
- 10.22
(511
∆%)
Vnominal – Vdesired
Vnominal
x 100%
To increase the output voltage, the user should connect a resistor
between Pin 7 and Pin 8 (SENSE(+) input). For a desired increase
of the nominal output voltage, the value of the resistor should be
Rtrim-up =
(
5.11VOUT(100+∆%) _ 511 _
1.225∆%
∆%
Note: the TRIM feature does not affect the voltage at which the
output over-voltage protection circuit is triggered. Trimming the
output voltage too high may cause the over-voltage protection
circuit to engage, particularly during transients.
It is not necessary for the user to add capacitance at the Trim pin.
The node is internally bypassed to eliminate noise.
Total DC Variation of Vout: For the converter to meet its full
specifications, the maximum variation of the DC value of Vout,
due to both trimming and remote load voltage drops, should not
be greater than that specified for the output voltage trim range.
PROTECTION FEATURES
(kΩ)
where
∆% =
35-75 V
2.5 V
60 A
Quarter-brick
10.22
)
(kΩ)
Input Under-Voltage Lockout: The converter is designed to
turn off when the input voltage is too low, helping avoid an input
system instability problem, described in more detail in the application note titled “Input System Instability”. The lockout circuitry
is a comparator with DC hysteresis. When the input voltage is rising, it must exceed the typical Turn-On Voltage Threshold value
(listed on the specification page) before the converter will turn
on. Once the converter is on, the input voltage must fall below
the typical Turn-Off Voltage Threshold value before the converter
will turn off.
Output Current Limit: The maximum current limit remains constant as the output voltage drops. However, once the impedance
of the short across the output is small enough to make the output
voltage drop below the specified Output DC Current-Limit
Shutdown Voltage, the converter turns off.
where
VOUT = Nominal Output Voltage
Figure C graphs the relationship between the trim resistor value
and Rtrim-up and Rtrim-down, showing the total range the output
voltage can be trimmed up or down.
The converter then enters a “hiccup mode” where it repeatedly
turns on and off at a 5 Hz (nominal) frequency with a 5% duty
cycle until the short circuit condition is removed. This prevents
excessive heating of the converter or the load board.
Trim Resistance (kOhms)
10,000
Output Over-Voltage Limit: If the voltage across the output
pins exceeds the Output Over-Voltage Protection threshold, the
converter will immediately stop switching. This prevents damage
to the load circuit due to 1) excessive series resistance in output
current path from converter output pins to sense point, 2) a
release of a short-circuit condition, or 3) a release of a current
limit condition. Load capacitance determines exactly how high
the output voltage will rise in response to these conditions. After
200 ms the converter will automatically restart.
1,000
100
10
0
2
4
6
8
10
% increase Vout
12
14
16
% decrease Vout
Figure C: Trim Graph for 2.5Vout module
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18
20
Over-Temperature Shutdown: A temperature sensor on the
converter senses the average temperature of the module. The
thermal shutdown circuit is designed to turn the converter off
when the temperature at the sensed location reaches the OverTemperature Shutdown value. It will allow the converter to turn on
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Doc.# 005-2QP625F Rev. A
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Input:
Output:
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Technical Specification
again when the temperature of the sensed location falls by the
amount of the Over-Temperature Shutdown Restart Hysteresis
value.
35-75 V
2.5 V
60 A
Quarter-brick
“EMI Characteristics” on the SynQor website.
APPLICATION CONSIDERATIONS
Input System Instability: This condition can occur because
any DC/DC converter appears incrementally as a negative
resistance load. A detailed application note titled “Input
System Instability” is available on the SynQor web site
(www.synqor.com) which provides an understanding of why
this instability arises, and shows the preferred solution for correcting it.
Application Circuits: Figure D below provides a typical circuit diagram which details the input filtering and voltage trimming.
Input Filtering and External Capacitance: Figure E below
provides a diagram showing the internal input filter components.
This filter dramatically reduces input terminal ripple current,
which otherwise could exceed the rating of an external electrolytic input capacitor. The recommended external input capacitance is specified in the “Input Characterisitcs” section. More
detailed information is available in the application note titled
Vin(+)
Vin
External
Input
Filter
Electrolytic
Capacitor
47µF
Vout(+)
Vsense(+)
ON/OFF
Trim
Vsense(_)
Vin(_)
Rtrim-up
or
Rtrim-down
Cload
Iload
Vout(_)
Figure D: Typical application circuit (negative logic unit, permanently enabled).
L
Vin(+)
C
Vin(_)
Figure E: Internal Input Filter Diagram (component values listed on page 3).
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Doc.# 005-2QP625F Rev. A
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Input:
Output:
Current:
Package:
Technical Specification
35-75 V
2.5 V
60 A
Quarter-brick
Startup Inhibit Period: The Startup Inhibit Period ensures that
the converter will remain off for approximately 200ms when it is
shut down for any reason. When an output short is present, this
generates a 5Hz "hiccup mode," which prevents the converter
from overheating. In all, there are seven ways that the converter
can be shut down, initiating a Startup Inhibit Period:
Before time t0, when the input voltage is below the UVL threshold,
the unit is disabled by the Input Under-Voltage Lockout feature.
When the input voltage rises above the UVL threshold, the Input
Under-Voltage Lockout is released, and a Startup Inhibit Period is
initiated. At the end of this delay, the ON/OFF pin is evaluated,
and since it is active, the unit turns on.
• Input Under-Voltage Lockout
At time t1, the unit is disabled by the ON/OFF pin, and it cannot
be enabled again until the Startup Inhibit Period has elapsed.
• Input Over-Voltage Shutdown (not present in Quarter-brick)
• Output Over-Voltage Protection
When the ON/OFF pin goes high after t2, the Startup Inhibit
Period has elapsed, and the output turns on within the typical
Turn-On Time.
• Over Temperature Shutdown
• Current Limit
• Short Circuit Protection
• Turned off by the ON/OFF input
Figure F shows three turn-on scenarios, where a Startup Inhibit
Period is initiated at t0, t1, and t2:
Vin
Under-Voltage
Lockout Turn-On
Threshold
ON/OFF
(pos logic)
ON
OFF ON
OFF
ON
4ms (typical
Vout
turn on time)
200ms
(typical start-up
inhibit period)
t1
t0
200ms
200ms
t2
t
Figure F: Startup Inhibit Period (turn-on time not to scale)
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Doc.# 005-2QP625F Rev. A
12/10/04
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Input:
Output:
Current:
Package:
Technical Specification
35-75 V
2.5 V
60 A
Quarter-brick
PART NUMBERING SYSTEM
ORDERING INFORMATION
The part numbering system for SynQor’s PowerQor DC/DC
converters follows the format shown in the example below.
The tables below show the valid model numbers and ordering
options for converters in this product family. When ordering
SynQor converters, please ensure that you use the complete
15 character part number consisting of the 12 character base
part number and the additional 3 characters for options.
PQ 60 025 Q P A 60 N K S
Options (see
Ordering Information)
Output Current
Thermal Design
Performance Level
Package Size
Output Voltage
Input Voltage
Product Family
Model Number
Input Voltage
PQ60010QPA60xyz
PQ60012QPA60xyz
PQ60015QPA60xyz
PQ60018QPA60xyz
PQ60025QPA60xyz
PQ60033QPA45xyz
36 - 75 V
36 - 75 V
35 - 75 V
35 - 75 V
35 - 75 V
35 - 75 V
Output Max Output
Voltage
Current
1.0 V
60 A
1.2 V
60 A
1.5 V
60 A
1.8 V
60 A
2.5 V
60 A
3.3 V
45 A
The following option choices must be included in place of the
x y z spaces in the model numbers listed above.
The first 12 characters comprise the base part number and the
last 3 characters indicate available options. Although there
are no default values for enable logic and pin length, the most
common options are negative logic and 0.145” pins. These
part numbers are more likely to be readily available in stock
for evaluation and prototype quantities.
Options Description: x y z
Enable
Logic
Pin
Length
K - 0.110"
P - Positive N - 0.145"
N - Negative R - 0.180"
Y - 0.250"
Feature
Set
S - Standard
2 - Two sets of
Output Pins
Application Notes
A variety of application notes and technical white papers can
be downloaded in pdf format at www.synqor.com.
Contact SynQor for further information:
Phone:
Toll Free:
Fax:
E-mail:
Web:
Address:
Product # PQ60025QPA60
978-849-0600
888-567-9596
978-849-0602
[email protected]
www.synqor.com
155 Swanson Road
Boxborough, MA 01719
Phone 1-888-567-9596
Warranty
SynQor offers a three (3) year limited warranty. Complete warranty
information is listed on our web site or is available upon request from
SynQor.
Information furnished by SynQor is believed to be accurate and reliable.
However, no responsibility is assumed by SynQor for its use, nor for any
infringements of patents or other rights of third parties which may result
from its use. No license is granted by implication or otherwise under any
patent or patent rights of SynQor.
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Doc.# 005-2QP625F Rev. A
12/10/04
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