25A/45W

Technical
Specification
PQ60018EKx25
48V
100V
1.8V
45W
2000V dc
Eighth-brick
Input
Transient Input
Output
Max Power
Isolation
DC-DC Converter
The PQ60018EKx25 PowerQor eighth-brick converter
is a next-generation, board-mountable, isolated,
fixed switching frequency DC/DC converter that uses
synchronous rectification to achieve extremely high
conversion efficiency. The power dissipated by the
converter is so low that a heatsink is not required, which
saves cost, weight, height, and application effort. All of
the power and control components are mounted to the
multi-layer PCB substrate with high-yield surface mount
technology. Since the PowerQor converter has no explicit
thermal interfaces, it is extremely reliable. RoHS compliant
(see last page).
PQ60018EKC25
Module
25
E K C 25 A
0181.8 V OUT @
0
6
PQ V IN
48(3
5-75
)
PQ60018EKA25
Module
Operational Features
• High efficiency, 84% at full rated load current
• Delivers up to 25A of output current with minimal derating
- no heatsink required
• Wide input voltage range: 35-75V, with 100V, 100ms input voltage
transient capability
• Fixed frequency switching provides predictable EMI performance
• No minimum load requirement means no preload resistors required
Mechanical Features
• Industry standard eighth-brick pin-out configuration
• Standard size: 2.30" x .90" x .340"in. (58.4 x 22.9 x 10.4 mm
• Total height only 0.340” (8.64mm), permits better airflow and
smaller card pitch
• Total weight: 0.85 oz (24 g) typical
• Open frame units have flanged pins designed to permit surface mount
soldering (avoid wave solder) using FPiP technique
Protection Features
Control Features
• On/Off control referenced to input side (positive and negative logic
options are available)
• Remote sense for the output voltage compensates for output
distribution drops
• Output voltage trim permits custom voltages and voltage margining
Safety Features
• 2000V, 30MΩ input-to-output isolation provides input/output
ground separation
• UL 60950-1:2003 Basic Insulation
• CAN/CSA-C22.2 No. 60950-1:2003
• EN60950-1:2001
• IEC 61000-4-2
• Input under-voltage lockout disables converter at low input
voltage conditions
• Output current limit and short circuit protection protects
converter and load from permanent damage and consequent
hazardous conditions
• Active back bias limit prevents damage to converter
from external load induced pre-bias
• Output over-voltage protection protects load from
damaging voltages
• Thermal shutdown protects converter from abnormal
environmental conditions
Product # PQ60018EKx25
Phone 1-888-567-9596
CONTENTS
Page No.
Mechanical Drawing - Open frame - EKA & EKL (low Profile) . . . . . . . . . 2
Mechanical Drawing - Encased . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
PQ60018EKA25 (1.8 V, 25 A) Electrical Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
PQ60018EKx25 Standards & Qualification Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
PQ60018EKA Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-10
Application Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-14
Ordering Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
www.synqor.com
Doc.# 005-0005113 Rev. D
03/04/10
Page 1
Input:35-75V
Output:1.8V
Current:25A
Part No.:PQ60018EKx25
Technical Specification
MECHANICAL DRAWING - OPEN FRAME - EKA & EKL (LOW PROFILE)
.900 (22.86)
0.600 (15.24)
0.450 (11.43)
0.300 (7.62)
0.150 (3.81)
8
7
6
5
0.340 ± 0.014
(8.64 ± 0.35)
Overall Height
0.410 ± 0.014
(10.41 ± 0.35)
Overall Height
4
0.145 (3.68)
0.145 (3.68)
2.30
(58.4)
Side View
Top View
2.00
(50.8)
1
2
3
.14 (3.6)
0.121±.017
(3.07±0.43)
Bottom Side Clearance
0.150 (3.8)
0.300 (7.62)
0.051±.017
(1.3±0.43)
Bottom Side Clearance
EKA
Side View
0.600 (15.24)
NOTES
EKL
Side View
PIN DESIGNATIONS
1) Pins 1-3, 5-7 are 0.040” (1.02mm) diameter, with 0.080” (2.03mm)
diameter standoff shoulders.
Pin
Name
Function
1
Vin(+)
Positive input voltage
3) Other pin extension lengths available. Recommended pin length is
0.03” (0.76mm) greater than the PCB thickness.
2
ON/OFF
4) All Pins: Material - Copper Alloy- Finish (RoHS 6/6) - Matte Tin over
Nickel plate
3
Vin(–)
2)
Pins 4 and 8 are 0.062” (1.57 mm) diameter with 0.100" (2.54 mm)
diameter standoff shoulders.
5) Undimensioned components are shown for visual reference only.
6) All dimensions in inches (mm) Tolerances: x.xx +/-0.02 in. (x.x
+/-0.5mm) x.xxx +/-0.010 in. (x.xx +/-0.25mm)
7) Weight: 0.85 oz (24 g) typical
Negative input voltage
4
Vout(–)
Negative output voltage
5
SENSE(–)
Negative remote sense1
6
TRIM
7
8) Workmanship: Meets or exceeds IPC-A-610C Class II
TTL input to turn converter on
and off, referenced to Vin(–), with
internal pull up.
Output voltage trim2
SENSE(+) Positive remote sense3
8
Vout(+)
Positive output voltage
9) The flanged pins are designed to permit surface mount soldering
(allowing to avoid the wave soldering process) through the use of the
flanged pin-in-paste technique.
Notes:
10) UL/TUV standards require a clearance greater than 0.04” (1.02mm)
between input and output for Basic insulation. This issue should be
considered if any copper traces are on the top side of the user’s
board. Note that the ferrite core shown at left above is considered
part of the input/primary circuit.
2) Leave TRIM pin open for nominal output voltage.
Product # PQ60018EKx25
Phone 1-888-567-9596
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1) SENSE(–) should be connected to Vout(–)
either remotely or at the converter.
3) SENSE(+) should be connected to Vout(+)
either remotely or at the converter.
Doc.# 005-0005113 Rev. D
03/04/10
Page 2
Input:35-75V
Output:1.8V
Current:25A
Part No.:PQ60018EKx25
Technical Specification
MECHANICAL DRAWING - ENCASED
.986±0.020
(25.04±0.5)
Top View
Side View
0.600 (15.24)
0.450 (11.43)
0.300 (7.62)
0.150 (3.81)
0.500 ± 0.025
(12.7 ± 0.63)
Overall Height
8 7 6 5 4
2.386±0.020
(60.6±0.5)
2.00
(50.8)
0.183±0.020
(4.65±0.5)
1
2
3
0.193±0.020 (4.9±0.5)
0.300 (7.62)
0.600 (15.24)
0.180±.010
(4.57±0.25)
PIN DESIGNATIONS
NOTES
1)
Pins 1-3, 5-7 are 0.040” (1.02mm) diameter, with 0.080” (2.03mm)
diameter standoff shoulders.
2)
Pins 4 and 8 are 0.062” (1.57 mm) diameter with 0.100" (2.54 mm)
diameter standoff shoulders.
3)
Other pin extension lengths available. Recommended pin length is
0.03” (0.76mm) greater than the PCB thickness.
4)
All Pins: Material - Copper Alloy- Finish (RoHS 6/6) - Matte Tin over
Nickel plate
Pin
Name
Function
1
Vin(+)
Positive input voltage
2
ON/OFF
3
Vin(–)
4
Vout(–)
5)
Undimensioned components are shown for visual reference only.
6)
All dimensions in inches (mm) Tolerances: x.xx +/-0.02 in. (x.x
+/-0.5mm) x.xxx +/-0.010 in. (x.xx +/-0.25mm)
7)
Weight: 5 oz (142 g) typical
7
8)
Workmanship: Meets or exceeds IPC-A-610C Class II
8
9)
The flanged pins are designed to permit surface mount soldering
(allowing to avoid the wave soldering process) through the use of the
flanged pin-in-paste technique.
Product # PQ60018EKx25
Phone 1-888-567-9596
www.synqor.com
5
6
TTL input to turn converter on
and off, referenced to Vin(–), with
internal pull up.
Negative input voltage
Negative output voltage
SENSE(–) Negative remote sense1
TRIM
Output voltage trim2
SENSE(+) Positive remote sense3
Vout(+)
Positive output voltage
Notes:
1) SENSE(–) should be connected to Vout(–) either
remotely or at the converter.
2) Leave TRIM pin open for nominal output voltage.
3) SENSE(+) should be connected to Vout(+) either
remotely or at the converter.
Doc.# 005-0005113 Rev. D
03/04/10
Page 3
Input:35-75V
Output:1.8V
Current:25A
Part No.:PQ60018EKx25
Technical Specification
PQ60018EKx25 (1.8V, 25A) Electrical Characteristics
Ta = 25°C, airflow rate = 300 LFM, Vin = 48Vdc unless otherwise noted; full operating temperature range is -40°C to +100°C baseplate temperature
with appropriate power derating. Specifications subject to change without notice.
Parameter
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Units Notes & Conditions
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
Input Voltage
Non-Operating
100
V
Continuous
Operating
75
V
Continuous
Operating Transient Protection
100
V
100ms transient, square wave
2000
V dc
100
°C
Isolation Voltage
Input to Output
Operating Temperature
-40
Storage Temperature
-55
125
°C
0
13.5
V
48
75
V
Voltage at ON/OFF input pin
Basic insulation
INPUT CHARACTERISTICS
Operating Input Voltage Range
35
Input Under-Voltage Lockout
Turn-On Voltage Threshold
33.0
34.0
35.0
V
Turn-Off Voltage Threshold
31.5
32.3
33.5
V
Lockout Voltage Hysteresis
1.2
1.7
2.2
V
Maximum Input Current
1.6
No-Load Input Current
62
Disabled Input Current
7.7
Inrush Current Transient Rating
A
See Note 1
100% Load, 35V Vin, nominal Vout
mA
12
0.03
mA
A2s
Response to Input Transient
88
mV
1000V/ms input transient
Input Reflected Ripple Current
1.6
mA
RMS thru 10μH inductor; Figures 13 & 15
Input Terminal Ripple Current
50
mA
RMS; Figures 13 & 14
Recommended Input Fuse
20
Recommended External Input Capacitance
Input Filter Component Values (L\C)
A
Fast acting external fuse recommended
47
µF
Typical ESR 0.1-0.2Ω; Figure 13
1\2.35
µH\µF
Internal values; see Figure E
OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS
Output Voltage Set Point
1.782
1.80
1.818
V
Output Voltage Regulation
Over Line
±0.1\1.8
%\mV
Over Load
±0.2\3.6
%\mV
Over Temperature
±5
Total Output Voltage Range
1.764
1.8
mV
1.836
V
Output Voltage Ripple and Noise
Over sample, line, load, temperature & life
20MHz bandwidth; see Note 2
Peak-to-Peak
86
mV
Full load; see Figures 13 & 16
RMS
30
mV
Full load; see Figures 13 & 16
Operating Output Current Range
0
Output DC Current-Limit Inception
28.0
Output DC Current-Limit Shutdown Voltage
Back-Drive Current Limit while Enabled
Back-Drive Current Limit while Disabled
31.5
25
A
35.0
A
22
A
Negative current drawn from output
mA
Negative current drawn from output
mF
Nominal Vout at full load (resistive load)
1.6
8
13
V
0.6
Maximum Output Capacitance Electrolytic
Subject to thermal derating; Figures 5 - 8
10
EFFICIENCY
100% Load
84
%
Figures 1 - 4
50% Load
85
%
Figures 1 - 4
Product # PQ60018EKx25
Phone 1-888-567-9596
www.synqor.com
Doc.# 005-0005113 Rev. D
03/04/10
Page 4
Input:35-75V
Output:1.8V
Current:25A
Part No.:PQ60018EKx25
Technical Specification
PQ60018EKx25 (1.8V, 25A) Electrical Characteristics (continued)
Ta=25°C, airflow rate=300LFM, Vin=48V dc unless otherwise noted; full operating temperature range is -40°C to +100°C baseplate temperature with
appropriate power derating. Specifications subject to change without notice.
Parameter
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Units Notes & Conditions
DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS
Input Voltage Ripple Rejection
77
dB
120Hz
Output Voltage during Load Current Transient
See Note 3
Step Change in Output Current (0.1A/µs)
120
mV
50% to 75% to 50% Iout max; Figure 11
Step Change in Output Current (1A/µs)
220
mV
50% to 75% to 50% Iout max; Figure 12
Settling time
600
µs
To within 1% Vout nom
Turn-On Transient
Turn-On Time
21
ms
Full load, Vout=90% nom.
Start-Up Inhibit Time
180
200
240
ms
-40°C to +125°C; Figure F
Output Voltage Overshoot
0
%
Maximum Output Capacitance
ISOLATION CHARACTERISTICS
Isolation Voltage (dielectric strength)
2000
V
See Absolute Maximum Ratings
Isolation Resistance
30
MΩ
Isolation Capacitance (input to output)
1000
pF
See Note 4
TEMPERATURE LIMITS FOR POWER DERATING CURVES
Semiconductor Junction Temperature
125
°C
Package rated to 150°C
Board Temperature
125
°C
UL rated max operating temp 130°C
Transformer Temperature
125
°C
FEATURE CHARACTERISTICS
Switching Frequency
270
300
330
kHz
ON/OFF Control (Option P)
Off-State Voltage
0
0.8
V
On-State Voltage
2
13.5
V
ON/OFF Control (Option N)
Off-State Voltage
2
13.5
V
On-State Voltage
0
0.8
V
ON/OFF Control (Either Option)
Application notes; Figures A & B
Pull-Up Voltage
5
6
V
Pull-Up Resistance
10
kΩ
Output Voltage Trim Range
-10
10
%
Measured across Pins 8 & 4; Figure C
Output Voltage Remote Sense Range
10
%
Measured across Pins 8 & 4
Output Over-Voltage Protection
120
130
140
%
Over Full Temperature Range; % of nominial Vout
Over-Temperature Shutdown
125
°C
Average PCB Temperature
Over-Temperature Shutdown Restart Hysteresis
10
°C
RELIABILITY CHARACTERISTICS
Calculated MTBF (Telcordia)
2.5
106 Hrs. TR-NWT-000332; 80% load, 300LFM, 40°C Ta
Calculated MTBF (MIL-217)
1.1
106 Hrs. MIL-HDBK-217F; 80% load, 300LFM, 40°C Ta
Field Demonstrated MTBF
106 Hrs. See our website for details
Note 1: The UVLO values represented here are typical of lighter load conditions. The unit may shut down under high load conditions before the typical
UVLO limits.
Note 2: For applications requiring reduced output voltage ripple and noise, consult SynQor applications support (e-mail: [email protected])
Note 3: The module requires a minimum amount of capacitance (100μF) in order to ride through a No Load to Full Load transient (0.1A/μs) without
shutdown.
Note 4: Higher values of isolation capacitance can be added external to the module.
Product # PQ60018EKx25
Phone 1-888-567-9596
www.synqor.com
Doc.# 005-0005113 Rev. D
03/04/10
Page 5
Input:35-75V
Output:1.8V
Current:25A
Part No.:PQ60018EKx25
Technical Specification
PQ60018EKx25 Standards & Qualification Testing
Pending
STANDARDS COMPLIANCE
Parameter
Notes & Conditions
STANDARDS COMPLIANCE
UL/cUL 60950-1
File # E194341, Basic insulation
EN60950-1
Certified by TUV
Needle Flame Test (IEC 695-2-2)
Test on entire assembly; board & plastic components UL94V-0 compliant
IEC 61000-4-2
ESD test, 8 kV - NP, 15 kV air - NP (Normal Performance)
Note: An external input fuse must always be used to meet these safety requirements. Contact SynQor for official safety certificates on new
releases or download from the SynQor website.
QUALIFICATION TESTING
Parameter
QUALIFICATION TESTING
Life Test
Vibration
Mechanical Shock
Temperature Cycling
Power/Thermal Cycling
Design Marginality
Humidity
Solderability
Product # PQ60018EKx25
# Units
32
5
5
10
5
5
5
15 pins
Phone 1-888-567-9596
Test Conditions
95% rated Vin and load, units at derating point, 1000 hours
10-55 Hz sweep, 0.060" total excursion, 1 min./sweep, 120 sweeps for 3 axis
100g minimum, 2 drops in x and y axis, 1 drop in z axis
-40 °C to 100 °C, unit temp. ramp 15 °C/min., 500 cycles
Toperating = min to max, Vin = min to max, full load, 100 cycles
Tmin-10 °C to Tmax+10 °C, 5 °C steps, Vin = min to max, 0-105% load
85 °C, 85% RH, 1000 hours, continuous Vin applied except 5 min/day
MIL-STD-883, method 2003
www.synqor.com
Doc.# 005-0005113 Rev. D
03/04/10
Page 6
Input:35-75V
Output:1.8V
Current:25A
Part No.:PQ60018EKx25
Technical Specification
100
87
95
86
85
Efficiency (%)
Efficiency (%)
90
80
75
70
35 Vin
25º C
40º C
75 Vin
55º C
60
0
5
10
15
20
Load Current (A)
82
100
25
Figure 1: Efficiency at nominal output voltage vs. load current for minimum,
nominal, and maximum input voltage at 25°C.
200
Air Flow (LFM)
300
400
Figure 2: Efficiency at nominal output voltage and 60% rated power vs. airflow
rate for ambient air temperatures of 25°C, 40°C, and 55°C (nominal input voltage).
14
8
12
7
10
Power Dissipation (W)
Power Dissipation (W)
84
83
48 Vin
65
85
8
6
4
35 Vin
5
4
25º C
40º C
3
48 Vin
2
6
55º C
75 Vin
0
0
5
10
15
20
Load Current (A)
25
Figure 3: Power dissipation at nominal output voltage vs. load current for minimum,
nominal, and maximum input voltage at 25°C.
2
100
200
Air Flow (LFM)
300
400
Figure 4: Power dissipation at nominal output voltage and 60% rated power
vs. airflow rate for ambient air temperatures of 25°C, 40°C, and 55°C (nominal
input voltage).
30
25
Iout (A)
20
15
10
400 LFM (2.0 m/s)
300 LFM (1.5 m/s)
200 LFM (1.0 m/s)
100 LFM (0.5 m/s)
5
0
25
40
55
70
85
Ambient Air Temperature (ºC)
Figure 5: Maximum output power-derating curve vs. ambient air temperature for
airflow rates of 100 LFM through 400 LFM with air flowing from pin 3 to pin 1
(nominal input voltage).
Product # PQ60018EKx25
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Figure 6: Thermal plot of converter at 24 A load current (43.2W) with 55°C air
flowing at the rate of 200 LFM. Air is flowing across the converter from pin 3 to
pin 1 (nominal input voltage).
Doc.# 005-0005113 Rev. D
03/04/10
Page 7
Input:35-75V
Output:1.8V
Current:25A
Part No.:PQ60018EKx25
Technical Specification
30
25
Iout (A)
20
15
10
400 LFM (2.0 m/s)
300 LFM (1.5 m/s)
200 LFM (1.0 m/s)
100 LFM (0.5 m/s)
5
0
25
40
55
70
85
Ambient Air Temperature (ºC)
Figure 7: Maximum output power derating curves vs. ambient air temperature for
airflow rates of 100 LFM through 400 LFM with air flowing across the converter
from input to output (nominal input voltage).
Figure 8: Thermal plot of converter at 22.6A load current (40.68 W) with 55°C
air flowing at the rate of 200 LFM. Air is flowing across the converter from input
to output (nominal input voltage).
Figure 9: Turn-on transient at full load (resistive load) (10 ms/div). Load cap: 10
uF, 100 mΩ ESR tantalum capacitor and 1 uF ceramic capacitor. Input voltage preapplied. Ch 1: Vout (500 mV/div), Ch 2: ON/OFF input (5 V/div).
Figure 10: Turn-on transient at zero load (10 ms/div). Load cap: 10 µF, 100 mΩ
ESR tantalum capacitor and 1 µF ceramic capacitor. Ch 1: Vout (500 mV/div),
Ch 2: ON/OFF input (5 V/div).
Figure 11: Output voltage response to step-change in load current (50%-75%-50% of
Iout(max); dI/dt = 0.1A/µs). Load cap: 15µF tantalum cap and 1µF ceramic cap. Ch
1: Vout (200mV/div), Ch 2: Iout (10A/div).
Figure 12: Output voltage response to step-change in load current (50%-75%50% of Iout(max): dI/dt = 1A/µs). Load cap: 470µF, 30 mΩ ESR tantalum cap
and 1µF ceramic cap. Ch 1: Vout (200mV/div), Ch 2: Iout (10A/div).
Product # PQ60018EKx25
Phone 1-888-567-9596
www.synqor.com
Doc.# 005-0005113 Rev. D
03/04/10
Page 8
Input:35-75V
Output:1.8V
Current:25A
Part No.:PQ60018EKx25
Technical Specification
Input
Reflected
Ripple
Current
10µH
source
impedance
Input
Terminal
Ripple
Current
iS
VSOURCE
iC
47 µF,
<1Ω ESR
electrolytic
capacitor
Output
Voltage
Ripple
DC-DC
Converter
VOUT
1 µF
15 µF,
ceramic 450m Ω ESR
capacitor
tantalum
capacitor
Figure 13: Test set-up diagram showing measurement points for Input Terminal
Ripple Current (Figure 14), Input Reflected Ripple Current (Figure 15) and
Output Voltage Ripple (Figure 16).
Figure 14: Input Terminal Ripple Current, ic, at full rated output current and
nominal input voltage with 10µH source impedance and 47µF electrolytic
capacitor (50 mA/div). See Figure 13.
Figure 15: Input reflected ripple current, is, through a 10 µH source inductor,
using a 47µF electrolytic input capacitor (5mA/div). See Figure 13.
Figure 16: Output voltage ripple at nominal input voltage and rated load current
(50 mV/div). Load capacitance: 1µF ceramic capacitor and 15µF tantalum
capacitor. Bandwidth: 20 MHz. See Figure 13.
12
11
10
Vout Trim-up (%)
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
100% Load
2
50% Load
1
0% Load
0
40.0
39.5
39.0
38.5
38.0
37.5
37.0
36.6
36.0
35.5
35.0
Input Voltage (V)
Figure 17: Output voltage response to step-change in input voltage (48V to 75V),
at 25A load current. Load cap: 15µF tantalum capacitor and 1uF ceramic cap.
Ch 1: Vout (100mV/div), Ch 2: Vin (20V/div).
Product # PQ60018EKx25
Phone 1-888-567-9596
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Figure 18: Achievable trim-up percentage vs. input voltage at 0%, 50% and full
load. Vin=35-40V.
Doc.# 005-0005113 Rev. D
03/04/10
Page 9
Input:35-75V
Output:1.8V
Current:25A
Part No.:PQ60018EKx25
Technical Specification
0
1
Forward Transmission (dB)
Output Impedance (ohms)
-10
0.1
0.01
35 Vin
48 Vin
75 Vin
0.001
-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
35 Vin
48 Vin
75 Vin
-80
-90
0.0001
-100
10
100
1,000
10,000
Hz
100,000
Figure 19: Magnitude of incremental output impedance (Zout = Vout/Iout) for
minimum, nominal, and maximum input voltage at full rated power.
10
100
1,000
Hz
10,000
100,000
Figure 20: Magnitude of incremental forward transmission (FT = Vout/Vin) for
minimum, nominal, and maximum input voltage at full rated power.
5
Reverse Transmission (dB)
-5
-15
-25
-35
35 Vin
48 Vin
75 Vin
-45
-55
10
100
1,000
10,000
100,000
Hz
Figure 21: Magnitude of incremental reverse transmission (RT = Iin/Iout) for
minimum, nominal, and maximum input voltage at full rated power.
Figure 22: Magnitude of incremental input impedance (Zin = Vin/Iin) for
minimum, nominal, and maximum input voltage at full rated power.
2
Output Voltage (V)
1.5
1
35 Vin
0.5
48 Vin
75 Vin
0
0
5
10
15
20
Load Current (A)
25
30
35
Figure 23: Output voltage vs. load current showing typical current limit curves
and converter shutdown points.
Product # PQ60018EKx25
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Doc.# 005-0005113 Rev. D
03/04/10
Page 10
Input:35-75V
Output:1.8V
Current:25A
Part No.:PQ60018EKx25
Technical Specification
BASIC OPERATION AND FEATURES
The single stage power converter switches at a fixed
frequency for predictable EMI performance. Rectification of
the transformer’s output is accomplished with synchronous
rectifiers. These devices, which are MOSFETs with a very low
on-state resistance, dissipate far less energy than Schottky
diodes. This is the primary reason that the PowerQor
converter has such high efficiency, even at very low output
voltages and very high output currents.
Dissipation throughout the converter is so low that it does
not require a heatsink for operation. Since a heatsink is not
required, the PowerQor converter does not need a metal
baseplate or potting material to help conduct the dissipated
energy to the heatsink. The PowerQor converter can thus be
built more simply and reliably using high yield surface mount
techniques on a PCB substrate.
The PowerQor series of eighth-brick, quarter-brick and halfbrick converters uses the industry standard footprint and
pin-out configuration.
CONTROL FEATURES
REMOTE ON/OFF (Pin 2): The ON/OFF input, Pin 2, permits
the user to control when the converter is on or off. This input is
referenced to the return terminal of the input bus, Vin(-). There
are two versions of the converter that differ by the sense of the
logic used for the ON/OFF input.
In the positive logic version, the ON/OFF input is active high
(meaning that a high turns the converter on). In the negative
logic version, the ON/OFF signal is active low (meaning that a
low turns the converter on). Figure A details five possible circuits
for driving the ON/OFF pin. Figure B is a detailed look of the
internal ON/OFF circuitry.
REMOTE SENSE(+) (Pins 7 and 5): The SENSE(+) inputs
correct for voltage drops along the conductors that connect the
converter’s output pins to the load.
Pin 7 should be connected to Vout(+) and Pin 5 should be
connected to Vout(-) at the point on the board where regulation
is desired. A remote connection at the load can adjust for a
voltage drop only as large as that specified in this datasheet,
that is
[Vout(+) - Vout(-)] – [Vsense(+) - Vsense(-)] <
Sense Range % x Vout
Pins 7 and 5 must be connected for proper regulation of
the output voltage. If these connections are not made, the
converter will deliver an output voltage that is slightly higher
than its specified value.
Note: the output over-voltage protection circuit senses the
voltage across the output (pins 8 and 4) to determine when
it should trigger, not the voltage across the converter’s sense
leads (pins 7 and 5). Therefore, the resistive drop on the board
should be small enough so that output OVP does not trigger,
even during load transients.
ON/OFF
ON/OFF
ON/OFF
Vin(_)
Vin(_)
Vin(_)
Remote Enable Circuit
Negative Logic
(Permanently Enabled)
ON/OFF
5V
50k
TTL
ON/OFF
Vin(_)
Vin(_)
100pF
Vin(_)
Direct Logic Drive
Figure A: Various circuits for driving the ON/OFF pin.
Product # PQ60018EKx25
10k
ON/OFF
TTL/
CMOS
Open Collector Enable Circuit
5V
Positive Logic
(Permanently Enabled)
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Figure B: Internal ON/OFF pin circuitry
Doc.# 005-0005113 Rev. D
03/04/10
Page 11
Input:35-75V
Output:1.8V
Current:25A
Part No.:PQ60018EKx25
Technical Specification
OUTPUT VOLTAGE TRIM (Pin 6): The TRIM input permits the
user to adjust the output voltage across the sense leads up or
down according to the trim range specifications.
To decrease the output voltage, the user should connect a
resistor between Pin 6 and Pin 5 (SENSE(-) input). For a desired
decrease of the nominal output voltage, the value of the resistor
should be
Rtrim-down =
( 511
D%)
- 10.22 (kW)
where
D% =
Vnominal – Vdesired
Vnominal
x 100%
To increase the output voltage, the user should connect a
resistor between Pin 6 and Pin 7 (SENSE(+) input). For a desired
increase of the nominal output voltage, the value of the resistor
should be
Rtrim-up =
(
5.11VOUT(100+D%) _ 511 _
10.22
1.225D%
D%
)
(kW)
where
VOUT = Nominal Output Voltage
Figure C graphs the relationship between the trim resistor value
and Rtrim-up and Rtrim-down, showing the total range the
output voltage can be trimmed up or down.
Note: the TRIM feature does not affect the voltage at which the
output over-voltage protection circuit is triggered. Trimming the
output voltage too high may cause the over-voltage protection
circuit to engage, particularly during transients.
It is not necessary for the user to add capacitance at the Trim
pin. The node is internally bypassed to eliminate noise.
Trim Resistance (kOhms)
10,000
Total DC Variation of Vout: For the converter to meet its
full specifications, the maximum variation of the DC value of
Vout, due to both trimming and remote load voltage drops,
should not be greater than that specified for the output
voltage trim range.
PROTECTION FEATURES
Input Under-Voltage Lockout: The converter is designed
to turn off when the input voltage is too low, helping avoid an
input system instability problem, described in more detail in the
application note titled “Input System Instability”. The lockout
circuitry is a comparator with DC hysteresis. When the input
voltage is rising, it must exceed the typical Turn-On Voltage
Threshold value (listed on the specification page) before the
converter will turn on. Once the converter is on, the input
voltage must fall below the typical Turn-Off Voltage Threshold
value before the converter will turn off.
Output Current Limit: Once the output current reaches the
current-limit point, the converter is in the cycle-by-cycle current
limit mode for a short time that the typical value is 210µs. If the
over current no longer exists during this short time, the converter
resumes the normal condition. If the over current still persists
after this short time, the converter enters a “hiccup mode” where
it repeatedly turns on and off at a 5 Hz (nominal) frequency until
the over current condition is removed. The dual advantages of
this design are that a short term overload will not cause a hiccup
mode restart and it prevents excessive heating of the converter
or the load board in extended over current condition.
Output Over-Voltage Limit: If the voltage across the output
pins exceeds the Output Over-Voltage Protection threshold, the
converter will immediately stop switching. This prevents damage
to the load circuit due to 1) excessive series resistance in output
current path from converter output pins to sense point, 2) a
release of a short-circuit condition, or 3) a release of a current
limit condition. Load capacitance determines exactly how high
the output voltage will rise in response to these conditions. After
200 ms the converter will automatically restart.
Over-Temperature Shutdown: A temperature sensor on
the converter senses the average temperature of the module.
The thermal shutdown circuit is designed to turn the converter
off when the temperature at the sensed location reaches the
Over-Temperature Shutdown value. It will allow the converter
to turn on again when the temperature of the sensed location
falls by the amount of the Over-Temperature Shutdown Restart
Hysteresis value.
1,000
100
10
1
0
1
2
3
4
% increase Vout
5
6
7
8
9
10
% decrease Vout
Figure
Figure C:
C: Trim
Trim Graph
Graph for
for 1.8Vout
1.8Vout module
module
Product # PQ60018EKx25
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Doc.# 005-0005113 Rev. D
03/04/10
Page 12
Input:35-75V
Output:1.8V
Current:25A
Part No.:PQ60018EKx25
Technical Specification
APPLICATION CONSIDERATIONS
Input System Instability: This condition can occur because
any DC/DC converter appears incrementally as a negative
resistance load. A detailed application note titled “Input System
Instability” is available on the SynQor website which provides
an understanding of why this instability arises, and shows the
preferred solution for correcting it.
Application Circuits: Figure D below provides a typical circuit
diagram which details the input filtering and voltage trimming.
Input Filtering and External Capacitance: Figure E below
provides a diagram showing the internal input filter components.
This filter dramatically reduces input terminal ripple current,
which otherwise could exceed the rating of an external
input electrolytic capacitor. The recommended external input
capacitance is specified in the “Input Characteristics” section.
More detailed information is available in the application note
titled “EMI Characteristics” on the SynQor website.
Startup Inhibit Period: The Startup Inhibit Period ensures
that the converter will remain off for approximately 200ms
when it is shut down for any reason. In all, there are five ways
that the converter can be shut down, initiating a Startup Inhibit
Period:
• Input Under-Voltage Lockout
• Output Over-Voltage Protection
• Over Temperature Shutdown
• Current Limit
• Turned off by the ON/OFF input
Vin(+)
Vin
External
Input
Filter
Electrolytic
Capacitor
47µF
Vout(+)
Vsense(+)
ON/OFF
Rtrim-up
Trim
or
Vsense(_)
Vin(_)
Rtrim-down
Cload
Iload
Vout(_)
Figure D: Typical application circuit (negative logic unit, permanently enabled).
Vin(+)
L
C
Vin(_)
Figure E: Internal Input Filter Diagram (component values listed on the specifications page).
Product # PQ60018EKx25
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Doc.# 005-0005113 Rev. D
03/04/10
Page 13
Input:35-75V
Output:1.8V
Current:25A
Part No.:PQ60018EKx25
Technical Specification
Figure F shows three turn-on scenarios, where a Startup Inhibit
Period is initiated at t0, t1, and t2:
At time t1, the unit is disabled by the ON/OFF pin, and it cannot
be enabled again until the Startup Inhibit Period has elapsed.
Before time t0, when the input voltage is below the UVL
threshold, the unit is disabled by the Input Under-Voltage
Lockout feature. When the input voltage rises above the
UVL threshold, the Input Under-Voltage Lockout is released, and
a Startup Inhibit Period is initiated. At the end of this delay, the
ON/OFF pin is evaluated, and since it is active, the unit turns on.
When the ON/OFF pin goes high after t2, the Startup Inhibit
Period has elapsed, and the output turns on within the typical
Turn-On Time.
Vin
Under-Voltage
Lockout
Turn-On
Threshold
ON/OFF
(pos logic)
ON
OFF
ON
OFF
ON
21 ms
(typical turn on time)
Vout
10ms
(typical start-up
inhibit period)
t0
200ms
200ms
t1
t
t2
Figure F: Startup Inhibit Period (turn-on time not to scale)
Product # PQ60018EKx25
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Doc.# 005-0005113 Rev. D
03/04/10
Page 14
Technical
Specification
PQ60018EKx25
PART NUMBERING SYSTEM
ORDERING INFORMATION
The part numbering system for SynQor’s dc-dc converters
follows the format shown in the example below.
The tables below show the valid model numbers and ordering
options for converters in this product family. When ordering
SynQor converters, please ensure that you use the complete
15 character part number consisting of the 12 character base
part number and the additional 3 characters for options.
Add “-G” to the model number for 6/6 RoHS compliance.
P Q 6 0 0 18 E K A 2 5 N R S - G
6/6 RoHS
Options
(see
Ordering Information)
Output Current
Thermal Design
Input
Output
Max Output
Voltage
Voltage
Current
PQ60EKw25xyz - G
35-75V
1.8V
25A
EKA has standard height, EKL is a low profile product
Model Number
Performance Level
The following options must be included in place of the x y z
spaces in the model numbers listed above.
Package Size
Output Voltage
Input Voltage
Product Family
Thermal Design
The first 12 characters comprise the base part number and
the last 3 characters indicate available options. The “-G”
suffix indicates 6/6 RoHS compliance.
Application Notes
A - Open Frame
L - Low Profile
B - Baseplated
Options Description: x y z
Enable Logic
Pin Style
P - Positive
N - Negative
K - 0.110"
N - 0.145"
R - 0.180"
Y - 0.250"
Feature Set
S - Standard
Not all combinations make valid part numbers, please contact
SynQor for availability. See the Product Summary web page for
more options.
A variety of application notes and technical white papers can
be downloaded in pdf format from our website.
RoHS Compliance: The EU led RoHS (Restriction of Hazardous
Substances) Directive bans the use of Lead, Cadmium,
Hexavalent Chromium, Mercury, Polybrominated Biphenyls
(PBB), and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) in Electrical
and Electronic Equipment. This SynQor product is 6/6 RoHS
compliant. For more information please refer to SynQor’s
RoHS addendum available at our RoHS Compliance / Lead Free
Initiative web page or e-mail us at [email protected]
PATENTS
SynQor holds the following U.S. patents, one or more of which apply to
each product listed in this brochure. Additional patent applications may
be pending or filed in the future.
5,999,417
6,222,742
6,545,890
6,577,109
6,594,159
6,731,520
6,894,468
6,896,526
6,927,987
7,050,309
7,072,190
7,085,146
7,119,524
7,269,034
7,272,021
7,272,023
7,558,083
7,564,702
Contact SynQor for further information:
Phone:
Toll Free:
Fax:
E-mail:
Web:
Address:
Product # PQ60018EKx25
978-849-0600
888-567-9596
978-849-0602
[email protected]
www.synqor.com
155 Swanson Road
Boxborough, MA 01719
USA
Phone 1-888-567-9596
Warranty
SynQor offers a three (3) year limited warranty. Complete warranty
information is listed on our website or is available upon request from SynQor.
Information furnished by SynQor is believed to be accurate and reliable.
However, no responsibility is assumed by SynQor for its use, nor for any
infringements of patents or other rights of third parties which may result
from its use. No license is granted by implication or otherwise under any
patent or patent rights of SynQor.
www.synqor.com
Doc.# 005-0005113 Rev. D
03/04/10
Page 15
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