cd00183570

AN2703
Application note
Parameter list for SCRs, TRIACs, AC switches, and DIACS
Introduction
All datasheet parameters are rated as minimum or maximum values, corresponding to the
product parameter distribution. In each datasheet, two classes of parameters are available:
March 2008
■
Absolute ratings, corresponding to critical parameters, not to be exceeded for safe
operation. If the absolute rating is exceeded, the component may be damaged.
■
Electrical, thermal and static characteristics, defining limits on product characteristics.
Rev. 2
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Parameters
1
AN2703
Parameters
Table 1.
Absolute ratings parameters
Parameter
VDRM / VRRM
VRM
Name and description
Repetitive peak off-state voltage (50-60 Hz)
This is the maximum peak voltage allowed across the device. This parameter is
specified up to the maximum junction temperature and the leakage currents,
IDRM / IRRM are specified under this value.
VDSM / VRSM
Non repetitive peak off-state voltage
This is the maximum peak voltage allowed under pulse conditions across the
device. It is specify for pulse durations lower or equal to 10ms.This parameter
guarantees the ruggedness of the TRIAC in case of fast line transients
exceeding the specified VDRM / VRRM value.
IT(RMS)
On-state rms current
This is the maximum rms current allowed in the device for a specified case
temperature (Tc), or ambient temperature (Ta) or lead temperature (Tl),
depending on the type of package.
IT(AV)
Average on-state current (SCR only)
This is the maximum average current allowed in the SCR at a specified case
temperature (Tc), or ambient temperature (Tamb) or lead temperature (Tl),
depending on the type of package
ITRM
Repetitive peak on-state current
This is the maximum allowable repetitive peak current for a specified pulse
duration at a specified case, ambient or lead temperature and frequency.
ITSM
Non repetitive surge peak on-state current
This is the maximum peak current allowed in the device under pulse conditions.
For TRIACs, it is defined for a single full cycle sine wave of 20 ms corresponding
to the 50 Hz mains, and 16.6 ms for the 60 Hz mains.
If the absolute rating is exceeded, the component may be damaged
dI/dt
Critical repetitive rate of rise of on-state current
During turn-on, the maximum rate of rise of current should not exceed this
maximum value. Above this limit, the SCR or TRIAC may be damaged
I²t
Value for fuse definition
To protect the device, the I²t rating of the fuse used in series with it must be
lower than this specified value.
This parameter is linked to the ITSM parameter as described below:
i²t =
I2TSM
´ tp
2
with tp the duration of full-cycle sinewave.
Tstg, Tj
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Storage and operating junction temperatures
The storage temperature range is the range in which the device can be stored
(shipping, handling, storage...), without working.
The operating junction temperature range is the range at which the junction can
work without damage.
AN2703
Parameters
Table 1.
Absolute ratings parameters (continued)
Parameter
Name and description
IGM
Peak gate current
This is the maximum peak current allowed through gate and cathode, defined
for a 20 µs pulse duration.
If the absolute rating is exceeded, the component may be damaged.
PG(AV)
Average gate power dissipation
This is the maximum average power that can be dissipated by the gate junction.
If the absolute rating is exceeded, the component may be damaged.
VRGM
Peak reverse gate voltage
This parameter is only defined for SCRs. It is the maximum reverse voltage than
can be applied across gate and cathode terminals, without risk of destruction of
the gate to cathode junction.
VGM
Peak positive gate voltage (with respect to the pin "COM")
This parameter is only defined for ACSs. It is the maximum voltage than can be
applied across gate and COM terminals without risk of destruction of the gate to
COM junction.
Table 2.
Electrical characteristics parameters
Parameter
Name and description
P
Average power dissipation
This is the average power dissipated by current conduction through the device
for one full cycle operation.
IGT
Triggering gate current
This is the current to apply between gate and cathode (or gate and electrode A1
for TRIAC) to turn-on the device. This parameter defines the sensitivity of the
component.
For a SCR, the gate current has always to be sunk by the gate.
For a TRIAC, IGT is define for 3 or 4 quadrants corresponding to the different
polarities of A2, A1 and gate:
- Q1: Ig sunk by the gate, VA2-A1 > 0
- Q2: Ig sourced by the gate, VA2-A1 > 0
- Q3: Ig sourced by the gate, VA2-A1 < 0
- Q4: Ig sunk by the gate, VA2-A1 < 0
The IGT value is higher in Q4 quadrant.
For ACS types, IGT is defined in two quadrants (Q2 and Q3).
VGT
Triggering gate voltage
This is the voltage to apply across gate and cathode (or gate and electrode A1
for TRIAC) to reach the IGT current and then to trigger the device.
VGD
Non-triggering gate voltage
VGD is the maximum voltage which can be applied across gate and cathode (or
gate and electrode A1 for TRIAC) without causing undesired turn-on. This
parameter is specified, for the worst case scenario, at the maximum junction
temperature.
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Parameters
AN2703
Table 2.
Electrical characteristics parameters (continued)
Parameter
4/9
Name and description
IH
Holding current
This is the current level circulating through anode and cathode (or A2 and A1 for
a TRIAC) under which the device turns off, without gate current.
IL
Latching current
This is the current level circulating through anode and cathode (or A2 and A1 for
a TRIAC) to keep the device conducting after removal of the gate current.
If the anode current is under this value after having removed the gate current,
the device switches off. For TRIACs, the IL value is higher in Q2 quadrant.
dV/dt
Critical rate of rise of off-state voltage
This is the maximum value of rate of the rising voltage that can be applied
across anode and cathode of the SCR (or across A2 and A1 for a TRIAC)
without risking turning it on spuriously.
(dI/dt)c
Critical rate of decrease of commutating on-state current
This is the maximum rate of decrease of the anode current allowed to turn the
TRIAC off. Above this value, the TRIAC can remains ON in next reverse polarity.
For standard, logic level TRIACs and ACSs, the (dI/dt)c is specified with a limited
(dV/dt)c parameter.
For Snubberless TRIACs, this value is specified without it.
(dV/dt)c
Critical rate of rise of commutating off-state voltage
This is the maximum rate of rise of the reapplied voltage during turn-off. Above
this limit, the TRIAC may remain ON without any gate current.
VCL
Clamping voltage
This is the voltage level, applied across OUT and COM terminals, from which
the device enters in avalanche mode. It is only defined for ACS and ACST
devices which internally feature an overvoltage protection capability.
VBO
Breakover voltage
This is the voltage measured across the terminals of a DIAC or across OUT and
COM terminals of an ACS/ACST, when the device current reaches its IBO level
(no gate current). Above this point, the device will turn on in breakover mode.
IBO
Breakover current
This is current flowing through a DIAC or an ACS just before that the device
switches on in the breakover mode.
VTM
Peak on-state voltage drop
This is the voltage across the device while it is on-state. It is specified at the
peak current corresponding to the IT(RMS) current of the device.
VF
Peak forward voltage drop
This is the voltage across a diode when the diode is conducting.
AN2703
Parameters
Table 2.
Electrical characteristics parameters (continued)
Parameter
Vto / Rd
Name and description
Threshold voltage
Dynamic on-state resistance
These two parameters are used to calculate the instantaneous voltage drop
according to the relation VT = Vto + Rd x IT.
They are also useful to calculate the power dissipation of the device:
For SCR:
P = Vt 0 ´ IT( AV ) + R d ´ I2T(RMS)
For TRIACs:
P=
IDRM / IRRM
IRM or IR
2 2
Vt 0 ´ IT (RMS ) + R d ´ I2T (RMS )
p
Maximum forward and reverse leakage current (SCRs, TRIACs and ACS)
Maximum leakage current for diodes
This is the current flowing through the device when it is in the OFF state, at the
specified VDRM or VRRM value for TRIACs or SCRs, or VR for diodes or
DIACs.
Please refer to Appendix A: Testing method for parameters.
tgt
Turn-on time
This is the time between the beginning of the gate current pulse (10% of its peak
value) and when the A-K voltage of the SCR or A2-A1 voltage of the TRIAC has
fallen down to 10% of its previous stand-off value.
tq
Turn-off time
This parameter is specific to SCRs. After this time, a positive voltage rate can be
applied across Anode and Cathode without causing any spurious firing. This
parameter defines the maximum operating frequency of the SCR.
td
Delay time
This is the time between the beginning of the gate current pulse (10% of its peak
value) and the beginning of the decrease of the A2-A1 or A-K voltage (90% of its
peak value).
tρ
Rise time
For a DIAC, this is the time between 10% and 90% of the peak current
generated when the component discharge a specified capacitor into a specified
load.
VBR
Breakdown voltage
This is the voltage across the device, at off-state, measured at a specified
current level. This parameter is specific for some ASDTM and protection
devices.
αT
Temperature coefficient
This is the positive temperature coefficient of the breakover voltage. This
parameter is generally specified in percentage, for specific devices.
VO
Output voltage
For a DIAC, this is the peak voltage across a 20 Ω resistor in series with the
device during the discharge of a specified capacitor.
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Parameters
AN2703
Table 2.
Electrical characteristics parameters (continued)
Parameter
ΔV
Dynamic breakover voltage
For a DIAC, this is the dynamic variation of its voltage at triggering. It is the
difference between VBO and the voltage for a 10mA current.
Δ V = VBO - VDIAC(10mA)
DIACs feature a negative-resistance triggered characteristic.
RTH(j-a)
Junction to ambient thermal resistance
This is the thermal resistance between junction and ambient, when the device is
used without heatsink. For SMD packages, the copper surface under the tab is
specified.
RTH(j-c)
Junction to case thermal resistance
This is the thermal resistance between junction to case. For TRIACs and SCRs,
this value is respectively specified for AC and DC operations.
RTH(j-l)
Junction to lead thermal resistance
This is the thermal resistance between junction and leads. It is given for small
packages like TO92, with no other metallic case temperature reference.
ZTH(j-c)
ZTHj-a)
6/9
Name and description
Transient thermal impedance
This is the value of the thermal resistance when the steady state of the device is
not reached. Curves provided in the datasheets, ZTH(j-c) and ZTH(j-a), show the
relative value of this impedance according the to the time duration of dissipated
power pulse.
AN2703
Testing method for parameters
Appendix A
Testing method for parameters
The testing method for IDRM / IRRM parameters is:
●
Apply the specified VDRM or VRRM voltage across anode and cathode (or A2 and A1
terminals for TRIACs, or OUT and COM terminals for AC Switches)
●
Measure the leakage current peak value: it must be less than the maximum
specification value (IDRM / IRRM max.).
It is forbidden to use a current supply and apply the IDRM / IRRM max. through anode
and cathode, and then measure the voltage.
In this case, the TRIAC or the SCR goes into breakdown voltage and may be damaged.
Note:
A voltage higher than the VDRM / VRRM rated values may be applied for less than 10 ms if it
does not exceed the VDSM / VRSM parameters specified in the device datasheet.
Figure 1.
Relationship between applied and measured values
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Revision history
2
AN2703
Revision history
Table 3.
8/9
Document revision history
Date
Revision
Changes
Aug-2005
1
Initial release.
28-Jan-2008
2
Reformatted to current standards
AN2703
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