AN726: Utility Class D ToolStick User s Guide

AN726
U TILITY C LASS - D TOOL S T I C K U SER ’ S G UIDE
1. Introduction
Class-D is a switching power amplifier architecture that uses high-frequency Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM) to
generate the output waveform. The transistors are fully on or fully off, which means this architecture can reach very
high efficiency levels, resulting in significant power savings. However, the translation from the input signal to PWM
and the PWM itself can cause more distortion on the output than other amplifier architectures. Figure 1 shows a
very basic Class-D signal diagram.
Figure 1. Class-D Power Amplifier Signal Diagram
Because the Class-D amplifier transistors are fully on or fully off, the transistors lose less energy in the form of
heat. This architecture, therefore, lends itself to small, cheap MOSFETs. The Class-D amplifier can be
implemented in either analog or digital form.
An analog Class-D amplifier is non-trivial and typically consists of a comparator, triangle waveform generator, and
several blocks to condition the input signal before transferring to the output MOSFETs.
A digital Class-D amplifier requires the following:
PWM
output (switching) frequency 10x+ faster than the highest input frequency to adequately reconstruct
the input signal
High-resolution control of the PWM pulse width to reduce output quantization distortion
Method for sampling or receiving the input waveform
Fast core for digital processing and manipulation of data
Pins capable of driving the amplified signal
Since the Silicon Labs Precision32™ SiM3U1xx/SiM3C1xx 32-bit MCUs have peripherals and features capable of
meeting all of these requirements, these MCUs are uniquely suited to a utility Class-D power amplifier application
without using many external components by directly driving the speaker using the high drive I/O.
In addition to providing a development platform for Class-D applications, the Class-D ToolStick board serves as a
lower-cost, general-purpose development platform for the SiM3U1xx USB MCUs.
2. Relevant Documents
This document provides a hardware and software overview for the Class-D ToolStick. Additional documentation on
the Precision32 tools and MCUs can be found on the Silicon Labs website: www.silabs.com/32bit-appnotes,
www.silabs.com/32bit-software, and www.silabs.com/32bit-mcu.
Rev. 0.1 11/12
Copyright © 2012 by Silicon Laboratories
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3. Using the Demo
The speaker in the kit connects to the JP1 1x2 header next to the green terminal block (J4). Two alternate
connection methods are available to support a variety of speakers: the J4 terminal block, and an output audio jack
(J5). A screwdriver can be used to attach the speaker(s) of choice to J4, and each speaker should have two leads:
positive (red) and negative (black). The audio jack output connects both channels of the speaker to R+ and R–, so
it is not true mono. The Class-D ToolStick board is intended for use with stereo systems.
The Class-D ToolStick can be powered from either the Debug (J3) or Device (J2) USB mini connectors as shown in
Figure 2. The green POWER LED (DS7) will light up when the board is powered. Do not touch the Capacitive
Sensing slider during power-on, as this is when the board calibrates the slider. Once the board is ready for use, the
blue LED (DS1) will turn on.
Figure 2. Powering the Board
Change the volume of the output at any time by pressing firmly and sliding on the Capacitive Sensing slider (CS1).
The blue LEDs above the slider indicate the volume level.
The MODE button on the slider can be used to change the mode of the board:
Mode
1 (blue LED DS1): Stereo Jack Input Mode
2 (blue LED DS2): USB Input/Output Mode
Mode 3 (blue LED DS3): Play Prerecorded Flash Mode
Mode 4 (blue LED DS4): Play/Record Flash Mode
Mode
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3.1. Stereo Jack Input Mode
The default mode of the Class-D ToolStick is stereo jack input mode, indicated by blue LED DS1. To play sound in
this mode, connect any input source (MP3 player, phone, etc.) to the J1 stereo jack. The volume level of the input
device should be as high as possible without causing saturation, which the red LED (DS8) indicates.
3.2. USB Input/Output Mode
In USB mode, the board plays sound from the USB host PC or records sound from the board microphone (MK1)
and sends it up to the PC. To use the board in this mode, connect the Device USB connector (J2) to the host PC
and press the MODE button until blue LED DS2 turns on. The board should appear as the Utility Class-D
ToolStick in Device Manager once it’s properly enumerated as a USB Audio device.
To select the Class-D Audio device as the Playback or Recording source in Windows 7, right-click on the Volume
Mixer icon in the System Tray and select either Playback devices or Recording devices. In the Playback tab of
the dialog, select the Utility Class-D ToolStick and press the Set Default button as shown in Figure 3. The
settings for the device can be selected using the Properties button in this tab.
Figure 3. Configuring the USB Utility Class-D ToolStick as the Playback or Recording Device
In the Recording tab of the dialog, select the Utility Class-D ToolStick microphone and press the Set Default
button. This will open an interface to the microphone and will display the recorded input volume to the right of the
device name. If this volume is not registering sounds, press the Properties button to configure the microphone
volume.
Once configured, any program on the PC should output to the Class-D ToolStick device. Ensure that the volume
levels in the program and Volume Mixer are set to appropriate levels. If the device volume settings are not affecting
the Class-D board, click the expansion button below the Speakers icon and select the Speakers (Utility Class-D
ToolStick) as shown in Figure 4.
When recording, the red LED (DS8) indicates when the microphone input saturates.
Note: As long as a recording interface is open (i.e. Volume Mixer Recording devices dialog or a recording program open), the
Class-D ToolStick prevents the user from switching the operation mode. This is due to potential synchronization issues
when switching between different modes and sending data up to the host PC. To switch the mode, close the Volume
Mixer or the recording program.
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Figure 4. Selecting the USB Utility Class-D ToolStick in Volume Mixer
3.3. Play Prerecorded Flash Mode
In prerecorded flash mode, the Class-D ToolStick will output ~7 seconds of sound from an array saved to flash.
Enter the mode by pressing the MODE button until blue LED DS3 turns on.
Press the PLAY slider button on the board to start the waveform, and press the PLAY slider button again to stop it
before it completes. The blue LED (DS6) will indicate when a play operation is in progress. This mode provides an
alternative sound input source when no sources are available and provides an indication of what sound effects
would sound like.
3.4. Play/Record Flash Mode
The play/record flash mode records compressed sound to the flash of the MCU. Enter the mode by pressing the
MODE button until blue LED DS4 turns on.
Press the REC slider button to start recording, and press the REC slider button again to stop recording. The blue
LED (DS5) will indicate when a record operation is in progress. Multiple recordings will append to the full recording
in flash. Once the flash is full, the MCU will indicate no additional recordings can be made by turning on and
immediately turning off the blue record LED. To record additional sound, press the ERASE slider button to erase
the flash. The blue DS5 LED will turn on while the erase operation is in progress. When recording, the red LED
(DS8) indicates when the microphone input saturates.
Press the PLAY slider button on the board to start the waveform, and press the PLAY slider button again to stop it
before it completes. The blue LED (DS6) will indicate when a play operation is in progress.
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4. Class-D ToolStick Hardware Overview
The Class-D ToolStick board enables Class-D application development on the SiM3U164 MCU. In addition to
providing a development platform for Class-D applications, the Class-D ToolStick board serves as a low-cost,
general-purpose development platform for the SiM3U1xx USB MCUs.
Figure 5 shows the Utility Class-D ToolStick board features. Full schematics for the board can be found in
7. "Schematics‚" on page 22
ToolStick Debug
Adapter
Testpoint Pin Access
for General-Purpose
Development
Class-D Output
Filters and
Speaker Header
Optional High
Power Components
Audio Inputs
Stereo Jack and
Microphone Gain/Bias
Capacitive Sensing
Slider and LED User
Interface
Figure 5. Utility Class-D ToolStick Board Features
4.1. Push-Button Switches and LEDs (S1-2, DS1-DS8)
The Class-D ToolStick board has two push-button switches and eight LEDs summarized in Table 1. The switches
connect to PB0.6 (S1) and PB0.7 (S2) and are currently unused in the Class-D firmware. The switches are
normally open and pull the pin voltage to ground when pressed.
Port pins PB0.1, PB0.2, PB0.4, PB0.5, PB0.10, and PB0.11 connect to six blue LEDs (DS1-DS6). Pin PB3.3
connects to the red LED (DS8). The green LED, POWER (DS7), turns on when USB power is applied to the board
from either USB connector. The LEDs connect to VIO through a current limiting resistor.
Table 1. Class-D ToolStick Switches and LEDs
GPIO Pin
Switch or LED
PB0.6
Push-Button Switch (S1)
PB0.7
Push-Button Switch (S2)
PB0.1
Blue LED (DS1)
PB0.2
Blue LED (DS2)
PB0.4
Blue LED (DS3)
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Table 1. Class-D ToolStick Switches and LEDs (Continued)
GPIO Pin
Switch or LED
PB0.5
Blue LED (DS4)
PB0.10
Blue LED (DS5)
PB0.11
Blue LED (DS6)
PB3.3
Red LED (DS8)
—
Green POWER LED (DS7)
4.2. Class-D Output Network, Terminal (J4), Header (JP1), and Jack (J5)
The four high drive I/O pins on the SiM3U164 40-pin QFN package connect to the J4 terminals after going through
the Class-D output network, allowing these pins to directly drive the speaker(s). The JP1 1x2 header connects to
R+ and R– to interface with the kit speaker. The output jack (J5) connects R+ and R– to both channels and does
not provide true mono sound. To create a mono output, connect the L_IN and R_IN test points together in the
stereo jack and microphone gain/bias section of the board.
The output network consists of a ferrite bead, LC, and grounding caps for each pair of channels, R+/R– and L+/L–.
These components should be tuned for the specific application speaker as discussed in 6. "Tuning the Class-D
Output Network‚" on page 18.
Table 2. Terminal Block Pin Descriptions (J4)
Pin
I/O
1
PB4.0 / R+
2
PB4.1 / R–
3
PB4.2 / L+
4
PB4.3 / L–
4.3. ToolStick Debug Adapter (U3)
The Class-D ToolStick board features a debug adapter via the mini-B USB connector (J3) labeled DEBUG. This
debug adapter can be used with the Precision32 (1.0.2 and higher) and ARM uVision IDEs (4.54 and higher).
When using an older version of the IDEs, the debug adapter DLLs in the IDE directories must be replaced to
support the ToolStick Debug Adapter. Contact technical support (“Contact Information” section) for more
information.
4.4. USB Connection Options (J2)
The Class-D ToolStick board features a USB connection via the mini-B USB connector (J2) labeled DEVICE. This
USB connector provides the USB Audio features of the board and facilitates general-purpose USB development on
the SiM3U164 device.
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4.5. Capacitive Sensing Buttons and Slider (CS1)
Four capacitive sensing buttons and one slider comprised of six segments are included on the board to provide the
user interface. Six GPIO pins are connected to the slider as shown in Table 3. The GPIO pins are connected to the
slider in descending order from the location labeled MODE to the location labeled PLAY on the board.
The test points above the slider facilitate adding grounded or shrouded connectors to measure the capacitive
sensing pins.
Table 3. Capacitive Sensing GPIO Connections
Location
Pin
MODE
PB1.1
—
PB1.0
ERASE
PB0.15
—
PB0.14
REC
PB0.13
PLAY
PB0.12
4.6. Analog Audio Inputs (J1 and MK1)
The stereo jack on the board (J1) allows the board to measure stereo inputs from an input source. The microphone
(MK1) enables the device to measure voice data directly. These signals are conditioned by a bias and gain circuit
provided by a quad op-amp IC (U1), resistors, and capacitors to a range appropriate for the SiM3U164 SARADC
modules.
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5. Class-D ToolStick Firmware Overview
5.1. System Overview
The system is configured for 48 MHz AHB and APB to maximize the output resolution of the EPCA.
In all modes, the EPCA0 operates continuously and outputs the PWM signal to the speaker. This waveform
generation is never interrupted. The SARADC modules operate in 12-bit mode at the maximum SAR clock
frequency in order to complete conversions as quickly as possible. The USB internal oscillator provides the
48 MHz system clock, which in conjunction with the PLL0 module, provides the precise timing required in the
different modes to recreate the audio waveforms.
5.1.1. SiM3U164 Module Usage
The modules used by the Class-D ToolStick firmware are:
SARADC0:
Measures the right stereo jack channel and the microphone input
Measures the left stereo jack channel
VREF0: Provides the 2.4 V reference for the ADCs
FLASHCTRL0: Writes recorded microphone data to flash
EPCA0: Generates Class-D PWM waveforms (four channels)
CAPSENSE0: Provides button and slider user interface
TIMER0: Generates ~20 ms capacitive sensing scan timer
TIMER1: Generates mode timing (e.g. 48 kHz in USB) and handles LED PWM updates
PCA0 and Crossbar: Generates LED PWM waveforms for the six blue LEDs (one channel)
USB0: Provides the USB Audio input/output interface
PLL0: Provides the precise timing for the system and spectrum spreading to reduce emissions
AppBuilder generates the initialization code for all modules except for the USB0 module. This AppBuilder project is
included in the Utility Class-D ToolStick software package.
SARADC1:
Note: Exporting code from version 1.1.1 of AppBuilder will overwrite the project file associated with the Class-D ToolStick firmware. This project file includes manual changes to include the si32Library that will be removed when AppBuilder exports
the code. A saved version of the project file (save.project) is available in the Class-D ToolStick firmware package in
case this project file is overwritten. To restore the project file, simply copy the contents of save.project to the .project
file.
5.1.2. Firmware Organization
The Class-D ToolStick code follows the AppBuilder code organization scheme. The application-specific code for
each peripheral is in the src folder in the my- files, and the generated files from AppBuilder are in a generated
folder below the src folder. Additional application-specific files are in the src folder with names associated with the
functions in the file, like mulaw or LED_control.
class_d:
includes the main Class-D loop and any control not handled by the TIMER1L interrupt handler.
LED_control: blue and red LED update functions; handles the shifting of the PCA channel on the crossbar.
mulaw: implements the µLaw companding algorithms.
myApplication: implements the system initialization code before passing control to class_d.
myBuildOptions: required for si32Library.
myDataPlaneIn: si32Library callback functions for the USB IN transactions (recording).
myDataPlaneOut: si32Library callback functions for the USB OUT transactions (playing).
myUsbAudioDevice: USB Audio descriptors and audio-specific si32Library function calls.
myUSB0: non-audio USB si32Library functions calls for the application.
pre_recorded_array: µLaw compressed prerecorded flash data.
volume: handles the volume decoding and control from either the USB interface or the Capacitive Sensing
slider.
my- files: implement application code associated with the particular peripheral.
g- files: AppBuilder generated initialization code associated with the particular peripheral.
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5.2. Algorithms
The Class-D ToolStick uses two algorithms to manipulate data: Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA)
and µLaw. This section also describes Remainder-Weighted Dithering as an optional algorithm.
5.2.1. Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA)
The EWMA is a form of Exponential Averaging that creates a low-pass filter. This filter performs noise shaping to
help move the quantization noise out of the audible range. The Class-D ToolStick firmware uses this form of
averaging to filter the ADC results.
The EWMA takes the form:
y n – 1
x n
y  n  = y  n – 1  – -------------------+ ---------m
2
2m
In this equation, y(n) is the current output, y(n-1) is the previous output, x(n) is the current input sample, and m is
the weight of the average.
The weight determines how heavy the average of the EWMA is. The smaller weights (m = 1, 2) use more of the
new sample and react more quickly to dramatic changes in the input. Larger weights (m = 4, 5) use more of the
previous output and provide more smoothing.
The EWMA has several advantages over other forms of averaging:
Quick
to calculate (two shifts, an addition, and a subtraction)
saving the previous value
Contains history from every sample in time, which would take lots of memory in a traditional average
The weight can be dynamically adjusted easily in firmware depending on the circumstances without
dramatically changing the computational time
The EWMA is a form of IIR filter, which means it can become unstable if the cumulative error becomes too large.
Only
5.2.2. Remainder-Weighted Dithering
The firmware quantizes the 12-bit ADC results or 16-bit signed USB data to a 9-bit EPCA PWM value. Remainderweighted dithering is an optional algorithm that allows the Class-D ToolStick firmware to recover some of the
energy lost in the LSBs during this conversion in a random, inaudible way.
This algorithm captures the LSBs of the original 12- or 16-bit data, shifts the data to the final 9-bit size, and
compares against a random value of the same magnitude as the LSBs shifted away. If the original data was
positive and the LSBs are greater than the random value, then the LSB of the 9-bit data is incremented by 1.
Similarly, if the original data was negative and the LSBs are less than the random value, the LSB is decremented
by 1. Otherwise, the data remains unchanged.
Output Code
12-bit to 9-bit (3 bits):
output_value = 1931 = 0x078B
output_lsb = 0x78B & 0x7 = 3
output_value = 1931 >> 3 = 241
random_lsb = 1
random_lsb = 6
random_lsb = 4
random_lsb = 0
random_lsb = 3
242
241
EPCA
overflows
Figure 6. Remainder-Weighted Dithering Example
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The example in Figure 6 assumes a original 12-bit signed data value of 1931 and shows how the average energy
increases. In this particular example, the data remains the same for each EPCA overflow for simplicity, but this will
not necessarily be the case in the operation of the algorithm.
5.2.3. µLaw (or muLaw)
The µLaw companding algorithm has long been used in telephony and other voice applications. This algorithm
takes advantage of the behavior of the human ear by reserving most of the compression bins for low volume levels
where the ear is most sensitive. Using this algorithm, the Class-D firmware can store more data in flash with no
noticeable degradation in audio quality.
This algorithm takes a 14-bit signed number and adds 32 to the magnitude, which ensures that a 1 occurs in bits 5–
12 of the value. This means the valid input range is –8160 to 8159. This value is then converted to an 8-bit
compressed result as shown in Figure 7, where S is the sign bit. Finally, the 8-bit value is complemented.
14-bit Signed Input Data
8-bit µLaw Encoded Data
S 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 A B C D X
S 0 0 0 A B C D
S 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 A B C D X X
S 0 0 1 A B C D
S 0 0 0 0 0 1 A B C D X X X
S 0 1 0 A B C D
S 0 0 0 0 1 A B C D X X X X
S 0 1 1 A B C D
S 0 0 0 1 A B C D X X X X X
S 1 0 0 A B C D
S 0 0 1 A B C D X X X X X X
S 1 0 1 A B C D
S 0 1 A B C D X X X X X X X
S 1 1 0 A B C D
S 1 A B C D X X X X X X X X
S 1 1 1 A B C D
Figure 7. µLaw Algorithm Table
Figure 8 shows the plot of the 14-bit signed inputs versus the 8-bit compressed output.
100
50
Input Data
-8000
-6000
-4000
-2000
2000
4000
-50
-100
Compressed
Output
Figure 8. µLaw Algorithm Plot
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5.3. EPCA0 Class-D Output
In all modes, the EPCA0 module runs in center-aligned PWM mode with an upper limit of 256. This means that the
channels operate in the range of 0–511, since the channels count in half clocks. When the positive channel is on
longer than the negative channel, the resulting equivalent energy is positive (above zero). When the negative
channel is on longer than the positive channel, the resulting equivalent energy is negative (below zero). Combined
with the components on the output, this PWM scheme generates the output waveform on the speaker as shown in
Figure 9.
PB4.0 (R+)
FB
L
Cg
C
PB4.1 (R-)
FB
L
Cg
CH0 (R+)
CH1 (R-)
Differential
Figure 9. Class-D Output Example
Note: The output network configuration in Figure 9 is the configuration in Revision 1.0 of the hardware. An alternate output network discussed in 6. "Tuning the Class-D Output Network‚" on page 18 may provide better performance than the original
configuration.
5.4. Volume Control
The volume control on the Class-D ToolStick board uses the current-limiting feature of the high drive I/O to adjust
the output power. This has the additional benefit of allowing the PWM to always operate at full range, even at lower
volumes, which reduces firmware size and improves sound quality.
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5.5. Stereo Jack Input Mode
In stereo jack input mode, the goal is to sample at an even division of the EPCA0 update frequency to provide the
lowest distortion attainable. The data from the ADCs is 12-bit unsigned.
Class-D RD Board
R
SiM3U1xx
SARADC0
SARADC1
EPCA
L
Figure 10. Stereo Jack Input Mode Block Diagram
This mode measures the input source from the stereo jack (J1) using both SARADC modules, performs the EWMA
algorithm, quantizes the data to 9 bits, and outputs the PWM waveform on the EPCA0 module. Figure 11 shows
the data flow for the stereo input jack mode.
The Class-D ToolStick board automatically biases the input waveform to VREF/2. On hardware that does not do
this, an additional dc offset adjustment algorithm may be required.
R
SiM3U1xx
hardware
gain stage
SARADC0
hardware
gain stage
SARADC1
adjusting
DC offset
algorithm
remainderweighted
dither
EWMA
9-bit
quantization
EPCA
Figure 11. Stereo Jack Input Mode Flow Diagram
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5.6. USB Input/Output Mode
In USB input/output mode, the system samples and outputs data at 48 kHz. The USB data is 16-bit signed data.
Class-D RD Board
R
SiM3U1xx
Host PC
USB
sound
software
SARADC0
MIC
EPCA
L
Figure 12. USB Input/Output Mode Block Diagram
For playing (from PC to the board), the board receives data from the USB interface using the si32Library USB
Audio Component and outputs the PWM waveform on the EPCA0 module.
For recording (from board to the PC), the firmware measures the microphone (MK1) using one SARADC module
and sends the data to the PC using the si32Library USB Audio Component.
Figure 13 shows the data flow for the USB input/output mode.
SiM3U1xx
Host PC
USB0
sound
software
hardware
gain stage
MIC
SARADC0
R
9-bit
quantization
shift from 12
bits unsigned
to 16 signed
remainderweighted
dither
EPCA
L
Figure 13. USB Input/Output Mode Flow Diagram
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5.7. Play Prerecorded Flash Mode
In play prerecorded flash mode, the system outputs data from the flash at 9.6 kHz.
R
Class-D RD Board
SiM3U1xx
Flash
EPCA
L
Figure 14. Play Prerecorded Flash Mode Block Diagram
The firmware reads the compressed data from the flash, decompresses the data using µLaw, performs the EWMA
algorithm, quantizes the data to 9 bits, and outputs the PWM waveform on the EPCA0 module. The remainderweighted dithering algorithm is not used at all in this mode since the data LSBs will often be 0s from the
compression algorithm.
Figure 15 shows the data flow for the play prerecorded flash mode.
R
SiM3U1xx
Flash
µLaw
decompression 8
bits to 14 (signed)
9-bit
quantization
12-bit
quantization
EWMA
EPCA
L
Figure 15. Play Prerecorded Flash Mode Flow Diagram
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5.8. Play/Record Flash Mode
In play/record flash mode, the system samples and outputs data at 9.6 kHz.
Class-D RD Board
R
SiM3U1xx
Flash
SARADC0
MIC
EPCA
L
Figure 16. Play/Record Flash Mode Block Diagram
For playing, the firmware reads the compressed data from the flash, decompresses the data using µLaw, performs
the EWMA algorithm, quantizes the data to 9 bits, and outputs the PWM waveform on the EPCA0 module. The
remainder-weighted dithering algorithm is not used at all in this mode since the data LSBs will often be 0’s from the
compression algorithm.
For recording, the firmware measures the microphone (MK1) using one SARADC module, compresses the data
using µLaw, and stores the data in flash.
Figure 17 shows the data flow for the play/record flash mode.
R
SiM3U1xx
Flash
µLaw compression
14 bits to 8 (signed)
µLaw
decompression 8
bits to 14 (signed)
9-bit
quantization
12-bit
quantization
EWMA
EPCA
L
hardware
gain stage
MIC
SARADC0
convert from 12
bits unsigned to
14 signed
Figure 17. Play/Record Flash Mode Flow Diagram
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5.9. Build Configurations
The Precision32 and uVision projects include two build configurations each: Release and Debug. These
configurations change the code optimization settings. In addition, each configuration sets a flag to allow the
firmware to automatically detect the current build configuration and IDE. This enables the firmware to modify the
play/record flash mode array size to appropriate settings based on the code size. The approximate sizes for each
build configuration are shown in Table 4.
Table 4. Build Code Size Comparisons
IDE
Build
Code Size (bytes)
Precision32
Debug
68200
Release
47200
Debug
40200
Release
34700
uVision4
To change the active build configuration in the Precision32 IDE, right-click on the project name in the Project view
and select Build ConfigurationsSet ActiveDebug or Release.
Figure 18. Setting the Active Precision32 IDE Build Configuration
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To change the active build configuration in uVision4, select the configuration from the drop-down menu shown in
Figure 19.
Figure 19. Setting the Active uVision4 IDE Build Configuration
5.10. si32 HAL Version
The Class-D ToolStick firmware was originally developed for v1.1.1 of the HAL or later. Compiling against previous
versions of the HAL will generate errors.
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6. Tuning the Class-D Output Network
6.1. Revision 1.0 Configuration
Class-D is an extension of a single-ended, single-pin speaker drive, where one side of the speaker is driven
directly (perhaps with a ferrite bead) and one side is grounded. This output method works very well with SiM3U1xx
devices.
The full Class-D output network consists of ferrite beads, inductor-capacitor (LC) filters, and grounding capacitors
(Cg). Figure 20 shows the output network configuration used by the Revision 1.0 hardware. An alternate output
network shown in Figure 21 may provide better performance than the original configuration.
PB4.0 (R+)
FB
L
Cg
C
PB4.1 (R-)
FB
L
Cg
Figure 20. Revision 1.0 Hardware Class-D Output Network—Direct Drive
The ferrite beads dissipate pad switching noise as heat for EMI purposes, the LC components filter the PWM noise,
and the grounding capacitors provide additional filtering in conjunction with the speaker reactance.
In almost all applications, the ferrite beads should be populated on the board. However, the other components may
or may not be populated, depending on the speaker used and the cost requirements of the application. If either the
L or the C are installed, both should be populated to ensure lower power consumption. In most cases, the easiest
method of determining whether to install the components and the values for these components is through physical
experimentation. The perceived quality can be determined by the following characteristics:
loudness
changes
in loudness across bandwidth
bandwidth
noise
harmonics across bandwidth
at low and high volumes
Other factors to consider are the application’s sound source (i.e. USB data versus sampled ADC data) and the
maximum power consumption of the board in the application, which will determine how much data processing can
occur and if external MOSFETs are appropriate. The Class-D board provides 0  resistor pads to bypass the
series components, if desired.
hiss
18
Rev. 0.1
AN726
6.2. Alternate Configuration
Figure 20 shows the output network configuration used by the Revision 1.0 hardware. An alternate output network
shown in Figure 21 may provide better performance than the original configuration.
placed as close to the
speaker connectors as
possible
placed as close to the
device as possible
PB4.0 (R+)
L
FB
C
Cg
CB
PB4.1 (R-)
L
FB
Cg
C
Figure 21. Alternate Class-D Output Network—Direct Drive
For the alternate configuration, the recommended components for the board are shown in Table 5.
Table 5. Class-D ToolStick Alternate Output Network Recommended Components
Reference
Value
L
~3.3 µH, 1.5 A
C
~2.2 µF
Cg
~20 pF
CB
~0.47 µF
Rev. 0.1
19
AN726
6.3. Revision 1.0 High Power Configuration
Instead of directly driving the speaker, the high-drive I/O can interface with external MOSFETs as shown in
Figure 22, enabling higher-power applications. The board includes footprints for these external MOSFETs to
enable development with this configuration. The pull-up and pull-down resistors (~100 k) ensure that the tristate
reset state of the high drive I/O does not cause the FETs to accidentally conduct current. When using these
external MOSFETs, uninstall the R32, R35, R38, and R41 0  resistors.
Figure 23 illustrates an alternate full-bridge high-power output network. The diode and RC circuits on the MOSFET
gates ensure that the two devices will not both be conducting simultaneously.
PB4.0 (R+)
FB
L
Cg
C
VIOHD
PB4.1 (R-)
FB
L
Cg
Figure 22. Half-Bridge Class-D Output Network–External MOSFETs
The Revision 1.0 hardware provides footprints to a 9 V dc adapter connector and high power LDO. These
components can be populated to provide a higher current source to the external MOSFET transistors and VIOHD.
Alternatively, an external supply can connect to the transistors alone by removing the R48 0  resistor and placing
the positive terminal on the P_PWR test point.
20
Rev. 0.1
AN726
6.4. Alternate High Power Configuration
The Revision 1.0 hardware uses a half-bridge configuration shown in Figure 22. This configuration can lead to
higher distortion. Figure 23 illustrates an alternate full-bridge high-power output network. The diode and RC circuits
on the MOSFET gates ensure that the two devices will not both be conducting simultaneously. The value of these
components should be tuned for the gate capacitance of the FETs.
VIOHD
placed as close to the
drivers as possible
L
PB4.0 (R+)
placed as close to the
speaker connectors as
possible
FB
C
Cg
CB
VIOHD
PB4.1 (R-)
L
FB
C
Cg
Figure 23. Full-Bridge Class-D Output Network—External MOSFETs
Rev. 0.1
21
R8
4.99K
R6
24.9K
ADC_VREF
Rev. 0.1
R11
10K
V-
V+
1
U1A
MC33204
Virtual_GND
LEFT_CH
RIGHT_CH
3
1
1
2
2
J1
AUDIO JACK
MK1
MICROPHONE
R1
2K
10uF
C1
R16
100
R9
100
Virtual_GND
2.2uF
C7
Virtual_GND
2.2uF
C5
Virtual_GND
100K
R18
R17
470K
R_IN
100K
R12
R10
470K
L_IN
2.74K
R4
R3
470K
C3
10uF
R5
R13
R19
280K
13 -
U1D
MC33204
12 +
280K
9 -
14
8
MGAIN+
7
U1B
MC33204
U1C
MC33204
10 +
200K
MGAIN-
6 -
5 +
Figure 24. Utility Class-D ToolStick Board Schematic (1 of 3)—Revision 1.0
R14
5.11K
2 -
3 +
C4
0.1uF
+3.3V_VDD
4
22
11
ADC_VREF
21
R15
21
R7
21
R2
C8
0.47uF
ADC_IN_JACK_2
C6
0.47uF
ADC_IN_JACK_1
C2
0.47uF
AN726
7. Schematics
J6
Power Jack
5.0V_Wall
1
2
3
USB_5.0V_Debug
VIN
U4
C32
0.33uF
1
R50
D4B
0
D4A
+V
DD+
ID
GND
J3
DEBUG
CN-USB-OTG
USB_5.0V_Device
+V
DD+
ID
GND
J2
DEVICE
CN-USB-OTG
GND
MC7805ABD2TG
3
VOUT
DS7
GREEN
R28
750
VIOHD
VIOHD
L1
C33
4.7uF
4.7uF
C22
R+
L+
R-
L-
C17
0.1uF
C24
1uF
PB4.3
VSSHD
VIOHD
PB4.2
PB4.1
PB4.0
PB3.3
PB3.2
PB3.1
PB3.0
C25
0.1uF
VDD_Debug
SiM3U164-B-GM
U2
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
1K
R29
REGIN
VDD
VIO
D-
D+
GND
GPIO
4.7uF
C21
VDD_Debug
0.1uF
C20
VDD_Debug
UART0_RX
UART0_TX
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
RESETb
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
SWDIO
RESETb
SWCLK
PB0.4
PB0.5
PB0.6
PB0.7
PB0.8
PB0.9
SWCLK
SWDIO
PB0.10
PB0.11
LED1
LED0
C10
0.1uF
U3
CF326-SX0261GM
ADC_IN_MIC
S1
0
NC
NC
NC
LED_RUN
NC
NC
NC
CS Slider
MODE
19
15
16
17
18
S2
C15
0.1uF
R22
100
DS1
Blue
+3.3V_VDD
4.7uF
C14
ADC_VREF
LED0
LED1
LED2
LED3
20
21
UART0_TX
R49
1K
+3.3V_VDD
ADC_IN_JACK_1
R45
ADC_IN_JACK_1
SWCLK
SWDIO
UART0_RX
LED2
LED3
R44
1K
+3.3V_VDD
ADC_IN_JACK_1
C11
4.7uF
R23
100
DS2
Blue
+3.3V_VDD
R24
100
DS3
Blue
+3.3V_VDD
ERASE
REC
www.silabs.com/toolstick
R25
100
DS4
Blue
+3.3V_VDD
Utility Class-D ToolStick
Figure 25. Utility Class-D ToolStick Board Schematic (2 of 3)—Revision 1.0
4.7uF
C18
C19
0.1uF
I2S_RX_WS
I2S_RX_SCK
R20
1K
+3.3V_VDD
I2S_RX_SD
+3.3V_VDD
0.1uF
C23
DS8
RED
PB3.3
R42
750
+3.3V_VDD
USB_5.0V_Debug
D3
SP0503BAHT
5.0V_Wall
0.68uH
0
R27
VREGIN_Device
D1
SP0503BAHT
C16
4.7uF
VIOHD
28
TCK/SWCLK
USB_5.0V_Device
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
RESET
DD+
VBUS
VREGIN
VDD
PB0.0
PB0.1
PB0.2
PB0.3
PB1.3
PB1.2
VIO
VSS
PB1.1
PB1.0
PB0.15
PB0.14
PB0.13
PB0.12
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
27
nSRST
I2S_RX_SD
I2S_RX_SCK
I2S_RX_WS
C13
0.1uF
1
C12
2
0.1uF
3
+3.3V_VDD
4
VREGIN_Device
22
GPIO/CTS
SH
SH
26
TMS/SWDIO
C2D
10
5
+3.3V_VDD
4
25
TDI/TX
SUSPEND
11
VBUS
8
24
TDO/SWO/RX
LED_STOP
12
RSTb/C2CK
9
23
GPIO/RTS
NC
13
NC
14
EPAD
Rev. 0.1
29
PLAY
R26
100
DS5
Blue
+3.3V_VDD
6
4.7uF
C9
R21
100
DS6
Blue
+3.3V_VDD
AN726
23
VIOHD
0
R48
24
P_PWR
P_Power
R+_pin
Rev. 0.1
L+_pin
L-
L-_pin
L+
R-
R-_pin
R+
R41
P_Power
47K
R47
R38
R35
P_Power
47K
R46
R32
L- P
M2
NTR4171PT1G
Q2
NTR4170NT1G
L+ N
R- P
M1
NTR4171PT1G
Q1
NTR4170NT1G
R+ N
600 Ohm
FB4
600 Ohm
FB3
600 Ohm
FB2
600 Ohm
FB1
L-_I
L+_I
R-_I
R+_I
R34
R37
R40
3.3uH
L5
0
3.3uH
L4
0
3.3uH
L3
0
3.3uH
L2
R31
C31
0.022uF
C29
0.022uF
C28
0.022uF
C26
0.022uF
C30
2.2uF
C27
2.2uF
L+
R-
R-
L-
R+
R+
4
3
2
1
J4
R+
RL+
L-
VIOHD
Analog Header
JP1
Figure 26. Utility Class-D ToolStick Board Schematic (3 of 3)—Revision 1.0
0
0
0
0
0
R-
R+
3
1
2
J5
AUDIO JACK
Speaker
LS1
AN726
AN726
8. Bill of Materials
Table 6. Utility Class-D ToolStick Board Bill of Materials
Reference
Part Number
Source
Description
C1, C3
C0603X5R6R3-106M
Venkel
10 µF, 6.3 V ±r% X5R 0603
C2, C6, C8
C0603X7R250-474K
Venkel
0.47 µF, 25 V ±10% X7R 0603
C24
C0603X7R100-105K
Venkel
1 µF, 10 V ±10% X7R 0603
C26, C28, C29,
C31
C1608X7R1H223M
TDK Corporation
0.022 µF, 50 V ±20% X7R 0603
C4, C10, C12,
C13, C15, C17,
C19, C20, C23,
C25
C0603X7R100-104K
Venkel
0.1 µF, 10 V ±10% X7R 0603
C5, C7
C0603X7R100-225K
Venkel
2.2 µF, 10 V ±10% X7R 0603
C9, C11, C14,
C16, C18, C21,
C22
C0603X5R6R3-475K
Venkel
4.7 µF, 6.3 V ±10% X5R 0603
D1, D3
SP0503BAHTG
Littlefuse
USB Diodes 300 mW, 20 V TVS SOT143
D4
RB550EATR
Rohm Semiconductor
Diode 700 mA, 30 V Dual Schottky SOT5N
DS1, DS2,
DS3, DS4,
DS5, DS6
LB Q39G-L2N2-35-1
OSRAM Opto
Semiconductors Inc
Blue 15 mA, 2.85 V SMT, ChipLED 0603
DS7
SML-LX0603SUGW
LUMEX INC
GREEN 25 mA 0603
DS8
SML-LX0603IW
LUMEX INC
RED 30 mA 0603
FB1, FB2, FB3,
FB4
MPZ1608S601A
TDK Corporation
600 , 1 A SMT 0603
J1, J5
SJ1-3543N
CUI Inc
Stereo Audio Jack
J2, J3
UX60-MB-5ST
HIROSE
USB mini connector B
J4
1729144
Phoenix Contact
1x4 Terminal Block
JP1
TSW-102-07-T-S
Samtec
1x2 Jumper Header
L1
NLV25T-R68J-PF
TDK
0.68 µH, 300 mA ±5% GP
L2, L3, L4, L5
84332C
Murata
3.3 µH, 1.5 A ±20% Unshielded
LS1
GA0571H
ALC
Speaker 1 W Max
MK1
CMA-4544PF-W
CUI Inc
MICROPHONE MIC-2.5X9.7MM-RAD
R1
CR0603-10W-2001F
Venkel
2 k, 1/10 W ±1% ThickFilm 0603
R11, R18
CR0603-10W-1003F
Venkel
100 k, 1/10 W ±1% ThickFilm 0603
R12, R19
CR0603-16W-2803F
Venkel
280 k, 1/16 W ±1% ThickFilm 0603
R13
CR0603-10W-1002F
Venkel
10 k, 1/10 W ±1% ThickFilm 0603
R14
CR0603-8W-5111F
Venkel
5.11 k, 1/8 W ±1% ThickFilm 0603
R2, R7, R15
CR0603-16W-21R0F
Venkel
21 , 1/16 W ±1% ThickFilm 0603
R20, R29, R44,
R49
CR0603-10W-1001F
Venkel
1 k, 1/10 W ±1% ThickFilm 0603
R28, R42
CR0603-16W-7500F
Venkel
750 , 1/10 W ±1% ThickFilm 0603
Rev. 0.1
25
AN726
Table 6. Utility Class-D ToolStick Board Bill of Materials (Continued)
Reference
Part Number
Source
Description
R3, R10, R17
CR0603-10W-4703F
Venkel
470 k, 1/10 W ±1% ThickFilm 0603
R31, R32, R34,
R35, R37, R38,
R40, R41, R48
CR0603-16W-000
Venkel
0 , 1 A ThickFilm 0603
R4
CR0603-16W-2741F
Venkel
2.74 k, 1/16 W ±1% ThickFilm 0603
R5
CR0603-10W-2003F
Venkel
200 k, 1/10 W ±1% ThickFilm 0603
R6
CR0603-10W-2492F
Venkel
24.9 k, 1/10 W ±1% ThickFilm 0603
R8
CR0603-16W-4991F
Venkel
4.99 k, 1/16 W ±1% ThickFilm 0603
R9, R16, R21,
R22, R23, R24,
R25, R26
CR0603-10W-1000F
Venkel
100 , 1/10 W ±1% ThickFilm 0603
S1, S2
EVQ-PAD04M
Panasonic Corp
Momentary Tactile Switch 6.5x4.5
SC1, SC2,
SC3, SC4
NSS-4-4-01
Richco Plastic Co
4-40 HDW
SO1, SO2,
SO3, SO4
2397
SPC Technology
STANDOFF HDW
U1
MC33204DR2
ON Semiconductor
Quad Op-Amp
U2
SiM3U164-B-GM
Silicon Laboratories
SiM3U164-B-GQ MCU QFN40 M6x6 P0.5
U3
CF326-SX0261GM
Silicon Laboratories
ToolStick Debug Adapter MCU
Components Not Installed
C27, C30
C0603X7R100-225K
Venkel
2.2 µF, 10 V ±10% X7R 0603 Not Installed
(NI)
C32
C0603X7R100-334K
Venkel
0.33 µF, 10 V ±10% X7R 0603 Not Installed
(NI)
C33
C0603X5R6R3-475K
Venkel
4.7 µF, 6.3 V ±10% X7R 0603 Not Installed
(NI)
J6
RAPC722X
Switchcraft Inc.
3-pin Power Jack 5A BARREL Not Installed
(NI)
M1, M2
NTR4171PT1G
ON Semiconductor
–3.5 A, –30 V Pchan SOT23 Not Installed
(NI)
Q1, Q2
NTR4170NT1G
ON Semiconductor
3.2 A, 30 V Nchan SOT23 Not Installed (NI)
R27, R45, R50
CR0603-16W-000
Venkel
0 ,1 A ThickFilm 0603 Not Installed (NI)
R46, R47
CR0603-16W-4702F
Venkel
47 k, 1/16 W ±1% ThickFilm 0603 Not
Installed (NI)
U4
MC7805ABD2TG
ON Semiconductor
1 A max LDO D2PAK Not Installed (NI)
26
Rev. 0.1
AN726
NOTES:
Rev. 0.1
27
AN726
CONTACT INFORMATION
Silicon Laboratories Inc.
400 West Cesar Chavez
Austin, TX 78701
Please visit the Silicon Labs Technical Support web page:
http://www.silabs.com/support
and register to submit a technical support request.
Patent Notice
Silicon Labs invests in research and development to help our customers differentiate in the market with innovative low-power, small size, analogintensive mixed-signal solutions. Silicon Labs' extensive patent portfolio is a testament to our unique approach and world-class engineering team.
The information in this document is believed to be accurate in all respects at the time of publication but is subject to change without notice.
Silicon Laboratories assumes no responsibility for errors and omissions, and disclaims responsibility for any consequences resulting from
the use of information included herein. Additionally, Silicon Laboratories assumes no responsibility for the functioning of undescribed features or parameters. Silicon Laboratories reserves the right to make changes without further notice. Silicon Laboratories makes no warranty, representation or guarantee regarding the suitability of its products for any particular purpose, nor does Silicon Laboratories assume any
liability arising out of the application or use of any product or circuit, and specifically disclaims any and all liability, including without limitation
consequential or incidental damages. Silicon Laboratories products are not designed, intended, or authorized for use in applications intended to support or sustain life, or for any other application in which the failure of the Silicon Laboratories product could create a situation where
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28
Rev. 0.1
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