AP8801

AP8801
500mA LED STEP-DOWN CONVERTER
Description
Pin Assignments
The AP8801 is a step-down DC/DC converter designed to drive LEDs with
(Top View)
a constant current. The device can drive up to thirteen LEDs, depending on
the forward voltage of the LEDs, in series from a voltage source of 8V to
SET 1
48V. Series connection of the LEDs provides identical LED currents
GND 2
NC 3
resulting in uniform brightness and eliminating the need for ballast
resistors. The AP8801 switches at frequency up to 700kHz. This allows
the use of small size external components, hence minimizing the PCB area
AP8801
VIN 4
needed.
Maximum output current of AP8801 is set via an external resistor
applying either a DC voltage or a PWM signal at the CTRL input pin. An
puts the device into a low-current standby state.
SET 1
Features
GND 2
LED driving current up to 500mA
Operating input voltage up to 48V
•
High efficiency up to 92%
•
High switching frequency up to 700kHz
•
PWM/DC input for dimming control
•
Built-in output open-circuit protection
•
SO-8 and MSOP-8 are in “Green” Molding Compound (No Br, Sb)
NC 3
VIN 4
AP8801
GND
SW
5
SW
8
CTRL
7
GND
6
5
SW
SW
MSOP-8
Applications
ƒ
Totally Lead-Free & Fully RoHS Compliant (Notes 1 & 2)
•
Commercial & industrial lighting
ƒ
Halogen and Antimony Free. “Green” Device (Note 3)
•
Small LCD panel backlight
•
Appliances interior lighting
•
Architecture Detail lighting
Notes:
7
6
(Top View)
input voltage of 0.2V or lower at CTRL shuts down the output at SW and
•
CTRL
SO-8
connected between the VIN and SET input pins. Dimming is achieved by
•
8
1. No purposely added lead. Fully EU Directive 2002/95/EC (RoHS) & 2011/65/EU (RoHS 2) compliant.
2. See http://www.diodes.com for more information about Diodes Incorporated’s definitions of Halogen- and Antimony-free, "Green" and Lead-free.
3. Halogen- and Antimony-free "Green” products are defined as those which contain <900ppm bromine, <900ppm chlorine (<1500ppm total Br + Cl)
and <1000ppm antimony compounds.
Typical Application Circuit
AP8801
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AP8801
500mA LED STEP-DOWN CONVERTER
Pin Descriptions
Pin Name
SW
Functions
Switch Pin. Connect inductor/freewheeling diode here, minimizing track length at this pin to reduce EMI.
GND
GND pin
SET
Set Nominal Output Current Pin. Configure the output current of the device.
Dual Function Dimming Control Pin.
•
Input voltage of 0.2V or lower forces the device into low current standby mode and shuts off the output.
•
A PWM signal (driven by an open-drain/collector source) allows the output current to be adjusted over a wide
range up to 100%.
•
An analog voltage between 0.3V and 2.5V adjusts the output current between 25% and 200% of the current set
by 0.2V/RS.
CTRL
The input impedance is about 50kΩ, and if the pin is left open VCTRL = VREF
VIN
Input Supply Pin. Must be locally bypassed.
NC
No connection
Functional Block Diagram
Fig. 1 Block Diagram
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Symbol
Rating
Unit
VIN
VIN pin voltage
Parameter
-0.3 to +50
V
VSW
SW voltage
-0.3 to +50
V
VCTRL
CTRL Pin Input Voltage
-0.3 to +6
V
VSENSE
SET Voltage
+0.3 to -5
V
TJ
Junction Temperature
150
o
C
TLEAD
Lead Temperature Soldering
300
o
TST
Storage Temperature Range
-65 to +150
o
Caution:
C
C
Stresses greater than the 'Absolute Maximum Ratings' specified above, may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only;
functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions exceeding those indicated in this specification is not implied. Device reliability may
be affected by exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods of time.
Semiconductor devices are ESD sensitive and may be damaged by exposure to ESD events. Suitable ESD precautions should be taken when
handling and transporting these devices.
AP8801
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AP8801
500mA LED STEP-DOWN CONVERTER
Recommended Operating Conditions
Symbol
VIN
VCTRLDC
VCTRLL
fOSC
TA
Duty Cycle
Notes:
Parameter
Min
Max
Unit
Operating Input Voltage relative to GND
8.0
48.0
V
Voltage range for 24% to 200% DC dimming relative to GND (Note 4)
0.3
2.5
V
Voltage Low for PWM dimming relative to GND
0
0.2
V
Maximum Switching Frequency (Note 5)
—
625
kHz
Ambient Temperature Range
-40
+105
ºC
Using Inductor ≥ 100µH (Note 6)
0.10
0.95
—
4. For 100% brightness either leave floating or connect to 1.25V relative to GND.
5. AP8801 will operate at higher frequencies but accuracy will be affected due to propagation delays.
6. For most applications the LED current will be within 8% over the duty cycle range specified. Duty cycle accuracy is also dependent on
propagation delay. Smaller size inductors can be used but LED current accuracy may be greater than 8% at extremes of duty cycle. This is most
noticeable at low duty cycles (less than 0.1) or when the input voltage is high and only one LED is being driven.
Electrical Characteristics (TA = 25°C, VIN = 24V; unless otherwise specified.)
Symbol
IOUT
IQ
Parameter
Continuous switch current
Conditions
(Note 7)
Quiescent Current
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
—
—
500
mA
—
78
120
μA
200
216
mV
VTHD
Internal Threshold Voltage
184
VSENSEHYS
Sense threshold hysteresis
—
15
—
%
VREF
Internal Reference Voltage
—
1.25
—
V
SET
SET pin input current
VSET = VIN -0.2
—
7
—
μA
On Resistance of MOSFET
ISW = 0.4A
—
0.70
1.15
Ω
—
—
8
μA
RDS(ON)
ISW_LEAKAGE
Switch leakage current
θJA
Thermal Resistance Junction-to-Ambient
θJC
Thermal Resistance Junction-to-Case
Notes:
SO-8 (Note 8)
—
88
—
°C/W
MSOP-8 (Note 8)
—
128
—
°C/W
SO-8 (Note 8)
—
58
—
°C/W
MSOP-8 (Note 8)
—
90
—
°C/W
7. Refer to figure 6 for the device derating curve.
8. Test condition for SO-8 and MSOP-8: Device mounted on FR-4 PCB, 2”x2”, 2oz copper, minimum recommended pad layout on top layer and
thermal vias to bottom layer ground plane. For better thermal performance, larger copper pad for heat-sink is needed.
AP8801
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AP8801
500mA LED STEP-DOWN CONVERTER
0.9
1.256
0.8
1.254
0.7
CTRL VOLTAGE (V)
NON-SWITCHING SUPPLY CURRENT (mA)
Typical Characteristics
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
1.252
1.250
1.248
0.2
1.246
0.1
1.244
-40 -25 -10 5
0
0
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
20 35 50 65 80 95 110 125
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (°C)
Figure. 3 VCTRL vs. Ambient Temperature
INPUT VOLTAGE (V)
Figure. 2 Supply Current (not switching) vs. Input Voltage
500
1.2
450
1.0
LED CURRENT (mA)
400
RDS(ON) (Ω)
0.8
0.6
0.4
350
300
250
200
150
100
0.2
50
0
-40 -25 -10 5
0
0
20 35 50 65 80 95 110 125
1.5
2.0
800
RSET = 0.56Ω
500
RSET = 0.68Ω
400
300
200
RSET = 1.33Ω
100
SWITCHING FREQUENCY (kHz)
600
LED CURRENT (mA)
1.0
RSET RESISTANCE (Ω)
Figure. 5 LED Current vs. RSET
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (C)
Figure. 4 RDS(ON) vs Ambient Temperature
0
0
0.5
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
CTRL VOLTAGE (V)
Figure. 6 LED Current vs. VCTRL
AP8801
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0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
CTRL VOLTAGE (V)
Figure. 7 Switching Frequency vs. VCTRL
June 2012
© Diodes Incorporated
AP8801
500mA LED STEP-DOWN CONVERTER
10
100
8
95
6
90
4
85
EFFICIENCY (%)
OUTPUT CURRENT DEVIATION (%)
Typical Characteristics (TA = +25°C, VIN = 60V, L =68µH unless otherwise stated.)
2
0
-2
-4
80
75
70
65
-6
60
-8
55
50
-10
6
12
18
24
30
36
42
6
48
12
18
24
30
36
42
48
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
Figure. 9 Efficiency vs. Input Voltage
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
Figure. 8 LED Current vs. Input Voltage
700
100
80
500
DUTY CYCLE (%)
SWITCHING FREQUENCY (kHz)
90
600
400
300
200
70
60
50
40
30
20
100
10
0
0
6
12
18
24
30
36
42
48
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
Figure. 10 Switching Frequency vs. Input Voltage
Figure. 12 Steady State Waveforms
AP8801
Document number: DS31765 Rev. 7 - 2
6
12
18
24
30
36
42
48
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
Figure. 11 Duty Cycle vs. Input Voltage
Figure.13 Start-Up Showing LED Current Soft -Start
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AP8801
500mA LED STEP-DOWN CONVERTER
Application Information
LED Current Control
The LED current is controlled by the resistor RSET in Figure 14 connected between VIN and SET. The nominal average output current in the
LED(s) is defined as:
ILED =
VTHD
R SET
where VTHD is the voltage between the VIN and SET pins and is nominally 200mV.
Figure. 14 Typical Application Circuit for ILED = 0.3A
Inductor Selection
This section highlights how to select the inductor suitable for the application requirements in terms of switching frequency, LED current
accuracy and temperature.
600
Switching Frequency @ILED = 500mA
100
47
12V - 1 LED
500
24V - 3 LEDs
FREQUENCY (kHz)
68
48V - 6 LEDs
150
400
100
220
300
47
150
200
220
68
470
100
100
470
150
220
470
0
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
INDUCTOR VALUE (µH)
Figure. 15 Switching Frequency vs. Inductor Value
AP8801
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AP8801
500mA LED STEP-DOWN CONVERTER
Application Information (cont.)
The inductor influences the LED current accuracy that the system is able to provide. The following section highlights how to select the
inductor in relation to the device packages and the LED current, while maintaining the chip temperature below 70°C.
12
68µH
11
100µH
150µH
10
220µH
470µH
9
NUMBER of LEDs
8% Accuracy, <70°C Case Temperature
47µH
8
7
470µH
220µH
6
5
100µH
150µH
4
68µH
3
47µH
2
1
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
Figure. 16 Minimum Recommended Inductor with 500mA LED Current
Capacitor Selection
The small size of ceramic capacitors makes them ideal for AP8801 applications. X5R and X7R types are recommended because they retain
their capacitance over wider voltage and temperature ranges than other types such as Z5U. A 2.2μF input capacitor is sufficient for most
intended applications of AP8801.
A 4.7μF input capacitor is suggested for application with an input voltage equal or higher than 40V.
Diode Selection
Schottky diodes, e.g. B1100, with their low forward voltage drop and fast reverse recovery, are the ideal choice for AP8801 applications.
AP8801
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AP8801
500mA LED STEP-DOWN CONVERTER
Application Information (cont.)
LED Current Adjustment/Dimming.
The LED current for the AP8801 can be adjusted by driving the CTRL with a digital signal (PWM dimming) or by driving the CTRL with a dc
voltage between 0.3V and 2.5V (DC dimming).
If the CTRL pin is driven by an external voltage (lower than 2.5V), the average LED current is:
VCTRL VTHD
×
VREF R SET
ILED =
where VREF is nominally 1.25V
600
LED Current @
VCTRL = 1.25V
LED Current @
VCTRL = 2.5V
LED Current @
VCTRL = 0.625V
0.4
500
0.82
LED CURRENT (mA)
0.47
1
400
0.56
1.2
0.68
300
1.5
0.82
200
2
1
0.47
1.2
3
1.5
0.68
100
2
0.82
1
3
1.2
1.5
2
3
0
0
0.3
0.6
0.9
1.2
1.5
1.8
2.1
2.4
2.7
3
RSET VALUE (Ω)
Figure. 17 LED Current vs. RSET and VCTRL
Figure 17 shows that reducing the CTRL voltage by a factor of 2 also reduces the LED current by a factor of 2. The AP8801 has the ability
vary the LED current by a factor of 2 above the default value set by RSET down to a factor of 0.24 of the nominal LED current. This provides
an 8.33:1 dynamic range of the dc dimming.
A low pass filter on the CTRL pin of the AP8801 automatically provides some soft-start function of the LED current on initial start-up (this
phenomenon can be seen in figure 7); the built in soft-start period can be increased by the addition of an external capacitor onto the CTRL
pin.
The AP8801’s dimming range can be increased above this dc dimming factor by applying a PWM signal to the CTRL pin using this method
dimming dynamic ranges above 100 can be achieved.
AP8801
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AP8801
500mA LED STEP-DOWN CONVERTER
Application Information (cont.)
PWM Dimming of LED Current
When a low frequency PWM signal with voltages between 2.5V and a low level of zero is applied to the CTRL pin the output current will be
switched on and off at the PWM frequency. The resultant LED current ILEDavg will be proportional to the PWM duty cycle. See figure 18.
A Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) signal with a max resolution of 8-bit, can be applied to the CTRL pin to change the output current to a value
above or below the nominal average value set by resistor RSET.
To achieve this resolution the PWM frequency has to be lower than 500Hz. The ultimate resolution will be determined by the number of
switching cycles required to get back to nominal LED current once the PWM voltage is high relative to PWM frequency. Lower switching
frequencies and higher PWM frequencies will result in lower PWM dimming dynamic ranges.
Figure. 18 Low Frequency PWM Operating Waveforms
There are different ways of accomplishing PWM dimming of the AP8801 LED current:
Directly Driving CTRL Input
A Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) signal with duty cycle DPWM can be applied to the CTRL pin to adjust the output current to a value above
or below the nominal average value set by resistor RSET. When driving the CTRL with a voltage waveform care should be taken not to
exceed a drive voltage of 2.5V (where extra brightness is required) or 1.25V if a maximum of 100% brightness is required.
A way of avoiding over-driving the CTRL pin is use an open collector/drain driver to drive the CTRL pin.
Driving the CTRL Input via Open Collector Transistor
The recommended method of driving the CTRL pin and controlling the amplitude of the PWM waveform is to use a small NPN switching
transistor. This uses the internal pull-up resistor between the CTRL pin and the internal voltage reference to pull-up CTRL pin when the
external transistor is turned off.
Driving the CTRL Input from a Microcontroller
If the CTRL pin is driven by a MOSFET (either discrete or open-drain output of a micro-controller) then Schottky diode maybe be required
due to high Gate / Drain capacitance, which could inject a negative spike into CTRL input of the AP8801 and cause erratic operation but the
addition of a Schottky clamp diode (eg. Diodes Inc. SD103CWS) to ground and inclusion of a series resistor (3.3k) will prevent this.
AP8801
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AP8801
500mA LED STEP-DOWN CONVERTER
Application Information (cont.)
Soft-Start
An external capacitor from the CTRL pin to ground will provide a soft-start delay, by increasing the time taken for the voltage on this pin to
rise to the turn-on threshold and by slowing down the rate of rise of the control voltage at the input of the comparator. Adding capacitance
increases this delay by approximately 200µs/nF. The graph below shows the variation of soft-start time for different values of capacitor.
16
14
SOFT-START TIME (ms)
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
-2
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
CAPACITANCE (nf)
Figure. 19 Soft-Start Time vs. Capacitance
from ADJ Pin to Ground
Thermal Considerations
The graph below in figure 20, gives details for power derating. This assumes the device to be on a FR-4 PCB, 2”x2”, 2oz copper, minimum
recommended pad layout on top layer and thermal vias to bottom layer ground plane standing in still air.
1.2
SO-8
POWER DISSIPATION (W)
1.0
0.8
MSOP-8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
-50
AP8801
Document number: DS31765 Rev. 7 - 2
-25
0
25
50
75
100
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (°C)
Figure. 20 Maximum Power Dissipation
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AP8801
500mA LED STEP-DOWN CONVERTER
Application Information (cont.)
Package Selection
The device comes with a wide selection of packages. The suggested package is able to provide a case temperature below 70˚C (with an
ambient temperature of +25°C) for the combination of input voltage and load requested.
12 LEDs
ILED = 500mA
L = 100µH
10 LEDs
8 LEDs
SO-8
6 LEDs
4 LEDs
MSOP-8
SO-8
2 LEDs
8
12
16
20
24
28
32
36
40
44
48
Figure. 21 Package Section
Fault Condition Operation
The AP8801 has by default open LED protection. If the LEDs should become open circuit the AP8801 will stop oscillating; the SET pin will
rise to VIN and the SW pin will then fall to GND. No excessive voltages will be seen by the AP8801.
If the LEDs should become shorted together the AP8802H will continue to switch however the duty cycle at which it will operate will change
dramatically and the switching frequency will most likely decrease. The on-time of the internal power MOSFET switch will be significantly
reduced because almost all of the input voltage is now developed across the inductor. The off-time will be significantly increased because the
reverse voltage across the inductor is now just the Schottky diode voltage (See Figure 20) causing a much slower decay in inductor current.
During this condition the inductor current will remain within its controlled levels and so no excessive heat will be generated within the
AP8801.
Figure. 22 Switching Characteristics
(normal open to short LED chain)
AP8801
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AP8801
500mA LED STEP-DOWN CONVERTER
Ordering Information
AP8801 XX G - 13
Device
Green
Packing
S : SO-8
M8 : MSOP-8
G : Green
13 : Tape & Reel
Package Code
AP8801SG-13
AP8801M8G-13
Note:
Package
13” Tape and Reel
Packaging
(Note 9)
Quantity
Part Number Suffix
S
SO-8
2500/Tape & Reel
-13
M8
MSOP-8
2500/Tape & Reel
-13
9. Pad layout as shown on Diodes Inc. suggested pad layout document AP02001, which can be found on our website at
http://www.diodes.com/datasheets/ap02001.pdf.
Marking Information
(1) SO-8
( Top View )
5
8
Logo
Part Number
G : Green
YY : Year : 08, 09,10~
WW : Week : 01~52; 52
represents 52 and 53 week
X : Internal Code
AP8801
YY WW X X
1
4
(2) MSOP-8
( Top View )
8
7
Logo
AP8801
1
Document number: DS31765 Rev. 7 - 2
5
YWX
Part Number
AP8801
6
2
3
A~Z : Green
Y : Year : 0~9
W : Week : A~Z : 1~26 week;
a~z : 27~52 week; z represents
52 and 53 week
4
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AP8801
500mA LED STEP-DOWN CONVERTER
Package Outline Dimensions
0.254
(1) SO-8
E1 E
A1
L
Gauge Plane
Seating Plane
Detail ‘A’
7°~9°
h
45°
Detail ‘A’
A2 A A3
SO-8
Dim
Min
Max
A
1.75
A1
0.10
0.20
A2
1.30
1.50
A3
0.15
0.25
b
0.3
0.5
D
4.85
4.95
E
5.90
6.10
E1
3.85
3.95
e
1.27 Typ
h
0.35
L
0.62
0.82
0°
8°
θ
All Dimensions in mm
b
e
D
(2) MSOP-8
D
4x
10
°
0.25
E Gauge Plane
x
Seating Plane
a
y
4x10°
L
Detail C
1
b
E3
A3
A2
A
e
A1
AP8801
Document number: DS31765 Rev. 7 - 2
E1
c
See Detail C
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MSOP-8
Dim Min Max Typ
A
1.10
A1 0.05 0.15 0.10
A2 0.75 0.95 0.86
A3 0.29 0.49 0.39
b 0.22 0.38 0.30
c 0.08 0.23 0.15
D 2.90 3.10 3.00
E 4.70 5.10 4.90
E1 2.90 3.10 3.00
E3 2.85 3.05 2.95
e
0.65
L 0.40 0.80 0.60
a
0°
8°
4°
x
0.750
y
0.750
All Dimensions in mm
June 2012
© Diodes Incorporated
AP8801
500mA LED STEP-DOWN CONVERTER
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