AN358

AN358
O PTIMIZING L OW - P OWER O PERATION OF T H E C8051F9 X X
Relevant Devices
This application note applies to the following devices:
C8051F930, C8051F931, C8051F920, C8051F921, C8051F912, C8051F911, C8051F902, C8051F901,
C8051F990, C8051F991, C8051F996, C8051F997, C8051F980, C8051F981, C8051F982, C8051F983,
C8051F985, C8051F986, C8051F987, C8051F988, C8051F989
1. Introduction
The C8051F9xx family of low-voltage/low-power MCUs is an excellent choice for battery-powered embedded
systems. Following are some of the key features of this product family:

Low Active and Inactive Mode Current
150
<

µA/MHz, 160 µA/MHz, or 170 µA/MHz Active Mode Current @ 25 MHz
1 µA Sleep Mode Current
Fast Wakeup Time and Fast Code Execution
400
ns Suspend Mode Wakeup (using the low power internal oscillator)
µs Sleep Mode Wakeup (two-cell mode) or
10 µs Sleep Mode Wakeup (one-cell mode)
Up to 25 MIPs Operation
2

Fast ADC Acquisition Time
1.5
3.3

µs VREF turn-on time, occurs while ADC is tracking
µs back-to-back analog acquisition time
Support for 1 and 2 Cell Battery Configurations
0.9–1.8
V supply voltage range allows the system to be powered from a single alkaline or silver oxide battery.
V supply voltage range allows the system to be powered from a single lithium battery or two alkaline batteries
placed in series.
1.8–3.6
The C8051F9xx MCU family is very flexible and provides application software control over many factors affecting
device power consumption. This application note describes how to achieve maximum efficiency in each power
mode and how to optimize application code to take advantage of the low power features of the C8051F9xx family.
Included with this application note is example software that can be used to place the C8051F9xx MCU into each of
its power modes for supply current measurements. Also included is a low-power software template that may be
used as a starting point for new code development. The software can be found in the AN358SW.zip archive, which
is distributed with this application note.
2. Key Points

Two Regions of Operation—C8051F9xx devices have two distinct regions of operation. The Flash one-shot
circuit must be disabled (bypassed) for high system clocks and enabled for system clocks in order to minimize
supply current in the normal power mode. The optimum crossover frequency is 10 MHz (C8051F93x/2x) or 14
MHz (C8051F91x/0x/9x/8x).
 Sleep Mode Supply Current—The current in Sleep mode should always be < 1 µA at room temperature, even
when the SmaRTClock is running. If the current meter is measuring a current higher than 1 uA, then the device
is not configured properly; one or more GPIO pins are sourcing current to an external circuit, or a high-speed
signal is being applied to a port pin (e.g., an external CMOS clock).
 Software Considerations—The proper entry and exit procedures should be used when entering and exiting a
low-power mode. This ensures that the device will work in a reliable and predictable manner.
 SmaRTClock Alarm Events—The SmaRTClock ALRM flag is not persistent and is automatically cleared by
hardware after 1 SmaRTClock cycle. The RTCAWK flag in the PMU0CF register is persistent and can be used
to detect a SmaRTClock alarm event after the ALRM flag has been cleared.
Rev. 0.4 11/10
Copyright © 2010 by Silicon Laboratories
AN358
AN358

Flash Memory Operations —If erasing Flash memory, be sure to set the SmaRTClock alarm interval to a value
longer than 36 ms to ensure that an alarm is not missed. When writing Flash memory, ensure that the alarm
interval is longer than 71 µs.
 Measuring Current—The software supplied with this application note allows the digital supply current
specification in the data sheet to be achieved. Any current flowing through the GPIO pins is in addition to the
digital supply current required to operate the device. For example, driving a 24.5 MHz clock signal on a GPIO
pin with a 3.3 V supply voltage can increase the supply current by 3 mA.
3. Power Modes Overview
The C8051F9xx family of MCUs support five power modes: Normal, Idle, Stop, Suspend and Sleep. A summary of
the power modes can be found in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of each mode can be found in the Power
Management chapter of the device data sheet.
Normal and Idle modes are classified as Active Power Modes because the system clock is active and power
consumption scales with the clock frequency. Typical supply currents for each of the three different system clock
sources (24.5 MHz Precision Oscillator, 20 MHz Low Power Oscillator, and 32.768 kHz SmaRTClock Oscillator)
are provided in Table 1. Stop, Suspend, and Sleep modes are classified as Inactive Power Modes because the
system clock is stopped.
Since the system clock in most low-power applications is not always present, the C8051F9xx MCUs have an ultralow-power SmaRTClock that can be used for timekeeping. The SmaRTClock oscillator requires less than 1 uA of
supply current and can remain functional even when the MCU goes into its lowest power Sleep mode.
Table 1. Power Mode Summary (Two-Cell Mode)
Power
Mode
Normal
Idle
Stop
Functionality
Device fully
functional
All clocks and
peripherals fully
functional.
Code execution
paused.
Legacy 8051 low
power mode.
Suspend All clocks stopped.
Code execution
paused.
Sleep
Typical Supply Current Typical Supply Current
(C8051F93x/2x)
(C8051F91x/0x)
4.0 mA @ 24.5 MHz
4.1 mA @ 24.5 MHz
3.4 mA @ 20.0 MHz
3.5 mA @ 20.0 MHz
84 µA @ 32.768 kHz
90 µA @ 32.768 kHz
(±10 µA for supply
(±10 µA for supply
voltage variations)
voltage variations)
2.1 mA @ 24.5 MHz
2.5 mA @ 24.5 MHz
1.6 mA @ 20.0 MHz
1.9 mA @ 20.0 MHz
82 µA @ 32.768 kHz
84 µA @ 32.768 kHz
(±10 µA for supply
(±10 µA for supply
voltage variations)
voltage variations)
Greater than or equal to Suspend Mode
Typical Supply Current
(C8051F99x/8x)
3.6 mA @ 24.5 MHz
3.1 mA @ 20.0 MHz
84 µA @ 32.768 kHz
(±10 µA for supply
voltage variations)
2.1 mA @ 24.5 MHz
1.6 mA @ 20.0 MHz
82 µA @ 32.768 kHz
(±10 µA for supply
voltage variations)
75 µA @ 1.8 V
90 µA @ 3.6 V
(Low Power Osc.)
w/ SmaRTClock Crystal
0.600 µA
75 µA @ 1.8 V
90 µA @ 3.6 V
(Low Power Osc.)
w/ SmaRTClock Crystal
0.600 µA
w/ SmaRTClock LFO
0.300 µA*
w/o SmaRTClock
0.050 µA
w/o VBAT Supply Monitor
0.010 uA*
Internal regulator
disabled, memory
preserved. Code
execution paused.
Comparator0 only
w/o SmaRTClock
functional in two-cell
0.050 uA
mode.
75 µA @ 1.8 V
90 µA @ 3.6 V
(Low Power Osc.)
w/ SmaRTClock Crystal
0.600 µA
w/ SmaRTClock LFO
0.300 µA*
w/o SmaRTClock
0.050 µA
w/o VBAT Supply Monitor
0.010 uA*
*Note: BLUE refers to power modes only available on C8051F912, C8051F902, C8051F99x, and C8051F98x devices.
2
Rev. 0.4
AN358
4. Minimizing Active Mode Current
The active modes in a low-power system typically require the most supply current; however, they are the modes in
which the most critical system tasks are completed. Minimizing Active mode time is one of the best power saving
strategies. This can be achieved by operating at the fastest possible system clock frequency. Since the MCU is
most efficient at fast system clocks, minimizing active mode time results in greater overall benefit than reducing
peak current.
The following figures show the typical supply current in Normal and Idle modes as a function of the system clock
frequency. There are two observations to note about the Normal mode curves: 1) at the crossover point, the slope
of the supply current vs. frequency curve changes. This divides the curve into two piece wise linear regions. 2) The
absolute current per MHz decreases as the system clock frequency increases. At low frequencies, the CPU
operates at a higher µA/MHz. As frequency increases, the µA/MHz drops and can be less than 150 µA/MHz on
some devices.
The Active supply current can be influenced by a number of factors including supply voltage, temperature, system
clock frequency, power mode, and other factors under the control of application software.
4.1. Effect of Supply Voltage
In most CMOS circuits, supply voltage has the greatest effect on supply current. However, since the C8051F9xx
MCUs have an on-chip LDO for regulating the voltage supplied to the digital circuitry, supply voltage has a minimal
effect on supply current. In fact, the supply current variation over the entire input voltage range (1.8–3.6 V) is
typically less than ±10 µA from the midpoint voltage of 2.7 V.
4.2. Effect of Temperature
Changes in temperature can affect the active supply current. As temperatures rise, the supply current also
increases, and as temperatures drop, the supply current decreases. The supply current variation over the entire
operating temperature range (–40 to +85 °C) is typically less than ±5% from the supply current measured at 25 °C.
4.3. Effect of System Clock Frequency
The system clock frequency has the most significant effect on the active supply current. As the clock frequency
increases, supply current and power efficiency increase, as shown in the following figures. When executing a task
that requires a fixed number of instructions, the system clock should be set as fast as possible. The limiting factor
in increasing the system clock should be the ability of the power supply to handle the increased peak currents.
For tasks that require a fixed amount of time to complete (e.g., waiting for a UART byte to be clocked in),
increasing the system clock actually decreases power efficiency because the peak current increases while no
additional work is being completed. In these situations, the system clock frequency should be minimized and the
CPU placed in Idle mode.
4.4. Effect of Power Mode
The C8051F9xx MCUs have two Active Power Modes in which the system clock is running. Normal mode power
consumption is shown in Figure 1, Figure 3, and Figure 5, and Idle mode power consumption is shown in Figure 4,
Figure 6, and Figure 6. As a rule of thumb, placing the CPU in Idle mode will typically reduce the supply current by
approximately 50%.
Rev. 0.4
3
AN358
4.5. Optimizing Application Software
To achieve the supply current measurements listed in this application note and in the device data sheet, application
software must properly configure the device into its optimum power setting. These low-power optimizations for
Active Power Modes are as follows:
1. For system clock frequencies greater than the crossover frequency, disable (bypass) the one-shot circuit by
setting the BYPASS bit (FLSCL.6) to logic 1. For system clock frequencies less than the crossover frequency,
enable the one-shot circuit by clearing the BYPASS bit (FLSCL.6) to logic 0 and immediately following this
operation with a write of a non-zero value to the FLWR register (only required for C8051F93x/2x devices). A
detailed description of the one-shot circuit can be found in the Flash chapter of the device data sheet. Leaving
the one-shot enabled for frequencies higher than the crossover frequency can result in 40% higher supply
current. Leaving the one-shot bypassed for frequencies less than crossover frequency can result in greater than
500% increase in supply current.
Note:
The optimum one-shot crossover frequency is 14 MHz on C8051F91x/0x/9x/8x devices and 10 MHz on
C8051F93x\2x devices.
2. If the Low Power Oscillator is not selected as the system clock source, clear all wake-up source flags by writing
0x20 to the PMU0CF register. Always use direct writes or reads when accessing this register. Clearing the
wake-up source flags allows the Low Power Oscillator to be automatically disabled by hardware when it is not
needed. This optimization reduces the supply current by 100 uA.
3. If the Precision Oscillator is not selected as the system clock source, disable the Precision Oscillator Bias by
clearing the OSCBIAS bit (REG0CN.4) to logic 0. This optimization reduces the supply current by 85 uA.
4. When using one of the internal oscillators as the system clock source, disable the missing clock detector reset
source in the RSTSRC register. Always use direct writes or reads when accessing this register and be careful
not to disable the VDD Monitor as a reset source. This optimization reduces the supply current by 10 uA.
5. Disable the 1.8 V supply monitor in systems that use an external supply monitor or when a proper supply
voltage is guaranteed (e.g., a system that uses a permanent battery where behavior at battery end-of-life is a
don’t care). This optimization reduces the supply current by 5 to 20 uA depending on supply voltage.
6. Whenever possible, try to execute code at the fastest possible clock frequency and use Idle mode to pause
code execution when waiting for a specific event to occur (e.g., timer overflow flag in a software delay loop,
GPIO pin changing state, UART transmission or ADC conversion to complete, etc.).
7. If software contains small loops, such as a while(1) statement, ensure that the loop does not straddle a flash
row boundary. Devices with 1024 byte Flash pages have a row boundary of 128 bytes, and devices with 512
byte Flash pages have a row boundary of 64 bytes. Supply current can increase by up to 30% when a short
loop straddles a Flash row boundary. See the Flash chapter of the MCU data sheet for more details about
minimizing Flash read current.
4
Rev. 0.4
AN358
4200
F < 14 MHz
Oneshot Enabled
4100
4000
F > 14 MHz
Oneshot Bypassed
3900
3800
3700
3600
< 150uA/MHz
3500
3400
3300
3200
152 uA/MHz
3100
3000
2900
2800
2700
Supply Current (uA)
2600
168 uA/MHz
2500
2400
180 uA/MHz
2300
2200
2100
2000
1900
1800
1700
1600
1500
1400
1300
1200
184 uA/MHz
1100
1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
250 uA/MHz
200
100
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11 12 13 14
Frequency (MHz)
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
Figure 1. Typical Supply Current vs. Frequency
(Normal Mode, External CMOS Clock, C8051F99x/8x)
Rev. 0.4
5
AN358
4200
4100
4000
3900
3800
3700
3600
3500
3400
3300
3200
3100
3000
2900
2800
2700
2600
Supply Current (uA)
2500
2400
2300
2200
2100
2000
1900
1800
1700
1600
1500
1400
1300
1200
1100
1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11 12 13 14
Frequency (MHz)
15
16
17
18
19
Figure 2. Typical Supply Current vs. Frequency
(Idle Mode, External CMOS Clock, C8051F99x/8x)
6
Rev. 0.4
20
21
22
23
24
25
AN358
4200
F < 14 MHz
Oneshot Enabled
4100
4000
F > 14 MHz
Oneshot Bypassed
3900
3800
3700
3600
3500
< 160 uA/MHz
3400
3300
3200
3100
185 uA/MHz
3000
2900
2800
2700
2600
Supply Current (uA)
2500
200 uA/MHz
2400
2300
2200
2100
2000
1900
1800
1700
1600
1500
1400
1300
215 uA/MHz
1200
1100
1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
300 uA/MHz
200
100
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
19 20 21 22 23 24 25
Frequency (MHz)
Figure 3. Typical Supply Current vs. Frequency
(Normal Mode, External CMOS Clock, C8051F912/11/02/01)
Rev. 0.4
7
AN358
4200
4100
4000
3900
3800
3700
3600
3500
3400
3300
3200
3100
3000
2900
2800
2700
2600
Supply Current (uA)
2500
2400
2300
2200
2100
2000
1900
1800
1700
1600
1500
1400
1300
1200
1100
1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
Frequency (MHz)
Figure 4. Typical Supply Current vs. Frequency
(Idle Mode, External CMOS Clock, C8051F912/11/02/01)
8
Rev. 0.4
AN358
4200
F < 10 MHz
Oneshot Enabled
4100
4000
F > 10 MHz
Oneshot Bypassed
3900
3800
3700
3600
3500
< 170 uA/MHz
3400
3300
3200
3100
3000
200 uA/MHz
2900
2800
2700
2600
215 uA/MHz
Supply Current (uA)
2500
2400
2300
2200
2100
2000
1900
1800
1700
1600
1500
1400
240 uA/MHz
1300
1200
1100
1000
900
250 uA/MHz
800
700
600
500
400
300
300 uA/MHz
200
100
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
Frequency (MHz)
Figure 5. Typical Supply Current vs. Frequency
(Normal Mode, External CMOS Clock, C8051F930/31/20/21)
Rev. 0.4
9
AN358
4200
4100
4000
3900
3800
3700
3600
3500
3400
3300
3200
3100
3000
2900
2800
2700
2600
Supply Current (uA)
2500
2400
2300
2200
2100
2000
1900
1800
1700
1600
1500
1400
1300
1200
1100
1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Frequency (MHz)
Figure 6. Typical Supply Current vs. Frequency
(Idle Mode, External CMOS Clock, C8051F930/31/20/21)
10
Rev. 0.4
21
22
23
24
25
AN358
5. Minimizing Inactive Mode Current
In most low-power applications, the MCU spends most of its time in the Inactive Power Modes. The C8051F9xx
devices have an ultra-low-power Sleep mode in which the supply current drops below 1 µA. Two additional power
modes, Suspend and Stop, are supported and allow the supply current to drop to 75–90 µA (two-cell mode) or
250–500 µA (one-cell mode). These power modes are discussed in the following sections.
5.1. Choosing an Inactive Power Mode
For two-cell applications operating from a supply voltage of 1.8–3.6 V, Sleep mode should be selected as the
inactive power mode if the system can tolerate a typical wake-up time of 2 µs. This provides an inactive mode
current less than 1 µA. If the application requires a faster wake-up, Suspend mode can provide a 400 ns wake-up
time at the expense of increased inactive mode current (75–90 µA).
For one-cell applications operating from a supply voltage of 0.9–1.8 V, if the system can tolerate a typical wake-up
time of 10 µs and the I/O voltage falling below 1.8 V, then Sleep mode should be selected as the inactive power
mode. This provides an inactive mode current less than 1 µA. If the application requires a faster wake-up or cannot
tolerate an I/O voltage below 1.8 V during the inactive state, then Suspend mode can provide a 400 ns wake-up
time and a constant I/O voltage above 1.8 V at the expense of increased inactive mode current (75–90 µA plus any
input current required by the dc-dc converter to maintain the VDD/DC+ supply rail at its programmed voltage).
When the dc-dc converter output voltage is programmed to 1.9 V, the Suspend mode current will range from 250–
500 µA depending on the input voltage and the dc-dc converter settings. See "8. Minimizing One-Cell Mode
Current" on page 20 for more information on how to configure the dc-dc converter to maximize power efficiency.
Stop mode is a legacy power mode that may be used in two-cell or one-cell applications. The inactive mode current
in Stop mode is identical to that in Suspend mode; however, the MCU requires a reset in order to wake up from
Stop mode. This makes the wake-up time from Stop mode very long when compared to the 400 ns required to
wake up from Suspend mode. Under all circumstances, choosing Sleep or Suspend as the inactive power mode
will provide more benefit to the system than Stop mode.
5.2. Achieving <1 µA Supply Current
Once the MCU is placed in Sleep mode, the current meter should display a value below 1 µA in one-cell or two-cell
mode. If the current meter is capable of resolving currents smaller than 1 µA, it should display a value between
50 nA and 110 nA, depending on supply voltage (0.9–3.6 V) with the SmaRTClock disabled. If the SmaRTClock is
enabled, the current meter should display a value between 420 and 815 nA depending on supply voltage (0.9–
3.6 V).
If the measured current falls outside these ranges, then the MCU is not entering Sleep mode or is sourcing/sinking
current through its GPIO pins. Following are some suggestions for achieving a <1 µA supply current:
1. Ensure that the USB Debug Adapter’s ribbon cable is removed from the 10-pin debug socket on the target
board. Leaving the USB Debug Adapter connected adds between 2–4 µA to the supply current measurement.
2. Ensure that all shorting blocks (with the exception of J11) are removed from the target board and that current is
being measured across J17 or H2.
Rev. 0.4
11
AN358
Figure 7. Current Measurement Setup on a C8051F930 Target Board
3. Ensure that digital inputs are driven or pulled to a HIGH logic state. Digital inputs in a LOW logic state can
increase supply current by 0.2–20 µA depending on supply voltage due to the on-chip weak pull-up. If the logic
state of the input cannot be controlled, the GPIO pin may be placed in Analog mode to disable the weak pull-up.
4. Ensure that analog signals are not applied to digital inputs. This can cause both the top and bottom transistors
of CMOS logic gates to weakly turn on (i.e., Crowbar), causing the supply current to increase.
5. Ensure that all capacitors used in the system are low leakage ceramic capacitors. To demonstrate the effect of
capacitor leakage, a 1 µF ceramic capacitor can increase the inactive supply current by approximately 3 nA at
3.0 V. An equal valued tantalum capacitor at the same voltage can increase the inactive supply current by up to
1 µA.
6. Ensure that application code is properly placing the device in Sleep mode. We recommend using the software
supplied with this application note to place the device in its various power modes for measuring supply current.
5.3. Entering and Exiting the Sleep and Suspend Inactive Power Modes
In order to ensure proper entry and exit from the Sleep and Suspend inactive power modes, software should follow
the recommendations in this section.
Sleep and Suspend Mode Entry Procedure:
1. Save the contents of the CLKSEL register; then, force the global clock divider to its divide-by-one setting and
ensure that either the Low Power Oscillator or the Precision Oscillator is selected as the system clock source.
The two valid values for CLKSEL at this point are: 0x00 and 0x04. Using C:
CLKSEL_save = CLKSEL;
CLKSEL = 0x04;
Note:
Per the C8051F930/31/20/21 errata, on Revision D and the earlier silicon, the value of CLKSEL should be 0x14
when entering Sleep or Suspend Mode. This errata item does not apply to C8051F91x/0x/9x/8x devices or to Revision E of C8051F930/31/20/21 devices.
2. Wait for the clock divider value to be applied by polling CLKSEL until the CLKRDY bit is set to 1. This can be
achieved using the following C statement:
while((CLKSEL & 0x80) == 0);
Note:
12
Step 1 and Step 2 may be omitted if the system clock used in the system is already set to the value required for
entering Suspend or Sleep mode or when using C8051F91x/0x/9x/8x devices.
Rev. 0.4
AN358
3. Enable the Flash read one-shot timer if entering Suspend mode. This can be achieved with the following C
statement:
FLSCL &= ~0x40;
FLWR
= 0x01;
Notes:
1. Writing a dummy value to FLWR after clearing the BYPASS bit (FLSCL.6) is not required for C8051F91x/0x/9x/8x
devices.
2. Enabling the Flash read one-shot timer is not required when entering Sleep mode. It is required for all other low-power
modes.
4. Clear all wake-up source flags in PMU0CF. Be sure to enable interrupts for transient events before clearing the
wake-up source flags. Using C:
PMU0CF = 0x20;
5. Place the device in the selected power mode and specify the desired wake-up sources.
The power modes are:
#define SLEEP
#define SUSPEND
0x80
0x40
The wake up sources are:
#define
#define
#define
#define
#define
CP0
PORT_MATCH
RTC_ALRM
RTC_FAIL
RST
0x01
0x02
0x04
0x08
0x10
PMU0CF = (SLEEP + (PORT_MATCH | RTC_ALRM));
Sleep and Suspend Mode Exit Procedure:
1. Execute 4 NOP instructions. This can be done with the following C statement:
NOP(); NOP(); NOP(); NOP();
2. Restore the contents of the CLKSEL register. This can be done with the following C statement:
CLKSEL = CLKSEL_save;
3. Wait for the clock divider value to be applied by polling CLKSEL until the CLKRDY bit is set to 1. This can be
achieved using the following C statement:
while((CLKSEL & 0x80) == 0);
Note:
Step 2 and Step 3 of the Exit Procedure may be omitted if Step 1 and Step 2 have been omitted upon entry into the
low-power mode.
4. If the system clock is greater than the crossover frequency, bypass (disable) the Flash read one-shot timer. This
can be achieved with the following C statement:
#if(SYSCLK > 10000000)
FLSCL |= 0x40;
#endif
Note:
The Flash read one-shot enabled/bypassed state is preserved. In most cases, this step can be
omitted if Step 3 was omitted during entry into Sleep mode.
5. Decode the wake-up source flags. If the cause of wake-up is a falling edge on /RST, then the MCU must not be
allowed to enter the low-power mode for a period of 15 µs. This provides the MCU sufficient time to respond to
a pin reset event or synchronize with the debugger. Failing to insert a 15 µs delay before reentering the lowpower mode can result in the MCU becoming non-responsive to the reset pin or disconnecting from the IDE.
wakeup_source = PMU0CF & 0x1F;
Rev. 0.4
13
AN358
if (wakeup_source
{
Wait_US(15);
}
if (wakeup_source
if (wakeup_source
if (wakeup_source
if (wakeup_source
& RST)
&
&
&
&
PORT_MATCH){}
RTC_ALRM){}
RTC_FAIL){}
CP0){}
Additional Step for High-Current Applications:
Applications that have high-current requirements in their active mode may experience a power-fail reset upon
waking up from Sleep mode. This occurs more frequently for one-cell applications. For these applications, we
recommend adding the following step:
Immediately before entering Sleep mode:
RSTSRC = 0x00; // Disable VDD Monitor Reset
Immediately after waking from Sleep mode:
#define VDDOK 0x20 // Bit 5 of VDM0CN
// Poll the VDD Monitor Early Warning Bit
while((VDM0CN & VDDOK) == 0);
RSTSRC = 0x02; // Enable VDD Monitor Reset
Note:
14
Constants written to RSTSRC used to enable and disable the VDD Monitor may vary depending on the enabled
reset sources in the system.
Rev. 0.4
AN358
6. An Event-Driven Architecture
In order to minimize average current and prolong battery life in portable embedded systems, attention must be
given to how the application code is structured. An event-driven software architecture in which the MCU spends
most of its time in the inactive state and only waking to handle specific events, has proven to be one of the most
power-efficient ways to organize application code. Figure 8 shows a typical event-driven program flow.
// Device Initialization
MCU_Init();
// Main Application Loop
while(1)
{
1. Perform Task A (Event Handler)
2. Perform Task B (Event Handler)
3. Perform Task C (Event Handler)
...
Final Task:
Enter Sleep Mode
~ MCU Sleeping ~
~ Event Occurs ~
Exit Sleep Mode
}
Figure 8. Event Driven Program Flow
6.1. Periodic and Random Tasks
All tasks performed by the MCU can be classified as periodic or random. Periodic tasks, such as a real time clock
function, generate events that periodically wake up the MCU from its inactive power mode. These tasks typically
require the use of the SmaRTClock to generate periodic wake-up events. Random tasks, such as a switch press,
can generate wake-up events using Port Match, which allows any rising or falling edge on a GPIO pin to wake the
device from its inactive power mode. The inactive supply current for random tasks is lower than the inactive current
for periodic tasks since the SmaRTClock oscillator can be turned off.
The C8051F9xx MCU family also supports one additional type of wake-up, Comparator 0. When the VDD/DC+
supply is present (two-cell Sleep mode or one-cell Suspend mode) Comparator 0 may be used to wake the device
from Suspend or Sleep. Comparator 0 requires 0.4 uA in its lowest power setting and may be used to wake up the
MCU upon crossing of an analog threshold.
6.2. Transient and Persistent Events
All wake-up events (whether random or periodic) will either be transient or persistent. Transient events are only
present for a finite duration and persistent events remain present indefinitely until the event handler responds to
the event.
In order to reliably and effectively handle transient events, the C8051F9xx MCUs have a power management unit
(PMU0) which captures wake-up events and maintains wake-up source flags located in the PMU0CF register. All
wake-up events captured by PMU0 are edge-triggered. This allows events to be captured without any clocks being
active. The wake-up source flags in the PMU0CF register are persistent, and will remain asserted until cleared by
software.
6.3. Handling SmaRTClock Events
The SmaRTClock can generate two events: SmaRTClock Alarm or SmaRTClock Oscillator Fail. SmaRTClock
alarms are considered transient because the alarm event flag (ALRM) remains asserted for only one SmaRTClock
oscillator cycle and SmaRTClock oscillator fail events are persistent because the oscillator fail event flag
(OSCFAIL) can only be cleared by software. The wake-up source flags in PMU0CF that capture these
SmaRTClock events are persistent and will remain asserted until cleared by software.
Rev. 0.4
15
AN358
The recommended method of handling a SmaRTClock alarm event is to create a software flag that indicates that
this event is pending. The software flag should be set any time the SmaRTClock alarm wake-up source flag in the
PMU0CF register is set. This provides a 99.9% guarantee that all SmaRTClock events will be captured.
To achieve 100% coverage, we must check for SmaRTClock events that occur in the same instruction cycle in
which the PMU0CF register is cleared. This can be done by enabling SmaRTClock interrupts before the clear
operation begins and disabling them after the clear operation completes. If a SmaRTClock event happens during
this brief period of time, the interrupt service routine should simply set the software <alarm_pending> flag to
indicate that a SmaRTClock event has occurred.
The main application loop should use the software flag to detect when a SmaRTClock alarm has occurred. Upon
entry into the event handler, the <alarm_pending> flag, the ALRM flag, and the PMU0CF register should be
cleared to prevent the same event from being handled more than once. Figure 9 shows an example of how to
handle SmaRTClock alarm events. Figure 10 shows an example of how to handle SmaRTClock oscillator fail
events. Note the difference in implementation is due to the alarm being a transient event and the oscillator fail
being a persistent event.
In these examples, there is only one transient event which is detected using the wake-up source flags in PMU0CF.
If there was a second transient event (e.g., a transient port match event), then additional care should be taken
when clearing PMU0CF. The clear operation would consist of the following steps:
1. Enable interrupts for all transient events.
2. Read the PMU0CF register to ensure no transient event has already occurred before enabling the interrupt.
3. Clear the PMU0CF register.
4. Disable interrupts for the transient events.
If multiple asynchronous events are enabled, be sure to test the firmware routines under worst case conditions to
ensure that all events are properly captured and handled.
6.4. Handling Port Match Events
Depending on the application, changes in GPIO state can be transient or persistent. For example, the detection of
a switch press is a transient phenomenon; however, once the switch is pressed, it is typically not released for a few
hundred milliseconds. If the application code can guarantee that the event handler can be reached before the user
removes their finger from the switch, then the event can be treated as persistent.
Port match events should be handled similar to SmaRTClock events—transient port match events should be
detected using the PMU0CF register and persistent port match events can be detected by reading the GPIO pin
state directly.
16
Rev. 0.4
AN358
// Main Application Loop
while(1)
{
//---------------------------------// SmaRTClock Alarm Task
//---------------------------------if(PMU0CF & 0x04)
alarm_pending = 1;
// Alarm Handler
if(alarm_pending)
{
// Clear the <alarm_pending> flag
alarm_pending = 0;
// Clear the ALRM flag by disabling
// then re-enabling the alarm
RTC_Write(RTC0CN, 0xD4); // Disable
RTC_Write(RTC0CN, 0xDC); // Re-enable
// Clear PMU0CF
EIE1 |= 0x02;
PMU0CF = 0x20;
EIE1 &= ~0x02;
wakeup source flags
// Enable Alarm Int.
// Clear wake-up flags
// Disable Alarm Int.
// Additional Actions
...
}
}
void ALARM_ISR (void) interrupt 8
{
// Disable the Alarm interrupt
EIE1 &= ~0x02;
// Set the <alarm_pending> software flag
alarm_pending = 1;
}
Figure 9. Handling a Transient Event
// Main Application Loop
while(1)
{
//---------------------------------// SmaRTClock Osc. Fail Task
//---------------------------------if(RTC_Read(RTC0CN) & 0x20)
smaRTClock_fail = 1;
// Osc. Fail Handler
if(smaRTClock_fail)
{
// Clear the <smaRTClock_fail> flag
smaRTClock_fail = 0;
// Clear the OSCFAIL flag
// by writing to the RTC0CN register
RTC_Write(RTC0CN, 0xDC);
// Additional Action
...
}
}
Figure 10. Handling a Persistent Event
Rev. 0.4
17
AN358
7. Low Power Software Template
To jump start the process of software development, a low power software template is distributed with this
application note. The software template is a good starting point for any C8051F9xx firmware project that will be
using Suspend or Sleep mode in an event driven application that is structured as shown in Figure 8.
The software template is divided into two primary modules, a “smartclock” module and a “power” module. The
“smartclock” module handles all software interaction with the SmaRTClock peripherals and provides the following
API functions:









RTC_Init()—Starts the SmaRTClock oscillator in crystal or self-oscillate/LFO mode.
RTC_WriteAlarm()—Writes a 32-bit value to the ALARM registers.
RTC_GetCurrentTime()—Reads the 32-bit value representing the current time.
RTC_SetCurrentTime()—Writes the passed 32-bit value to the main SmaRTClock counter.
RTC_SleepTicks()—Places the device in Sleep mode for the specified number of SmaRTClock cycles. This
function should only be used when the SmaRTClock is configured for Auto Reset mode.
RTC0CN_SetBits()—Used to set bits in the SmaRTClock control register.
RTC0CN_ClearBits()—Used to clear bits in the SmaRTClock control register.
RTC_Write()—Used to write to an indirect SmaRTClock register.
RTC_Read()—Used to read from an indirect SmaRTClock register.
The “power” module handles entry and exit of low power modes. It provides the following API functions:

LPM_Init()—Initializes the low power mode API.
 LPM_Enable_Wakeup()—Enables the SmaRTClock, Port Match, or Comparator as a wake-up source from
Sleep or Suspend Mode.
 LPM_Disable_Wakeup()—Disables the SmaRTClock, Port Match, or Comparator as a wake-up source from
Sleep or Suspend Mode.
 LPM()—Called with an argument SLEEP or SUSPEND to place the device in a low power mode. Device will
wake up once an enabled wake-up source event occurs.
18
Rev. 0.4
AN358
7.1. Software Template Example
A software example that uses the software template is bundled with this application note. The example configures
the SmaRTClock to generate an alarm every 100 ms. On every alarm, a 1 ms pulse is generated to be used as an
oscilloscope trigger and an ADC conversion is initiated. The software template example can be easily modified to
fulfill the requirements of the end application.
7.2. Configuring the Software Template
The software template has a number of compile-time configuration options that can be used to customize the
software.
7.2.1. Configuration Options in C8051F930_lib.h

SYSCLK—Defines the system clock frequency in Hertz. Used to calculate timer reload values and to determine
if the Flash read one-shot should be enabled or disabled.
 SMARTCLOCK_ENABLED—Enables SmaRTClock functionality. When set to 0, the SmaRTClock routines will
be excluded from the project build.
7.2.2. Configuration Options in SmaRTClock.h

RTC_CLKSRC—Set to CRYSTAL to operate the SmaRTClock with a 32.768 kHz crystal or set to SELFOSC to
operate the SmaRTClock in self-oscillate mode.
 LOADCAP_VALUE—Sets the programmed value of load capacitance for the SmaRTClock.
 WAKE_INTERVAL—The number of milliseconds between SmaRTClock alarms.
7.3. Additional Examples
Additional examples that use the software template can be found in the MCU examples folder for the device being
used. The default path is as follows:
C:\Silabs\MCU\Examples\C8051F93x_92x\SleepMode\
or
C:\Silabs\MCU\Examples\C8051F91x_90x\SleepMode\
or
C:\Silabs\MCU\Examples\C8051F99x_98x\SleepMode\
Rev. 0.4
19
AN358
8. Minimizing One-Cell Mode Current
In one-cell mode, the MCU may be powered from a 0.9 to 1.8 V supply. An on-chip dc-dc converter is used to boost
the supply voltage up to a programmed value between 1.8 and 3.3 V. This voltage appears on the VDD/DC+
supply pin. The supply current taken from the VDD/DC+ supply pin to operate the MCU is equal to the supply
current in two-cell mode.
From a power conservation standpoint, it is important to note that the input power (battery voltage x battery current)
will always be equal to the output power (voltage x current at the VDD/DC+ pin) scaled by the efficiency factor.
Since the battery voltage must be 0.2 V less than the output voltage, the battery current will always be higher than
the two-cell mode supply current.
The battery current can be calculated from the two-cell mode supply current using Equation 1. Table 2 shows
typical one-cell mode battery current as compared to two-cell mode supply current.
Battery Current (one-cell mode) =
Supply Voltage  Supply Current (two-cell mode)---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------DC-DC Converter Efficiency  VBAT Voltage
Equation 1. Calculating One-Cell Battery Current
The following factors can help reduce battery current:

Maximize the input battery voltage.
Minimize the output supply voltage.
 Minimize the output supply current.
 Maximize the dc-dc converter efficiency.

8.1. Input Battery Voltage
Battery voltage has a large effect on the battery current. Since the dc-dc converter maintains a constant power
output, the input current increases as the input voltage decreases. If the system is powered by a regulator, the
ideal VBAT voltage is 1.7 V; however, when powered by a battery, the only control the system designer has over
the VBAT voltage is in the selection of a battery chemistry.
To see the effect of battery chemistry on battery current, compare an Alkaline AAA to Lithium AAA at 50%
remaining capacity. The Alkaline battery has a voltage of approximately 1.25 V while the Lithium battery has a
voltage of approximately 1.5 V. When operating the MCU at 24.5 MHz, the Lithium battery needs to supply 20%
less current than the Alkaline battery (6.3 vs. 7.8 mA) in order to maintain the same output power. This results in a
significant boost in battery life. Other benefits of Lithium over Alkaline batteries are higher charge densities
resulting in high capacity AA and AAA batteries, very low self-discharge currents resulting in prolonged shelf life,
and the ability to support high drain applications without a significant reduction in battery capacity.
8.2. Output Supply Voltage
The output supply voltage (VDD/DC+) can be programmed to values between 1.8 and 3.3 V using the DC0CN
Register. The recommended supply voltage that provides the most power efficient operation is 1.9 V. This is the
default supply voltage at reset. Higher supply voltages should only be used when required (e.g., the system needs
to turn on a blue or white LED).
The following example demonstrates the effect of output supply voltage on the battery current when operating the
MCU at 24.5 MHz. A 60% increase in battery current (6.3 to 10 mA) is experienced when the supply voltage is
increased from 1.9 to 2.7 V.
8.3. Output Supply Current
The output supply current (equivalent to the two-cell mode supply current) has a direct impact on battery current.
The change in battery current as a result of an increase in supply current is typically 30–50% higher than the actual
change in supply current. The supply current can be minimized using the same techniques described in this
application note for two-cell mode.
20
Rev. 0.4
AN358
8.4. DC-DC Converter Efficiency
The dc-dc converter efficiency depends on the input battery voltage, output supply current, component selection
and software settings. Figure 11 through Figure 13 show the typical dc-dc converter efficiencies for various input
battery voltages and output supply currents. When optimizing dc-dc converter efficiency, the system designer
typically has little control over these parameters since they are usually determined by other constraints in the
system.
The parameters which the system designer has the most control over are component selection, PCB layout, and
software settings. The inductor should be chosen to have minimum dc resistance and a high current rating. The
input and output capacitors should be low leakage ceramic capacitors. Recommended parameters for the required
inductor and decoupling capacitors can be found in Table 4.14 of the MCU data sheet.
The PCB layout can have an effect on the dc-dc converter efficiency. In order to maximize efficiency, the inductor
should be placed as close as possible to the DCEN pin and the capacitance of the trace connecting the inductor to
DCEN should be minimized. The current loop consisting of the input capacitor, inductor, DCEN pin and the ground
plane should be made as small as possible. On the output side, the traces connecting the VDD/DC+ pin to the
output capacitor and the output capacitor to the GND/DC– pin should be as short and thick as possible in order to
minimize parasitic inductance.
The software settings that affect dc-dc converter efficiency can be found in the DC0CN and DC0CF registers. The
ideal setting for each of these parameters depends on the power requirements of the application. The system
designer should experiment with the following settings until the optimum setting is determined for any particular
application.

Output Voltage Select - The output voltage select bits allow the output voltage to be programmed between 1.8
to 3.3 V. The lower the setting, the higher the efficiency. We recommend not setting the target value lower than
1.9 V to allow some margin above the VDD Monitor Threshold.
 Switch Select - The dc-dc converter provides two switches (large and small) for use under different load
conditions. For small loads, the small switch should provide higher efficiency. For large loads, the large switch
should provide higher efficiency. Under some conditions (e.g., when minimum pulse width is enabled), the large
switch may provide higher efficiency at low currents.
Rev. 0.4
21
AN358
Table 2. Power Mode Summary (One-Cell Mode)
Power
Mode
Typical Two-Cell
Typical One-Cell
Typical Two-Cell
Battery Current
Supply Current
Supply Current
(C8051F930/31/20/21)
(C8051F912/11/02/01)
(C8051F930/31/20/21)
VBAT = 1.5V
Normal
4.1 mA @ 24.5 MHz
3.5 mA @ 20.0 MHz
90 µA @ 32.768 kHz
(±10 µA for supply
voltage variations)
6.3 mA @ 24.5 MHz
5.4 mA @ 20.0 MHz
360 µA @ 32.768 kHz
4.0 mA @ 24.5 MHz
3.4 mA @ 20.0 MHz
84 µA @ 32.768 kHz
(±10 µA for supply
voltage variations)
6.2 mA @ 24.5 MHz
5.2 mA @ 20.0 MHz
320 µA @ 32.768 kHz
w/ LPM Enabled
285 µA @ 1.9 V
Idle
2.5 mA @ 24.5 MHz
1.9 mA @ 20.0 MHz
84 µA @ 32.768 kHz
(±10 µA for supply
voltage variations)
3.7 mA @ 24.5 MHz
2.9 mA @ 20.0 MHz
350 µA @ 32.768 kHz
2.1 mA @ 24.5 MHz
1.6 mA @ 20.0 MHz
82 µA @ 32.768 kHz
(±10 µA for supply
voltage variations)
3.3 mA @ 24.5 MHz
2.5 mA @ 20.0 MHz
316µA @ 32.768 kHz
w/ LPM Enabled
280 µA @ 1.9 V
Suspend
75 µA @ 1.8 V
90 µA @ 3.6 V
(Low Power Osc.)
330 µA @ 1.9 V
75 µA @ 1.8 V
90 µA @ 3.6 V
(Low Power Osc.)
310 µA @ 1.9 V
(Low Power Osc.)
w/ LPM Enabled
275 µA @ 1.9 V
Sleep
w/ SmaRTClock
Crystal
0.600 µA
w/ SmaRTClock
Crystal
0.600 µA
w/o SmaRTClock
0.050 µA
w/o SmaRTClock
0.050 µA
w/ SmaRTClock
Crystal
0.600 µA
w/ SmaRTClock LFO
0.300 µA
w/o SmaRTClock
0.050 µA
w/o VBAT Supply
Monitor
0.010 µA
w/ SmaRTClock Crystal
0.600 µA
w/ SmaRTClock LFO
0.300 µA
w/o SmaRTClock
0.050 µA
w/o VBAT Supply
Monitor
0.010 µA
Note: BLUE refers to power modes only available on C8051F912 and C8051F902 devices.
22
Rev. 0.4
Typical One-Cell
Battery Current
(C8051F912/11/02/01)
VBAT = 1.5V
AN358

Minimum Pulse Width—The minimum pulse width forces the dc-dc converter to use a minimum duty cycle.
For low current applications (e.g., MCU in suspend mode), a single pulse provides enough charge to keep the
output above the target voltage for several clock pulses. The dc-dc converter remains idle during these clock
cycles. This causes an improvement in efficiency due to a reduction in switching losses. Figure 14 shows the
effect of minimum pulse width on suspend mode current.
 Peak Current Limit Threshold—The peak current through the inductor can be set to 125 or 500 mA. For low
current applications, the lower setting should provide the highest efficiency. For high current applications,
increasing the peak current should improve efficiency and reduce ripple.
 VDD/DC+ Sleep Mode Connection—In Sleep mode, the VDD/DC+ supply can be shorted to VBAT or allowed
to float. If the application will be asleep for a short duration (not long enough to discharge the output capacitor),
then the VDD/DC+ supply should be left floating. If the VDD/DC+ decoupling capacitor is expected to
experience significant discharge while the MCU is asleep, then VDD/DC+ should be internally shorted to VBAT
during sleep mode.
 Low Power Mode—On C8051F912 and C8051F902 devices, the dc-dc converter supports a low power mode
that reduces bias currents. This mode will help improve efficiency when optimal transient response is not
required.
Rev. 0.4
23
AN358
SWSEL = 1
SWSEL = 0
90.0
89.0
88.0
87.0
86.0
85.0
84.0
83.0
82.0
81.0
80.0
79.0
Efficiency (%)
78.0
77.0
VBAT = 1.5 V
76.0
VBAT = 1.4 V
75.0
VBAT = 1.3 V
74.0
VBAT = 1.2 V
73.0
VBAT = 1.1 V
72.0
VBAT = 1.0 V
71.0
VBAT = 0.9 V
70.0
0.68 uH Inductor, 1008 package, ESR = 0.4 Ohms
VDD/DC+ = 2V, Minimum Pulse Width = 0ns (Pulse Skipping Disabled)
69.0
68.0
67.0
Note: Efficiency at high currents may be improved by choosing an
inductor with a lower ESR.
66.0
65.0
64.0
63.0
62.0
61.0
60.0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
Load Current (mA)
Figure 11. Typical DC-DC Converter Efficiency (High Current, VDD/DC+ = 2 V)
24
Rev. 0.4
25
AN358
SWSEL = 1
SWSEL = 0
80.0
79.0
78.0
77.0
76.0
75.0
74.0
73.0
72.0
71.0
70.0
69.0
Efficiency (%)
68.0
67.0
66.0
65.0
64.0
63.0
62.0
61.0
VBAT = 1.5V
60.0
VBAT = 1.4V
59.0
VBAT = 1.3V
58.0
VBAT = 1.2V
VBAT = 1.1V
57.0
VBAT = 1.0V
56.0
VBAT = 0.9V
55.0
0.68 uH Inductor, 1008 package, ESR = 0.4 Ohms
VDD/DC+ = 3V, Minimum Pulse Width = 0ns
(Pulse Skipping Disabled)
Note: Efficiency at high currents may be improved by
choosing an inductor with a lower ESR.
54.0
53.0
52.0
51.0
50.0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Load current (mA)
Figure 12. Typical DC-DC Converter Efficiency (High Current, VDD/DC+ = 3 V)
Rev. 0.4
25
AN358
80.0
75.0
70.0
65.0
VBAT = 1.5V
VBAT = 1.4V
Efficiency (%)
60.0
VBAT = 1.3V
VBAT = 1.2V
VBAT = 1.1V
55.0
VBAT = 1.0V
VBAT = 0.9V
50.0
45.0
0.68 uH Inductor, 1008 package, ESR = 0.4 Ohms
SWSEL = 1, VDD/DC+ = 2V, Minimum Pulse Width = 40ns
40.0
35.0
30.0
0.00
0.25
0.50
0.75
1.00
1.25
1.50
1.75
2.00
2.25
2.50
2.75
Load current (mA)
Figure 13. Typical DC-DC Converter Efficiency (Low Current, VDD/DC+ = 2 V)
26
Rev. 0.4
3.00
AN358
900
0.68 uH Inductor, 1008 package, ESR = 0.4 Ohms
SWSEL = 1, VDD/DC+ = 1.9V, Load Current = 75 uA
850
800
Min Pulse Width: 0 ns
750
Min Pulse Width: 20 ns
700
Min Pulse Width: 40 ns
Min Pulse Width: 80 ns
VBAT Current (uA)
650
600
550
500
450
400
350
300
250
200
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
VBAT (V)
Figure 14. Typical Suspend Mode Supply Current
Rev. 0.4
27
AN358
9. Analog Peripherals
Analog peripherals such as the ADC and Comparators can significantly increase supply current when enabled.
Below are a few suggestions that can reduce supply current when using analog peripherals.







28
Use the ADC at its maximum sampling rate. This allows the system to take the required samples quickly and
turn off the ADC. When oversampling, use Burst Mode to automatically accumulate samples independently of
the CPU.
When using the temperature sensor, enable it immediately before starting a conversion and disable it
immediately after the conversion is complete. The typical settling time for the temperature sensor is 1.7 µs,
which is the same as the required ADC tracking time.
Use the on-chip high speed voltage reference. This voltage reference has a settling time of 1.7 µs, which is the
same as the required ADC tracking time. The high speed VREF is automatically enabled and disabled by
hardware at the beginning and end of an ADC conversion.
When comparing an analog voltage to 1/2 the supply voltage, use the on-chip resistors supplied with the
comparator instead of an external voltage divider. The on-chip voltage divider can be disconnected once the
comparison is complete, however, an off chip voltage divider continues to draw a static current as long as the
device is powered.
The comparators have four speed settings. Using the slowest speed setting results in longer response time, but
can cause a significant decrease in supply current. This is particularly true when the device is in Sleep mode
waiting on an analog signal to cross a certain threshold.
Disable all analog peripherals (unless used to wake up) before going into Sleep mode.
The current reference IREF0 in combination with an external resistor can be used to create an ultra low power
reference voltage. The IREF0 output can be disabled or controlled to the nearest 1 uA up to 63 uA and to the
nearest 8 uA up to 504 uA.
Rev. 0.4
AN358
10. Using the Software Example
This application note is bundled with example software to place the device in its most efficient power state for each
of its operating modes. The user configured constants are located in the “F9xx_Config.h” header file.
10.1. Configuring the Power Mode
The software defines two active power modes: NORMAL and IDLE, and four inactive power modes: STOP,
SUSPEND, RTCSLEEP, and SLEEP. The difference between RTCSLEEP and SLEEP is whether the SmaRTClock
oscillator is enabled or disabled in sleep mode. The POWER_MODE constant should be set to one of the power
modes defined above.
10.2. Configuring the Clock Source
Any combination of the MCU’s four clock sources and eight clock divide values may be configured using the
CLOCK_SELECTION constant. The constants for the clock sources are PRECISION_OSC, LOW_POWER_OSC,
SMARTCLOCK_OSC, and EXTERNAL_OSC. There is also an option to enable the missing clock detector.
If the external oscillator is selected as the clock source, the software assumes that a CMOS clock is present at
P0.3 and that the EXTERNAL_OSC_FREQ constant contains the proper CMOS clock frequency. When sweeping
the system clock frequency, two sweeps need to be performed. The first one is for the range of frequencies
between dc and 10 MHz, and the second one is for the range of frequencies between 10 MHz and 25 MHz. The
EXTERNAL_OSC_FREQ constant must be updated between the two sweeps in order to result in the optimum
operating current.
10.3. Location of the SJMP $ Instruction
When measuring current in normal mode, the most common practice is to insert an infinite loop (SJMP $) to hold
CPU execution in one place. Since digital supply current is dependent on the Flash address, placing the infinite
loop at the incorrect address can cause supply current to increase beyond its typical value.
The example project includes an “Imeasure.h” and “Imeasure.a51” header and source file that allow current to be
properly measured. The Imeasure.h header file allows the user to locate the address of the SJMP $ instruction for
minimum, typical, and maximum current. These two files can be added to any project to get an accurate supply
current measurement. The function in the assembly file can be called using a function pointer as demonstrated in
“F9xx_Main.c”.
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