AN818: Si4x6x TX RF Performance and ETSI Compliance Test Results

AN818
S i 4 X 6 X TX R F P E R F O R M A N C E A N D ET SI C O M P L I A N C E TE S T R E S U L T S
1. Introduction
The purpose of this application note is to give a systematic overview of the aspects which have to be taken into
account during the design of radio systems in order to maintain compliance with the regulatory requirements of the
ETSI EN 300 220-1 standard. The application note provides measurement results and ETSI compliance results for
the Si4x6x low current transmitters operating in the sub-GHz frequency bands from 119-1050 MHz. The radios are
part of the EZRadioPRO family which includes a complete line of transmitters, receivers, and transceivers;
however, this application note focuses on transmitters only. This document does not include results for radiated
measurements.
During the measurements the Wireless Development Suite (WDS), an Agilent PXA signal analyzer, and a Rohde &
Schwarz Spectrum Analyzer were used. The Wireless Development Suite (WDS) is used to control the radio ICs
on the pico boards. The results can be duplicated by using the same configuration (PA power level in CW project
mode plus modulation format, DR and deviation in PN9 modulated transmit mode) as in the tests outlined in the
following chapters.
2. Relevant Measurements to Comply with ETSI
In this report the rules of the ETSI EN 300 220-1 document are applied. The transmitter tests in the standard
distinguish between conducted and radiated measurements and also between narrow band and wide band
systems. The required ETSI compliance of the conducted transmitter tests are:
Frequency error (section 7.1)
Average power (section 7.2)
Transient power (section 7.5)
Adjacent channel power (section 7.6): This clause applies to narrow band systems only.
Modulation bandwidth (section 7.7): This clause applies to wide band systems only.
Unwanted emissions in the spurious domain (section 7.8)
Frequency stability under low voltage conditions (section 7.9)
As was mentioned before, the EZRadioPRO family includes a complete line of transmitters (Si406x), receivers
(Si436x) and transceivers (Si446x). The different boards offer various enhanced parameters and features including
frequency coverage from 119 to 1050 MHz and output power up to +27 dBm.
The different Tx variants serve the following output power levels with the best efficiency:
Si4x60/67 is 10 mW (10 dBm)
Si4x61 is 25 mW (14 dBm)
Si4x63/68 is 500 mW (27 dBm) (with external PA)
This application note contains only the investigation of those RF pico boards which are required by the standard.
The table below summarizes which pico board is recommended for which frequency band.
Rev. 0.3 6/15
Copyright © 2015 by Silicon Laboratories
AN818
AN818
Table 1. Recommended Boards for Each Frequency Band
2
Frequency Band
Max Output
Power
Channel Spacing
Recommended Recommended TRX
TX Board
Board
169.400 MHz to 169.475 MHz
500 mW
≤50 kHz
169.400 MHz to 169.475 MHz
500 mW
≤50 kHz
169.475 MHz to 169.4875 MHz
10 mW
12,5 kHz
4063-PSQ20B169 4463-PSQ20C169SE
4063CPSQ20B169 4463CPSQ20C169SE
169.5875 MHz to 169.6000 MHz
10 mW
12,5 kHz
4063-PSQ20B169 4463-PSQ20C169SE
4063CPSQ20B169 4463CPSQ20C169SE
433.050 MHz to 434.790 MHz
10 mW
No requirement
4060-PCE10B434
4060CPCE10B434
4460-PCE10D434
4460CPCE10D434
433.050 MHz to 434.790 MHz
1 mW 1
No requirement
4060-PCE10B434
4060CPCE10B434
4460-PCE10D434
4460CPCE10D434
434.040 MHz to 434.790 MHz
10 mW
≤25 kHz
4060-PCE10B434
4060CPCE10B434
4460-PCE10D434
4460CPCE10D434
863 MHz to 870 MHz Modulation
bandwidth up to
300 kHz is allowed
25 mW 2
≤100 kHz
4461-PCE14D868
4461CPCE14D868
863 MHz to 870 MHz
25 mW
No requirement
4461-PCE14D868
4461CPCE14D868
863 MHz to 870 MHz
25 mW
≤100 kHz
4461-PCE14D868
4461CPCE14D868
864.800 MHz to 865 MHz
10 mW
50 kHz
868 MHz to 868.600 MHz
25 mW
No requirement
868.600 MHz to 868.700 MHz
10 mW
868.700 MHz to 869.200 MHz
25 mW
No requirement
869.200 MHz to 869.250 MHz
10 mW
25 kHz
4060-PCE10B868 4463-PCE20C868SE
4060CPCE10B868 4463CPCE20C868SE
869.250 MHz to 869.300 MHz
10 mW
25 kHz
4060-PCE10B868 4463-PCE20C868SE
4060CPCE10B868 4463CPCE20C868SE
869.300 MHz to 869.400 MHz
10 mW
25 kHz
4060-PCE10B868 4463-PCE20C868SE
4060CPCE10B868 4463CPCE27F868
4463-PSQ27F169
4460-PCE27E169S
4463CPSQ27F169
4460CPCE27E169S
4463-PSQ27F169
4460-PCE27E169S
4463CPSQ27F169
4460CPCE27E169S
4060-PCE10B868
4060CPCE10B868
4461-PCE14D868
4461CPCE14D868
25 kHz The whole 4060-PCE10B868
stated frequency 4060CPCE10B868
band may be used as
1 wideband channel
for high speed data
transmission
Rev. 0.3
4461-PCE14D868
4461CPCE14D868
A N 818
Table 1. Recommended Boards for Each Frequency Band (Continued)
869.400 MHz to 869.650 MHz
500 mW
≤25 kHz The whole
stated
frequency band may
be used as
1 wideband channel
for high speed data
transmission
4463-PCE27F868
4463CPCE27F868
869.650 MHz to 869.700 MHz
25 mW
25 kHz
4461-PCE14D868
4461CPCE14D868
869.700 MHz to 870.000 MHz
25 mW
No requirement
4461-PCE14D868
4461CPCE14D868
869.700 MHz to 870 MHz
5 mW
No requirement
4060-PCE10B868
Notes:
1. For bandwidth greater than 250 kHz the power density is limited to -13 dBm/ 10 kHz.
2. Power density is limited to –4.5 dBm/100 kHz.
3. TX Measurements
3.1. Frequency Error
Frequency error is the difference under normal (and extreme) conditions between the measured, unmodulated
carrier frequency and the nominal frequency as stated by the manufacturer. According to the definition the
frequency error shall be measured with an unmodulated carrier. The frequency error basically depends on the
crystal accuracy. A typical value is 20 ppm; so the  100 ppm ETSI limit for non-channelized devices is usually
satisfied without any difficulty. For channelized systems with  25 kHz channels spacing the frequency error
specification is more stringent (see Table 2 below). However, a 20 ppm XO accuracy is still adequate with the
exception of boards, whose frequency bands are between 500 MHz and 1000 MHz. In such applications it is not
enough to use the typical accuracy value. According to the standard, the limit is 14 ppm at these frequency
bands. The frequency error limit in ppm if the frequency error is given in kHz can be calculated as follows:
Offset [kHz]  1000
XO accuracy [ppm] = ----------------------------------------------------Cf [MHz]
Table 2. Frequency Error Limit for Channel Spacing 25kHz
Frequency Band
137 MHz to 300 MHz
>300 MHz to 500 MHz
>500 MHz to 1000 MHz
Frequency (MHz)
169
434
868
Frequency Error Limit
(kHz)
 10
 12
 12.5
Frequency Error Limit
(ppm)
 59.17
 27.65
 14.4
Rev. 0.3
3
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3.2. Average Power
This section refers only to equipment with a permanent external antenna connector. The average power is the
average or mean power delivered to the artificial antenna during one radio frequency cycle in the absence of
modulation. Pico board output power levels may have to be adjusted to get the maximum allowed power level in
the targeted frequency band. These power level settings are indicated in the table below.
Table 3. Output Powers and Current Consumption to All the Measured Cards
Boards
Pa Power Level
(hex)
4463-PSQ27F169
0x7F
4463CPSQ27F169
4460-PCE27E169S
0x02
4460CPCE27E169S
4063-PSQ20B169
0x2F
4063CPSQ20B169
4460-PCE10D434
0x1D
4460CPCE10D434
4460-PCE10D434
0x06
4460CPCE10D434
4461-PCE14D868
0x26
4461CPCE14D868
4060-PCE10B868
0x1D
4060CPCE10B868
4463-PCE27F868
0x48
4463CPCE27F868
Output Power
(dbm)
26
Current Consumption
(mA)
485
27
487
10.17
30
9.95
17.33
–0.50
11.9
13.99
26.78
10.02
19.11
26.96
522.18
Figure 1. Average Power on 4463-PSQ27F169, 4463CPSQ27F169
4
Rev. 0.3
A N 818
Figure 2. Average Power on 4460–PCE27E169S, 4460CPCE27E169S
Figure 3. Average Power on 4063-PSQ20B169, 4063CPSQ20B169
Rev. 0.3
5
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Figure 4. Average Power on 4460–PCE10D434, 4460CPCE10D434
Figure 5. Average Power on 4060–PCE10B868, 4060CPCE10B868
6
Rev. 0.3
A N 818
Figure 6. Average Power on 4461–PCE14D868, 4461CPCE14D868
Figure 7. Average Power on 4463–PCE27F868, 4463CPCE27F868
Rev. 0.3
7
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3.3. Transient Power
Transient power is the power falling into adjacent spectrum due to switching the transmitter on and off during
normal operation.
The modulation test signal shall be applied at the transmitter. For constant envelope modulation schemes, it is not
required to apply modulation.
Method of the measurement:
1. The measured receiver shall use a QUASI-PEAK DETECTOR defined in CISPR 16-1-1.
2. RBW should be 120 kHz.
3. Special narrowband and wideband settings:
a. For narrowband equipment (channel spacing < 25 kHz), the center frequency of the measuring
receiver shall be set 60 kHz above the beginning of the upper adjacent channel and 60 kHz below the
beginning of the lower adjacent channel.
b. For wideband devices, the initial offset shall be 100 kHz from the modulation bandwidth edge.
4. The measurement step 1 shall be repeated within the spectrum mask every 120 kHz from the primarily
adjusted point to both sides of the wanted frequencies, until either it is clearly ascertained that no power
increases or limit exceeding appear, or until the frequency offset to the wanted frequency exceeds 2 MHz.
5. The measurement shall be done on both sides of the carrier.
6. The measurement shall be done in ZERO-SPAN mode.
7. The transmitter shall be turned on and off at least 5 times in 60 seconds.
8. The power level should be recorded at least for a period of 60 seconds.
9. If the resulting power level is above the spurious limit (see section 4.5 or section 7.8 of the ETSI
document), then the measurement shall be repeated with continuous transmission, and the transient level
in Step 6 shall not exceed this power level by more than 3 dB. This is the so-called Step 2 of this
measurement according to ETSI.
As measurement method Step 2 is more generic and unconditional, only this one has been performed.
Below spectrum analyzer traces show the static (flat) and transient (changing in level) power vs. time curves in
each frequency band.
8
Rev. 0.3
A N 818
Figure 8. Transient Power on 4063–PSQ20B169 (4063CPSQ20B169) +85 kHz Offset
Rev. 0.3
9
AN818
Figure 9. Transient Power on 4460–PCE10D434 (4460CPCE10D434) +120 kHz Offset
10
Rev. 0.3
A N 818
Figure 10. Transient Power on 4060–PCE10B868 (4060CPCE10B868) +200 kHz Offset
As can be seen from the screenshots (and also confirmed by all the other measurements), all the boards comply
with the standard.
Rev. 0.3
11
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3.4. Adjacent Channel Power
This section applies to narrow band systems only. The amount of the RF signal power emitted into the adjacent
channel is measured. For the measurements a normal spectrum analyzer can be used. The integration bandwidth
must be set to 8.5 kHz for a channel spacing of 12.5 kHz and 16 kHz for a channel spacing of 25 kHz.
According to ETSI the narrow band systems are divided into two groups. In the first group, if the channel
separation is smaller than 20 kHz, then the ACP limit is –20 dBm in an integrated bandwidth of 8.5 kHz. In the
second group, if the channel separation is higher than or equal to 20 kHz, then the limit is –37 dBm in an integrated
bandwidth of 16 kHz.
For various modulation formats and modulation indices (0.5, 1, and 2 for 2GFSK and 0.5/3, 1/3, and 2/3 for
4GFSK) the maximum symbol rate has been determined at which the ACP requirement is still met.
At 2GFSK the modulation index (H) can be calculated as:
2  deviation [kHz]
H = ---------------------------------------------------data rate [kbps]
At 4GFSK this translates to the following equation:
2  outer deviation [kHz]
H = -----------------------------------------------------------------symbol rate [ksps]  3
Note: In WDS for a given 4(G)FSK modulation format, the deviation entry requires the inner deviation point which is one-third
of the outer one.
The measurement results are presented in all frequency bands with tables, that contain all the measured max
symbol rate and ACP complemented with screenshots (for 2GFSK modulation with a modulation index of 1).
12
Rev. 0.3
A N 818
3.4.1. 169 MHz
Table 4. The 4063–PSQ20B169 (4063CPSQ20B169) Board. ACP with 12.5 kHz Channel Spacing,
Frequency: 169, 48125 MHz, PA Power Level: 0x0C, Output Power: 10 dBm
Modulation
H
Max Symbol
Rate (ksps)
ACP (dBm)
2 GFSK
1
8
–21.08
2 GFSK
0.5
13.2
–20.83
2 GFSK
2
5.3
–20.69
4 GFSK
1/3
8.4
–21.1
4 GFSK
0.5/3
13.2
–20.05
4 GFSK
2/3
5.1
–23.79
Figure 11. 4063–PSQ20B169 (4063CPSQB169) Board ACP with 12.5 kHz Channel Spacing, H=1,
Data Rate=8 kbps
Rev. 0.3
13
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Table 5. The 4460–PCE27E169S (4460CPCE27E169S) Board. ACP with 12.5 kHz Channel Spacing,
Frequency: 169.4375 MHz, Output Power: 27 dBm
Modulation
H
Max Symbol
rate (ksps)
ACP (dBm)
2GFSK
1
5.2
–20.98
2GFSK
0.5
6.8
–23.2
2GFSK
2
3.8
–20.01
4GFSK
1/3
5.4
–22.59
4GFSK
0.5/3
7.44
–20.43
4GFSK
2/3
3.99
–20.68
Figure 12. 4460–PCE27E169S (4460CPCE27E169S) Board ACP with 12.5 kHz Channel Spacing,
H=1, Data Rate=5.2 kbps
14
Rev. 0.3
A N 818
3.4.2. 434 MHz
Table 6. 4460–PCE10D434 (4460CPCE10D434) Board. ACP with 25 kHz Channel Spacing,
Frequency: 433.92 MHz, PA Power Level: 0x06, Output Power: 0 dBm
Modulation
H
Max Symbol
Rate (ksps)
ACP (dBm)
2GFSK
1
14.6
–38.04
2GFSK
0.5
18
–38.64
2GFSK
2
9.8
–37.7
4GFSK
1/3
15
–38
4GFSK
0.5/3
21.6
–37.65
4GFSK
2/3
9.9
–37.95
Figure 13. 4460–PCE10D434 (4460CPCE10D434) Board. ACP with 25 kHz Channel Spacing,
Frequency: 433.92 MHz, Power Level: 0x06, Output Power: 0 dBm, H=1, Data Rate=14.6 kbps
Rev. 0.3
15
AN818
Table 7. 4460–PCE10D434 (4460CPCE10D434) board. ACP with 25 kHz Channel Spacing,
Frequency: 433.92 MHz, Power Level: 0x1D, Output Power: 10 dBm
Modulation
H
Max Symbol
Rate (ksps)
ACP (dBm)
2GFSK
1
11
–39.41
2GFSK
0.5
15.2
–37.62
2GFSK
2
8.2
–37.13
4GFSK
1/3
12
–38.42
4GFSK
0.5/3
15.6
–37.95
4GFSK
2/3
8.4
–38
Figure 14. 4460–PCE10D434 (4460CPCE10D434) Board ACP with 25 kHz Channel Spacing,
Frequency: 433.92 MHz, Output Power: 10 dBm, H=1, Data Rate=11 kbps
16
Rev. 0.3
A N 818
3.4.3. 868 MHz
Table 8. 4461–PCE14D868 (4461CPCE14D868) Board. ACP with 25 kHz Channel Spacing,
Frequency: 869.675 MHz, PA Power Level: 0x26, Output Power: 14 dBm
Modulation
H
Max Symbol
Rate (ksps)
ACP (dBm)
2GFSK
1
10.4
–39.05
2GFSK
0.5
14
–38.58
2GFSK
2
7.6
–37.41
4GFSK
1/3
10.8
–39.48
4GFSK
0.5/3
14.4
–39.48
4GFSK
2/3
7.8
–37.9
Figure 15. 4461–PCE14D868 (4461CPCE14D868) Board ACP with 25 kHz Channel Spacing,
Frequency: 869.75 MHz, PA Power Level: 0x26, Output Power: 14 dBm, H=1, Data Rate=10.4 kbps
Rev. 0.3
17
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Table 9. 4060–PCE10B868 (4060CPCE10B868) Board ACP with 25 kHz Channel Spacing,
Frequency: 869.2125 MHz, Power Level: 0x1D, Output Power: 10 dBm
Modulation
H
Max Symbol
Rate (ksps)
ACP (dBm)
2GFSK
1
10.8
–39.59
2GFSK
0.5
15
–37.03
2GFSK
2
8
–37.38
4GFSK
1/3
11.7
–38.08
4GFSK
0.5/3
15.6
–37.8
4GFSK
2/3
8.25
–37.54
Figure 16. 4060–PCE10B868 (4060CPCE10D868) Board ACP with 25 kHz Channel Spacing,
Frequency: 869.2125 MHz, Output Power: 10 dBm, H=1, Data Rate=10, 8 kbps
18
Rev. 0.3
A N 818
Table 10. 4463–PCE27F868 (4463CPCE27F868) Board. ACP with 12.5 kHz Channel Spacing,
Frequency: 869.525 MHz, Output Power: 27 dBm
Modulation
H
Max Symbol
Rate (ksps)
ACP (dBm)
2GFSK
1
5.3
–21.1
2GFSK
0.5
7.2
–20.7
2GFSK
2
3.8
–22.91
4GFSK
1/3
5.7
–21.25
4GFSK
0.5/3
7.2
–24
4GFSK
2/3
3.9
–22.5
Figure 17. 4463–PCE27F868 (4463CPCE27F868) Board ACP with 12, 5 kHz Channel Spacing,
Frequency: 869.525 MHz, Output Power: 27 dBm, H=1, Data Rate=5.3 kbps
Rev. 0.3
19
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3.5. Modulation Bandwidth
The range of modulation bandwidth is measured on wideband systems instead of the adjacent channel power. The
range of modulation bandwidth includes all associated side bands above the appropriate emissions level (ETSI EN
300 220-1 V2.4.1, subclauses 7.8) and the frequency error or drift under extreme test conditions. The
frequency drift in extreme test conditions primarily depends on the crystal quality, which is not included in this
report. The modulation bandwidth is defined as the difference between the two frequencies at which the power
envelope reaches the spurious emission limit of –36 dBm/1 kHz. The range of modulation bandwidth is measured
with a spectrum analyzer. As averaging is allowed on constant envelope modulation formats, the measurement
was made in trace average mode with RMS power detector.
The ETSI spectral mask which the radio must comply with at the sub-band edges is demonstrated in Figure 17.
There are only two limit thresholds, and the bandwidth of integration is varied at the different offset regions. This
can be observed in the spectral mask measurements as well, where the limit lines mark the –30 and –36 dBm
levels. As the RBW changes according to the ETSI spectrum mask, the measured phase noise level also jumps
abruptly.
Figure 18. ETSI Spectral Mask Measurement Limits at the Sub-Band Edges
For various modulation formats and modulation indices (0.5, 1, and 2 for 2GFSK and 0.5/3, 1/3, and 2/3 for
4GFSK) the maximum symbol rate has been determined at which the MBW requirement is still met.
At 2GFSK the modulation index (H) can be calculated as:
2  deviation [kHz]
H = ---------------------------------------------------data rate [kbps]
20
Rev. 0.3
A N 818
At 4GFSK this translates to the following equation:
2  outer deviation [kHz]
H = -----------------------------------------------------------------symbol rate [ksps]  3
The measurements results are presented in all frequency bands with tables that contain all the measured max
symbol rates and margins to the spectrum mask limit complemented with screenshots (for 2GFSK modulation with
a modulation index of 1).
Modulation indices 1/3 and 2/3 have discrete spectral components at an offset of the deviation (and its harmonics);
these discrete components are prone to violating the emission mask. At modulation index 0.5/3 the discrete
components are suppressed, therefore a higher DR can be achieved with them at any given power level and
channel bandwidth. This trend can be observed on all of the measurement results in the following sections. The
downside of spectral efficiency is ~2 dB sensitivity degradation at the RX side.
Rev. 0.3
21
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3.5.1. 169 MHz
3.5.1.1. 4463–PSQ27F169 (4463CPSQ27F169)
Table 11. 4463–PSQ27F169 (4463CPSQ27F169) Board MBW Mask Margin with 50 kHz Channel,
Frequency: 169.4375 MHz, Output Power: 26 dBm
Modulation
H
Max Symbol
Rate (ksps)
Lim (dB)
2GFSK
1
13.4
–4.57
2GFSK
0.5
18.4
–4.4
2GFSK
2
10
–0.54
4GFSK
1/3
13.8
–6.2
4GFSK
0.5/3
20.4
–0.04
4GFSK
2/3
10.5
–1.62
Figure 19. 4463–PSQ27F169 (4463CPSQ27F169) Board MBW Mask Margin with 50 kHz Channel,
Frequency: 169, 4375 MHz, Output Power: 26 dBm, H=1, Data Rate=13.4 kbps
22
Rev. 0.3
A N 818
3.5.1.2. 4460–PCE27E169S (4460CPCE27E169S)
Table 12. 4460–PCE27E169S (4460CPCE27E169S) Board MBW Mask Margin with 50 kHz Channel,
Frequency: 169.4375 MHz, Output Power: 26.98 dBm
Modulation
H
Max Symbol
Rate (ksps)
Lim (dB)
2GFSK
1
14
–0.82
2GFSK
0.5
17.6
–4.07
2GFSK
2
9.8
–1.88
4GFSK
1/3
15
–1.81
4GFSK
0.5/3
19.2
–3.99
4GFSK
2/3
10.2
–0.97
Figure 20. 4460–PCE27E169S (4460CPCE27E169S) Board MBW Mask Margin with 50 kHz
Channel, Frequency: 169. 4375 MHz, Output Power: 27 dBm, H=1, Data Rate=14 kbps
Rev. 0.3
23
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3.5.2. 434 MHz
3.5.2.1. 4460–PCE10D434 (4460CPCE10D434)
Table 13. 4460–PCE10D434 (4460CPCE10D434) Board MBW Mask Margin with 100 kHz Channel,
Frequency: 433.92 MHz, Output Power: 10 dBm
Modulation
H
Max Symbol
Rate (ksps)
Lim (dB)
2GFSK
1
34
–1.79
2GFSK
0.5
52
–0.7
2GFSK
2
24.5
–4
4GFSK
1/3
42
–0.79
4GFSK
0.5/3
64
–0.68
4GFSK
2/3
28
–1.14
Figure 21. 4460–PCE10D434 (4460CPCE10D434) Board MBW Mask Margin with 100 kHz Channel,
Frequency: 433.92 MHz, Output Power: 10 dBm, H=1, Data Rate=34 kbps
24
Rev. 0.3
A N 818
Table 14. 4460–PCE10D434 (4460CPCE10D434) Board MBW Mask Margin with 435 kHz Channel,
Frequency: 433.92 MHz, Output Power: 10 dBm
Modulation
H
Max Symbol
Rate (ksps)
Lim (dB)
2GFSK
1
208
–0.26
2GFSK
0.5
354
–0.61
2GFSK
2
108
–5.36
4GFSK
1/3
207
–1, 1
4GFSK
0.5/3
318
–1.43
4GFSK
2/3
123
–0.29
Figure 22. 4460–PCE10D434 (4460CPCE10D434) Board MBW Mask Margin with 435 kHz Channel,
Frequency: 433.92 MHz, Output Power: 10 dBm, H=1, Data Rate=208 kbps
Rev. 0.3
25
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3.5.2.2. Power Spectral Density
As can be seen from Table 1, there is an extra requirement in the frequency band from 433.050 MHz to 434.790
MHz with 1 mW max output power: For bandwidths greater than 250 kHz the power density is limited to –13 dBm/
10 kHz.
Method of measurement:
At any given modulation conditions, the max output power was measured, where the power spectral density
specification is still fulfilled. As on top of the PSD specification the modulation bandwidth spectral emission mask
has to also pass, as a second step at the result of the previous measurement (at the minimum max output power
over data rate), the max data rate was searched for, which still fulfills the limit of the modulation bandwidth. It is
conceivable that the modulation bandwidth spectrum emission mask will put a tighter limit on the DR than the PSD
specification. The channel spacing at the MBW mask measurement has been chosen to be 435 kHz as four such
high speed channels can be fit into the frequency band.
Table 15. Step 1: Max PSD Restricted Output Power
Modulation
26
H
Symbol Rate
(ksps)
PA Power Level
PSD Driven Max Output
Power (dBm)
2GFSK
0.5
100
3
–6.40
2GFSK
0.5
200
5
–2.13
2GFSK
0.5
250
5
–2.13
2GFSK
0.5
500
5
–2.13
2GFSK
1
100
3
–6.40
2GFSK
1
200
3
–6.40
2GFSK
1
250
3
–6.40
2GFSK
1
500
3
–6.40
2GFSK
2
100
3
–6.40
2GFSK
2
200
3
–6.40
2GFSK
2
250
3
–6.40
2GFSK
2
500
3
–6.40
4GFSK
0.5/3
100
2
–9.93
4GFSK
0.5/3
200
3
–6.40
4GFSK
0.5/3
250
3
–6.40
4GFSK
1/3
100
4
–4.07
4GFSK
1/3
200
5
–2.13
4GFSK
1/3
250
5
–2.13
Rev. 0.3
A N 818
Table 15. Step 1: Max PSD Restricted Output Power (Continued)
Modulation
H
Symbol Rate
(ksps)
PA Power Level
PSD Driven Max Output
Power (dBm)
4GFSK
2/3
100
6
–0.59
4GFSK
2/3
200
8
1.59
4GFSK
2/3
250
8
1.59
Table 16. Step 2: Max MBW Restricted DR
Modulation
H
PA Power
Level
PSD Driven Min Max
Output Power (dBm)
MBW Mask Driven Max
DR (ksps)
2GFSK
0.5
3
–6.40
500
2GFSK
1
3
–6.40
430
2GFSK
2
3
–6.40
185
4GFSK
0.5/3
2
–9.93
500
4GFSK
1/3
4
–4.07
312
4GFSK
2/3
6
–0.59
165
Rev. 0.3
27
AN818
Figure 23. 4460–PCE10D434 (4460CPCE10D434) Board MBW Mask Margin with 435 kHz Channel,
Frequency: 433.92 MHz, PA Power Level: 0x03, H=1, Data Rate=430 kbps, Output
Power=–6.4 dBm
At modulation indices 1, 2 (2GFSK) and 1/3, 2/3 (4GFSK) the discrete spectral components are prone to violating
the spectrum emission mask, therefore the maximum output power is more limited by the MBW specification. For
example, while at 2GFSK H=1 at –6.4 dBm the PSD specification is met in the whole DR range from 100 kbps to
500 kbps, the MBW spectrum emission mask only allows a maximum data rate of 430 kbps. At modulation indices
0.5 (2GFSK) and 0.5/3 (4GFSK) where the discrete spectral components are suppressed the PSD specification is
the stricter limiting factor.
28
Rev. 0.3
A N 818
3.5.3. 868 MHz
3.5.3.1. 4060–PCE10B868 (4060CPCE10B868)
Table 17. 4460–PCE10B868 (4060CPCE10B868) Board MBW Mask Margin with 50 kHz Channel,
Frequency: 868 MHz, Output Power: 10 dBm
Modulation
H
Max Symbol
Rate (ksps)
Lim (dB)
2GFSK
1
19
–0.9
2GFSK
0.5
23.2
–1.29
2GFSK
2
11.7
–2.2
4GFSK
1/3
19.2
–0.98
4GFSK
0.5/3
24
–2.05
4GFSK
2/3
12.6
–0.61
Figure 24. 4060–PCE10B868 (4060CPCE10B868) Board MBW Mask Margin with 50 kHz Channel,
Frequency: 868 MHz, Output Power: 10 dBm, H=1, Data Rate=19 kbps
Rev. 0.3
29
AN818
Table 18. 4060–PCE10B868 (4060CPCE10B868) Board MBW Mask Margin with 100 kHz Channel,
Frequency: 868 MHz, Output Power: 10 dBm
Modulation
H
Max Symbol
Rate (ksps)
Lim (dB)
2GFSK
1
36
–0.18
2GFSK
0.5
48
–1.44
2GFSK
2
24.2
–2.89
4GFSK
1/3
39.6
–0.94
4GFSK
0.5/3
50.4
–0.12
4GFSK
2/3
27
–0.1
Figure 25. 4060–PCE10B868 (4060CPCE10B868) Board MBW Mask Margin with 100 kHz Channel,
Frequency: 868 MHz, Output Power: 10 dBm, H=1, Data Rate=36 kbps
30
Rev. 0.3
A N 818
3.5.3.2. 4461–PCE14D868 (4461CPCE14D868)
Table 19. 4461–PCE14DB868 (4461CPCE14D868) Board MBW Mask Margin with 100 kHz Channel,
Frequency: 868 MHz, Output Power: 14 dBm
Modulation
H
Max Symbol
Rate (ksps)
Lim (dB)
2GFSK
1
32.6
–4.06
2GFSK
0.5
45
–2.13
2GFSK
2
24
–4.85
4GFSK
1/3
37.2
–1.18
4GFSK
0.5/3
48
–0.63
4GFSK
2/3
24
–3.85
Figure 26. 4461–PCE14D868 (4461CPCE14D868) Board MBW Mask Margin with 100 kHz Channel,
Frequency: 868 kHz, PA Power Level: 0x26, Output Power: 14 dBm, H=1, Data Rate=32.6 kbps
Rev. 0.3
31
AN818
Table 20. 4461–PCE14D868 (4461CPCE14D868) Board MBW Mask Margin with 300 kHz Channel,
Frequency: 868 MHz, PA Power Level: 0x26, Output Power: 14 dBm
Modulation
H
Max Symbol
Rate (ksps)
Lim (dB)
2GFSK
1
99
–10.61
2GFSK
0.5
154
–0.46
2GFSK
2
74
–1.95
4GFSK
1/3
114
–1.92
4GFSK
0.5/3
186
–0.85
4GFSK
2/3
75
–0.3
Figure 27. 4461–PCE14D868 (4461CPCE14D868) Board MBW Mask Margin with 300 kHz Channel,
Frequency: 868 MHz, PA Power Level: 0x26, Output Power: 14 dBm, H=1, Data Rate=99 kbps
32
Rev. 0.3
A N 818
3.5.3.3. 4463–PCE27F868 (4463CPCE27F868)
Table 21. 4463–PCE27FB868 (4463CPCE27FB868) Board MBW Mask Margin with 250 kHz
Channel, Frequency: 869.525 MHz, Output Power: 27 dBm
Modulation
H
Max Symbol
Rate (ksps)
Lim (dB)
2GFSK
1
72
–0.58
2GFSK
0.5
100
–0.72
2GFSK
2
48
–1.19
4GFSK
1/3
74.4
–0.83
4GFSK
0.5/3
103.2
–1.49
4GFSK
2/3
50.1
–1.73
Figure 28. 4463–PCE27F868 (4463CPCE27F868) Board MBW Mask Margin with 250 kHz Channel,
Frequency: 869.525 MHz, Output Power: 27 dBm, H=1, Data Rate=72 kbps
Rev. 0.3
33
AN818
3.5.3.4. Power Spectral Density
As can be seen from Table 1, there is an extra requirement at the frequency band from 863 MHz to 870 MHz with
25 mW max output power: Power spectral density is limited to –4.5 dBm/100 kHz.
Method of the measurement:
At any given modulation condition, the max output power was measured, where the power spectral density
specification is still fulfilled.
Table 22. 4461–PCE14F868 (4461CPCE14D868) Max PSD Driven Output Power
Modulation
H
DR (ksps)
PA Power Level
PSD Driven Max Output
Power (dBm)
2GFSK
0.5
100
4
–5.88
2GFSK
0.5
200
5
–3.68
2GFSK
0.5
250
6
–1.9
2GFSK
1
100
5
–3.68
2GFSK
1
200
7
–0.45
2GFSK
1
250
7
–0.45
2GFSK
2
100
6
–1.9
2GFSK
2
200
7
–0.45
2GFSK
2
250
8
0.84
4GFSK
0.5/3
100
4
–5.88
4GFSK
0.5/3
200
5
–3.68
4GFSK
0.5/3
250
5
–3.68
4GFSK
1/3
100
5
–3.68
4GFSK
1/3
200
6
–1.9
4GFSK
1/3
250
6
–1.9
4GFSK
2/3
100
6
–1.9
4GFSK
2/3
200
8
0.84
4GFSK
2/3
250
9
1.93
Note: At lower PA power level codes, the power steps are quite coarse. That is the reason that at some modulation formats
(i.e., 2GFSK H=0.5 100 kbps) the overall output power remains below the PSD limit. One code higher PA power level
would have violated the limit at these cases.
Note: If only a subset of the frequency band is used, the PSD specification is relaxed in the following way:
34
Rev. 0.3
A N 818
Band Start
(MHz)
Band Stop (MHz)
PSD Spec
(dBm/100
kHz)
865
868
6.2
865
870
–0.8
These relaxations allow for the implementation of high speed channels at relatively high output power levels
(~10 dBm) in the band. Maximum output power limits and MBW spectral emission mask elaborations are not
included in this section. However, the general statement in section 3.5.2.2 holds here too.
3.6. Unwanted Emissions in the Spurious Domain
Spurious emissions are unwanted emissions in the spurious domain and are emissions at frequencies other than
those of the wanted carrier frequency and its sidebands associated with normal test modulations.
In the case of adjacent frequency bands where a device simultaneously meets the requirements of each band in all
respects apart from operating frequency, the frequency bands shall be treated as one single band.
The allowed emissions in the spurious domain are shown in Figure 29. A critical restriction is the –54 dBm limit
below 862 MHz.
There are two different measurements presented on each pico board and power level. One of them is measuring
the harmonics and the other one is measuring the reference spurs (the spurs that appear at an offset of the
reference frequency from the center frequency).
Figure 29. ETSI Spurious Radiation Limits
Rev. 0.3
35
AN818
3.6.1. 169 MHz
3.6.1.1. 4063–PSQ20B169 (4063CPSQ20B169)
Figure 30. 4063–PSQ20B169 (4063CPSQ20B169) Board Output Power: 10 dBm
Figure 31. 4063–PSQ20B169 (4063CPSQ20B169) Board Output Power: 10 dBm
As can be seen from the figures, this board meets the required standard.
36
Rev. 0.3
A N 818
3.6.1.2. 4460–PCE27E169S (4460CPCE27E169S)
Figure 32. 4460–PCE27E169S (4460CPCE169S) Board Output Power: 27 dBm
Rev. 0.3
37
AN818
Figure 33. 4460–PCE27E169S (4460CPCE27E169S) Board Output Power: 27 dBm
As can be seen from the figures, this board meets the required standard.
38
Rev. 0.3
A N 818
3.6.1.3. 4463–PSQ27F169 (4463CPSQ27F169)
Figure 34. 4463–PSQ27F169 (4463CPSQ27F169) Board Output Power: 27 dBm
Rev. 0.3
39
AN818
Figure 35. 4463–PSQ27F169 (4463CPSQ27F169) Board Output Power: 27 dBm
As can be seen from the figures, this board meets the required standard.
40
Rev. 0.3
A N 818
3.6.2. 434 MHz
3.6.2.1. 4460–PCE10D434 (4460CPCE10D434)
Figure 36. 4460–PCE10D434 (4460CPCE10D434) Board Output Power: 10 dBm
Rev. 0.3
41
AN818
Figure 37. 4460–PCE10D434 (4460CPCE10D434) Board Output Power: 10 dBm
As can be seen from the figures, this board meets the required standard.
42
Rev. 0.3
A N 818
3.6.3. 868 MHz
3.6.3.1. 4060–PCE10B868 (4060CPCE10B868)
Figure 38. 4060–PCE10B868 (4060CPCE10B868) Board Output Power: 10 dBm
Rev. 0.3
43
AN818
Figure 39. 4060–PCE10B868 (4060CPCE10B868) Board Output Power: 10 dBm
As can be seen from the figures, this board meets the required standard.
44
Rev. 0.3
A N 818
3.6.3.2. 4461–PCE14D868 (4461CPCE14D868)
Figure 40. 4461–PCE14D868 (4461CPCE14D868) Board Output Power: 14 dBm
Rev. 0.3
45
AN818
Figure 41. 4461–PCE14D868 (4461CPCE14D868) Board Output Power: 14 dBm
As can be seen from the figures, this board meets the required standard.
46
Rev. 0.3
A N 818
3.6.3.3. 4463–PCE27F868 (4463CPCE27F868)
Figure 42. 4463–PCE27F868 (4463CPCE27F868) Board Output Power: 27 dBm
Rev. 0.3
47
AN818
Figure 43. 4463–PCE27F868 (4463CPCE27F868) Board Output Power: 27 dBm
As can be seen from the figures, this board meets the required standard.
48
Rev. 0.3
A N 818
3.6.3.4. 4463–PCE20C868SE (4463CPCE20C868SE)
Figure 44. 4463–PCE20C868SE (4463CPCE20C868SE) Board Output Power: 20 dBm
Rev. 0.3
49
AN818
Figure 45. 4463–PCE20C868SE (4463CPCE20C868SE) Board Output Power: 20 dBm
This is the only pico board for the 863-870 MHz band equipped with a TCXO. The primary goal of the TCXO is to
provide superior reference accuracy for narrowband ( 25 KHz bandwidth). Such narrowband applications can
transmit at a maximum of 500 mW (27 dBm) output power in sub-band 869, 4 MHz –869, 65 MHz. Note that even
if the output power is boosted by 7 dBs to reach the 27 dBm maximum allowed output power in the aforementioned
sub-band, the spurious levels will still remain compliant with the standard.
Note that on revision B1B an additional register write is necessary on top of the API property writes to achieve the
measured spurious levels. (This is not intended for chip C revisions (e.g., C0, C1, or C2).)
POKE ‘xosc_cfg’ 0A
For further details on this operation, refer to section 6 in AN785.
3.7. Frequency Stability Under Low Voltage Conditions
The frequency stability under low voltage conditions is the ability of the equipment to remain on channel, for
channelized equipment, or within the assigned operating frequency band, for non-channelized equipment, when
the battery voltage falls below the lower extreme voltage level.
Stable operation is guaranteed in a specified range of voltage (1.8 V –3.6 V). To avoid any malfunctioning, the use
of the Low Battery Detector (LBD) is recommended to monitor the power supply and beacon for action if the battery
voltage drops below 1.8 V.
50
Rev. 0.3
A N 818
CONTACT INFORMATION
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Austin, TX 78701
Tel: 1+(512) 416-8500
Fax: 1+(512) 416-9669
Toll Free: 1+(877) 444-3032
Please visit the Silicon Labs Technical Support web page:
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and register to submit a technical support request.
Patent Notice
Silicon Labs invests in research and development to help our customers differentiate in the market with innovative low-power, small size, analogintensive mixed-signal solutions. Silicon Labs' extensive patent portfolio is a testament to our unique approach and world-class engineering team.
The information in this document is believed to be accurate in all respects at the time of publication but is subject to change without notice.
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Rev. 0.3
51
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