AN848: 915 MHz Single-ended Antenna Matrix Measurement Reports

AN848
915 MH Z S INGLE - ENDED A N T E N N A M ATRIX 
M E A S UR E M E NT R EPORTS
1. Introduction
This document summarizes the measured results of the antennas applied in the Silicon Labs 915 MHz antenna
matrix (WES0110-01-AMS915-01).
The
antenna is realized on a 1.55 mm thick FR4.
antenna impedance is 50 .
A picture of the WES0110-01-AMS915-01 915 MHz Antenna Matrix is shown in Figure 1. For the 915 MHz band,
nine different PCB antenna solutions are proposed:
Target
Medium
Sized Printed ILA (or optionally IFA) around the PCB circumference (WES0111-01-APL915M-01)
Ceramic (Chip) Antenna (WES0112-01-ACM915D-01)
Small Sized (Wire) Helical Antenna (WES0113-01-AWH915S-01)
Medium Sized (Wire) Helical Antenna (WES0114-01-AWH915M-01)
Panic Button IFA (Printed) along the circumference (WES0115-01-APF915P-01)
Panic Button ILA (Printed) along the circumference (WES0116-01-APL915P-01)
Printed Meander Monopole (WES0117-01-APN915D-01)
Small Sized Printed ILA (or optional IFA) in dedicated small antenna area (WES0118-01-APL915S-01)
Printed BIFA in a dedicated bigger antenna area (WES0119-01-APB915D-01)
Figure 1. 915 M, 50 , Single-ended Antenna Matrix (WES0110-01-AMS915-01)
Rev. 1.0 8/14
Copyright © 2014 by Silicon Laboratories
AN848
AN848
1.1. Antenna Results Summary
The results of the 915 M single-ended matrix antennas are compared in Table 1. More details can be found in the
separate antenna chapters.
Table 1. Compared Results of the 915 M Single-ended Matrix Antennas
External
Match
Maximum
EIRP [dBm]1
Maximum
Antenna Gain
[dBi]
Maximum
Range
Outdoor [m]2
Estimated Avg.
Indoor Range
[m]3
Medium Sized ILA 
(WES0111)
Yes
9
–1.2
2038
71
Ceramic Antenna 
(WES0112)
Yes
4.7
–5.3
1277
54
Small Sized Helical 
(WES0113)
Yes
5.9
–4.3
1432
55
Medium Sized Helical 
(WES0114)
Yes
10.4
0.2
1857
81
Panic Button IFA 
(WES0115)
No
7.7
–2.5
2078
73
Panic Button ILA 
(WES0116)
Yes
8.4
–1.8
2009
80
Printed Meandered Antenna
(WES0117)
Yes
8.3
–1.9
2079
100
Small Sized ILA 
(WES0118)
Yes
6.6
–3.6
1454
60
BIFA 
(WES0119)
Yes
10.7
0.5
2104
74
915 M Single-ended
Antenna Type
Notes:
1. With the reduced power 4463PCE20C915 Pico Board and WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard working in a reduced
VDD (~2.6 V) from two AA batteries. Delivered power to the antenna is ~10.2 dBm.
2. This value is the highest outdoor range achieved with the pair of identical antennas with 13 dBm TX power and
50 kbps, 25 KHz deviation, and ~103 KHz RX bandwidth. 1% PER with 10-byte long packets. In some cases the
antenna direction found for maximum range is different from the direction of maximum in the pattern measurements.
The range test was performed with hand effect on the Motherboard, while the pattern measurements were done
without any hand effect.
3. To the normal direction of usage (X-axes facing each other). Link parameters are identical to that of the outdoor
range measurements.
2
Rev. 1.0
AN848
1.2. Detailed Antenna Measurement Results
1.2.1. Medium Sized Printed ILA (WES0111-01-APL915M-01)
A parallel 1.5 pF capacitor is required at the antenna input to match it to 50 . Also, in the antenna PCB, a series
0  resistor connects the antenna input to the feeding 50  coplanar line. The footprint for the third additional
parallel matching elements is unpopulated. The matching network schematic is shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2. Small ILA Board (WES0111-01-APL915M-01) Antenna Matching Network Schematic
The Medium Sized ILA antenna is shown in Figure 3:
Figure 3. Medium Sized Printed ILA Antenna (WES0111-01-APL915M-01)
Rev. 1.0
3
AN848
1.2.2. Impedance (WES0111-01-APL915M-01)
The impedance measurement setup is shown in Figure 4. The antenna board is connected to the 4460PCE10D915 Pico Board through a male-to-male SMA transition with the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard driving
the Pico Board.
During the impedance tuning and range test, the user’s hand holds the motherboard. A typical hand position is
shown in Figure 5.
Figure 4. DUT in the Impedance Measurement Setup (WES0111 Medium ILA Board)
Figure 5. Typical Hand Effect on the Main Board During Impedance and Range Measurement
(Medium ILA Antenna [WES0111] Board)
4
Rev. 1.0
AN848
Measured impedance of the antenna is shown in Figure 6 (up to 3 GHz) with motherboard hand effect:
Figure 6. Measured Impedance (up to 3 GHz) with Hand Effect on the Main Board
Rev. 1.0
5
AN848
1.2.3. Antenna Gain (WES0111-01-APL915M-01)
The antenna gain is calculated from both the measured radiated power at the fundamental and from the delivered
power to the antenna. In the radiation measurement, a P4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board drives the antenna in a
reduced power state (0x1C and at 2.6 V VDD) to deliver ~+10.2 dBm. The entire setup is fed by two AA batteries.
The conducted SA measurement result of the 4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board in this reduced power state is shown
in Figure 7. This method can be effectively applied because the S11 of the antenna is much better than –10 dB, so
the reflection loss is negligible.
Figure 7. Conducted Measurement Result, 4463-PCE20C915 in a
Reduced Power State (0x1C) and VDD (2.6 V).
The measured radiated power maximum is at the XZ cut (Table 2). It is around +9 dBm EIRP, so the maximum gain
number is ~–1.2 dBi, as shown in Figure 11.
6
Rev. 1.0
AN848
1.2.4. Radiation Patterns (WES0111-01-APL915M-01)
The radiation patterns of the medium sized printed ILA antenna were measured in an antenna chamber with the
4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board connected through a male-to-male SMA transition and with the WMB-930 Wireless
Motherboard driving the Pico Board and without any hand effect. Figure 9–Figure 14 show the radiation patterns at
the fundamental frequency in the XY, XZ, YZ cut, with both horizontal and vertical receiver antenna polarization.
The rotator was stepped in five degrees to record the radiation pattern in 360 degrees.
The device under test (DUT) with coordinate system under the radiated measurements is shown in Figure 8.
Rotation starts from the X-axe in the XY cut, and begins from the Z-axe in the XZ and YZ cuts.
Figure 8. DUT in the Antenna Chamber
Rev. 1.0
7
AN848
The measured radiation patterns (antenna gain in dBi) are shown in Figure 9–Figure 14.
Figure 9. Radiation Pattern in the XY Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 10. Radiation Pattern in the XY Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
8
Rev. 1.0
AN848
Figure 11. Radiation Pattern in the XZ Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 12. Radiation Pattern in the XZ Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
Rev. 1.0
9
AN848
Figure 13. Radiation Pattern in the YZ Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 14. Radiation Pattern in the YZ Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
10
Rev. 1.0
AN848
1.2.5. Radiated Harmonics (WES0111-01-APL915M-01)
The radiated harmonics of the medium sized printed ILA antenna were also measured in an antenna chamber with
the 4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board connected through a male-to-male SMA transition and with the WMB-930
Wireless Motherboard driving the Pico Board. The 4463-PCE20B915 Pico Board was set to a reduced power state
(0x1C) and the VDD reduced to 2.6 V to deliver ~10.2 dBm, as shown in Figure 7.The maximum radiated power
levels, up to the 10th harmonic, were measured in the XY, XZ, and YZ cut, with both horizontal and vertical
polarized receiver antenna. The results are shown in the following EIRP table (Table 2) with the corresponding
standard limits.
The medium sized ILA antenna, driven by the Si4463 class E match at 10 dBm power settings, complies with the
FCC harmonic regulations with margin.
Harmonic radiation is likely lower in typical battery-operated final application, where the wireless motherboard is
eliminated and the Pico Board is unified with the antenna.
Table 2. Radiated Harmonics, Medium ILA Board Connected to the Reduced Power (~+10.2 dBm)
4463-PCE20C915, and Driven by the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
FCC (15.247)
limit in EIRP
[dBm]
Measured
radiated power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
XY
V
Fund.
915
30.00
4.88
25.1
XY
V
2nd
1830
–15.31
–49.54
38.6
XY
V
3rd
2745
–41.25
–49.20
8.0
XY
V
4th
3660
–41.25
–48.83
7.6
XY
V
5th
4575
–41.25
–60.11
18.9
XY
V
6th
5490
–15.31
–59.04
48.1
XY
V
7th
6405
–15.31
–56.81
45.8
XY
V
8th
7320
–41.25
–57.19
15.9
XY
V
9th
8235
–41.25
–54.34
13.1
XY
V
10th
9150
–41.25
–52.77
11.5
XY
H
Fund.
915
30.00
4.99
25.0
XY
H
2nd
1830
–15.31
–50.75
39.8
XY
H
3rd
2745
–41.25
–52.41
11.2
XY
H
4th
3660
–41.25
–52.97
11.7
XY
H
5th
4575
–41.25
–60.02
18.8
XY
H
6th
5490
–15.31
–59.47
48.5
XY
H
7th
6405
–15.31
–58.44
47.5
XY
H
8th
7320
–41.25
–57.87
16.6
Rev. 1.0
11
AN848
Table 2. Radiated Harmonics, Medium ILA Board Connected to the Reduced Power (~+10.2 dBm)
4463-PCE20C915, and Driven by the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard (Continued)
12
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
FCC (15.247)
limit in EIRP
[dBm]
Measured
radiated power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
XY
H
9th
8235
–41.25
–55.47
14.2
XY
H
10th
9150
–41.25
–53.25
12.0
XZ
V
Fund.
915
30.00
9.02
21.0
XZ
V
2nd
1830
–15.31
–46.30
35.3
XZ
V
3rd
2745
–41.25
–49.64
8.4
XZ
V
4th
3660
–41.25
–51.54
10.3
XZ
V
5th
4575
–41.25
–60.22
19.0
XZ
V
6th
5490
–15.31
–61.15
50.2
XZ
V
7th
6405
–15.31
–58.59
47.6
XZ
V
8th
7320
–41.25
–56.28
15.0
XZ
V
9th
8235
–41.25
–54.93
13.7
XZ
V
10th
9150
–41.25
–52.97
11.7
XZ
H
Fund.
915
30.00
3.26
26.7
XZ
H
2nd
1830
–15.31
–50.29
39.3
XZ
H
3rd
2745
–41.25
–52.31
11.1
XZ
H
4th
3660
–41.25
–47.13
5.9
XZ
H
5th
4575
–41.25
–60.61
19.4
XZ
H
6th
5490
–15.31
–59.04
48.1
XZ
H
7th
6405
–15.31
–58.53
47.5
XZ
H
8th
7320
–41.25
–57.33
16.1
XZ
H
9th
8235
–41.25
–54.67
13.4
XZ
H
10th
9150
–41.25
–52.36
11.1
YZ
V
Fund.
915
30.00
4.28
25.7
YZ
V
2nd
1830
–15.31
–49.77
38.8
Rev. 1.0
AN848
Table 2. Radiated Harmonics, Medium ILA Board Connected to the Reduced Power (~+10.2 dBm)
4463-PCE20C915, and Driven by the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard (Continued)
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
FCC (15.247)
limit in EIRP
[dBm]
Measured
radiated power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
YZ
V
3rd
2745
–41.25
–50.87
9.6
YZ
V
4th
3660
–41.25
–54.54
13.3
YZ
V
5th
4575
–41.25
–60.53
19.3
YZ
V
6th
5490
–15.31
–58.33
47.4
YZ
V
7th
6405
–15.31
–57.93
46.9
YZ
V
8th
7320
–41.25
–56.98
15.7
YZ
V
9th
8235
–41.25
–54.46
13.2
YZ
V
10th
9150
–41.25
–52.34
11.1
YZ
H
Fund.
915
30.00
6.63
23.4
YZ
H
2nd
1830
–15.31
–48.42
37.4
YZ
H
3rd
2745
–41.25
–49.13
7.9
YZ
H
4th
3660
–41.25
–50.82
9.6
YZ
H
5th
4575
–41.25
–59.76
18.5
YZ
H
6th
5490
–15.31
–58.29
47.3
YZ
H
7th
6405
–15.31
–57.89
46.9
YZ
H
8th
7320
–41.25
–55.84
14.6
YZ
H
9th
8235
–41.25
–53.78
12.5
YZ
H
10th
9150
–41.25
–51.64
10.4
Rev. 1.0
13
AN848
1.2.6. Range Test (WES0111-01-APL915M-01)
The available range was measured using the Range Test Demo. This application is supplied with the standard
development kits for EZRadioPRO®. The target of this measurement is to find the distance between the
transceivers, where the one-directional PER (Packet Error Rate, number of lost packets) is not more than 1% at
each side with ten byte long packets. The GPS coordinates have been recorded for each spot. The distance
between the spots was measured using Google Maps, and results are shown in meters. The range was tested
between two identical units with the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard, 4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board with reduced
(+13 dBm and 0 dBm) power states, and the DUT (as shown in Figure 5.) held by the users hand. The Pico Board
was working in a reduced (+13 dBm or 0 dBm) power state during the tests.
The range was tested in a flat land area without obstacles.
During the range test, the following settings have been used:
Set
1: Txpow=13 dBm, 50 kbps, 25 kHz dev., RXBW=103.06 kHz (sens ~–106.3 dBm)
Set 2: Txpow=13 dBm, 100 kbps, 50 kHz dev., RXBW=206.12 kHz (sens ~–103.4 dBm)
Set 3: Txpow=0 dBm, 1.2 kbps, 1.2 kHz dev., RXBW=7.15 kHz (sens ~–118 dBm)
Using the settings above (Set 1, Set 2, and Set 3), the following range tests are made:
1. Range measurement with the MEDIUM ILA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are HORIZONTALLY
polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied setting is "Set 1".
2. Range measurement with the MEDIUM ILA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are VERTICALLY
polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied setting is "Set 1".
3. Range measurement with the MEDIUM ILA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are VERTICALLY
polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied setting is "Set 2".
4. Range measurement with the MEDIUM ILA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are VERTICALLY
polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied setting is "Set 3".
5. Range measurement with the MEDIUM ILA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are VERTICALLY
polarized and the boards are facing each other in their direction of maximum radiation. The applied setting
is "Set 1".
6. Reference range measurement with two 868/915 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE W1063 from Pulse in
VERTICAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 1".
7. Reference range measurement with two 868/915 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE W1063 from Pulse in
VERTICAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 3".
8. Reference range measurement with a 868/915 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE W1063 from Pulse in
HORIZONTAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 1".
The measurement results are summarized in Figure 15.
The indoor range test was not performed, due to the lack of a large enough building. But from the TX power and
sensitivity data, an indoor range estimation can be given if one assumes a propagation factor of 4.5, which is a
typical value in normal office environments. Use the Silicon Labs’ range calculator, which can be found here:
http://www.silabs.com/support/pages/document-library.aspx?p=Wireless&f=EZRadioPRO&pn=Si4460
Assuming a –5.9 dBi antenna gain (front direction, X-axes facing in XY cut) and the setting "Set 1" above (50 kbps,
1% PER, ~13 dBm), the estimated indoor range is 71 m, as is shown in Figure 16. To the maximum antenna gain
direction, the indoor range is ~115 m.
14
Rev. 1.0
AN848
Set1 13dBm 50kbps
Set2 13dBm 100kbps
Set3
0dBm
+/‐25kHz
+/‐50kHz
GPS
Distance [m]
N
E
47.152880° 19.180930°
0.0
1.2kbps +/‐1.2kHz
Medium Printed ILA
Base
H pol; Norm. direction
Medium Printed ILA (WES0111)
1
Set1
13dBm
50kbps
+/‐25kHz
GPS
N
E
47.164650° 19.173080°
1437.1
V pol; Norm. direction
2
3
4
5
Set1
Set2
Set3
13dBm
13dBm
0dBm
GPS
N
E
+/‐25kHz 47.168360° 19.172550°
+/‐50kHz 47.163100° 19.173400°
+/‐1.2kHz 47.166170° 19.172910°
1834.2
1271.1
1597.4
Set1
Max. direction w/o hand: XZV 335° //Meas w hand: 270°
GPS
N
E
13dBm 50kbps
+/‐25kHz 47.170230° 19.172240°
2038.0
50kbps
100kbps
1.2kbps
V pol; Norm. direction
Set1
Set3
13dBm
0dBm
50kbps
1.2kbps
W1063
6
7
GPS
N
E
+/‐25kHz 47.174060° 19.171540°
+/‐1.2kHz 47.171470° 19.172010°
2459.8
2174.3
H pol; Norm. direction
8
Set1
13dBm
50kbps
+/‐25kHz
GPS
N
E
47.176200° 19.171200°
2695.4
Figure 15. Outdoor Range Test Result with Two Identical Medium Sized Printed ILA Antennas
Connected to the 4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board and to the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard
Rev. 1.0
15
AN848
Figure 16. Indoor Range Estimation with Two Identical Medium Sized Printed ILA Antennas
Connected to the 4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board and to the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard
16
Rev. 1.0
2. Ceramic (Chip) Antenna (WES0112-01-ACM915D-01)
The selected chip antenna is Antenna Factory’s ANT-915-CHP-T. For more information, go here:
https://www.linxtechnologies.com/resources/data-guides/ant-xxx-chp-x.pdf
An external matching network (shown in Figure 17) is required at the antenna input to work well at 915 M.
Figure 17. External Matching Network at 915 MHz for the ANT-915-CHP-T Ceramic Antenna
The antenna is shown in Figure 18:
Figure 18. Ceramic (Chip) Antenna, (WES0112-01-ACM915D-01)
Rev. 1.0
17
2.1. Antenna Impedance (WES0112-01-ACM915D-01)
The impedance measurement setup is shown in Figure 19. The antenna board is connected to the 4460PCE10D915 Pico Board through a male-to-male SMA transition with the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard driving
the Pico Board. The 4463-PCE20B915 works in a reduced power state (0x1C with 2.6 V VDD results ~+10.2 dBm,
as shown in Figure 22).
During the impedance tuning and range test, the user’s hand holds the motherboard. Typical hand position is
shown in Figure 20.
Figure 19. DUT in the Impedance Measurement Setup (WES0112 Ceramic Antenna Board)
18
Rev. 1.0
Figure 20. Typical Hand Effect on the Main Board During Impedance and Range Measurement
Rev. 1.0
19
The measured impedance of the antenna with its external matching network is shown in Figure 21 (up to 3 GHz)
with motherboard hand effect.
Figure 21. Measured Impedance (up to 3 GHz) with Hand Effect on the Main Board
20
Rev. 1.0
2.2. Antenna Gain (WES0112-01-ACM915D-01)
The antenna gain is calculated from both the measured radiated power at the fundamental and from the delivered
power to the antenna. In the radiation measurement, the 4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board is set to a reduced
(~10.3 dBm) power state and the entire setup is fed by two AA batteries. The conducted SA measurement result of
the 4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board in this reduced power state is shown in Figure 22. This method can be
effectively applied because the S11 of the antenna is much better than –10 dB so the reflection loss is negligible.
Figure 22. Conducted Measurement Result, 4463-PCE20C915 in a
Reduced Power State (0x1C) and VDD (2.6 V).
The measured radiated power maximum is at the XZ cut (Table 3). It is around +4.7 dBm EIRP, so the maximum
gain number is ~–5.3 dBi, as shown in Figure 27.
Rev. 1.0
21
2.3. Radiation Patterns (WES0112-01-ACM915D-01)
Radiation patterns of the ceramic antenna were measured in an antenna chamber with the 4463-PCE20C915 Pico
Board connected through a male-to-male SMA transition and with the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard driving the
Pico Board. The 4463-PCE20B915 Pico Board works in a reduced power state (0x1C with 2.6 VDD) and delivers
~10.2 dBm power. Figure 24—Figure 29 show the radiation patterns at the fundamental frequency in the XY, XZ,
YZ cut, with both horizontal and vertical receiver antenna polarization. The rotator was stepped in five degrees to
record the radiation pattern in 360 degrees.
The DUT with coordinate system under the radiated measurements is shown in Figure 23. Rotation starts from the
X-axe in the XY cut, and begins from the Z-axe in the XZ and YZ cuts.
Figure 23. DUT in the Antenna Chamber
22
Rev. 1.0
The measured radiation patterns (antenna gain in dBi) are shown in the following six figures (Figure 24–Figure 29).
Figure 24. Radiation Pattern in the XY Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 25. Radiation Pattern in the XY Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
Rev. 1.0
23
Figure 26. . Radiation Pattern in the XZ Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 27. Radiation Pattern in the XZ Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
24
Rev. 1.0
Figure 28. Radiation Pattern in the YZ Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 29. Radiation Pattern in the YZ Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
Rev. 1.0
25
2.4. Radiated Harmonics (WES0112-01-ACM915D-01)
The radiated harmonics of the ceramic antenna were also measured in an antenna chamber with the 4463PCE20C915 Pico Board connected through a male-to-male SMA transition and with the WMB-930 Wireless
Motherboard driving the Pico Board. The 4463-PCE20B915 Pico Board works in a reduced power state (0x1C and
with 2.6 V VDD) to deliver ~+10.2 dBm to the antenna board. The maximum radiated power levels up to the 10th
harmonic were measured in the XY, XZ, and YZ cut, with both the horizontal and vertical polarized receiver
antenna. The results are shown in the following EIRP table (Table 3) with the corresponding standard limits.
The Antenna is FCC compliant with large margin.
Table 3. Radiated Harmonics, Ceramic Antenna Board Connected to the Reduced Power
(~+10.2 dBm) 4463-PCE20C915, and Driven by the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard
26
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
FCC (15.247)
limit in EIRP
[dBm]
Measured
radiated power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
XY
V
Fund.
915
30.00
2.49
27.5
XY
V
2nd
1830
–15.31
–54.44
39.1
XY
V
3rd
2745
–41.25
–51.68
10.4
XY
V
4th
3660
–41.25
–50.97
9.7
XY
V
5th
4575
–41.25
–60.70
19.5
XY
V
6th
5490
–15.31
–58.92
43.6
XY
V
7th
6405
–15.31
–58.30
43.0
XY
V
8th
7320
–41.25
–57.35
16.1
XY
V
9th
8235
–41.25
–54.14
12.9
XY
V
10th
9150
–41.25
–52.53
11.3
XY
H
Fund.
915
30.00
–2.00
32.0
XY
H
2nd
1830
–15.31
–55.08
39.8
XY
H
3rd
2745
–41.25
–51.31
10.1
XY
H
4th
3660
–41.25
–52.83
11.6
XY
H
5th
4575
–41.25
–60.83
19.6
XY
H
6th
5490
–15.31
–58.63
43.3
XY
H
7th
6405
–15.31
–57.02
41.7
XY
H
8th
7320
–41.25
–57.81
16.6
XY
H
9th
8235
–41.25
–54.36
13.1
XY
H
10th
9150
–41.25
–51.96
10.7
Rev. 1.0
Table 3. Radiated Harmonics, Ceramic Antenna Board Connected to the Reduced Power
(~+10.2 dBm) 4463-PCE20C915, and Driven by the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard (Continued)
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
FCC (15.247)
limit in EIRP
[dBm]
Measured
radiated power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
XZ
V
Fund.
915
30.00
4.69
25.3
XZ
V
2nd
1830
–15.31
–52.52
37.2
XZ
V
3rd
2745
–41.25
–49.05
7.8
XZ
V
4th
3660
–41.25
–51.47
10.2
XZ
V
5th
4575
–41.25
–60.17
18.9
XZ
V
6th
5490
–15.31
–58.05
42.7
XZ
V
7th
6405
–15.31
–59.13
43.8
XZ
V
8th
7320
–41.25
–57.49
16.2
XZ
V
9th
8235
–41.25
–54.71
13.5
XZ
V
10th
9150
–41.25
–51.60
10.4
XZ
H
Fund.
915
30.00
0.57
29.4
XZ
H
2nd
1830
–15.31
–54.50
39.2
XZ
H
3rd
2745
–41.25
–52.53
11.3
XZ
H
4th
3660
–41.25
–48.17
6.9
XZ
H
5th
4575
–41.25
–61.21
20.0
XZ
H
6th
5490
–15.31
–59.15
43.8
XZ
H
7th
6405
–15.31
–58.44
43.1
XZ
H
8th
7320
–41.25
–57.44
16.2
XZ
H
9th
8235
–41.25
–54.53
13.3
XZ
H
10th
9150
–41.25
–52.99
11.7
YZ
V
Fund.
915
30.00
–6.05
36.1
YZ
V
2nd
1830
–15.31
–61.58
46.3
YZ
V
3rd
2745
–41.25
–50.08
8.8
YZ
V
4th
3660
–41.25
–55.23
14.0
Rev. 1.0
27
Table 3. Radiated Harmonics, Ceramic Antenna Board Connected to the Reduced Power
(~+10.2 dBm) 4463-PCE20C915, and Driven by the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard (Continued)
28
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
FCC (15.247)
limit in EIRP
[dBm]
Measured
radiated power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
YZ
V
5th
4575
–41.25
–61.67
20.4
YZ
V
6th
5490
–15.31
–58.13
42.8
YZ
V
7th
6405
–15.31
–58.04
42.7
YZ
V
8th
7320
–41.25
–57.64
16.4
YZ
V
9th
8235
–41.25
–54.60
13.3
YZ
V
10th
9150
–41.25
–52.64
11.4
YZ
H
Fund.
915
30.00
3.40
26.6
YZ
H
2nd
1830
–15.31
–51.92
36.6
YZ
H
3rd
2745
–41.25
–50.89
9.6
YZ
H
4th
3660
–41.25
–49.75
8.5
YZ
H
5th
4575
–41.25
–60.20
19.0
YZ
H
6th
5490
–15.31
–58.56
43.3
YZ
H
7th
6405
–15.31
–57.52
42.2
YZ
H
8th
7320
–41.25
–57.17
15.9
YZ
H
9th
8235
–41.25
–53.83
12.6
YZ
H
10th
9150
–41.25
–52.70
11.5
Rev. 1.0
2.5. Range Test (WES0112-01-ACM915D-01)
The available range was measured using the Range Test Demo. This application is supplied with the standard
development kits for EZRadioPRO®. The target of this measurement is to find the distance between the
transceivers, where the one-directional PER (Packet Error Rate, number of lost packets) is not more than 1% at
each side with ten byte long packets. The GPS coordinates have been recorded for each spot. The distance
between the spots were measured using Google Maps, and results are shown in meters. The range shown was
tested between two identical units with the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard, 4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board
working in reduced (~+13 dBm or 0 dBm) power states, and the DUT (as shown in Figure 20.) held by the users
hand. The Pico Board worked in a reduced power state (13 dBm or 0 dBm) during the range tests.
The range was tested in a flat land area without obstacles.
During the range tests, the following settings were used:
Set
1: Txpow=13 dBm, 50 kbps, 25 kHz dev., RXBW=103.06 kHz (sens ~–106.3 dBm)
Set 2: Txpow=13 dBm, 100 kbps, 50 kHz dev., RXBW=206.12 kHz (sens ~–103.4 dBm)
Set 3: Txpow=0 dBm, 1.2 kbps, 1.2 kHz dev., RXBW=7.15 kHz (sens ~–118 dBm)
Using the above settings (Set 1, Set 2, and Set 3) the following range tests are done here:
1. Range measurement with the CERAMIC Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are HORIZONTALLY
polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied setting is "Set 1".
2. Range measurement with the CERAMIC Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are VERTICALLY
polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied setting is "Set 1".
3. Range measurement with the CERAMIC Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are VERTICALLY
polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied setting is "Set 2".
4. Range measurement with the CERAMIC Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are VERTICALLY
polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied setting is "Set 3".
5. Range measurement with the CERAMIC Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are VERTICALLY
polarized and the boards are facing each other in their direction of maximum radiation. The applied setting
is "Set 1".
6. Reference range measurement with two 915 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (W1063 from Pulse) in
VERTICAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 1".
7. Reference range measurement with two 915 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (W1063 from Pulse) in
VERTICAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 3".
8. Reference range measurement with a 915 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (W1063 from Pulse) in
HORIZONTAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 1".
9. Reference range measurement with a 915 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (W1063 from Pulse) in
HORIZONTAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 3".
The measurement results are summarized in Figure 30.
The indoor range was not measured, due to the lack of a large enough building. But from the TX power and
sensitivity data, an estimation can be given if one assumes an indoor propagation factor of 4.5, which is a typical
value in normal office environments. Use the Silicon Labs’ range calculator, which can be found on the webpage
here:
http://www.silabs.com/support/pages/document-library.aspx?p=Wireless&f=EZRadioPRO&pn=Si4460
Assuming a –8.5 dBi antenna gain (front direction, X-axes facing in XY cut) and the setting "Set 1" (50 kbps, 1%
PER, 13 dBm), the estimated indoor range is 54 m, as it is shown in Figure 31. To the maximum antenna gain
direction, the indoor range is ~74 m.
Rev. 1.0
29
Set1 13dBm 50kbps
Set2 13dBm 100kbps
Set3
0dBm
+/‐25kHz
+/‐50kHz
GPS
Distance [m]
N
E
47.152880° 19.180930°
0.0
1.2kbps +/‐1.2kHz
Chip Antenna
Base
H pol; Norm. direction
Chip Antenna (WES0112)
1
Set1
13dBm
50kbps
+/‐25kHz
GPS
N
E
47.161710° 19.173620°
1126.7
V pol; Norm. direction
2
3
4
Set1
Set2
Set3
13dBm
13dBm
0dBm
50kbps
100kbps
1.2kbps
GPS
N
E
+/‐25kHz 47.163110° 19.173390°
+/‐50kHz 47.161710° 19.173510°
+/‐1.2kHz 47.163980° 19.173240°
1272.4
1130.8
1364.4
Max. direction: XZH 5°
5
Set1
13dBm
50kbps
+/‐25kHz
GPS
N
E
47.163160° 19.173390°
1277.4
V pol; Norm. direction
Set1
Set3
13dBm
0dBm
50kbps
1.2kbps
W1063
6
7
GPS
N
E
+/‐25kHz 47.174060° 19.171540°
+/‐1.2kHz 47.171470° 19.17201
2459.8
2174.3
H pol; Norm. direction
8
Set1
13dBm
50kbps
+/‐25kHz
GPS
N
E
47.176200° 19.171200°
2695.4
Figure 30. Outdoor Range Test Result with Two Identical Ceramic (Chip) Antennas with the
Reduced Power (+13 dBm) 4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board Driven by the
WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard
30
Rev. 1.0
Figure 31. Indoor Range Estimation with Two Identical Ceramic (Chip) Antennas with the
Reduced Power (+13 dBm) 4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board Driven by the
WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard
Rev. 1.0
31
3. Small Sized (Wire) Helical Antenna (WES0113-01-AWH915S-01)
The selected helical antenna is Antenna Factor’s ANT-915-JJB-RA. For more information, go here:
https://www.linxtechnologies.com/resources/data-guides/ant-915-jjb-xx.pdf
An external matching network (shown in Figure 32) is required at the antenna input.
Figure 32. External Matching Network at 915 MHz for the Small Helical Antenna
The antenna is shown in Figure 33.
Figure 33. Small Sized Helical Antenna, (WES0113-01-AWH915S-01
Rev. 1.0
32
3.1. Antenna Impedance (WES0113-01-AWH915S-01)
The impedance measurement setup is shown in Figure 34. The antenna board is connected to the 4460PCE10D915 Pico Board through a male-to-male SMA transition with the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard driving
the Pico Board.
During the impedance tuning and range test the user’s hand holds the motherboard. Typical hand position is
shown in Figure 35.
Figure 34. DUT in the Impedance Measurement Setup with the WES0113-01-AWH915S-01 Small
Helical Antenna Board
33
Rev. 1.0
Figure 35. Typical Hand Effect on the Main Board During Impedance and Range Measurement
WES0113-01-AWH915S-01 Small Helical Antenna Board
Rev. 1.0
34
The measured impedance of the antenna with its external matching network is shown in Figure 36 (up to 3 GHz)
with motherboard hand effect.
Figure 36. Measured Impedance (up to 3 GHz) with Hand Effect on the Main Board
35
Rev. 1.0
3.2. Antenna Gain (WES0113-01-AWH915S-01)
The antenna gain is calculated from both the measured radiated power at the fundamental and from the delivered
power to the antenna by the 4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board. In the radiation measurement, the 4463-PCE20C915
Pico Board is set to reduced power state (0x1C results ~+10.2 dBm at 2.6 VDD), and the entire setup is fed by two
AA batteries. The conducted SA measurement result of the 4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board in this reduced
(~10 dBm) power state is shown in Figure 37. This method can be effectively applied because the S11 of the
antenna is much better than –10 dB, so the reflection loss is negligible.
Figure 37. Conducted Measurement Result, 4463-PCE20C915 in ~10 dBm Power State
The measured radiated power maximum is at the XZ cut (Table 4). It is around +5.9 dBm EIRP, so the maximum
gain number is ~–4.3 dBi as it is shown in Figure 41.
Rev. 1.0
36
3.3. Radiation Patterns
The radiation patterns of the small sized helical antenna were measured in an antenna chamber using the 4463PCE20C915 Pico Board connected through a male-to-male SMA transition and with the WMB-930 Wireless
Motherboard driving the Pico Board. Figure 39–Figure 44 show the radiation patterns at the fundamental frequency
in the XY, XZ,and YZ cut, with both horizontal and vertical receiver antenna polarization. The rotator was stepped in
five degrees to record the radiation pattern in 360 degrees.
The DUT with coordinate system under the radiated measurements is shown in Figure 38. Rotation starts from the
X-axe in the XY cut, and begins from the Z-axe in the XZ and YZ cuts.
Figure 38. DUT in the Antenna Chamber
37
Rev. 1.0
The measured radiation patterns (antenna gain in dBi) are shown in the following six figures (Figure 39–Figure 44).
Figure 39. Radiation Pattern in the XY Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 40. Radiation Pattern in the XY Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
Rev. 1.0
38
Figure 41. Radiation Pattern in the XZ Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 42. Radiation Pattern in the XZ Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
39
Rev. 1.0
Figure 43. Radiation Pattern in the YZ Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 44. Radiation Pattern in the YZ Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
Rev. 1.0
40
3.4. Radiated Harmonics
The radiated harmonics of the small sized helical antenna were also measured in an antenna chamber using the
4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board connected through a male-to-male SMA transition and with the WMB-930 Wireless
Motherboard driving the Pico Board. The 4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board works in a reduced power state (0x1C)
and at 2.6 VDD to have ~+10.2 dBm power delivered to the antenna board. The maximum radiated power levels up
to the 10th harmonic were measured in the XY, XZ, and YZ cut, with both horizontal and vertical polarized receiver
antenna. The results are shown in the following EIRP table (Table 4) with the corresponding standard limits.
The Antenna is FCC compliant with a large margin.
-
Table 4. Radiated Harmonics, Small Sized Helical ILA Antenna Board Connected to the Reduced
Power (~+10.2 dBm) 4463-PCE20C915, and Driven by the
WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard
41
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
FCC limit in
EIRP
Measured
radiated power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
XY
V
Fund.
915
30.00
2.12
27.9
XY
V
2nd
1830
–14.08
–50.10
36.0
XY
V
3rd
2745
–41.25
–50.96
9.7
XY
V
4th
3660
–41.25
–50.86
9.6
XY
V
5th
4575
–41.25
–61.44
20.2
XY
V
6th
5490
–14.08
–58.81
44.7
XY
V
7th
6405
–14.08
–58.31
44.2
XY
V
8th
7320
–41.25
–55.89
14.6
XY
V
9th
8235
–41.25
–54.37
13.1
XY
V
10th
9150
–41.25
–53.04
11.8
XY
H
Fund.
915
30.00
–0.43
30.4
XY
H
2nd
1830
–14.08
–54.94
40.9
XY
H
3rd
2745
–41.25
–50.57
9.3
XY
H
4th
3660
–41.25
–52.18
10.9
XY
H
5th
4575
–41.25
–61.88
20.6
XY
H
6th
5490
–14.08
–58.83
44.7
XY
H
7th
6405
–14.08
–57.99
43.9
XY
H
8th
7320
–41.25
–56.71
15.5
XY
H
9th
8235
–41.25
–54.62
13.4
Rev. 1.0
Table 4. Radiated Harmonics, Small Sized Helical ILA Antenna Board Connected to the Reduced
Power (~+10.2 dBm) 4463-PCE20C915, and Driven by the
WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard (Continued)
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
FCC limit in
EIRP
Measured
radiated power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
XY
H
10th
9150
–41.25
–52.29
11.0
XZ
V
Fund.
915
30.00
5.92
24.1
XZ
V
2nd
1830
–14.08
–51.40
37.3
XZ
V
3rd
2745
–41.25
–50.14
8.9
XZ
V
4th
3660
–41.25
–51.58
10.3
XZ
V
5th
4575
–41.25
–61.59
20.3
XZ
V
6th
5490
–14.08
–58.29
44.2
XZ
V
7th
6405
–14.08
–58.63
44.5
XZ
V
8th
7320
–41.25
–55.49
14.2
XZ
V
9th
8235
–41.25
–53.82
12.6
XZ
V
10th
9150
–41.25
–51.90
10.7
XZ
H
Fund.
915
30.00
–0.84
30.8
XZ
H
2nd
1830
–14.08
–48.65
34.6
XZ
H
3rd
2745
–41.25
–52.89
11.6
XZ
H
4th
3660
–41.25
–47.94
6.7
XZ
H
5th
4575
–41.25
–59.39
18.1
XZ
H
6th
5490
–14.08
–58.96
44.9
XZ
H
7th
6405
–14.08
–58.79
44.7
XZ
H
8th
7320
–41.25
–57.46
16.2
XZ
H
9th
8235
–41.25
–54.25
13.0
XZ
H
10th
9150
–41.25
–52.88
11.6
YZ
V
Fund.
915
30.00
–3.81
33.8
YZ
V
2nd
1830
–14.08
–55.91
41.8
Rev. 1.0
42
Table 4. Radiated Harmonics, Small Sized Helical ILA Antenna Board Connected to the Reduced
Power (~+10.2 dBm) 4463-PCE20C915, and Driven by the
WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard (Continued)
43
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
FCC limit in
EIRP
Measured
radiated power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
YZ
V
3rd
2745
–41.25
–49.22
8.0
YZ
V
4th
3660
–41.25
–55.01
13.8
YZ
V
5th
4575
–41.25
–60.62
19.4
YZ
V
6th
5490
–14.08
–59.42
45.3
YZ
V
7th
6405
–14.08
–58.33
44.2
YZ
V
8th
7320
–41.25
–57.08
15.8
YZ
V
9th
8235
–41.25
–52.61
11.4
YZ
V
10th
9150
–41.25
–52.19
10.9
YZ
H
Fund.
915
30.00
3.35
26.6
YZ
H
2nd
1830
–14.08
–51.57
37.5
YZ
H
3rd
2745
–41.25
–49.93
8.7
YZ
H
4th
3660
–41.25
–49.07
7.8
YZ
H
5th
4575
–41.25
–61.02
19.8
YZ
H
6th
5490
–14.08
–59.03
44.9
YZ
H
7th
6405
–14.08
–58.26
44.2
YZ
H
8th
7320
–-41.25
–56.79
15.5
YZ
H
9th
8235
–41.25
–51.24
10.0
YZ
H
10th
9150
–41.25
–52.65
11.4
Rev. 1.0
3.5. Range Test
The available range was measured using the Range Test Demo. This application is supplied with the standard
development kits for EZRadioPRO®. The target of this measurement is to find the distance between the
transceivers, where the one-directional PER (Packet Error Rate, number of lost packets) is not more than 1% at
each side with ten byte long packets. The GPS coordinates have been recorded for each spot. The distance
between the spots was measured using Google Maps, and results are shown in meters. The range tested between
two identical units with the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard, 4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board with reduced power
states (+13 dBm and 0 dBm), and the DUT (shown in Figure 34) held by the users hand. The Pico Board worked in
a reduced power state (+13 dBm or 0 dBm) during the range tests.
The range was tested in a flat land area without obstacles.
During the range test, the following settings were used:
Set
1: Txpow=13 dBm, 50 kbps, 25 kHz dev., RXBW=103.06 kHz (sens ~–106.3 dBm)
Set 2: Txpow=13 dBm, 100 kbps, 50 kHz dev., RXBW=206.12 kHz (sens ~–103.4 dBm)
Set 3: Txpow=0 dBm, 1.2 kbps, 1.2 kHz dev., RXBW=7.15 kHz (sens ~–118 dBm)
Using the above settings (Set 1, Set 2, and Set 3) the following range tests are done here:
1. Range measurement with the SMALL HELICAL Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are
HORIZONTALLY polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied
setting is "Set 1".
2. Range measurement with the SMALL HELICAL Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are VERTICALLY
polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied setting is "Set 1".
3. Range measurement with the SMALL HELICAL Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are VERTICALLY
polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied setting is "Set 2".
4. Range measurement with the SMALL HELICAL Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are VERTICALLY
polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied setting is "Set 3".
5. Range measurement with the SMALL HELICAL Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are VERTICALLY
polarized and the boards are facing each other in their direction of maximum radiation. The applied setting
is "Set 1".
6. Reference range measurement with two 868/915 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (W1063 from Pulse) in
VERTICAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 1".
7. Reference range measurement with two 868/915 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (W1063 from Pulse) in
VERTICAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 3".
8. Reference range measurement with a 868/915 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (W1063 from Pulse) in
HORIZONTAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 1".
The measurement results are summarized in Figure 45.
The indoor range was not measured, due to the lack of a large enough building. But from the TX power and
sensitivity data, an estimation can be given if one assumes an indoor propagation factor of 4.5, which is a typical
value in normal office environments. Use the Silicon Labs’ range calculator which can be found on the webpage
here:
http://www.silabs.com/support/pages/document-library.aspx?p=Wireless&f=EZRadioPRO&pn=Si4460
Assuming a –8.5 dBi antenna gain (front direction, X-axes facing) and the setting "Set 1" (50 kbps, 1% PER,
13 dBm), the estimated indoor range is 81 m, as it is shown in Figure 46. To the maximum antenna gain direction,
the indoor range is ~55 m.
Rev. 1.0
44
Set1 13dBm 50kbps
Set2 13dBm 100kbps
Set3
0dBm
+/‐25kHz
+/‐50kHz
GPS
Distance [m]
N
E
47.152880° 19.180930°
0.0
1.2kbps +/‐1.2kHz
Small Helical
Base
H pol; Norm. direction
Small Helical (WES0113)
1
Set1
13dBm
50kbps
+/‐25kHz
GPS
N
E
47.161170° 19.173690°
1072.1
V pol; Norm. direction
2
3
4
5
Set1
Set2
Set3
13dBm
13dBm
0dBm
GPS
N
E
+/‐25kHz 47.162820° 19.173360°
+/‐50kHz 47.161580° 19.173630°
+/‐1.2kHz 47.162330° 19.173490°
1244.7
1113.8
1191.9
Set1
Max. direction w/o hand: XZV 340° //Meas w hand: 250°
GPS
N
E
13dBm 50kbps
+/‐25kHz 47.164620° 19.173150°
1431.8
50kbps
100kbps
1.2kbps
V pol; Norm. direction
Set1
Set3
13dBm
0dBm
50kbps
1.2kbps
W1063
6
7
GPS
N
E
+/‐25kHz 47.174060° 19.171540°
+/‐1.2kHz 47.171470° 19.17201
2459.8
2174.3
H pol; Norm. direction
8
Set1
13dBm
50kbps
+/‐25kHz
GPS
N
E
47.176200° 19.171200°
2695.4
Figure 45. Outdoor Range Test Result with Two Identical Small Sized Helical Antennas with
Reduced Rower (~+13 dBm and 0 dBm) 4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board Driven by the WMB-930
Wireless Motherboard
45
Rev. 1.0
Figure 46. Indoor Range Estimation with Two Identical Ceramic (Chip) Antennas with Reduced
Power (~+13 dBm) 4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board Driven by the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard
Rev. 1.0
46
4. Medium Sized (Wire) Helical Antenna (WES0114-01-AWH915M-01)
The selected helical antenna is Antenna Factor’s ANT-916-HETH. For more information, go here:
https://www.linxtechnologies.com/resources/data-guides/ant-xxx-hexx.pdf
An external matching network (shown in Figure 47) is required at the antenna input.
Figure 47. External Matching Network at 915 M for the Medium Helical Antenna
The antenna is shown in Figure 48:
Figure 48. Medium Sized Helical Antenna
Rev. 1.0
47
4.1. Antenna Impedance (WES0114-01-AWH915M-01)
The impedance measurement setup is shown in Figure 49. In the case of the Medium Sized Helical Antenna, the
board is connected to a 4460-PCE10D915 Pico Board through a male-to-male SMA transition with the WMB-930
Wireless Motherboard driving the Pico Board.
During the impedance tuning and range test, the user’s hand holds the motherboard. Typical hand position is
shown in Figure 50.
Figure 49. DUT in the Impedance Measurement Setup
(Medium Sized Helical Antenna Board [WES0114-01-AWH915M-01])
Figure 50. Typical Hand Effect on the Main Board During Impedance and Range Measurement
(Medium Sized Helical Antenna Board [WES0114-01-AWH915M-01])
48
Rev. 1.0
The measured impedance of the antenna with its external matching network is shown in Figure 51 (up to 3 GHz)
with motherboard hand effect.
Figure 51. Measured Impedance (up to 3 GHz) with Hand Effect on the Main Board
Rev. 1.0
49
4.2. Antenna Gain (WES0114-01-AWH915M-01)
The antenna gain is calculated from both the measured radiated power at the fundamental and from the delivered
power to the antenna, determined by conducted SA measurements on the 50  termination (shown in Figure 52).
This method can be effectively applied because the S11 of the antenna is much better than –10 dB, so the
reflection is negligible.
Figure 52. Conducted Measurement Result, 4463-PCE20C915M in a Reduced Power State
(0x1C and 2.6 V VDD) with ~+10.2 dBm
The measured radiated power maximum is at the XZ cut (Table 5). It is around 10.4 dBm EIRP, so the maximum
gain number is ~+0.2 dBi, as it is shown in Figure 56.
50
Rev. 1.0
4.3. Radiation Patterns (WES0114-01-AWH915M-01)
The radiation patterns of the medium sized helical antenna were measured in an antenna chamber using the 4463PCE20C915 Pico Board in a reduced power state (~+10.2 dBm) connected through a male-to-male SMA transition
with the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard driving the Pico Board. Figure 54—Figure 59 show the radiation patterns
at the fundamental frequency in the XY, XZ, YZ cut, with both horizontal and vertical receiver antenna polarization.
The rotator was stepped in five degrees to record the radiation pattern in 360 degrees.
The DUT with coordinate system under the radiated measurements is shown in Figure 53. In the XY cut the
rotation starts from the X-axe, while in the XZ and YZ cuts it starts from the Z-axe.
Figure 53. DUT in the Antenna Chamber
Rev. 1.0
51
The measured radiation patterns (antenna gain in dBi) are shown in the following six figures (Figure 54—
Figure 59).
Figure 54. Radiation Pattern in the XY Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 55. Radiation Pattern in the XY Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
52
Rev. 1.0
Figure 56. Radiation Pattern in the XZ Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 57. Radiation Pattern in the XZ Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
Rev. 1.0
53
Figure 58. Radiation Pattern in the YZ Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 59. Radiation Pattern in the YZ Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
54
Rev. 1.0
4.4. Radiated Harmonics (WES0114-01-AWH915M-01)
The radiated harmonics of the medium size helical antenna were also measured in an antenna chamber using the
4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board connected through a male-to-male SMA transition with the WMB-930 Wireless
Motherboard driving the Pico Board. The 4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board works in a reduced power state
(~+10.2 dBm, power state 0x1C, 2.6 V VDD). The maximum radiated power levels up to the 10th harmonic were
measured in the XY, XZ, and YZ cut, with both horizontal and vertical polarized receiver antenna. The results are
shown in the following EIRP table (Table 5) with the corresponding standard limits.
The Antenna is FCC compliant, with large enough margin.
Table 5. Radiated Harmonics, Medium Helical Antenna Board Connected to the Reduced Power
(~10.2 dBm) 4463-PCE20C915, and Driven by the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
FCC limit in
EIRP [dBm]
Measured
radiated power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
XY
V
Fund.
915
30.00
7.41
22.6
XY
V
2nd
1830
–9.61
–50.35
40.7
XY
V
3rd
2745
–41.25
–51.16
9.9
XY
V
4th
3660
–41.25
–52.01
10.8
XY
V
5th
4575
–41.25
–60.47
19.2
XY
V
6th
5490
–9.61
–59.16
49.5
XY
V
7th
6405
–9.61
–56.67
47.1
XY
V
8th
7320
–41.25
–57.36
16.1
XY
V
9th
8235
–41.25
–55.97
14.7
XY
V
10th
9150
–41.25
–52.35
11.1
XY
H
Fund.
915
30.00
4.14
25.9
XY
H
2nd
1830
–9.61
–45.10
35.5
XY
H
3rd
2745
–41.25
–52.03
10.8
XY
H
4th
3660
–41.25
–53.37
12.1
XY
H
5th
4575
–41.25
–60.74
19.5
XY
H
6th
5490
–9.61
–58.31
48.7
XY
H
7th
6405
–9.61
–58.37
48.8
XY
H
8th
7320
–41.25
–57.48
16.2
XY
H
9th
8235
–41.25
–56.24
15.0
XY
H
10th
9150
–41.25
–52.38
11.1
Rev. 1.0
55
Table 5. Radiated Harmonics, Medium Helical Antenna Board Connected to the Reduced Power
(~10.2 dBm) 4463-PCE20C915, and Driven by the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard (Continued)
56
Measured
radiated power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
FCC limit in
EIRP [dBm]
XZ
V
Fund.
915
30.00
10.39
19.6
XZ
V
2nd
1830
–9.61
–50.86
41.3
XZ
V
3rd
2745
–41.25
–50.24
9.0
XZ
V
4th
3660
–41.25
–52.71
11.5
XZ
V
5th
4575
–41.25
–61.14
19.9
XZ
V
6th
5490
–9.61
–59.16
49.6
XZ
V
7th
6405
–9.61
–56.61
47.0
XZ
V
8th
7320
–41.25
–57.60
16.4
XZ
V
9th
8235
–41.25
–55.46
14.2
XZ
V
10th
9150
–41.25
–52.40
11.1
XZ
H
Fund.
915
30.00
5.21
24.8
XZ
H
2nd
1830
–9.61
–44.16
34.6
XZ
H
3rd
2745
–41.25
–55.23
14.0
XZ
H
4th
3660
–41.25
–49.03
7.8
XZ
H
5th
4575
–41.25
–60.06
18.8
XZ
H
6th
5490
–9.61
–58.52
48.9
XZ
H
7th
6405
–9.61
–56.95
47.3
XZ
H
8th
7320
–41.25
–57.99
16.7
XZ
H
9th
8235
–41.25
–55.13
13.9
XZ
H
10th
9150
–41.25
–52.57
11.3
YZ
V
Fund.
915
30.00
1.98
28.0
YZ
V
2nd
1830
–9.61
–41.26
31.7
YZ
V
3rd
2745
–41.25
–49.76
8.5
YZ
V
4th
3660
–41.25
–55.16
13.9
Rev. 1.0
Table 5. Radiated Harmonics, Medium Helical Antenna Board Connected to the Reduced Power
(~10.2 dBm) 4463-PCE20C915, and Driven by the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard (Continued)
Measured
radiated power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
FCC limit in
EIRP [dBm]
YZ
V
5th
4575
–41.25
–60.50
19.3
YZ
V
6th
5490
–9.61
–59.15
49.5
YZ
V
7th
6405
–9.61
–56.47
46.9
YZ
V
8th
7320
–41.25
–56.50
15.2
YZ
V
9th
8235
–41.25
–55.43
14.2
YZ
V
10th
9150
–41.25
–52.24
11.0
YZ
H
Fund.
915
30.00
8.72
21.3
YZ
H
2nd
1830
–9.61
–49.98
40.4
YZ
H
3rd
2745
–41.25
–51.51
10.3
YZ
H
4th
3660
–41.25
–50.84
9.6
YZ
H
5th
4575
–41.25
–61.22
20.0
YZ
H
6th
5490
–9.61
–59.29
49.7
YZ
H
7th
6405
–9.61
–57.75
48.1
YZ
H
8th
7320
–41.25
–56.41
15.2
YZ
H
9th
8235
–41.25
–54.59
13.3
YZ
H
10th
9150
–41.25
–50.98
9.7
Rev. 1.0
57
4.5. Range Test (WES0114-01-AWH915M-01)
The available range was measured using the Range Test Demo. This application is supplied with the standard
development kits for EZRadioPRO®. The target of this measurement is to find the distance between the
transceivers, where the one-directional PER (Packet Error Rate, number of lost packets) is not more than 1% at
each side with ten byte packet length. The GPS coordinates have been recorded for each spot. The distance
between the spots were measured using Google Maps, and results are shown in meters. The range was tested
between two identical units with the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard, reduced power 4463-PCE20C915 Pico
Board, and the DUT (as shown in Figure 50) held by the users hand.
The range was tested in a flat land area without obstacles.
During the range test, the following settings were used:
Set
1: Txpow=13 dBm, 50 kbps, 25 kHz dev., RXBW=103.06 kHz (sens ~–106.3 dBm)
Set 2: Txpow=13 dBm, 100 kbps, 50 kHz dev., RXBW=206.12 kHz (sens ~–103.4 dBm)
Set 3: Txpow=0 dBm, 1.2 kbps, 1.2 kHz dev., RXBW=7.15 kHz (sens ~–118 dBm)
Using the above settings (Set 1, Set 2, and Set 3) the following range tests are done here:
1. Range measurement with the MEDIUM HELICAL Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are
HORIZONTALLY polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied
setting is "Set 1".
2. Range measurement with the MEDIUM HELICAL Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are
VERTICALLY polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied
setting is "Set 1".
3. Range measurement with the MEDIUM HELICAL Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are
VERTICALLY polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied
setting is "Set 2".
4. Range measurement with the MEDIUM HELICAL Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are
VERTICALLY polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied
setting is "Set 3".
5. Range measurement with the MEDIUM HELICAL Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are
VERTICALLY polarized and the boards are facing each other in their direction of maximum radiation. The
applied setting is "Set 1".
6. Reference range measurement with two 868/915 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (W1063 from Pulse) in
VERTICAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 1".
7. Reference range measurement with two 868/915 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (W1063 from Pulse) in
VERTICAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 3".
8. Reference range measurement with a 868/915 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (W1063 from Pulse) in
HORIZONTAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 1".
The measurement results are summarized in Figure 60.
The indoor range test was not performed, due to the lack of a large enough building. But from the TX power and
sensitivity data, an indoor range estimation can be given if one assumes a propagation factor of 4.5, which is a
typical value in normal office environments. Use Silicon Labs’ range calculator, which can be found here:
http://www.silabs.com/support/pages/document-library.aspx?p=Wireless&f=EZRadioPRO&pn=Si4460
Assuming a ~–3.7 dBi antenna gain (front direction, X-axes facing, XY cut) and the setting "Set 1" (50 kbps, 1%
PER, 13 dBm), the estimated indoor range is 81 m as shown in Figure 61. If the boards are facing with the
direction of maximum radiation, the indoor range increases to ~121 m.
58
Rev. 1.0
Set1 13dBm 50kbps
Set2 13dBm 100kbps
Set3
0dBm
+/‐25kHz
+/‐50kHz
GPS
Distance [m]
N
E
47.152880° 19.180930°
0.0
1.2kbps +/‐1.2kHz
Medium Helical
Base
H pol; Norm. direction
Medium Helical (WES0114)
1
Set1
13dBm
50kbps
+/‐25kHz
GPS
N
E
47.165190° 19.172980°
1495.0
V pol; Norm. direction
2
3
4
5
Set1
Set2
Set3
Set1
GPS
N
E
+/‐25kHz 47.168570° 19.172500°
+/‐50kHz 47.166110° 19.172900°
+/‐1.2kHz 47.166580° 19.172830°
13dBm
13dBm
0dBm
50kbps
100kbps
1.2kbps
13dBm
Max. direction w/o hand: XZV 330°
GPS
N
50kbps
+/‐25kHz
TBD
E
TBD
1857.4
1591.5
1641.9
TBD
V pol; Norm. direction
GPS
Set1
Set3
13dBm
0dBm
50kbps
1.2kbps
W1063
6
7
N
E
+/‐25kHz 47.174060° 19.171540°
+/‐1.2kHz 47.171470° 19.17201
2459.8
2174.3
H pol; Norm. direction
8
Set1
13dBm
50kbps
+/‐25kHz
GPS
N
E
47.176200° 19.171200°
2695.4
Figure 60. Outdoor Range Test Result with Two Identical Medium Sized Helical Antennas with the
4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board Working in Reduced Power States Driven by the
WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard
Rev. 1.0
59
Figure 61. Indoor Range Estimation with Two Identical Medium Sized Helical Antennas and with
the 4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board Working in Reduced Power State, Driven by the WMB-930
Wireless Motherboard
60
Rev. 1.0
5.
Panic Button IFA (Printed) Along the Circumference
(WES0115-01-APF915P-01)
The Panic Button IFA antenna has the following characteristics:
The
antenna trace width is 0.5 mm.
distance between the antenna trace outer edge and the PCB cutting edge is 1.5 mm.
The distance between the antenna trace inner edge and ground metal is 2 mm.
No capacitance (Ctop) at the end of the antenna is required.
No parallel capacitance or any other matching element at the antenna input is required. Only a series 0 
is used to connect the antenna as it is shown in Figure 62.
The
Figure 62. 0  Connection of the Panic Button IFA Antenna at 915 M
The antenna is shown in Figure 63:
Figure 63. Panic Button IFA Antenna (WES0115-01-APF915P-01)
Rev. 1.0
61
5.1. Antenna Impedance (WES0115-01-APF915P-01)
The impedance measurement setup is shown in Figure 64. The antenna board is connected to the 4460PCE10D915 Pico Board through a male-to-male SMA transition with the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard driving
the Pico Board.
During the impedance tuning and range test, the user’s hand holds the motherboard. Typical hand position is
shown in Figure 65.
Figure 64. DUT (Panic Button IFA, WES0115-01-APF915P-01) in the Impedance
Measurement Setup
Figure 65. Typical Hand Effect on the Main Board During Impedance and Range Measurement
(Panic Button IFA Antenna Board)
62
Rev. 1.0
The measured impedance of the antenna with its external matching network is shown in Figure 66 (up to 3 GHz)
with motherboard hand effect.
Figure 66. Measured Impedance (up to 3 GHz) with Hand Effect on the Main Board
Rev. 1.0
63
5.2. Antenna Gain (WES0115-01-APF915P-01)
The antenna gain is calculated from the measured radiated power at the fundamental and from the delivered power
to the antenna. In the radiation measurement the 4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board is set to reduced (~10.3 dBm,
power state 0x1C with 2.6 V VDD) power state and the entire setup is fed by two AA batteries. The conducted SA
measurement result of the 4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board in this reduced (~10 dBm) power state is shown in
Figure 67. This method can be effectively applied because the S11 of the antenna is much better than –10 dB, so
the reflection is negligible.
Figure 67. Conducted Measurement Result, 4463-PCE20C915 in a
Reduced (~10 dBm) Power State (0x1C and 2.6 V VDD)
The measured radiated power maximum is at the XZ cut (Table 6). It is around 7.7 dBm EIRP, so the maximum
gain number is ~–2.5 dBi, as shown in Figure 71.
This gain number is surprisingly high for a panic button antenna. It should be emphasized that in typical panic
button applications the grounding environment and the strength of the hand effect is different. In real panic button
applications (instead of the SMA connector, SMA male-male transition, Pico Board and wireless motherboard),
only a lithium coin battery is applied and the achievable antenna gain is much weaker.
Also, in wrist applications the very close parallel hand has a strong detuning effect. In these applications, further
impedance tuning of the antenna is required, and the radiation efficiency degrades strongly. Refer to the
application note, “AN853: Single-ended Antenna Matrix Design Guide”.
64
Rev. 1.0
5.3. Radiation Patterns (WES0115-01-APF915P-01)
The radiation patterns of the small IFA antenna were measured in an antenna chamber using the 4463PCE20C915 Pico Board connected through a male-to-male SMA transition with the WMB-930 Wireless
Motherboard driving the Pico Board. Figure 69—Figure 74 show the radiation patterns at the fundamental
frequency in the XY, XZ, and YZ cut, with both horizontal and vertical receiver antenna polarization. The rotator
was stepped in five degrees to record the radiation pattern in 360 degrees.
The DUT with coordinate system under the radiated measurements is shown in Figure 68. Rotation starts from the
X-axe in the XY cut, and starts from the Z-axe in the XZ and YZ cuts.
Figure 68. DUT in the Antenna Chamber
Rev. 1.0
65
The measured radiation patterns (antenna gain in dBi) are shown in the following six figures (Figure 69–Figure 74).
Figure 69. Radiation Pattern in the XY Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 70. Radiation Pattern in the XY Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
66
Rev. 1.0
Figure 71. Radiation Pattern in the XZ Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 72. Radiation Pattern in the XZ Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
Rev. 1.0
67
Figure 73. Radiation Pattern in the YZ Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 74. Radiation Pattern in the YZ Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
68
Rev. 1.0
5.4. Radiated Harmonics (WES0115-01-APF915P-01)
The radiated harmonics of the small Panic IFA antenna were also measured in an antenna chamber using the
4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board connected through a male-to-male SMA transition with the WMB-930 Wireless
Motherboard driving the Pico Board. The 4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board works in a reduced power state
(~+10.2 dBm). The maximum radiated power levels up to the 10th harmonic were measured in the XY, XZ, and YZ
cut. with both horizontal and vertical polarized receiver antenna. The results are shown in the following EIRP table
(Table 6) with the corresponding standard limits.
The small sized panic button IFA antenna driven by the Si4463 Class E match at reduced (~10 dBm) power state
complies with the FCC harmonic regulations.
Table 6. Radiated Harmonics, Panic Button IFA Board Connected to the Reduced Power
(~10.2 dBm) 4463-PCE20C915, and Driven by WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
FCC limit in
EIRP [dBm]
Measured
Radiated Power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
XY
V
Fund.
915
30.00
4.98
25.0
XY
V
2nd
1830
–12.29
–53.13
40.8
XY
V
3rd
2745
–41.25
–50.90
9.7
XY
V
4th
3660
–41.25
–50.77
9.5
XY
V
5th
4575
–41.25
–61.00
19.7
XY
V
6th
5490
–12.29
–58.88
46.6
XY
V
7th
6405
–12.29
–58.31
46.0
XY
V
8th
7320
–41.25
–56.85
15.6
XY
V
9th
8235
–41.25
–53.66
12.4
XY
V
10th
9150
–41.25
–51.35
10.1
XY
H
Fund.
915
30.00
1.05
28.9
XY
H
2nd
1830
–12.29
–55.51
43.2
XY
H
3rd
2745
–41.25
–49.23
8.0
XY
H
4th
3660
–41.25
–51.62
10.4
XY
H
5th
4575
–41.25
–61.48
20.2
XY
H
6th
5490
–12.29
–57.99
45.7
XY
H
7th
6405
–12.29
–57.81
45.5
XY
H
8th
7320
–41.25
–55.46
14.2
XY
H
9th
8235
–41.25
–55.23
14.0
Rev. 1.0
69
Table 6. Radiated Harmonics, Panic Button IFA Board Connected to the Reduced Power
(~10.2 dBm) 4463-PCE20C915, and Driven by WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard (Continued)
70
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
FCC limit in
EIRP [dBm]
Measured
Radiated Power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
XY
H
10th
9150
–41.25
–52.27
11.0
XZ
V
Fund.
915
30.00
7.71
22.3
XZ
V
2nd
1830
–12.29
–54.10
41.8
XZ
V
3rd
2745
–41.25
–50.25
9.0
XZ
V
4th
3660
–41.25
–51.33
10.1
XZ
V
5th
4575
–41.25
–61.66
20.4
XZ
V
6th
5490
–12.29
–57.70
45.4
XZ
V
7th
6405
–12.29
–59.25
47.0
XZ
V
8th
7320
–41.25
–56.80
15.5
XZ
V
9th
8235
–41.25
–55.20
13.9
XZ
V
10th
9150
–41.25
–51.34
10.1
XZ
H
Fund.
915
30.00
2.41
27.6
XZ
H
2nd
1830
–12.29
–54.07
41.8
XZ
H
3rd
2745
–41.25
–51.93
10.7
XZ
H
4th
3660
–41.25
–47.21
6.0
XZ
H
5th
4575
–41.25
–60.41
19.2
XZ
H
6th
5490
–12.29
–59.73
47.4
XZ
H
7th
6405
–12.29
–58.66
46.4
XZ
H
8th
7320
–41.25
–56.81
15.6
XZ
H
9th
8235
–41.25
–53.60
12.3
XZ
H
10th
9150
–41.25
–52.07
10.8
YZ
V
Fund.
915
30.00
–2.06
32.1
YZ
V
2nd
1830
–12.29
–59.38
47.1
YZ
V
3rd
2745
–41.25
–47.58
6.3
Rev. 1.0
Table 6. Radiated Harmonics, Panic Button IFA Board Connected to the Reduced Power
(~10.2 dBm) 4463-PCE20C915, and Driven by WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard (Continued)
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
FCC limit in
EIRP [dBm]
Measured
Radiated Power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
YZ
V
4th
3660
–41.25
–51.23
10.0
YZ
V
5th
4575
–41.25
–60.81
19.6
YZ
V
6th
5490
–12.29
–57.73
45.4
YZ
V
7th
6405
–12.29
–58.06
45.8
YZ
V
8th
7320
–41.25
–57.44
16.2
YZ
V
9th
8235
–41.25
–54.31
13.1
YZ
V
10th
9150
–41.25
–51.33
10.1
YZ
H
Fund.
915
30.00
6.09
23.9
YZ
H
2nd
1830
–12.29
–53.76
41.5
YZ
H
3rd
2745
–41.25
–50.45
9.2
YZ
H
4th
3660
–41.25
–48.66
7.4
YZ
H
5th
4575
–41.25
–59.51
18.3
YZ
H
6th
5490
–12.29
–58.77
46.5
YZ
H
7th
6405
–12.29
–57.47
45.2
YZ
H
8th
7320
–41.25
–56.57
15.3
YZ
H
9th
8235
–41.25
–50.92
9.7
YZ
H
10th
9150
–41.25
–52.82
11.6
Rev. 1.0
71
5.5. Range Test
The available range was measured using the Range Test Demo. This application is supplied with the standard
development kits for EZRadioPRO®. The target of this measurement is to find the distance between the
transceivers, where the one-directional PER (Packet Error Rate, number of lost packets) is not more than 1% at
each side with ten byte long packets. The GPS coordinates have been recorded for each spot. The distance
between the spots was measured using Google Maps, and the results are shown in meters. The range was tested
between two identical units with the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard, 4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board, and the DUT
(as shown in Figure 65.) held by the users hand. The 4463PCE20C915 Pico Board worked in a properly reduced
power state (either +13 or 0 dBm).
The range was tested in a flat land area without obstacles.
During the range test, the following settings (Set 1, Set 2, and Set 3) were used:
Set
1: Txpow=13 dBm, 50 kbps, 25 kHz dev., RXBW=103.06 kHz (sens ~–106.3 dBm)
2: Txpow=13 dBm, 100 kbps, 50 kHz dev., RXBW=206.12 kHz (sens ~–103.4 dBm)
Set 3: Txpow=0 dBm, 1.2 kbps, 1.2 kHz dev., RXBW=7.15 kHz (sens ~–118 dBm)
Using the above settings the following range tests were done here:
Set
1. Range measurement with the PANIC BUTTON IFA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are
HORIZONTALLY polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied
setting is "Set 1".
2. Range measurement with the PANIC BUTTON IFA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are
VERTICALLY polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied
setting is "Set 1".
3. Range measurement with the PANIC BUTTON IFA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are
VERTICALLY polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied
setting is "Set 2".
4. Range measurement with the PANIC BUTTON IFA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are
VERTICALLY polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied
setting is "Set 3".
5. Range measurement with the PANIC BUTTON IFA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are
VERTICALLY polarized and boards are facing each other in their direction of maximum radiation. The
applied setting is "Set 1".
6. Reference range measurement with two 868/915 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (W1063 from Pulse) in
VERTICAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 1".
7. Reference range measurement with two 868/915 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (W1063 from Pulse) in
VERTICAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 3".
8. Reference range measurement with a 868/915 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (W1063 from Pulse) in
HORIZONTAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 1".
The measurement results are summarized in Figure 75.
Note: These range test results are valid with the above configuration and with moderate hand effect. In normal battery-operated, small push-button applications, where there is no large GND (motherboard) close to the antenna and where the
antenna is usually very close to the user's hand, the achievable range is most likely much shorter.
The indoor range test was not performed, due to the lack of a large enough building. But from the TX power and
sensitivity data, an indoor range estimation can be given if one assumes a propagation factor of 4.5, which is a
typical value in normal office environments. Use the Silicon Labs’ range calculator, which can be found here:
http://www.silabs.com/support/pages/document-library.aspx?p=Wireless&f=EZRadioPRO&pn=Si4460
Assuming a –5.6 dBi antenna gain (front direction, X-axes facing) and the setting "Set 1" (50 kbps, 1% PER,
13 dBm), the estimated indoor range is 73 m, as shown in Figure 76. If the antennas are facing with the direction of
maximum radiation, the indoor range increases to ~101 m.
72
Rev. 1.0
Set1 13dBm 50kbps
Set2 13dBm 100kbps
Set3
0dBm
+/‐25kHz
+/‐50kHz
GPS
Distance [m]
N
E
47.152880° 19.180930°
0.0
1.2kbps +/‐1.2kHz
Panic Button IFA
Base
H pol; Norm. direction
Panic Button IFA (WES0115)
1
Set1
13dBm
50kbps
+/‐25kHz
GPS
N
E
47.164970° 19.173100°
1468.9
V pol; Norm. direction
2
3
4
5
Set1
Set2
Set3
13dBm
13dBm
0dBm
GPS
N
E
+/‐25kHz 47.167340° 19.172700°
+/‐50kHz 47.166370° 19.172980°
+/‐1.2kHz 47.165140° 19.173040°
1724.1
1616.0
1488.1
Set1
Max. direction w/o hand: XZV 325° //Meas w hand: 235°
GPS
N
E
13dBm 50kbps
+/‐25kHz 47.170590° 19.172170°
2077.7
50kbps
100kbps
1.2kbps
V pol; Norm. direction
Set1
Set3
13dBm
0dBm
50kbps
1.2kbps
W1063
6
7
GPS
N
E
+/‐25kHz 47.174060° 19.171540°
+/‐1.2kHz 47.171470° 19.17201
2459.8
2174.3
H pol; Norm. direction
GPS
8
Set1
13dBm
50kbps
+/‐25kHz
N
E
47.176200° 19.171200°
2695.4
Figure 75. Outdoor Range Test Result with Two Identical IFA Panic Button Antennas with the
4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board Working in a Reduced Power (+13 or 0 dBm) State Driven by the
WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard
Rev. 1.0
73
Figure 76. Indoor Range Estimation with Two Identical IFA Panic Button Antennas and with the
4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board Working in a Reduced Power (~+13 dBm) State Driven by the
WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard
74
Rev. 1.0
6. Panic Button ILA (Printed) Along the Circumference 
(WES0116-01-APL915P-01)
The Panic Button ILA antenna has the following characteristics:
The
antenna trace width is 0.5 mm.
distance between the antenna trace outer edge and the PCB cutting edge is 1.5 mm.
The distance between the antenna trace inner edge and ground metal is 2 mm.
External matching network (shown in Figure 77) is required at the antenna input.
The
Figure 77. External Matching Network at 915 MHz for the Panic Button ILA Antenna
The antenna is shown in Figure 78:
Figure 78. Small ILA Antenna for Panic Button Applications
Rev. 1.0
75
6.1. Antenna Impedance (WES0116-01-APL915P-01)
The impedance measurement setup is shown in Figure 79. The antenna board is connected to the 4460PCE10D915 Pico Board through a male-to-male SMA transition with the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard driving
the Pico Board.
During the impedance tuning and range test the user’s hand holds the motherboard. Typical hand position is
shown in Figure 80.
Figure 79. DUT (WES0116-01-APL915P-01) in the Impedance Measurement Setup
Figure 80. Typical Hand Effect on the Main Board During Impedance and Range Measurement
(Panic Button ILA)
76
Rev. 1.0
The measured impedance of the antenna with its external matching network is shown in Figure 81 (up to 3 GHz)
with motherboard hand effect.
Figure 81. Measured Impedance (up to 3 GHz) with Hand Effect on the Main Board
Rev. 1.0
77
6.2. Antenna Gain (WES0116-01-APL915P-01)
The antenna gain is calculated from the measured radiated power at the fundamental and from the delivered power
to the antenna. In the radiation measurement, the 4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board is set to reduced power state
(~+10.2 dBm, state 0x1C) and the entire setup is fed by two AA batteries (VDD is set to 2.6 V). The conducted SA
measurement result of the 4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board in this reduced (~10 dBm) power state is shown in
Figure 82. This method can be effectively applied because the S11 of the antenna is much better than –10 dB, so
the reflection loss is negligible.
Figure 82. Conducted Measurement Result, 4463-PCE20C915 in Reduced (~10 dBm) Power State
The measured radiated power maximum is at the XZ cut (Table 7). It is around 8.4 dBm EIRP, so the maximum
gain number is ~–1.8 dBi, as shown in Figure 86.
This gain number is surprisingly high for a panic button antenna. It should be emphasized that in typical panic
button applications the grounding environment and the strength of the hand effect is different. In real panic button
applications (instead of the SMA connector, SMA male-male transition, Pico Board and wireless motherboard) only
a lithium coin battery is applied and the achievable antenna gain is much weaker.
Also, in wrist applications the very close parallel hand has a strong detuning effect. In these applications further
impedance tuning of the antenna is required and the radiation efficiency degrades strongly. Refer to the application
note, “AN853: Single-ended Antenna Matrix Design Guide”.
78
Rev. 1.0
6.3. Radiation Patterns (WES0116-01-APL915P-01)
The radiation patterns of the Panic Button ILA antenna were measured in an antenna chamber using the 4463PCE20C915 Pico Board connected through a male-to-male SMA transition with the WMB-930 Wireless
Motherboard driving the Pico Board. Figure 84—Figure 89 show the radiation patterns at the fundamental
frequency in the XY, XZ, YZ cut, with both horizontal and vertical receiver antenna polarization. The rotator was
stepped in five degrees to record the radiation pattern in 360 degrees.
The DUT with coordinate system under the radiated measurements is shown in Figure 83. Rotation starts from the
X-axe in the XY cut, and begins from the Z-axe in the XZ and YZ cuts.
Figure 83. DUT in the Antenna Chamber
Rev. 1.0
79
The measured radiation patterns (antenna gain in dBi) are shown in the following six figures (Figure 84–Figure 89).
Figure 84. Radiation Pattern in the XY Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 85. Radiation Pattern in the XY Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
80
Rev. 1.0
Figure 86. Radiation Pattern in the XZ Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 87. Radiation Pattern in the XZ Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
Rev. 1.0
81
Figure 88. Radiation Pattern in the YZ Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 89. Radiation Pattern in the YZ Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
82
Rev. 1.0
6.4. Radiated Harmonics (WES0116-01-APL915P-01)
The radiated harmonics of the small ILA antenna were also measured in an antenna chamber using the 4463PCE20C915 Pico Board connected through a male-to-male SMA transition with the WMB-930 Wireless
Motherboard driving the Pico Board. The 4463-PCE20C915 board works in a reduced power (~+10.2 dBm) state
(0x1C, VDD is 2.6 V). The maximum radiated power levels up to the 10th harmonic were measured in the XY, XZ,
and YZ cut, with both the horizontal and vertical polarized receiver antenna. The results are shown in the following
EIRP table (Table 7) together with the corresponding standard limits.
The small sized panic button ILA antenna driven by the Si4463 class E match in reduced (~10 dBm) power state
complies with the FCC harmonic regulations.
Table 7. Radiated Harmonics, Panic Button ILA Antenna Connected to the Reduced Power
(~10.2 dBm) 4463-PCE20C915, and Driven by the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
FCC limit in
EIRP [dBm]
Measured
Radiated Power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
XY
V
Fund.
915
30.00
5.98
24.0
XY
V
2nd
1830
–11.57
–56.24
44.7
XY
V
3rd
2745
–41.25
–50.77
9.5
XY
V
4th
3660
–41.25
–50.16
8.9
XY
V
5th
4575
–41.25
–60.22
19.0
XY
V
6th
5490
–11.57
–59.31
47.7
XY
V
7th
6405
–11.57
–56.31
44.7
XY
V
8th
7320
–41.25
–56.37
15.1
XY
V
9th
8235
–41.25
–54.34
13.1
XY
V
10th
9150
–41.25
–51.62
10.4
XY
H
Fund.
915
30.00
2.79
27.2
XY
H
2nd
1830
–11.57
–58.56
47.0
XY
H
3rd
2745
–41.25
–50.38
9.1
XY
H
4th
3660
–41.25
–52.79
11.5
XY
H
5th
4575
–41.25
–60.41
19.2
XY
H
6th
5490
–11.57
–59.01
47.4
XY
H
7th
6405
–11.57
–58.29
46.7
XY
H
8th
7320
–41.25
–57.05
15.8
XY
H
9th
8235
–41.25
–54.93
13.7
Rev. 1.0
83
Table 7. Radiated Harmonics, Panic Button ILA Antenna Connected to the Reduced Power
(~10.2 dBm) 4463-PCE20C915, and Driven by the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard (Continued)
84
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
FCC limit in
EIRP [dBm]
Measured
Radiated Power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
XY
H
10th
9150
–41.25
–52.58
11.3
XZ
V
Fund.
915
30.00
8.43
21.6
XZ
V
2nd
1830
–11.57
–55.59
44.0
XZ
V
3rd
2745
–41.25
–50.31
9.1
XZ
V
4th
3660
–41.25
–51.08
9.8
XZ
V
5th
4575
–41.25
–61.51
20.3
XZ
V
6th
5490
–11.57
–58.40
46.8
XZ
V
7th
6405
–11.57
–58.31
46.7
XZ
V
8th
7320
–41.25
–57.23
16.0
XZ
V
9th
8235
–41.25
–54.82
13.6
XZ
V
10th
9150
–41.25
–52.88
11.6
XZ
H
Fund.
915
30.00
4.14
25.9
XZ
H
2nd
1830
–11.57
–54.74
43.2
XZ
H
3rd
2745
–41.25
–53.23
12.0
XZ
H
4th
3660
–41.25
–48.41
7.2
XZ
H
5th
4575
–41.25
–62.09
20.8
XZ
H
6th
5490
–11.57
–59.31
47.7
XZ
H
7th
6405
–11.57
–57.90
46.3
XZ
H
8th
7320
–41.25
–55.87
14.6
XZ
H
9th
8235
–41.25
–53.59
12.3
XZ
H
10th
9150
–41.25
–52.97
11.7
YZ
V
Fund.
915
30.00
0.20
29.8
YZ
V
2nd
1830
–11.57
–59.52
47.9
YZ
V
3rd
2745
–41.25
–48.05
6.8
Rev. 1.0
Table 7. Radiated Harmonics, Panic Button ILA Antenna Connected to the Reduced Power
(~10.2 dBm) 4463-PCE20C915, and Driven by the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard (Continued)
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
FCC limit in
EIRP [dBm]
Measured
Radiated Power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
YZ
V
4th
3660
–41.25
–52.57
11.3
YZ
V
5th
4575
–41.25
–60.76
19.5
YZ
V
6th
5490
–11.57
–58.53
47.0
YZ
V
7th
6405
–11.57
–57.93
46.4
YZ
V
8th
7320
–41.25
–56.67
15.4
YZ
V
9th
8235
–41.25
–54.50
13.3
YZ
V
10th
9150
–41.25
–52.84
11.6
YZ
H
Fund.
915
30.00
6.69
23.3
YZ
H
2nd
1830
–11.57
–55.17
43.6
YZ
H
3rd
2745
–41.25
–50.83
9.6
YZ
H
4th
3660
–41.25
–50.69
9.4
YZ
H
5th
4575
–41.25
–60.30
19.0
YZ
H
6th
5490
–11.57
–58.53
47.0
YZ
H
7th
6405
–11.57
–56.20
44.6
YZ
H
8th
7320
–41.25
–56.32
15.1
YZ
H
9th
8235
–41.25
–52.38
11.1
YZ
H
10th
9150
–41.25
–52.61
11.4
Rev. 1.0
85
6.5. Range Test (WES0116-01-APL915P-01)
The available range was measured using the Range Test Demo. This application is supplied with the standard
development kits for EZRadioPRO®. The target of this measurement is to find the distance between the
transceivers, where the bidirectional PER (Packet Error Rate, number of lost packets) is not more than 1% at each
side with ten-byte packet length. The GPS coordinates have been recorded for each spot. The distance between
the spots were measured using Google Maps, and results are shown in meters. The range was tested between two
identical units with the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard, 4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board, and the DUT (as shown in
Figure 81.) held by the users hand. The 4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board worked in a properly reduced power state
(either +13 dBm or 0 dBm).
The range was tested in a flat land area without obstacles.
During the range test, the following settings were used:
Set
1: Txpow=13 dBm, 50 kbps, 25 kHz dev., RXBW=103.06 kHz (sens ~–106.3 dBm)
Set 2: Txpow=13 dBm, 100 kbps, 50 kHz dev., RXBW=206.12 kHz (sens ~–103.4 dBm)
Set 3: Txpow=0 dBm, 1.2 kbps, 1.2 kHz dev., RXBW=7.15 kHz (sens ~–118 dBm)
Using the above settings (Set 1, Set 2, and Set 3) the following range tests are done here:
1. Range measurement with the PANIC BUTTON ILA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are
HORIZONTALLY polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied
setting is "Set 1".
2. Range measurement with the PANIC BUTTON ILA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are
VERTICALLY polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied
setting is "Set 1".
3. Range measurement with the PANIC BUTTON ILA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are
VERTICALLY polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied
setting is "Set 2".
4. Range measurement with the PANIC BUTTON ILA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are
VERTICALLY polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied
setting is "Set 3".
5. Range measurement with the PANIC BUTTON ILA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are
VERTICALLY polarized and boards are facing each other in their direction of maximum radiation. The
applied setting is "Set 1".
6. Reference range measurement with two 868/915 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (W1063 from Pulse) in
VERTICAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 1".
7. Reference range measurement with two 868/915 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (W1063 from Pulse) in
VERTICAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 3".
8. Reference range measurement with a 868/915 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (W1063 from Pulse) in
HORIZONTAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 1".
The measurement results are summarized in Figure 90.
Note: These range test results are valid with the above configuration and with moderate hand effect. In normal battery-operated, small push-button applications, where there is no large GND (motherboard) close to the antenna and where the
antenna is usually very close to the user's hand, the achievable range is most likely much shorter.
The indoor range test was not performed, due to the lack of a large enough building. But from the TX power and
sensitivity data, an indoor range estimation can be given if one assumes a propagation factor of 4.5, which is a
typical value in normal office environments. Using the Silicon Labs’ range calculator, which can be found here:
http://www.silabs.com/support/pages/document-library.aspx?p=Wireless&f=EZRadioPRO&pn=Si4460
Assuming –4.8 dBi antenna gain (front direction, X-axes facing) and the setting "Set 1" (50 kbps, 1% PER,
13 dBm), the estimated indoor range is 80 m, as shown in Figure 91. If the boards are facing with the direction of
radiation maximum, the indoor range is ~108 m.
86
Rev. 1.0
Set1 13dBm 50kbps
Set2 13dBm 100kbps
Set3
0dBm
+/‐25kHz
+/‐50kHz
GPS
Distance [m]
N
E
47.152880° 19.180930°
0.0
1.2kbps +/‐1.2kHz
Panic Button ILA
Base
H pol; Norm. direction
Panic Button ILA (WES0116)
1
Set1
13dBm
50kbps
+/‐25kHz
GPS
N
E
47.164470° 19.173170°
1416.0
V pol; Norm. direction
2
3
4
5
Set1
Set2
Set3
13dBm
13dBm
0dBm
GPS
N
E
+/‐25kHz 47.165910° 19.172850°
+/‐50kHz 47.162900° 19.173400°
+/‐1.2kHz 47.161740° 19.173610°
1572.4
1251.2
1130.0
Set1
Max. direction w/o hand: XZV 310° //Meas w hand: 240°
GPS
N
E
13dBm 50kbps
+/‐25kHz 47.169960° 19.172270°
2008.9
50kbps
100kbps
1.2kbps
V pol; Norm. direction
Set1
Set3
13dBm
0dBm
50kbps
1.2kbps
W1063
6
7
GPS
N
E
+/‐25kHz 47.174060° 19.171540°
+/‐1.2kHz 47.171470° 19.17201
2459.8
2174.3
H pol; Norm. direction
GPS
8
Set1
13dBm
50kbps
+/‐25kHz
N
E
47.176200° 19.171200°
2695.4
Figure 90. Outdoor Range Test Result with Two Identical ILA Panic Button Antennas with the
4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board Working in a Reduced Power (~10.2 dBm) State Driven by the
WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard
Rev. 1.0
87
Figure 91. Indoor Range Estimation with Two Identical ILA Panic Button Antennas and with the
4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board Working in a Reduced (~+13 dBm) Power State Driven by the
WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard
88
Rev. 1.0
7. Printed Meander Monopole (WES0117-01-APN915D-01)
For the Printed Meander Monopole, an external matching network (shown in Figure 92) is required at the antenna
input.
Figure 92. External Matching Network at 915 M for the Printed Meander Antenna
The antenna is shown in Figure 93:
Figure 93. Printed Meander Monopole Antenna
Rev. 1.0
89
7.1. Antenna Impedance (WES0117-01-APN915D-01)
The measurement setup is shown in Figure 94. The antenna board is connected to the 4460-PCE10D915 Pico
Board through a male-to-male SMA transition with the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard driving the Pico Board.
During the impedance tuning and range test, the user’s hand holds the motherboard. Typical hand position is
shown in Figure 95.
Figure 94. DUT (WES0117-01-APN915D-01) in the Impedance Measurement Setup
Figure 95. Typical Hand Effect on the Main Board During Impedance and Range Measurement
(Printed Meander Board)
90
Rev. 1.0
The measured impedance of the antenna with its external matching network is shown in Figure 96 (up to 3 GHz)
with motherboard hand effect.
\
Figure 96. Measured Impedance (up to 3 GHz) with Hand Effect on the WMB-930 Motherboard
Rev. 1.0
91
7.2. Antenna Gain (WES0117-01-APN915D-01)
The antenna gain is calculated from the measured radiated power at the fundamental and from the delivered power
to the antenna. In the radiation measurement, the 4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board is set to reduced (~+10.2 dBm)
power state (0x1C), and the entire setup is fed by two AA batteries (VDD is set to 2.6 V). The conducted SA
measurement result of the 4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board in this reduced (~10 dBm) power state is shown in
Figure 97. This method can be effectively applied because the S11 of the antenna is much better than –10 dB, so
the reflection is negligible.
Figure 97. Conducted Measurement Result, 4463-PCE20C915 in Reduced (~10 dBm) Power State
The measured radiated power maximum is at the XY cut (Table 8). It is around 8.3 dBm EIRP, so the maximum
gain number is ~–1.9 dBi, as shown in Figure 98.
92
Rev. 1.0
7.3. Radiation Patterns (WES0117-01-APN915D-01)
The radiation patterns of the printed meander antenna were measured in an antenna chamber using the 4463PCE20C915 Pico Board connected through a male-to-male SMA transition with the WMB-930 Wireless
Motherboard driving the Pico Board. Figure 99—Figure 104 show the radiation patterns at the fundamental
frequency in the XY, XZ, and YZ cut, with both horizontal and vertical receiver antenna polarization. The rotator
was stepped in five degrees to record the radiation pattern in 360 degrees.
The DUT with coordinate system under the radiated measurements is shown in Figure 98. Rotation starts from the
X-axe in the XY cut, and from the Z-axe in the XZ and YZ cuts.
Figure 98. DUT in the Antenna Chamber
Rev. 1.0
93
The measured radiation patterns (antenna gain in dBi) are shown in the following six figures (Figure 99–
Figure 104).
Figure 99. Radiation Pattern in the XY Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 100. Radiation Pattern in the XY Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
94
Rev. 1.0
Figure 101. Radiation Pattern in the XZ Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 102. Radiation Pattern in the XZ Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
Rev. 1.0
95
Figure 103. Radiation Pattern in the YZ Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 104. Radiation Pattern in the YZ Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
96
Rev. 1.0
7.4. Radiated Harmonics (WES0117-01-APN915D-01)
The radiated harmonics of the printed meander antenna were also measured in an antenna chamber using the
4461-PCE14D915 Pico Board connected through a male-to-male SMA transition with the WMB-930 Wireless
Motherboard driving the Pico Board. The 4463-PCE20C915 board works in a reduced power (~+10.2 dBm) state
(0x1C, VDD is 2.6 V). The maximum radiated power levels up to the 10th harmonic were measured in the XY, XZ,
and YZ cut, both with horizontal and vertical polarized receiver antenna. The results are shown in the following
EIRP table (Table 8) with the corresponding standard limits.
This Antenna is FCC compliant.
Table 8. Radiated Harmonics, Printed Meander Antenna Board Connected to the Reduced Power
(~10 dBm) 4463-PCE20C915, and Driven by the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
FCC limit in
EIRP [dBm]
Measured
Radiated Power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
XY
V
Fund.
915
30.00
8.12
21.9
XY
V
2nd
1830
–11.68
–50.54
38.9
XY
V
3rd
2745
–41.25
–50.91
9.7
XY
V
4th
3660
–41.25
–51.16
9.9
XY
V
5th
4575
–41.25
–61.12
19.9
XY
V
6th
5490
–11.68
–57.53
45.9
XY
V
7th
6405
–11.68
–57.07
45.4
XY
V
8th
7320
–41.25
–56.30
15.1
XY
V
9th
8235
–41.25
–54.95
13.7
XY
V
10th
9150
–41.25
–52.86
11.6
XY
H
Fund.
915
30.00
1.71
28.3
XY
H
2nd
1830
–11.68
–53.86
42.2
XY
H
3rd
2745
–41.25
–50.90
9.6
XY
H
4th
3660
–41.25
–51.19
9.9
XY
H
5th
4575
–41.25
–60.98
19.7
XY
H
6th
5490
–11.68
–58.66
47.0
XY
H
7th
6405
–11.68
–58.67
47.0
XY
H
8th
7320
–41.25
–57.07
15.8
XY
H
9th
8235
–41.25
–55.19
13.9
XY
H
10th
9150
–41.25
–53.08
11.8
Rev. 1.0
97
Table 8. Radiated Harmonics, Printed Meander Antenna Board Connected to the Reduced Power
(~10 dBm) 4463-PCE20C915, and Driven by the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard (Continued)
98
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
FCC limit in
EIRP [dBm]
Measured
Radiated Power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
XZ
V
Fund.
915
30.00
8.32
21.7
XZ
V
2nd
1830
–11.68
–50.01
38.3
XZ
V
3rd
2745
–41.25
–51.13
9.9
XZ
V
4th
3660
–41.25
–53.21
12.0
XZ
V
5th
4575
–41.25
–61.42
20.2
XZ
V
6th
5490
–11.68
–59.37
47.7
XZ
V
7th
6405
–11.68
–57.98
46.3
XZ
V
8th
7320
–41.25
–57.42
16.2
XZ
V
9th
8235
–41.25
–54.32
13.1
XZ
V
10th
9150
–41.25
–51.94
10.7
XZ
H
Fund.
915
30.00
5.76
24.2
XZ
H
2nd
1830
–11.68
–49.97
38.3
XZ
H
3rd
2745
–41.25
–51.84
10.6
XZ
H
4th
3660
–41.25
–48.44
7.2
XZ
H
5th
4575
–41.25
–59.01
17.8
XZ
H
6th
5490
–11.68
–58.67
47.0
XZ
H
7th
6405
–11.68
–58.64
47.0
XZ
H
8th
7320
–41.25
–57.11
15.9
XZ
H
9th
8235
–41.25
–54.45
13.2
XZ
H
10th
9150
–41.25
–53.01
11.8
YZ
V
Fund.
915
30.00
–2.25
32.2
YZ
V
2nd
1830
–11.68
–53.03
41.4
YZ
V
3rd
2745
–41.25
–49.97
8.7
YZ
V
4th
3660
–41.25
–55.72
14.5
Rev. 1.0
Table 8. Radiated Harmonics, Printed Meander Antenna Board Connected to the Reduced Power
(~10 dBm) 4463-PCE20C915, and Driven by the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard (Continued)
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
FCC limit in
EIRP [dBm]
Measured
Radiated Power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
YZ
V
5th
4575
–41.25
–60.48
19.2
YZ
V
6th
5490
–11.68
–59.64
48.0
YZ
V
7th
6405
–11.68
–58.18
46.5
YZ
V
8th
7320
–41.25
–57.15
15.9
YZ
V
9th
8235
–41.25
–54.36
13.1
YZ
V
10th
9150
–41.25
–53.05
11.8
YZ
H
Fund.
915
30.00
7.97
22.0
YZ
H
2nd
1830
–11.68
–49.92
38.2
YZ
H
3rd
2745
–41.25
–49.27
8.0
YZ
H
4th
3660
–41.25
–49.31
8.1
YZ
H
5th
4575
–41.25
–58.69
17.4
YZ
H
6th
5490
–11.68
–58.16
46.5
YZ
H
7th
6405
–11.68
–56.96
45.3
YZ
H
8th
7320
–41.25
–56.01
14.8
YZ
H
9th
8235
–41.25
–53.96
12.7
YZ
H
10th
9150
–41.25
–52.79
11.5
Rev. 1.0
99
7.5. Range Test(WES0117-01-APN915D-01)
The available range was measured using the Range Test Demo. This application is supplied with the standard
development kits for EZRadioPRO®. The target of this measurement is to find the distance between the
transceivers, where the one-directional PER (Packet Error Rate, number of lost packets) is not more than 1% at
each side with ten byte packet length. The GPS coordinates have been recorded for each spot. The distance
between the spots was measured using Google Maps, and results are shown in meters. The range was tested
between two identical units with the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard, 4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board, and the DUT
(shown in Figure 94) held by the users hand. The 4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board works in a properly reduced
power state (either +13 dBm or 0 dBm).
The range was tested in a flat land area without obstacles.
During the range test, the following settings have been used:
Set
1: Txpow=13 dBm, 50 kbps, 25 kHz dev., RXBW=103.06 kHz (sens ~–106.3 dBm)
Set 2: Txpow=13 dBm, 100 kbps, 50 kHz dev., RXBW=206.12 kHz (sens ~–103.4 dBm)
Set 3: Txpow=0 dBm, 1.2 kbps, 1.2 kHz dev., RXBW=7.15 kHz (sens ~–118 dBm)
Using the above settings (Step 1, Step 2, and Step 3) the following range tests were done:
1. Range measurement with the PRINTED MEANDER Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are
HORIZONTALLY polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied
setting is "Set 1".
2. Range measurement with the PRINTED MEANDER Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are
VERTICALLY polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied
setting is "Set 1".
3. Range measurement with the PRINTED MEANDER Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are
VERTICALLY polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied
setting is "Set 2".
4. Range measurement with the PRINTED MEANDER Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are
VERTICALLY polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied
setting is "Set 3".
5. Range measurement with the PRINTED MEANDER Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are
VERTICALLY polarized and the boards are facing each other in their direction of maximum radiation. The
applied setting is "Set 1".
6. Reference range measurement with two 868/915 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (W1063 from Pulse) in
VERTICAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 1".
7. Reference range measurement with two 868/915 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (W1063 from Pulse) in
VERTICAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 3".
8. Reference range measurement with a 868/915 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (W1063 from Pulse) in
HORIZONTAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 1".
The measurement results are summarized in Figure 105.
The indoor range was not measured, due to the lack of a large enough building. But from the TX power and
sensitivity data, an indoor range estimation can be given if one assumes an indoor propagation factor of 4.5, which
is a typical value in normal office environments. Use the Silicon Labs’ range calculator, which can be found here:
http://www.silabs.com/support/pages/document-library.aspx?p=Wireless&f=EZRadioPRO&pn=Si4460
Assuming –2.6 dBi antenna gain (front direction, X-axes facing) and the setting "Set 1" (50 kbps, 1% PER,
13 dBm), the estimated indoor range is 100 m, as shown in Figure 106. If the boards are facing with the direction of
maximum radiation, then the indoor range increases to ~107 m.
100
Rev. 1.0
Set1 13dBm 50kbps
Set2 13dBm 100kbps
Set3
0dBm
+/‐25kHz
+/‐50kHz
GPS
Distance [m]
N
E
47.152880° 19.180930°
0.0
1.2kbps +/‐1.2kHz
Meandered Monopole
Base
Meandered Monopole (WES0117)
H pol; Norm. direction
1
2
3
Set1
Set2
Set3
13dBm 50kbps
100kbps 100kbps
0dBm
1.2kbps
GPS
N
E
+/‐25kHz 47.169710° 19.172520°
+/‐50kHz 47.16564
19.17291
+/‐1.2kHz 47.16615
19.17281
1976.5
1543.0
1598.2
V pol; Norm. direction
4
5
Set1
Set1
+/‐25kHz
GPS
N
E
47.170650° 19.172360°
13dBm
50kbps
13dBm
Max. direction w/o hand: XZH 0°
GPS
N
50kbps
+/‐25kHz
TBD
E
TBD
2079.5
TBD
V pol; Norm. direction
Set1
Set3
13dBm
0dBm
50kbps
1.2kbps
W1063
6
7
GPS
N
E
+/‐25kHz 47.174060° 19.171540°
+/‐1.2kHz 47.171470° 19.17201
2459.8
2174.3
H pol; Norm. direction
GPS
8
Set1
13dBm
50kbps
+/‐25kHz
N
E
47.176200° 19.171200°
2695.4
Figure 105. Outdoor Range Test Result with Two Identical Printed Meander Monopole Antennas
with the 4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board Working in a Reduced Power (~10.2 dBm) State Driven by
the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard
Rev. 1.0
101
Figure 106. Indoor Range Estimation with Two Identical Printed Meander Monopole Antennas
with the 4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board Working in a Reduced (~+13 dBm) Power State Driven by
the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard
102
Rev. 1.0
8. Small Sized Printed ILA Antenna (WES0118-01-APL915S-01)
The Small Sized Printed ILA antenna has the following characteristics:
The
distance between the antenna trace outer edge and the PCB cutting edge is 1.5 mm.
size of the separated PCB antenna area is 10x10 mm.
An external matching network (shown in Figure 107) is required at the antenna input.
The
Figure 107. External Antenna Matching Network at 915 M for the Small ILA Antenna
The antenna is shown in Figure 108.
Figure 108. Small Sized Printed ILA Antenna
Rev. 1.0
103
8.1. Antenna Impedance (WES0118-01-APL915S-01)
The impedance measurement setup is shown in Figure 109. The antenna board is connected to the 4460PCE10D915 Pico Board through a male-to-male SMA transition with the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard driving
the Pico Board.
During the impedance tuning and range test, the user’s hand holds the motherboard. A typical hand position is
shown in Figure 110.
Figure 109. DUT (WES0118-01-APL915S-01) in the Impedance Measurement Setup
Figure 110. Typical Hand Effect on the Main Board During Impedance and Range Measurement
(Small Sized Printed ILA Antenna Board)
104
Rev. 1.0
The measured impedance of the antenna with its external matching network is shown in Figure 111 (up to 3 GHz)
with motherboard hand effect.
Figure 111. Measured Impedance (up to 3 GHz) with Hand Effect on the Main Board
Rev. 1.0
105
8.2. Antenna Gain (WES0118-01-APL915S-01)
The antenna gain is calculated from the measured radiated power at the fundamental and from the delivered power
to the antenna. In the radiation measurement, the 4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board is set to reduced (~+10.2 dBm)
power state (0x1C) and the entire setup is fed by two AA batteries (VDD is set to 2.6 V). The conducted SA
measurement result of the 4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board in this reduced (~10 dBm) power state is shown in
Figure 112. This method can be effectively applied because the S11 of the antenna is much better than –10 dB so
the reflection is negligible.
Figure 112. Conducted Measurement Result, 4463-PCE20C915 in a
Reduced (~10 dBm) Power State
The measured radiated power maximum is at the XZ cut (Table 9). It is around +6.6 dBm EIRP, so the maximum
gain number is ~–3.6 dBi, as shown in Figure 116.
This gain number is surprisingly high for such a small antenna. It should be emphasized that in typical, small
remote applications, the grounding environment and the strength of the hand effect is different. Without the SMA
connector, the SMA male-male transition, the Pico Board, and the wireless motherboard, the achievable antenna
gain is much weaker.
106
Rev. 1.0
8.3. Radiation Patterns (WES0118-01-APL915S-01)
The radiation patterns of the small sized printed ILA antenna were measured in an antenna chamber using the
4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board connected through a male-to-male SMA transition with the WMB-930 Wireless
Motherboard driving the Pico Board. Figure 114—Figure 119 show the radiation patterns at the fundamental
frequency in the XY, XZ, and YZ cut, with both horizontal and vertical receiver antenna polarization. The rotator
was stepped in five degrees to record the radiation pattern in 360 degrees.
The DUT with coordinate system under the radiated measurements is shown in Figure 113. Rotation starts from
the X-axe in the XY cut, and from the Z-axe in the XZ and YZ cuts.
I
Figure 113. DUT in the Antenna Chamber
Rev. 1.0
107
The measured radiation patterns (antenna gain in dBi) are shown in the following six figures (Figure 114–
Figure 119).
Figure 114. Radiation Pattern in the XY Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 115. Radiation Pattern in the XY Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
108
Rev. 1.0
Figure 116. Radiation Pattern in the XZ Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 117. Radiation Pattern in the XZ Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
Rev. 1.0
109
Figure 118. Radiation Pattern in the YZ Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 119. Radiation Pattern in the YZ Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
110
Rev. 1.0
8.4. Radiated Harmonics (WES0118-01-APL915S-01)
The radiated harmonics of the small sized printed ILA antenna were also measured in an antenna chamber, using
the 4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board connected through a male-to-male SMA transition with the WMB-930 Wireless
Motherboard driving the Pico Board working in a reduced power (~+10.2 dBm) state (0x1C, VDD is 2.6 V). The
maximum radiated power levels up to the 10th harmonic were measured in the XY, XZ, and YZ cut, with both
horizontal and vertical polarized receiver antenna. The results are shown in the following EIRP table (Table 9) with
the corresponding standard limits.
The small sized ILA antenna driven by the Si4463 class E match in reduced (~10 dBm) power state complies with
the FCC harmonic regulations with margin.
Table 9. Radiated Harmonics, Small ILA Antenna Board Connected to the Reduced Power
(~10 dBm) 4463-PCE20C915, and Driven by the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
FCC (15.247)
limit in EIRP
[dBm]
Measured
Radiated Power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
XY
V
Fund.
915
30.00
3.58
26.4
XY
V
2nd
1830
–15.31
–53.92
40.5
XY
V
3rd
2745
–41.25
–51.26
10.0
XY
V
4th
3660
–41.25
–50.89
9.6
XY
V
5th
4575
–41.25
–60.54
19.3
XY
V
6th
5490
–15.31
–58.60
45.2
XY
V
7th
6405
–15.31
–56.51
43.1
XY
V
8th
7320
–41.25
–56.87
15.6
XY
V
9th
8235
–41.25
–52.18
10.9
XY
V
10th
9150
–41.25
–52.11
10.9
XY
H
Fund.
915
30.00
–0.09
30.1
XY
H
2nd
1830
–15.31
–56.52
43.1
XY
H
3rd
2745
–41.25
–49.66
8.4
XY
H
4th
3660
–41.25
–51.03
9.8
XY
H
5th
4575
–41.25
–61.59
20.3
XY
H
6th
5490
–15.31
–59.18
45.7
XY
H
7th
6405
–15.31
–57.84
44.4
XY
H
8th
7320
–41.25
–57.64
16.4
XY
H
9th
8235
–41.25
–55.02
13.8
Rev. 1.0
111
Table 9. Radiated Harmonics, Small ILA Antenna Board Connected to the Reduced Power
(~10 dBm) 4463-PCE20C915, and Driven by the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard (Continued)
112
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
FCC (15.247)
limit in EIRP
[dBm]
Measured
Radiated Power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
XY
H
10th
9150
–41.25
–52.59
11.3
XZ
V
Fund.
915
30.00
6.57
23.4
XZ
V
2nd
1830
–15.31
–57.45
44.0
XZ
V
3rd
2745
–41.25
–50.56
9.3
XZ
V
4th
3660
–41.25
–53.31
12.1
XZ
V
5th
4575
–41.25
–60.77
19.5
XZ
V
6th
5490
–15.31
–59.32
45.9
XZ
V
7th
6405
–15.31
–58.91
45.5
XZ
V
8th
7320
–41.25
–57.37
16.1
XZ
V
9th
8235
–41.25
–54.62
13.4
XZ
V
10th
9150
–41.25
–52.34
11.1
XZ
H
Fund.
915
30.00
–1.24
31.2
XZ
H
2nd
1830
–15.31
–54.95
41.5
XZ
H
3rd
2745
–41.25
–53.18
11.9
XZ
H
4th
3660
–41.25
–47.76
6.5
XZ
H
5th
4575
–41.25
–61.11
19.9
XZ
H
6th
5490
–15.31
–59.39
46.0
XZ
H
7th
6405
–15.31
–57.31
43.9
XZ
H
8th
7320
–41.25
–56.79
15.5
XZ
H
9th
8235
–41.25
–53.28
12.0
XZ
H
10th
9150
–41.25
–51.96
10.7
YZ
V
Fund.
915
30.00
–5.06
35.1
YZ
V
2nd
1830
–15.31
–58.88
45.5
YZ
V
3rd
2745
–41.25
–49.38
8.1
Rev. 1.0
Table 9. Radiated Harmonics, Small ILA Antenna Board Connected to the Reduced Power
(~10 dBm) 4463-PCE20C915, and Driven by the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard (Continued)
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
FCC (15.247)
limit in EIRP
[dBm]
Measured
Radiated Power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
YZ
V
4th
3660
–41.25
–53.07
11.8
YZ
V
5th
4575
–41.25
–59.65
18.4
YZ
V
6th
5490
–15.31
–59.26
45.8
YZ
V
7th
6405
–15.31
–58.29
44.9
YZ
V
8th
7320
–41.25
–56.94
15.7
YZ
V
9th
8235
–41.25
–53.07
11.8
YZ
V
10th
9150
–41.25
–51.85
10.6
YZ
H
Fund.
915
30.00
4.02
26.0
YZ
H
2nd
1830
–15.31
–54.48
41.1
YZ
H
3rd
2745
–41.25
–49.36
8.1
YZ
H
4th
3660
–41.25
–49.66
8.4
YZ
H
5th
4575
–41.25
–59.97
18.7
YZ
H
6th
5490
–15.31
–58.82
45.4
YZ
H
7th
6405
–15.31
–56.43
43.0
YZ
H
8th
7320
–41.25
–56.45
15.2
YZ
H
9th
8235
–41.25
–51.21
10.0
YZ
H
10th
9150
–41.25
–52.90
11.6
Rev. 1.0
113
8.5. Range Test (WES0118-01-APL915S-01)
The available range was measured using the Range Test Demo. This application is supplied with the standard
development kits for EZRadioPRO®. The target of this measurement is to find the distance between the
transceivers where the bidirectional PER (Packet Error Rate, number of lost packets) is not more than 1% at each
side with ten byte packet length. The GPS coordinates have been recorded for each spot. The distance between
the spots was measured using Google Maps, and results are shown in meters. The range was tested between two
identical units with the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard, 4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board, and the DUT (as shown in
Figure 110) held by the users hand. The 4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board worked in a properly reduced power state
(either +13 dBm or 0 dBm).
The range was tested in a flat land area without obstacles.
During the range test, the following settings have been used:
Set
1: Txpow=13 dBm, 50 kbps, 25 kHz dev., RXBW=103.06 kHz (sens ~–106.3 dBm)
Set 2: Txpow=13 dBm, 100 kbps, 50 kHz dev., RXBW=206.12 kHz (sens ~–103.4 dBm)
Set 3: Txpow=0 dBm, 1.2 kbps, 1.2 kHz dev., RXBW=7.15 kHz (sens ~–118 dBm)
Using the above settings (Set 1, Set 2, and Set 3) the following range tests are done here:
1. Range measurement with the SMALL SIZE ILA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are
HORIZONTALLY polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied
setting is "Set 1".
2. Range measurement with the SMALL SIZE ILA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are VERTICALLY
polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied setting is "Set 1".
3. Range measurement with the SMALL SIZE ILA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are VERTICALLY
polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied setting is "Set 2".
4. Range measurement with the SMALL SIZE ILA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are VERTICALLY
polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied setting is "Set 3".
5. Range measurement with the SMALL SIZE ILA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are VERTICALLY
polarized and the boards are facing each other in their direction of maximum radiation. The applied setting
is "Set 1".
6. Reference range measurement with two 868/915 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (W1063 from Pulse) in
VERTICAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 1".
7. Reference range measurement with two 868/915 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (W1063 from Pulse) in
VERTICAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 3".
8. Reference range measurement with a 868/915 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (W1063 from Pulse) in
HORIZONTAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 1".
The measurement results are summarized in Figure 120.
Note: These range test results are valid with the above configuration and with moderate hand effect. In normal battery-operated, remote applications, where there is no large GND (motherboard) close to the antenna and where the antenna is
usually very close to the user's hand, the achievable range is most likely much shorter.
The indoor range test was not performed, due to the lack of a large enough building. But from the TX power and
sensitivity data, an indoor range estimation can be given if one assumes a propagation factor of 4.5, which is a
typical value in normal office environments. Use the Silicon Labs’ range calculator, which can be found here:
http://www.silabs.com/support/pages/document-library.aspx?p=Wireless&f=EZRadioPRO&pn=Si4460
Assuming –7.4 dBi antenna gain (front direction, X-axes facing) and the setting "Set 1" (50 kbps, 1% PER,
13 dBm), the estimated indoor range is 60 m, as shown in Figure 121. If the boards are facing with the direction of
maximum radiation, the indoor range increases to 90 m.
114
Rev. 1.0
Set1 13dBm 50kbps
Set2 13dBm 100kbps
Set3
0dBm
+/‐25kHz
+/‐50kHz
GPS
Distance [m]
N
E
47.152880° 19.180930°
0.0
1.2kbps +/‐1.2kHz
Small Printed ILA
Base
H pol; Norm. direction
Small Printed ILA (WES0118)
1
Set1
13dBm
50kbps
+/‐25kHz
GPS
N
E
47.161860° 19.173600°
1142.0
V pol; Norm. direction
2
3
4
5
Set1
Set2
Set3
13dBm
13dBm
0dBm
GPS
N
E
+/‐25kHz 47.161270° 19.173610°
+/‐50kHz 47.159130° 19.174030°
+/‐1.2kHz 47.160740° 19.173780°
1084.8
869.0
1027.7
Set1
Max. direction w/o hand: XZV 325° //Meas w hand: 240°
GPS
N
E
13dBm 50kbps
+/‐25kHz 47.164830° 19.173110°
1454.4
50kbps
100kbps
1.2kbps
V pol; Norm. direction
Set1
Set3
13dBm
0dBm
50kbps
1.2kbps
W1063
6
7
GPS
N
E
+/‐25kHz 47.174060° 19.171540°
+/‐1.2kHz 47.171470° 19.17201
2459.8
2174.3
H pol; Norm. direction
GPS
8
Set1
13dBm
50kbps
+/‐25kHz
N
E
47.176200° 19.171200°
2695.4
Figure 120. Outdoor Range Test Result with Two Identical Small Sized Printed ILA Antennas with
the 4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board Working in a Reduced Power (~10.2 dBm) State Driven by the
WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard
Rev. 1.0
115
Figure 121. Indoor Range Estimation with Two Identical Small Sized Printed ILA Antennas and
with the 4461-PCE14D915 Pico Board Working in a Reduced (~+13 dBm) Power State Driven by
the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard
116
Rev. 1.0
9. Printed BIFA (WES0119-01-APB915D-01)
For the Printed BIFA antenna, an external matching network (shown in Figure 122) is required at the antenna input.
Figure 122. External Matching Network at 915 MHz for the BIFA Antenna
The antenna is shown in Figure 123.
Figure 123. Printed BIFA Antenna
Rev. 1.0
117
9.1. Antenna Impedance (WES0119-01-APB915D-01)
The impedance measurement setup is shown in Figure 124. The antenna board is connected to the 4460PCE10D915 Pico Board through a male-to-male SMA transition with the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard driving
the Pico Board.
During the impedance tuning and range test, the user’s hand holds the motherboard. A typical hand position is
shown in Figure 125.
Figure 124. (WES0119-01-APB915D-01) DUT in the Impedance Measurement Setup
Figure 125. Typical Hand Effect on the Main Board During Impedance and Range Measurement
(BIFA Antenna Board)
118
Rev. 1.0
The measured impedance of the antenna with its external matching network is shown in Figure 126 (up to 3 GHz)
with motherboard hand effect.
Figure 126. Measured Impedance (up to 3 GHz) with Hand Effect on the Main Board
Rev. 1.0
119
9.2. Antenna Gain (WES0119-01-APB915D-01)
The antenna gain is calculated from the measured radiated power at the fundamental and from the delivered power
to the antenna. In the radiation measurement, the 4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board is set to a reduced (~+10.2 dBm)
power state (0x1C) and the entire setup is fed by two AA batteries (VDD is set to 2.6 V). The conducted SA
measurement result of the 4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board in this reduced (~10 dBm) power state is shown in
Figure 127. This method can be effectively applied because the S11 of the antenna is much better than –10 dB, so
the reflection loss is negligible.
Figure 127. Conducted Measurement Result, 4463-PCE20C915 in Reduced (~10.2 dBm) State
The measured radiated power maximum is at the ZY cut (Table 10). It is around 10.7 dBm EIRP, so the maximum
gain number is ~0.5 dBi ,as shown in Figure 131.
120
Rev. 1.0
9.3. Radiation Patterns (WES0119-01-APB915D-01)
Radiation patterns of the printed BIFA antenna were measured in an antenna chamber using the 4463PCE20C915 Pico Board connected through a male-to-male SMA transition with the WMB-930 Wireless
Motherboard driving the Pico Board. Figure 129—Figure 134 show the radiation patterns at the fundamental
frequency in the XY, XZ, and YZ cut, with both horizontal and vertical receiver antenna polarization. The rotator
was stepped in five degrees to record the radiation pattern in 360 degrees.
The DUT with coordinate system under the radiated measurements is shown in Figure 128. Rotation starts from
the X-axe in the XY cut, and from the Z-axe in the XZ and YZ cuts.
Figure 128. DUT in the Antenna Chamber
Rev. 1.0
121
The measured radiation patterns (antenna gain in dBi) are shown in the following six figures (Figure 129–
Figure 134).
Figure 129. Radiation Pattern in the XY Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 130. Radiation Pattern in the XY Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
122
Rev. 1.0
Figure 131. Radiation Pattern in the XZ Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 132. Radiation Pattern in the XZ Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
Rev. 1.0
123
Figure 133. Radiation Pattern in the YZ Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 134. Radiation Pattern in the YZ Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
124
Rev. 1.0
9.4. Radiated Harmonics (WES0119-01-APB915D-01)
The radiated harmonics of the BIFA antenna were also measured in an antenna chamber using the 4463PCE10C915 Pico Board connected through a male-to-male SMA transition with the WMB-930 Wireless
Motherboard driving the Pico Board works in a reduced power (~+10.2 dBm) state (0x1C, VDD is 2.6 V). The
maximum radiated power levels up to the 10th harmonic were measured in the XY, XZ and YZ cut, with both
horizontal and vertical polarized receiver antenna. Results are shown in the following EIRP table (Table 10) with
the corresponding standard limits.
The BIFA antenna driven by the Si4463 10 dBm class E match (4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board) complies with the
FCC harmonic regulations.
Table 10. Radiated Harmonics, BIFA Antenna Board Connected to the Reduced Power (~10 dBm)
4463-PCE20C915, and Driven by the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
FCC (15.247)
limit in EIRP
[dBm]
Measured
radiated power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
XY
V
Fund.
915
30.00
–2.29
32.3
XY
V
2nd
1830
–15.31
–52.90
43.6
XY
V
3rd
2745
–41.25
–50.27
9.0
XY
V
4th
3660
–41.25
–49.03
7.8
XY
V
5th
4575
–41.25
–56.50
15.2
XY
V
6th
5490
–15.31
–53.60
44.3
XY
V
7th
6405
–15.31
–53.72
44.5
XY
V
8th
7320
–41.25
–52.03
10.8
XY
V
9th
8235
–41.25
–50.17
8.9
XY
V
10th
9150
–41.25
–47.25
6.0
XY
H
Fund.
915
30.00
4.82
25.2
XY
H
2nd
1830
–15.31
–53.93
44.7
XY
H
3rd
2745
–41.25
–53.28
12.0
XY
H
4th
3660
–41.25
–51.82
10.6
XY
H
5th
4575
–41.25
–56.90
15.7
XY
H
6th
5490
–15.31
–53.90
44.6
XY
H
7th
6405
–15.31
–53.43
44.2
XY
H
8th
7320
–41.25
–52.19
10.9
XY
H
9th
8235
–41.25
–50.29
9.0
Rev. 1.0
125
Table 10. Radiated Harmonics, BIFA Antenna Board Connected to the Reduced Power (~10 dBm)
4463-PCE20C915, and Driven by the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard (Continued)
126
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
FCC (15.247)
limit in EIRP
[dBm]
Measured
radiated power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
XY
H
10th
9150
–41.25
–47.21
6.0
XZ
V
Fund.
915
30.00
10.74
19.3
XZ
V
2nd
1830
–15.31
–55.50
46.2
XZ
V
3rd
2745
–41.25
–50.91
9.7
XZ
V
4th
3660
–41.25
–53.71
12.5
XZ
V
5th
4575
–41.25
–57.05
15.8
XZ
V
6th
5490
–15.31
–53.92
44.7
XZ
V
7th
6405
–15.31
–52.88
43.6
XZ
V
8th
7320
–41.25
–52.04
10.8
XZ
V
9th
8235
–41.25
–49.60
8.3
XZ
V
10th
9150
–41.25
–47.19
5.9
XZ
H
Fund.
915
30.00
–4.71
34.7
XZ
H
2nd
1830
–15.31
–51.20
41.9
XZ
H
3rd
2745
–41.25
–52.08
10.8
XZ
H
4th
3660
–41.25
–47.70
6.5
XZ
H
5th
4575
–41.25
–56.47
15.2
XZ
H
6th
5490
–15.31
–53.84
44.6
XZ
H
7th
6405
–15.31
–53.91
44.6
XZ
H
8th
7320
–41.25
–52.38
11.1
XZ
H
9th
8235
–41.25
–50.15
8.9
XZ
H
10th
9150
–41.25
–46.92
5.7
YZ
V
Fund.
915
30.00
4.94
25.1
YZ
V
2nd
1830
–15.31
–54.98
45.7
YZ
V
3rd
2745
–41.25
–51.93
10.7
Rev. 1.0
Table 10. Radiated Harmonics, BIFA Antenna Board Connected to the Reduced Power (~10 dBm)
4463-PCE20C915, and Driven by the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard (Continued)
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
FCC (15.247)
limit in EIRP
[dBm]
Measured
radiated power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
YZ
V
4th
3660
–41.25
–50.34
9.1
YZ
V
5th
4575
–41.25
–57.73
16.5
YZ
V
6th
5490
–15.31
–53.59
44.3
YZ
V
7th
6405
–15.31
–53.42
44.2
YZ
V
8th
7320
–41.25
–51.76
10.5
YZ
V
9th
8235
–41.25
–50.11
8.9
YZ
V
10th
9150
–41.25
–47.35
6.1
YZ
H
Fund.
915
30.00
3.21
26.8
YZ
H
2nd
1830
–15.31
–57.29
48.0
YZ
H
3rd
2745
–41.25
–53.09
11.8
YZ
H
4th
3660
–41.25
–52.44
11.2
YZ
H
5th
4575
–41.25
–57.62
16.4
YZ
H
6th
5490
–15.31
–53.52
44.3
YZ
H
7th
6405
–15.31
–53.38
44.1
YZ
H
8th
7320
–41.25
–51.31
10.1
YZ
H
9th
8235
–41.25
–49.50
8.2
YZ
H
10th
9150
–41.25
–47.48
6.2
Rev. 1.0
127
9.5. Range Test (WES0119-01-APB915D-01)
The available range was measured using the Range Test Demo. This application is supplied with the standard
development kits for EZRadioPRO®. The target of this measurement is to find the distance between the
transceivers, where the bidirectional PER (Packet Error Rate, number of lost packets) is not more than 1% at each
side with ten byte long packets. The GPS coordinates have been recorded for each spot. The distance between
the spots was measured using Google Maps, and results are shown in meters. The range was tested between two
identical units with the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard, 4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board, and the DUT (as shown in
Figure 125) held by the users hand. The 4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board worked in a properly reduced power state
(either +13 dBm or 0 dBm).
The range was tested in a flat land area without obstacles.
During the range test, the following settings have been used:
Set
1: Txpow=13 dBm, 50 kbps, 25 kHz dev., RXBW=103.06 kHz (sens ~–106.3 dBm)
Set 2: Txpow=13 dBm, 100 kbps, 50 kHz dev., RXBW=206.12 kHz (sens ~–103.4 dBm)
Set 3: Txpow=0 dBm, 1.2 kbps, 1.2 kHz dev., RXBW=7.15 kHz (sens ~–118 dBm)
Two outdoor range tests are performed.
Using the above settings (Set 1, Set 2, and Set 3) the following range tests are done here:
1. Range measurement with the BIFA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are HORIZONTALLY polarized
and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied setting is "Set 1".
2. Range measurement with the BIFA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are VERTICALLY polarized and
the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied setting is "Set 1".
3. Range measurement with the BIFA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are VERTICALLY polarized and
the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied setting is "Set 2".
4. Range measurement with the BIFA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are VERTICALLY polarized and
the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied setting is "Set 3".
5. Range measurement with the BIFA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are VERTICALLY polarized and
the boards are facing each other in their direction of maximum radiation. The applied setting is "Set 1".
6. Reference range measurement with two 868/915 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (W1063 from Pulse) in
VERTICAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 1".
7. Reference range measurement with two 868/915 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (W1063 from Pulse) in
VERTICAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 3".
8. Reference range measurement with a 868/915 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (W1063 from Pulse) in
HORIZONTAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 1".
The measurement results are summarized in Figure 135.
The indoor range test was not performed, due to the lack of a large enough building. But from the TX power and
sensitivity data, an indoor range estimation can be given if one assumes a propagation factor of 4.5, which is a
typical value in normal office environments. Use the Silicon Labs’ range calculator, which can be found here:
http://www.silabs.com/support/pages/document-library.aspx?p=Wireless&f=EZRadioPRO&pn=Si4460
Assuming –5.5 dBi antenna gain (front direction, X-axes facing) and the setting "Set 1" (50 kbps, 1% PER,
14 dBm), the estimated indoor range is 74 m, as shown in Figure 136. If the boards are facing with the direction of
maximum radiation, the indoor range increases to 137 m.
128
Rev. 1.0
Set1 13dBm 50kbps
Set2 13dBm 100kbps
Set3
0dBm
+/‐25kHz
+/‐50kHz
GPS
Distance [m]
N
E
47.152880° 19.180930°
0.0
1.2kbps +/‐1.2kHz
BIFA
Base
H pol; Norm. direction
BIFA (WES0119)
1
Set1
13dBm
50kbps
+/‐25kHz
GPS
N
E
47.170810° 19.172040°
2104.0
V pol; Norm. direction
2
3
4
5
Set1
Set2
Set3
Set1
GPS
N
E
+/‐25kHz 47.168090° 19.172560°
+/‐50kHz 47.166350° 19.172780°
+/‐1.2kHz 47.166630° 19.172810°
13dBm
13dBm
0dBm
50kbps
100kbps
1.2kbps
13dBm
Max. direction w/o hand: XZV 125°
GPS
N
50kbps
+/‐25kHz
TBD
E
TBD
1805.8
1619.6
1647.6
TBD
V pol; Norm. direction
Set1
Set3
13dBm
0dBm
50kbps
1.2kbps
W1063
6
7
GPS
N
E
+/‐25kHz 47.174060° 19.171540°
+/‐1.2kHz 47.171470° 19.17201
2459.8
2174.3
H pol; Norm. direction
8
Set1
13dBm
50kbps
+/‐25kHz
GPS
N
E
47.176200° 19.171200°
2695.4
Figure 135. Outdoor Range Test Result with Two Identical Printed BIFA Antennas with the
4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board Working in a Reduced Power (~10.2 dBm) State Driven by the
WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard
Rev. 1.0
129
Figure 136. Indoor Range Estimation with Two Identical Printed BIFA Antennas and with the
4463-PCE20C915 Pico Board Working in a Reduced (~+13 dBm) Power State Driven by the
WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard
130
Rev. 1.0
Smart.
Connected.
Energy-Friendly
Products
Quality
www.silabs.com/products
www.silabs.com/quality
Support and Community
community.silabs.com
Disclaimer
Silicon Laboratories intends to provide customers with the latest, accurate, and in-depth documentation of all peripherals and modules available for system and software implementers using
or intending to use the Silicon Laboratories products. Characterization data, available modules and peripherals, memory sizes and memory addresses refer to each specific device, and
"Typical" parameters provided can and do vary in different applications. Application examples described herein are for illustrative purposes only. Silicon Laboratories reserves the right to
make changes without further notice and limitation to product information, specifications, and descriptions herein, and does not give warranties as to the accuracy or completeness of the
included information. Silicon Laboratories shall have no liability for the consequences of use of the information supplied herein. This document does not imply or express copyright licenses
granted hereunder to design or fabricate any integrated circuits. The products are not designed or authorized to be used within any Life Support System without the specific written consent
of Silicon Laboratories. A "Life Support System" is any product or system intended to support or sustain life and/or health, which, if it fails, can be reasonably expected to result in significant
personal injury or death. Silicon Laboratories products are not designed or authorized for military applications. Silicon Laboratories products shall under no circumstances be used in
weapons of mass destruction including (but not limited to) nuclear, biological or chemical weapons, or missiles capable of delivering such weapons.
Trademark Information
Silicon Laboratories Inc.® , Silicon Laboratories®, Silicon Labs®, SiLabs® and the Silicon Labs logo®, Bluegiga®, Bluegiga Logo®, Clockbuilder®, CMEMS®, DSPLL®, EFM®, EFM32®,
EFR, Ember®, Energy Micro, Energy Micro logo and combinations thereof, "the world’s most energy friendly microcontrollers", Ember®, EZLink®, EZRadio®, EZRadioPRO®, Gecko®,
ISOmodem®, Precision32®, ProSLIC®, Simplicity Studio®, SiPHY®, Telegesis, the Telegesis Logo®, USBXpress® and others are trademarks or registered trademarks of Silicon Laboratories Inc. ARM, CORTEX, Cortex-M3 and THUMB are trademarks or registered trademarks of ARM Holdings. Keil is a registered trademark of ARM Limited. All other products or brand
names mentioned herein are trademarks of their respective holders.
Silicon Laboratories Inc.
400 West Cesar Chavez
Austin, TX 78701
USA
http://www.silabs.com
Similar pages