AN850: 434 MHz Single-ended Antenna Matrix Measurement Reports

AN850
434 MH Z S INGLE - ENDED A N T E N N A M ATRIX M EASUREMENT
R EPORTS
I NTRODUCTION
This document summarizes the measured results of the antennas applied in the Silicon Labs 434 MHz antenna
matrix (WES0070-01-AMS434-01).
The
antennas are realized on a 1.55 mm thick FR4.
Target antenna impedance is 50 Ω.
A picture of the WES0070-01-AMS434-01 434 MHz Antenna Matrix is shown in Figure 1. For the 434 MHz band,
eight different PCB antenna solutions are proposed:
Medium
Sized Printed IFA around the PCB circumference (WES0071-01-APF434M-01)
(Chip) Antenna (WES0072-01-ACM434D-01)
Printed BIFA antenna in a dedicated bigger antenna area (WES0073-01-APB434D-01)
Medium Sized (Wire) Helical Antenna (WES0074-01-AWH434M-01)
Panic Button IFA (Printed) along the circumference (WES0075-01-APF434P-01)
Panic Button ILA (Printed) along the circumference (WES0076-01-APL434P-01)
Printed Meander Monopole (WES0077-01-APN434D-01)
Small Sized Printed ILA (or optional IFA) in dedicated small antenna area (WES0078-01-APL434S-01)
Ceramic
Figure 1. 434 M 50 Ω, Single-ended Antenna Matrix (WES0070-01-AMS434-01)
Rev. 1.0 10/06
Copyright © 2006 by Silicon Laboratories
AN850
AN850
1. Antenna Results Summary
The performance of the 434 M single-ended matrix antennas are compared in Table 1.
Table 1. Antenna Results Comparison
434 M Single-ended
Antenna Type
External
Match
Maximum
EIRP [dBm] 1
Maximum
Antenna Gain
[dBi]
Maximum
Range Outdoor
[m] 2
Estimated
Average Indoor
Range [m] 3
Medium Sized IFA
(WES0071)
No
9.3
0.3
1548
83
Ceramic Antenna
(WES0072)
Yes
7.1
–1.9
1308
51
BIFA
(WES0073)
Yes
3.2
–5.8
885
60
Medium Sized Helical
(WES0074)
Yes
12
3
1350
112
Panic Button IFA
(WES0075)
No
4
–5
1125
53
Panic Button ILA
(WES0076)
Yes
4.8
–4.2
1041
58
Printed Meandered Ant.
(WES0077)
Yes
12.1
3.1
1529
143
Small Sized ILA
(WES0078)
No
0.5
–8.5
650
31
Notes:
1. With the 4460PCE10D434 Pico Board and WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard working from two AA batteries (~2.9 V).
Delivered power to the antenna is ~9 dBm.
2. This value is the highest outdoor range achieved with the pair of identical antennas with 9 dBm TX power and 40 kbps,
20 kHz deviation, ~88 kHz RX bandwidth. 1% PER with ten byte long packets. In some cases the antenna direction
found for maximum range is different from the direction of the maximum in the pattern measurements. The range test
was conducted with a hand effect on the motherboard, while the pattern measurements were done without any hand
effect.
3. To the normal direction of usage (X-axes facing to each other; see antenna chapters).
2
Rev. 1.0
Deta iled Antenna Measurement Results
2. Medium Sized Printed IFA (WES0071-01-APF434M-01)
No external matching is required for this antenna. In the antenna PCB, a series 0 Ω resistor connects the antenna
input to the feeding 50 Ω coplanar line. The footprint for two additional parallel matching elements is unpopulated.
The matching network schematic is shown in Figure 3.
Figure 2. Medium Sized IFA Board (WES0071-01-APF434M-01) Antenna Matching Network
Schematic
The Medium Sized IFA antenna is shown in Figure 3.
Figure 3. Medium Sized Printed IFA Antenna
Rev. 1.0
3
2.1. Antenna Impedance (WES0071-01-APF434M-01)
The impedance measurement setup is shown in Figure 4. The antenna board is connected to the 4455PCE10D434 Pico Board through a male-to-male SMA transition with the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard driving
the Pico Board.
During the impedance tuning and range test, the user’s hand holds the motherboard. A typical hand position is
shown in Figure 5.
Figure 4. DUT in the Impedance Measurement Setup (WES0071 Medium IFA Board)
4
Rev. 1.0
Figure 5. Typical Hand Effect on the Main Board During Impedance and Range Measurement
(Medium IFA Antenna [WES0071] Board)
The measured impedance of the antenna is shown in Figure 6 (up to 1.5 GHz) with motherboard hand effect.
Figure 6. Measured Impedance up to 1.5 GHz with Hand Effect on the Main Board
Rev. 1.0
5
2.2. Antenna Gain (WES0071-01-APF434M-01)
The antenna gain is calculated both from the measured radiated power at the fundamental and from the delivered
power to the antenna. In the radiation measurement, a P4455-PCE10D434 Pico Board drives the antenna with
~+9 dBm due to the reduced VDD (power state 0x4F and ~2.9 V VDD) of the applied two AA batteries. The
conducted SA measurement result of the 4455-PCE10D434 Pico Board in this reduced power state is shown in
Figure 7. This method can be effectively applied because the S11 of the antenna is much better than –10 dB, so
the reflection loss is negligible.
Figure 7. Conducted Measurement Result, 4455-PCE10B434 in a Reduced (~9 dBm) Power Level:
the State is 0x4F and VDD is ~2.9 V (Two AA Batteries)
The measured radiated power maximum is at the XZ cut (Table 2). It is around 9.3 dBm EIRP, so the maximum
gain number is +0.3 dBi, as shown in Figure 12.
6
Rev. 1.0
2.3. Radiation Patterns (WES0071-01-APF434M-01)
The radiation patterns of the medium sized printed IFA antenna were measured in an antenna chamber with the
4455-PCE10D434 Pico Board connected through a male-to-male SMA transition and with the WMB-930 Wireless
Motherboard driving the Pico Board. Figure 9—Figure 14 show the radiation patterns at the fundamental frequency
in the XY, XZ, YZ cut, with both horizontal and vertical receiver antenna polarization. The rotator was stepped in
five degrees to record the radiation pattern in 360 degrees.
Figure 8 shows the device under test (DUT) with coordinate system under the radiated measurements. In the XY
cut the rotation starts from the X-axis, while in the XZ and YZ cuts rotation starts from the Z-axis.
Figure 8. DUT in the Antenna Chamber
Rev. 1.0
7
The measured radiation patterns (antenna gain in dBi) are shown in the following six figures (Figure 9–Figure 14).
Figure 9. Radiation Pattern in the XY Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 10. Radiation Pattern in the XY Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
8
Rev. 1.0
Figure 11. Radiation Pattern in the XZ Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 12. Radiation Pattern in the XZ Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
Rev. 1.0
9
Figure 13. Radiation Pattern in the YZ Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 14. Radiation Pattern in the YZ Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
10
Rev. 1.0
2.4. Radiated Harmonics (WES0071-01-APF434M-01)
The radiated harmonics of the medium sized printed IFA antenna were also measured in an antenna chamber with
the 4455-PCE10D434 Pico Board connected through a male-to-male SMA transition and with the WMB-930
Wireless Motherboard driving the Pico Board. The 4455-PCE10D434 Pico Board is set to a power state of 0x4F
and a VDD of ~2.9 V (two AA batteries) to deliver ~+9 dBm as Figure 7 shows. The maximum radiated power
levels, up to the 10th harmonic, were measured in the XY, XZ, and YZ cut, with both horizontal and vertical
polarized receiver antenna. The results are shown in the following EIRP table (Table 2) together with the
corresponding standard limits.
The medium sized IFA antenna, driven by the Si4455/60 class E match at 10 dBm power settings complies with the
ETSI harmonic regulations with margin.
In typical battery-operated final application, where the wireless motherboard is eliminated and the Pico Board
layout is unified with the antenna, the harmonic radiation is likely lower.
Table 2. Radiated Harmonics, Medium IFA Board Connected to the
4460-PCE10D434 Output, Driven by the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
ETSI limit in
EIRP [dBm]
Measured
radiated power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
XY
V
Fund.
434
12.14
2.92
9.2
XY
V
2nd
868
–33.88
–65.92
32.0
XY
V
3rd
1302
–27.86
–65.18
37.3
XY
V
4th
1736
–27.86
–50.21
22.4
XY
V
5th
2170
–27.86
–45.28
17.4
XY
V
6th
2604
–27.86
–48.37
20.5
XY
V
7th
3038
–27.86
–59.37
31.5
XY
V
8th
3472
–27.86
–48.47
20.6
XY
V
9th
3906
–27.86
–51.25
23.4
XY
V
10th
4340
–27.86
–44.29
16.4
XY
H
Fund.
434
12.14
8.06
4.1
XY
H
2nd
868
–33.88
–69.20
35.3
XY
H
3rd
1302
–27.86
–70.42
42.6
XY
H
4th
1736
–27.86
–53.27
25.4
XY
H
5th
2170
–27.86
–51.06
23.2
XY
H
6th
2604
–27.86
–44.91
17.1
XY
H
7th
3038
–27.86
–58.85
31.0
Rev. 1.0
11
Table 2. Radiated Harmonics, Medium IFA Board Connected to the
4460-PCE10D434 Output, Driven by the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard(Continued)
12
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
ETSI limit in
EIRP [dBm]
Measured
radiated power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
XY
H
8th
3472
–27.86
–50.45
22.6
XY
H
9th
3906
–27.86
–51.38
23.5
XY
H
10th
4340
–27.86
–45.21
17.3
XZ
V
Fund.
434
12.14
0.47
11.7
XZ
V
2nd
868
–33.88
–68.74
34.9
XZ
V
3rd
1302
–27.86
–65.65
37.8
XZ
V
4th
1736
–27.86
–50.33
22.5
XZ
V
5th
2170
–27.86
–44.79
16.9
XZ
V
6th
2604
–27.86
–42.88
15.0
XZ
V
7th
3038
–27.86
–50.57
22.7
XZ
V
8th
3472
–27.86
–47.24
19.4
XZ
V
9th
3906
–27.86
–51.40
23.5
XZ
V
10th
4340
–27.86
–39.35
11.5
XZ
H
Fund.
434
12.14
9.29
2.9
XZ
H
2nd
868
–33.88
–68.96
35.1
XZ
H
3rd
1302
–27.86
–68.82
41.0
XZ
H
4th
1736
–27.86
–50.54
22.7
XZ
H
5th
2170
–27.86
–44.70
16.8
XZ
H
6th
2604
–27.86
–40.65
12.8
XZ
H
7th
3038
–27.86
–50.90
23.0
XZ
H
8th
3472
–27.86
–48.36
20.5
XZ
H
9th
3906
–27.86
–51.70
23.8
XZ
H
10th
4340
–27.86
–42.01
14.1
YZ
V
Fund.
434
12.14
6.12
6.0
Rev. 1.0
Table 2. Radiated Harmonics, Medium IFA Board Connected to the
4460-PCE10D434 Output, Driven by the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard(Continued)
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
ETSI limit in
EIRP [dBm]
Measured
radiated power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
YZ
V
2nd
868
–33.88
–68.22
34.3
YZ
V
3rd
1302
–27.86
–66.02
38.2
YZ
V
4th
1736
–27.86
–50.93
23.1
YZ
V
5th
2170
–27.86
–47.06
19.2
YZ
V
6th
2604
–27.86
–43.42
15.6
YZ
V
7th
3038
–27.86
–50.82
23.0
YZ
V
8th
3472
–27.86
–47.03
19.2
YZ
V
9th
3906
–27.86
–51.33
23.5
YZ
V
10th
4340
–27.86
–43.09
15.2
YZ
H
Fund.
434
12.14
5.73
6.4
YZ
H
2nd
868
–33.88
–71.71
37.8
YZ
H
3rd
1302
–27.86
–68.87
41.0
YZ
H
4th
1736
–27.86
–52.26
24.4
YZ
H
5th
2170
–27.86
–47.29
19.4
YZ
H
6th
2604
–27.86
–39.74
11.9
YZ
H
7th
3038
–27.86
–53.59
25.7
YZ
H
8th
3472
–27.86
–48.61
20.7
YZ
H
9th
3906
–27.86
–51.57
23.7
YZ
H
10th
4340
–27.86
–42.00
14.1
Rev. 1.0
13
2.5. Range Test (WES0071-01-APF434M-01)
The available range was measured using the Range Test Demo. This application is supplied with the standard
development kits for EZRadioPRO®. The target of this measurement is to find the distance between the
transceivers where the one-directional PER (Packet Error Rate, number of lost packets) is not more than 1% at
each side with ten byte long packets. The GPS coordinates have been recorded for each spot. The distance
between the spots has been measured using Google Maps, and results are shown in meters. The range was
tested with two identical units held in hands according to Figure 5. Each unit comprises a WMB-930 Wireless
Motherboard, a 4460-PCE10D434 Pico Board, and the DUT (as shown in Figure 5). In some tests the 4460PCE10D434 Pico Board is set to +10 dBm TX power state, while in other tests it is set to 0 dBm. The nominal
+10 dBm power setting (state of 0x2D) delivers +10 dBm power to the antenna at 3.3 V VDD only. At 3 V VDD
supplied by the two AA batteries, the power level is lower, around +8.8 dBm. At the nominal 0 dBm setting (state of
0x07), the power decrease is negligible at 3 V VDD.
The range was tested in a flat land area without obstacles.
During the range test, the following settings were used:
Set
1: Txpow=10 dBm (~8.8 dBm @ 3 V VDD), 40 kbps, 20 kHz dev., RXBW=82.64 kHz
(sens ~–105.5 dBm)
Set 2: Txpow=10 dBm (~8.8 dBm @ 3 V VDD), 100 kbps, 50 kHz dev., RXBW=206.12 kHz
(sens ~–100.7 dBm)
Set 3: Txpow=0 dBm, 2.4 kbps, 2.4 kHz dev., RXBW=25.77 kHz
(sens ~–115.9 dBm)
Using the settings above (Set 1, Set 2, and Set 3), the following range tests were made:
1. Range measurement with the MEDIUM IFA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are HORIZONTALLY
polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied setting is "Set 1".
2. Range measurement with the MEDIUM IFA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are VERTICALLY
polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied setting is "Set 1".
3. Range measurement with the MEDIUM IFA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are VERTICALLY
polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied setting is "Set 2".
4. Range measurement with the MEDIUM IFA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are VERTICALLY
polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied setting is "Set 3".
5. Range measurement with the MEDIUM IFA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are VERTICALLY
polarized and the boards are facing each other in their direction of maximum radiation. The applied setting
is "Set 1".
6. Reference range measurement with two 434 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (ANT-433-HETH from Linx
Technologies) in VERTICAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 1".
7. Reference range measurement with two 434 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (ANT-433-HETH from Linx
Technologies) in VERTICAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 3".
8. Reference range measurement with a 434 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (ANT-433-HETH from Linx
Technologies) in HORIZONTAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 1".
The measurement results are summarized in Figure 15.
The indoor range test was not performed, due to the lack of a large enough building. But from the TX power and
sensitivity data, an indoor range estimation can be given, if one assumes a propagation factor of 4.5, which is a
typical value in normal office environments. Use the Silicon Labs’ range calculator, which can be found here:
http://www.silabs.com/support/pages/document-library.aspx?p=Wireless&f=EZRadioPRO&pn=Si4460
Assuming a –5.3 dBi antenna gain (front direction, X axes facing) and the setting "Set 1" above (40 kbps, 1% PER,
+8.8 dBm), the estimated indoor range is 83 m, as is shown in Figure 16. To the maximum antenna gain direction,
the indoor range between two identical units is ~148 m.
14
Rev. 1.0
Set1 10dBm 40kbps
Set2 10dBm 100kbps
Set3 0dBm
F
+/-20kHz
+/-50kHz
GPS
Distance [m]
N
E
47.152880° 19.180930°
0.0
2.4kbps +/-2.4kHz
Medium Printed IFA
Base
H pol; Norm. direction
Medium Printed IFA (WES0071)
1
Set1
10dBm
40kbps
+/-20kHz
GPS
N
E
47.158600° 19.174050°
821.7
V pol; Norm. direction
2
3
4
Set1
Set2
Set3
10dBm
10dBm
0dBm
40kbps
100kbps
2.4kbps
GPS
N
E
+/-20kHz 47.161950° 19.173590°
+/-50kHz 47.159940° 19.173970°
+/-2.4kHz 47.161250° 19.173690°
1151.2
945.1
1079.8
Max. direction: XZH 235°
5
Set1
10dBm
40kbps
+/-20kHz
GPS
N
E
47.165710° 19.172970°
1548.4
ANT-433-HETH from LINX
V pol; Norm. direction
6
7
Set1
Set3
10dBm
0dBm
40kbps
2.4kbps
GPS
N
E
+/-20kHz 47.167850° 19.172640°
+/-2.4kHz 47.162300° 19.17351
1778.7
1188.2
H pol; Norm. direction
8
Set1
10dBm
40kbps
+/-20kHz
GPS
N
E
47.163520° 19.173330°
1315.3
Figure 15. Outdoor Range Test Results with Two Identical Medium Sized Printed IFA Boards
Driven by Reduced Power 4460-PCE10D434 Pico Boards and WMB-930 Wireless Motherboards.
Range Test Results with Reference Monopoles are Also Shown.
Rev. 1.0
15
Figure 16. Indoor Range Estimation with Two Identical Medium Sized Printed IFA Boards Driven
by Reduced Power 4460-PCE10D434 Pico Boards and WMB-930 Wireless Motherboards
16
Rev. 1.0
3. Ceramic (Chip) Antenna (WES0072-01-ACM434D-01)
The selected chip antenna is Johanson Technology's 0433AT62A0020E type. For more information, go here:
http://www.johansontechnology.com/datasheets/antennas/0433AT62A0020.pdf
An external matching network (shown in Figure 17) is required at the antenna input.
Figure 17. External Matching Network at 434 MHz for the 0433AT62A0020E
Ceramic Antenna Type
The antenna board is shown in Figure 18.
Figure 18. Ceramic (Chip) Antenna
Rev. 1.0
17
3.1. Antenna Impedance (WES0072-01-ACM434D-01)
The impedance measurement setup is shown in Figure 19. The antenna board is connected to the 4460PCE10D434 Pico Board through a male-to-male SMA transition with the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard driving
the Pico Board.
During the impedance tuning and range test, the user’s hand holds the motherboard. Typical hand position is
shown in Figure 20.
Figure 19. DUT in the Impedance Measurement Setup (WES0072 Ceramic Antenna)
18
Rev. 1.0
Figure 20. Typical Hand Effect on the Main Board During Impedance and Range Measurement
(Ceramic Antenna [WES0072] Board)
Rev. 1.0
19
The measured impedance of the antenna with its external matching network is shown in Figure 21 (up to 1.5 GHz)
with motherboard hand effect.
Figure 21. Measured Impedance up to 1.5 GHz with Hand Effect on the Main Board
20
Rev. 1.0
3.2. Antenna Gain (WES0072-01-ACM434D-01)
The antenna gain is calculated both from the measured radiated power at the fundamental and from the delivered
power to the antenna. In the radiation measurement, the 4455-PCE10D434 Pico Board is set to a reduced
(~9 dBm) power level and the entire setup is fed by two AA batteries. The conducted SA measurement result of the
4455-PCE10D434 Pico Board in this reduced power state is shown in Figure 22. This method can be effectively
applied because the S11 of the antenna is much better than –10 dB so the reflection loss is negligible.
Figure 22. Conducted Measurement Result, 4455-PCE10D434 in a
Reduced (+9 dBm) Power Level: the State is 0x4F and VDD is ~2.9 V (Two AA Batteries)
The measured radiated power maximum is at the XZ cut (Table 3). It is around +7.1 dBm EIRP, so the maximum
gain number is ~–1.9 dBi as shown in Figure 26.
21
Rev. 1.0
3.3. Radiation Patterns (WES0072-01-ACM434D-01)
Radiation patterns of the ceramic antenna were measured in an antenna chamber with the 4455-PCE10D434 Pico
Board connected through a male-to-male SMA transition and with the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard driving the
Pico Board. Figure 24—Figure 29 show the radiation patterns at the fundamental frequency in the XY, XZ, YZ cut,
with both horizontal and vertical receiver antenna polarization. The rotator was stepped in five degrees to record
the radiation pattern in 360 degrees.
The DUT, with coordinate system under the radiated measurements, is shown in Figure 23. In the XY cut the
rotation starts from the X-axis, while in the XZ and YZ cuts rotation starts from the Z-axis.
Figure 23. DUT in the Antenna Chamber
22
Rev. 1.0
The measured radiation patterns (antenna gain in dBi) are shown in the following six figures (Figure 24–Figure 29).
Figure 24. Radiation Pattern in the XY Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 25. Radiation Pattern in the XY Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
Rev. 1.0
23
Figure 26. . Radiation Pattern in the XZ Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 27. Radiation Pattern in the XZ Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
24
Rev. 1.0
Figure 28. Radiation Pattern in the YZ Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 29. Radiation Pattern in the YZ Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
Rev. 1.0
25
3.4. Radiated Harmonics (WES0072-01-ACM434D-01)
The radiated harmonics of the ceramic antenna were also measured in an antenna chamber with the 4455PCE10D434 Pico Board connected through a male-to-male SMA transition and with the WMB-930 Wireless
Motherboard driving the Pico Board. The 4455-PCE10D434 Pico Board is set to a power state of 0x4F and a VDD
of ~2.9 V (two AA batteries) to deliver ~+9 dBm, as shown in Figure 22. The maximum radiated power levels, up to
the 10th harmonic, were measured in the XY, XZ, and YZ cut, with both horizontal and vertical polarized receiver
antenna. The results are shown in the following EIRP table (Table 3) together with the corresponding standard
limits.
The Antenna is ETSI compliant with large margin.
Table 3. Radiated harmonics, Ceramic Antenna board Connected to the Reduced Power
(~+9 dBm) 4455-PCE10D434 Output, Driven by the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard
26
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
ETSI limit in
EIRP [dBm]
Measured
radiated power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
XY
V
Fund.
434
12.14
–1.29
13.4
XY
V
2nd
868
–33.88
–69.41
35.5
XY
V
3rd
1302
–27.86
–67.73
39.9
XY
V
4th
1736
–27.86
–51.20
23.3
XY
V
5th
2170
–27.86
–44.04
16.2
XY
V
6th
2604
–27.86
–44.93
17.1
XY
V
7th
3038
–27.86
–45.40
17.5
XY
V
8th
3472
–27.86
–47.28
19.4
XY
V
9th
3906
–27.86
–47.46
19.6
XY
V
10th
4340
–27.86
–45.08
17.2
XY
H
Fund.
434
12.14
6.26
5.9
XY
H
2nd
868
–33.88
–72.92
39.0
XY
H
3rd
1302
–27.86
–69.92
42.1
XY
H
4th
1736
–27.86
–55.77
27.9
XY
H
5th
2170
–27.86
–49.62
21.8
XY
H
6th
2604
–27.86
–46.23
18.4
XY
H
7th
3038
–27.86
–47.69
19.8
XY
H
8th
3472
–27.86
–49.69
21.8
XY
H
9th
3906
–27.86
–46.08
18.2
Rev. 1.0
Table 3. Radiated harmonics, Ceramic Antenna board Connected to the Reduced Power
(~+9 dBm) 4455-PCE10D434 Output, Driven by the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard(Continued)
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
ETSI limit in
EIRP [dBm]
Measured
radiated power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
XY
H
10th
4340
–27.86
–45.18
17.3
XZ
V
Fund.
434
12.14
–7.17
19.3
XZ
V
2nd
868
–33.88
–71.24
37.4
XZ
V
3rd
1302
–27.86
–65.96
38.1
XZ
V
4th
1736
–27.86
–52.56
24.7
XZ
V
5th
2170
–27.86
–43.29
15.4
XZ
V
6th
2604
–27.86
–41.11
13.3
XZ
V
7th
3038
–27.86
–43.52
15.7
XZ
V
8th
3472
–27.86
–49.26
21.4
XZ
V
9th
3906
–27.86
–47.42
19.6
XZ
V
10th
4340
–27.86
–42.13
14.3
XZ
H
Fund.
434
12.14
7.05
5.1
XZ
H
2nd
868
–33.88
–71.47
37.6
XZ
H
3rd
1302
–27.86
–69.61
41.8
XZ
H
4th
1736
–27.86
–53.79
25.9
XZ
H
5th
2170
–27.86
–43.90
16.0
XZ
H
6th
2604
–27.86
–38.76
10.9
XZ
H
7th
3038
–27.86
–45.13
17.3
XZ
H
8th
3472
–27.86
–47.59
19.7
XZ
H
9th
3906
–27.86
–49.94
22.1
XZ
H
10th
4340
–27.86
–43.76
15.9
YZ
V
Fund.
434
12.14
4.78
7.4
YZ
V
2nd
868
–33.88
–72.94
39.1
YZ
V
3rd
1302
–27.86
–66.51
38.7
Rev. 1.0
27
Table 3. Radiated harmonics, Ceramic Antenna board Connected to the Reduced Power
(~+9 dBm) 4455-PCE10D434 Output, Driven by the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard(Continued)
28
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
ETSI limit in
EIRP [dBm]
Measured
radiated power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
YZ
V
4th
1736
–27.86
–52.97
25.1
YZ
V
5th
2170
–27.86
–45.45
17.6
YZ
V
6th
2604
–27.86
–44.40
16.5
YZ
V
7th
3038
–27.86
–44.17
16.3
YZ
V
8th
3472
–27.86
–45.28
17.4
YZ
V
9th
3906
–27.86
–47.81
20.0
YZ
V
10th
4340
–27.86
–43.26
15.4
YZ
H
Fund.
434
12.14
0.40
11.7
YZ
H
2nd
868
–33.88
–71.93
38.1
YZ
H
3rd
1302
–27.86
–69.78
41.9
YZ
H
4th
1736
–27.86
–53.19
25.3
YZ
H
5th
2170
–27.86
–45.42
17.6
YZ
H
6th
2604
–27.86
–37.49
9.6
YZ
H
7th
3038
–27.86
–46.60
18.7
YZ
H
8th
3472
–27.86
–48.89
21.0
YZ
H
9th
3906
–27.86
–47.41
19.6
YZ
H
10th
4340
–27.86
–42.78
14.9
Rev. 1.0
3.5. Range Test (WES0072-01-ACM434D-01)
The available range was measured using the Range Test Demo. This application is supplied with the standard
development kits for EZRadioPRO®. The target of this measurement is to find the distance between the
transceivers where the one-directional PER (Packet Error Rate, number of lost packets) is not more than 1% at
each side with ten byte long packets. The GPS coordinates have been recorded for each spot. The distance
between the spots has been measured using Google Maps, and results are shown in meters. The range was
tested with two identical units held in hands, as shown in Figure 20. Each unit comprises a WMB-930 Wireless
Motherboard, a 4460-PCE10D434 Pico Board, and the DUT (as shown in Figure 20). In some tests the 4460PCE10D434 Pico Board is set to +10 dBm TX power state, while in other tests it is set to 0 dBm.
The range was tested in a flat land area without obstacles.
During the range tests, the following settings were used:
Set
1: Txpow=10 dBm (~8.8 dBm @ 3 V VDD), 40 kbps, 25 kHz dev., RXBW=82.64 kHz
(sens ~–105.5 dBm)
Set 2: Txpow=10 dBm (~8.8 dBm @ 3 V VDD), 100 kbps, 50 kHz dev., RXBW=206.12 kHz
(sens ~–100.7 dBm)
Set 3: Txpow=0 dBm, 2.4 kbps, 2.4 kHz dev., RXBW=25.77 kHz
(sens ~–115.9 dBm)
Using the above settings (Set 1, Set 2, and Set 3) the following range tests are done here:
1. Range measurement with the CERAMIC Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are HORIZONTALLY
polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied setting is "Set 1".
2. Range measurement with the CERAMIC Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are VERTICALLY
polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied setting is "Set 1".
3. Range measurement with the CERAMIC Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are VERTICALLY
polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied setting is "Set 2".
4. Range measurement with the CERAMIC Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are VERTICALLY
polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied setting is "Set 3".
5. Range measurement with the CERAMIC Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are VERTICALLY
polarized and the boards are facing each other in their direction of maximum radiation. The applied setting
is "Set 1".
6. Reference range measurement with two 434 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (ANT-433-HETH from Linx
Technologies) in VERTICAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 1".
7. Reference range measurement with two 434 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (ANT-433-HETH from Linx
Technologies) in VERTICAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 3".
8. Reference range measurement with a 434 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (ANT-433-HETH from Linx
Technologies) in HORIZONTAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 1".
The measurement results are summarized in Figure 30.
The indoor range was not measured, due to the lack of a large enough building. But from the TX power and
sensitivity data, an estimation can be given if one assumes an indoor propagation factor of 4.5, which is a typical
value in normal office environments. Use the Silicon Labs’ range calculator, which can be found on this webpage:
http://www.silabs.com/support/pages/document-library.aspx?p=Wireless&f=EZRadioPRO&pn=Si4460
Assuming a –10 dBi antenna gain (front direction, X-axes facing) and the setting "Set 1" (40 kbps, 1% PER,
+8.8 dBm), the estimated indoor range is 52 m, as it is shown in Figure 31.
Rev. 1.0
29
Set1 10dBm 40kbps
Set2 10dBm 100kbps
Set3 0dBm
F
+/-20kHz
+/-50kHz
GPS
Distance [m]
N
E
47.152880° 19.180930°
0.0
2.4kbps +/-2.4kHz
Ceramic (Chip) Antenna
Base
H pol; Norm. direction
Chip Antenna (WES0072)
1
Set1
10dBm
40kbps
+/-20kHz
GPS
N
E
47.155540° 19.176240°
461.8
V pol; Norm. direction
2
3
4
Set1
Set2
Set3
10dBm
10dBm
0dBm
40kbps
100kbps
2.4kbps
GPS
N
E
+/-20kHz 47.158840° 19.174140°
+/-50kHz 47.156180° 19.175440°
+/-2.4kHz 47.157570° 19.174340°
838.3
554.1
721.3
Max. direction: XZH 40°
5
Set1
10dBm
40kbps
+/-20kHz
GPS
N
E
47.163450° 19.173320°
1308.6
ANT-433-HETH from LINX
V pol; Norm. direction
6
7
Set1
Set3
10dBm
0dBm
40kbps
2.4kbps
GPS
N
E
+/-20kHz 47.167850° 19.172640°
+/-2.4kHz 47.162300° 19.17351
1778.7
1188.2
H pol; Norm. direction
8
Set1
10dBm
40kbps
+/-20kHz
GPS
N
E
47.163520° 19.173330°
1315.3
Figure 30. Outdoor Range Test Results with Two Identical Ceramic Antenna Boards Driven by
Reduced Power 4460-PCE10D434 Pico Boards and WMB-930 Wireless Motherboards. Range Test
Results with Reference Monopoles are Also Shown.
30
Rev. 1.0
Figure 31. Indoor Range Estimation with Two Identical Ceramic Antenna Boards Driven by
Reduced Power 4460-PCE10D434 Pico Boards and WMB-930 Wireless Motherboards
Rev. 1.0
31
4. Printed BIFA (WES0073-01-APB434D-01)
For the Printed BIFA Antenna, an external matching cap (shown in Figure 32) is required at the antenna input.
Figure 32. External Matching Network at 434 MHz for the BIFA Antenna
The antenna is shown in Figure 33.
Figure 33. Printed BIFA Antenna
Rev. 1.0
32
4.1. Antenna Impedance (WES0073-01-APB434D-01)
The impedance measurement setup is shown in Figure 34. The antenna board is connected to the 4455PCE10D434 Pico Board through a male-to-male SMA transition with the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard driving
the Pico Board.
During the range test, the user’s hand holds the motherboard. A typical hand position is shown in Figure 35.
Figure 34. DUT in the Impedance Measurement Setup (BIFA Antenna Board [WES0073])
33
Rev. 1.0
Figure 35. Typical Hand Effect on the Main Board During Impedance and Range Measurement
(BIFA Antenna Board [WES0073])
The measured impedance of the antenna with its external matching network is shown in Figure 36 (up to 1.5 GHz)
with motherboard hand effect.
Figure 36. Measured Impedance up to 1.5 GHz with Hand Effect on the Main Board
Rev. 1.0
34
4.2. Antenna Gain (WES0073-01-APB434D-01)
The antenna gain is calculated from the measured radiated power at the fundamental and from the delivered power
to the antenna. In the radiation measurement, the P4455-PCE10D434 Pico Board is set to a reduced (~+9 dBm)
power level and the entire setup is fed by two AA batteries. The conducted SA measurement result of the 4455PCE10D434 Pico Board in this reduced power state is shown in Figure 37. This method can be effectively applied
because the S11 of the antenna is much better than –10 dB, so the reflection loss is negligible.
Figure 37. Conducted Measurement Result, 4455-PCE10D434 at Reduced Power Level:
the State is 0x4F and VDD is ~2.9 V (Two AA Batteries)
The measured radiated power maximum is at the XY cut (Table 4). It is around +3.2 dBm EIRP, so the maximum
gain number is ~–5.8 dBi, as shown in Figure 41. The maximum gain of the BIFA is significantly lower than that of
some single-ended, smaller antennas (e.g., Wire Helical WES0072) in this report. The reason is that unlike other
single-ended antennas, the BIFA is a real differential antenna (fed through the printed BALUN at the input) and
thus, cannot utilize the large ground supplied by the SMA male-to-male transition + pico board + motherboard
configuration. But in real applications, where the form factor is close to that of the antenna board only, the BIFA
antenna gain will remain nearly the same, while the gain of most other single-ended antennas shown in this
document will degrade significantly.
35
Rev. 1.0
4.3. Radiation Patterns (WES0073-01-APB434D-01)
Radiation patterns of the printed BIFA antenna were measured in an antenna chamber using the 4455PCE10D434 Pico Board connected through a male-to-male SMA transition with the WMB-930 Wireless
Motherboard driving the Pico Board. Figure 39—Figure 44 show the radiation patterns at the fundamental
frequency in the XY, XZ, and YZ cut, with both horizontal and vertical receiver antenna polarization. The rotator
was stepped in five degrees to record the radiation pattern in 360 degrees.
The DUT with coordinate system under the radiated measurements is shown in Figure 38. In the XY cut the
rotation starts from the X-axis, while in the XZ and YZ cuts rotation starts from the Z-axis.
Figure 38. DUT in the Antenna Chamber
36
Rev. 1.0
The measured radiation patterns (antenna gain in dBi) are shown in the following six figures (Figure 39–Figure 44).
Figure 39. Radiation Pattern in the XY Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 40. Radiation Pattern in the XY Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
37
Rev. 1.0
Figure 41. Radiation Pattern in the XZ Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 42. Radiation Pattern in the XZ Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
Rev. 1.0
38
Figure 43. Radiation Pattern in the YZ Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 44. Radiation Pattern in the YZ Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
39
Rev. 1.0
4.4. Radiated Harmonics (WES0073-01-APB434D-01)
The radiated harmonics of the BIFA antenna were also measured in an antenna chamber using the 4455PCE10D434 Pico Board connected through a male-to-male SMA transition with the WMB-930 Wireless
Motherboard driving the Pico Board. The 4455-PCE10D434 Pico Board is set to a power state of 0x4F and a VDD
of ~2.9 V (two AA batteries) to deliver ~+9 dBm, as shown in Figure 37. The maximum radiated power levels, up to
the 10th harmonic, were measured in the XY, XZ and YZ cut, with both horizontal and vertical polarized receiver
antenna. Results are shown in the following EIRP table (Table 4) together with the corresponding standard limits.
The BIFA antenna driven by the Si4455/60 10 dBm class E match complies with the ETSI harmonic regulations.
Table 4. Radiated Harmonics, BIFA Antenna Board Driven by the 4455-PCE10D434 Pico Board in
Reduced Power (~+9 dBm) State and by the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
ETSI limit in
EIRP [dBm]
Measured
radiated power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
XY
V
Fund.
434
12.14
–6.51
18.6
XY
V
2nd
868
–33.88
–68.77
34.9
XY
V
3rd
1302
–27.86
–66.99
39.1
XY
V
4th
1736
–27.86
–51.40
23.5
XY
V
5th
2170
–27.86
–45.54
17.7
XY
V
6th
2604
–27.86
–45.24
17.4
XY
V
7th
3038
–27.86
–46.62
18.8
XY
V
8th
3472
–27.86
–48.55
20.7
XY
V
9th
3906
–27.86
–47.11
19.3
XY
V
10th
4340
–27.86
–44.89
17.0
XY
H
Fund.
434
12.14
3.24
8.9
XY
H
2nd
868
–33.88
–70.20
36.3
XY
H
3rd
1302
–27.86
–67.59
39.7
XY
H
4th
1736
–27.86
–54.34
26.5
XY
H
5th
2170
–27.86
–51.03
23.2
XY
H
6th
2604
–27.86
–42.41
14.6
XY
H
7th
3038
–27.86
–47.87
20.0
XY
H
8th
3472
–27.86
–48.61
20.7
XY
H
9th
3906
–27.86
–46.86
19.0
XY
H
10th
4340
–27.86
–43.17
15.3
Rev. 1.0
40
Table 4. Radiated Harmonics, BIFA Antenna Board Driven by the 4455-PCE10D434 Pico Board in
Reduced Power (~+9 dBm) State and by the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard(Continued)
41
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
ETSI limit in
EIRP [dBm]
Measured
radiated power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
XZ
V
Fund.
434
12.14
–2.34
14.5
XZ
V
2nd
868
–33.88
–69.51
35.6
XZ
V
3rd
1302
–27.86
–66.83
39.0
XZ
V
4th
1736
–27.86
–52.30
24.4
XZ
V
5th
2170
–27.86
–46.49
18.6
XZ
V
6th
2604
–27.86
–40.69
12.8
XZ
V
7th
3038
–27.86
–45.36
17.5
XZ
V
8th
3472
–27.86
–48.84
21.0
XZ
V
9th
3906
–27.86
–47.25
19.4
XZ
V
10th
4340
–27.86
–42.40
14.5
XZ
H
Fund.
434
12.14
1.83
10.3
XZ
H
2nd
868
–33.88
–70.26
36.4
XZ
H
3rd
1302
–27.86
–67.93
40.1
XZ
H
4th
1736
–27.86
–53.74
25.9
XZ
H
5th
2170
–27.86
–45.13
17.3
XZ
H
6th
2604
–27.86
–40.69
12.8
XZ
H
7th
3038
–27.86
–43.28
15.4
XZ
H
8th
3472
–27.86
–47.30
19.4
XZ
H
9th
3906
–27.86
–49.83
22.0
XZ
H
10th
4340
–27.86
–45.63
17.8
YZ
V
Fund.
434
12.14
0.90
11.2
YZ
V
2nd
868
–33.88
–68.26
34.4
YZ
V
3rd
1302
–27.86
–63.82
36.0
YZ
V
4th
1736
–27.86
–53.44
25.6
Rev. 1.0
Table 4. Radiated Harmonics, BIFA Antenna Board Driven by the 4455-PCE10D434 Pico Board in
Reduced Power (~+9 dBm) State and by the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard(Continued)
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
ETSI limit in
EIRP [dBm]
Measured
radiated power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
YZ
V
5th
2170
–27.86
–47.75
19.9
YZ
V
6th
2604
–27.86
–41.03
13.2
YZ
V
7th
3038
–27.86
–44.23
16.4
YZ
V
8th
3472
–27.86
–45.87
18.0
YZ
V
9th
3906
–27.86
–49.14
21.3
YZ
V
10th
4340
–27.86
–44.45
16.6
YZ
H
Fund.
434
12.14
–1.46
13.6
YZ
H
2nd
868
–33.88
–71.46
37.6
YZ
H
3rd
1302
–27.86
–67.98
40.1
YZ
H
4th
1736
–27.86
–51.64
23.8
YZ
H
5th
2170
–27.86
–46.45
18.6
YZ
H
6th
2604
–27.86
–39.26
11.4
YZ
H
7th
3038
–27.86
–49.14
21.3
YZ
H
8th
3472
–27.86
–49.56
21.7
YZ
H
9th
3906
–27.86
–51.07
23.2
YZ
H
10th
4340
–27.86
–44.72
16.9
Rev. 1.0
42
4.5. Range Test (WES0073-01-APB434D-01)
The available range was measured using the Range Test Demo. This application is supplied with the standard
development kits for EZRadioPRO®. The target of this measurement is to find the distance between the
transceivers where the unidirectional PER (Packet Error Rate, number of lost packets) is not more than 1% at each
side with ten byte long packets. The GPS coordinates have been recorded for each spot. The distance between
the spots has been measured using Google Maps, and results are shown in meters. The range was tested with two
identical units held in hands, as shown in Figure 35. Each unit comprises a WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard, a
4460-PCE10D434 Pico Board, and the DUT (as shown in Figure 35). During the tests, the Pico Board is set to the
normal (+ 10 dBm) or reduced power state (0 dBm).
The nominal +10 dBm power setting (state of 0x2D) is valid at 3.3 V VDD only. At 3 V VDD, supplied by the two AA
batteries the power level is lower, around +8.8 dBm. At the nominal 0 dBm setting (state of 0x07) the power
decrease is negligible at 3 V VDD.
The range was tested in a flat land area without obstacles.
During the range test, the following settings have been used:
Set
1: Txpow=10 dBm (~8.8 dBm @ 3 V VDD), 40 kbps, 20 kHz dev., RXBW=82.64 kHz
(sens ~–105.5 dBm)
Set 2: Txpow=10 dBm (~8.8 dBm @ 3 V VDD), 100 kbps, 50 kHz dev., RXBW=206.12 kHz
(sens ~–100.7 dBm)
Set 3: Txpow=0 dBm, 2.4 kbps, 2.4 kHz dev., RXBW=25.77 kHz
(sens ~–115.9 dBm)
Two outdoor range tests were performed.
Using the above settings (Set 1, Set 2, and Set 3) the following range tests are done here:
1. Range measurement with the BIFA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are HORIZONTALLY polarized
and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied setting is "Set 1".
2. Range measurement with the BIFA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are VERTICALLY polarized and
the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied setting is "Set 1".
3. Range measurement with the BIFA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are VERTICALLY polarized and
the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied setting is "Set 2".
4. Range measurement with the BIFA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are VERTICALLY polarized and
the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied setting is "Set 3".
5. Range measurement with the BIFA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are VERTICALLY polarized and
the boards are facing each other in their direction of maximum radiation. The applied setting is "Set 1".
6. Reference range measurement with two 434 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (ANT-433-HETH from Linx
Technologies) in VERTICAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 1".
7. Reference range measurement with two 434 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (ANT-433-HETH from Linx
Technologies) in VERTICAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 3".
8. Reference range measurement with a 434 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (ANT-433-HETH from Linx
Technologies) in HORIZONTAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 1".
The measurement results are summarized in Figure 45.
The indoor range test is not performed, due to the lack of a large enough building. But from the TX power and
sensitivity data, an indoor range estimation can be given if one assumes a propagation factor of 4.5, which is a
typical value in normal office environments. Use the Silicon Labs’ range calculator, which can be found here:
http://www.silabs.com/support/pages/document-library.aspx?p=Wireless&f=EZRadioPRO&pn=Si4460
Assuming –8.5 dBi antenna gain (front direction, X-axes facing) and the setting "Set 1" (40 kbps, 1% PER,
+8.8 dBm), the estimated indoor range is 60 m, as shown in Figure 46. To the maximum antenna gain direction, the
indoor range between two identical units is ~79 m.
43
Rev. 1.0
F
Set1 10dBm
Set2 10dBm
40kbps
100kbps
+/-20kHz
+/-50kHz
Set3
2.4kbps
+/-2.4kHz
0dBm
BIFA Antenna
GPS
N
47.152880°
Base
E
19.180930°
Distance [m]
0.0
H pol; Norm. direction
BIFA (WES0073)
1
Set1
10dBm
40kbps
+/-20kHz
GPS
E
N
47.158370° 19.174160°
796.7
V pol; Norm. direction
2
3
4
Set1
Set2
Set3
10dBm
10dBm
0dBm
40kbps
100kbps
2.4kbps
+/-20kHz
+/-50kHz
+/-2.4kHz
GPS
E
N
47.159310° 19.174020°
47.155170° 19.176860°
47.159330° 19.174000°
885.5
399.4
888.2
Max. direction: XYH 315°
5
Set1
10dBm
40kbps
+/-20kHz
GPS
E
N
47.158940° 19.174090°
849.4
ANT-433-HETH from LINX
V pol; Norm. direction
6
7
Set1
Set3
10dBm
0dBm
40kbps
2.4kbps
+/-20kHz
+/-2.4kHz
GPS
E
N
47.167850° 19.172640°
19.17351
47.162300°
1778.7
1188.2
H pol; Norm. direction
8
Set1
10dBm
40kbps
+/-20kHz
GPS
E
N
47.163520° 19.173330°
1315.3
Figure 45. Outdoor Range Test Results with Two Identical BIFA Antenna Boards Driven by
Reduced Power 4460-PCE10D434 Pico Boards and WMB-930 Wireless Motherboards. Range Test
Results with Reference Monopoles are Also Shown.
Rev. 1.0
44
Figure 46. Indoor Range Estimation with Two Identical BIFA Antenna Boards Driven by Reduced
Power 4460-PCE10D434 Pico Boards and WMB-930 Wireless Motherboards
45
Rev. 1.0
5. Medium Sized (Wire) Helical Antenna (WES0074-01-AWH434M-01)
The selected helical antenna is ANT-433-HETH type from Linx Technology. For more information, go here:
https://www.linxtechnologies.com/resources/data-guides/ant-xxx-hexx.pdf
An external matching network (shown in Figure 47) is required at the antenna input.
Figure 47. External Matching Network at 434 M for the Medium Helical Antenna
The antenna is shown in Figure 48.
Figure 48. Medium Sized Helical Antenna
Rev. 1.0
46
5.1. Antenna Impedance (WES0074-01-AWH434M-01)
The impedance measurement setup is shown in Figure 49. In the case of the Medium Sized Helical Antenna, the
board is connected to a 4455-PCE10D434 Pico Board through a male-to-male SMA transition with the WMB-930
Wireless Motherboard driving the Pico Board.
During the impedance tuning and range test, the user’s hand holds the motherboard. Typical hand position is
shown in Figure 49.
Figure 49. DUT in the Impedance Measurement Setup
(Medium Sized Helical Antenna Board [WES0074])
47
Rev. 1.0
Figure 50. Medium Sized Helical Antenna Board (WES0074)
The measured impedance of the antenna with its external matching network is shown in Figure 51 (up to 1.5 GHz)
with motherboard hand effect.
Figure 51. Measured Impedance up to 1.5 GHz with Hand Effect on the Main Board
Rev. 1.0
48
5.2. Antenna Gain (WES0074-01-AWH434M-01)
The antenna gain is calculated from the measured radiated power at the fundamental and from the delivered power
to the antenna determined by a conducted SA measurements on the 50 Ω termination as shown in Figure 52. This
method can be effectively applied because the S11 of the antenna is much better than –10 dB, so the reflection is
negligible.
Figure 52. Conducted Measurement Result, 4455-PCE10D434 at Reduced Power Level:
the State is 0x4F and VDD is ~2.9 V (Two AA Batteries)
The measured radiated power maximum is at the XZ cut (Table 5). It is around +12 dBm EIRP, so the maximum
gain number is ~+3 dBi, as it is shown in Figure 56.
49
Rev. 1.0
5.3. Radiation Patterns (WES0074-01-AWH434M-01)
The radiation patterns of the medium sized helical antenna were measured in an antenna chamber using the 4455PCE10D434 Pico Board connected through a male-to-male SMA transition with the WMB-930 Wireless
Motherboard driving the Pico Board. Figure 54—Figure 59 show the radiation patterns at the fundamental
frequency in the XY, XZ, YZ cut, with both horizontal and vertical receiver antenna polarization. The rotator was
stepped in five degrees to record the radiation pattern in 360 degrees.
The DUT with coordinate system under the radiated measurements is shown in Figure 53. In the XY cut the
rotation starts from the X-axis, while in the XZ and YZ cuts rotation starts from the Z-axis.
Figure 53. DUT in the Antenna Chamber
50
Rev. 1.0
The measured radiation patterns (antenna gain in dBi) are shown in the following six figures (Figure 54—
Figure 59).
Figure 54. Radiation Pattern in the XY Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 55. Radiation Pattern in the XY Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
51
Rev. 1.0
Figure 56. Radiation Pattern in the XZ Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 57. Radiation Pattern in the XZ Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
Rev. 1.0
52
Figure 58. Radiation Pattern in the YZ Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 59. Radiation Pattern in the YZ Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
53
Rev. 1.0
5.4. Radiated Harmonics (WES0074-01-AWH434M-01)
The radiated harmonics of the medium sized helical antenna were also measured in an antenna chamber using the
4455-PCE10D434 Pico Board connected through a male-to-male SMA transition with the WMB-930 Wireless
Motherboard driving the Pico Board. The 4455-PCE10D434 Pico Board is set to a power state of 0x4F and a VDD
of ~2.9 V (two AA batteries) to deliver ~+9 dBm as Figure 52 shows. The maximum radiated power levels, up to
the 10th harmonic, were measured in the XY, XZ, and YZ cut, with both horizontal and vertical polarized receiver
antenna. The results are shown in the following EIRP table(Table 5) together with the corresponding standard
limits.
The Antenna is ETSI compliant, with large enough margin.
Table 5. Radiated Harmonics, Medium Helical Antenna Board Driven by the 4455-PCE10D434
Pico Board in Reduced Power (~+9 dBm) Level and by the
WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
ETSI limit in
EIRP [dBm]
Measured
radiated power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
XY
V
Fund.
434
12.14
6.78
5.4
XY
V
2nd
868
–33.88
–65.49
31.6
XY
V
3rd
1302
–27.86
–65.54
37.7
XY
V
4th
1736
–27.86
–43.48
15.6
XY
V
5th
2170
–27.86
–41.22
13.4
XY
V
6th
2604
–27.86
–49.39
21.5
XY
V
7th
3038
–27.86
–48.63
20.8
XY
V
8th
3472
–27.86
–43.13
15.3
XY
V
9th
3906
–27.86
–50.21
22.3
XY
V
10th
4340
–27.86
–45.76
17.9
XY
H
Fund.
434
12.14
11.13
1.0
XY
H
2nd
868
–33.88
–71.12
37.2
XY
H
3rd
1302
–27.86
–69.44
41.6
XY
H
4th
1736
–27.86
–47.94
20.1
XY
H
5th
2170
–27.86
–49.68
21.8
XY
H
6th
2604
–27.86
–44.64
16.8
XY
H
7th
3038
–27.86
–45.37
17.5
XY
H
8th
3472
–27.86
–43.87
16.0
XY
H
9th
3906
–27.86
–49.28
21.4
Rev. 1.0
54
Table 5. Radiated Harmonics, Medium Helical Antenna Board Driven by the 4455-PCE10D434
Pico Board in Reduced Power (~+9 dBm) Level and by the
WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard(Continued)
55
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
ETSI limit in
EIRP [dBm]
Measured
radiated power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
XY
H
10th
4340
–27.86
–47.54
19.7
XZ
V
Fund.
434
12.14
0.89
11.2
XZ
V
2nd
868
–33.88
–67.64
33.8
XZ
V
3rd
1302
–27.86
–64.26
36.4
XZ
V
4th
1736
–27.86
–47.30
19.4
XZ
V
5th
2170
–27.86
–49.79
21.9
XZ
V
6th
2604
–27.86
–47.77
19.9
XZ
V
7th
3038
–27.86
–47.90
20.0
XZ
V
8th
3472
–27.86
–45.69
17.8
XZ
V
9th
3906
–27.86
–52.05
24.2
XZ
V
10th
4340
–27.86
–44.72
16.9
XZ
H
Fund.
434
12.14
11.98
0.2
XZ
H
2nd
868
–33.88
–67.91
34.0
XZ
H
3rd
1302
–27.86
–69.64
41.8
XZ
H
4th
1736
–27.86
–48.84
21.0
XZ
H
5th
2170
–27.86
–45.50
17.6
XZ
H
6th
2604
–27.86
–45.45
17.6
XZ
H
7th
3038
–27.86
–46.15
18.3
XZ
H
8th
3472
–27.86
–42.79
14.9
XZ
H
9th
3906
–27.86
–54.72
26.9
XZ
H
10th
4340
–27.86
–44.46
16.6
YZ
V
Fund.
434
12.14
8.53
3.6
YZ
V
2nd
868
–33.88
–67.63
33.7
Rev. 1.0
Table 5. Radiated Harmonics, Medium Helical Antenna Board Driven by the 4455-PCE10D434
Pico Board in Reduced Power (~+9 dBm) Level and by the
WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard(Continued)
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
ETSI limit in
EIRP [dBm]
Measured
radiated power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
YZ
V
3rd
1302
–27.86
–63.45
35.6
YZ
V
4th
1736
–27.86
–47.37
19.5
YZ
V
5th
2170
–27.86
–48.24
20.4
YZ
V
6th
2604
–27.86
–48.40
20.5
YZ
V
7th
3038
–27.86
–47.56
19.7
YZ
V
8th
3472
–27.86
–40.66
12.8
YZ
V
9th
3906
–27.86
–52.63
24.8
YZ
V
10th
4340
–27.86
–46.40
18.5
YZ
H
Fund.
434
12.14
8.02
4.1
YZ
H
2nd
868
–33.88
–68.64
34.8
YZ
H
3rd
1302
–27.86
–67.91
40.0
YZ
H
4th
1736
–27.86
–46.53
18.7
YZ
H
5th
2170
–27.86
–50.37
22.5
YZ
H
6th
2604
–27.86
–48.34
20.5
YZ
H
7th
3038
–27.86
–52.80
24.9
YZ
H
8th
3472
–27.86
–44.86
17.0
YZ
H
9th
3906
–27.86
–54.17
26.3
YZ
H
10th
4340
–27.86
–43.94
16.1
Rev. 1.0
56
5.5. Range Test (WES0074-01-AWH434M-01)
The available range was measured using the Range Test Demo. This application is supplied with the standard
development kits for EZRadioPRO®. The target of this measurement is to find the distance between the
transceivers where the one-directional PER (Packet Error Rate, number of lost packets) is not more than 1% at
each side with ten byte packet length. The GPS coordinates have been recorded for each spot. The distance
between the spots has been measured using Google Maps, and results are shown in meters. The range was
tested with two identical units held in hands, as shown in Figure 50. Each unit comprises a WMB-930 Wireless
Motherboard, a 4460-PCE10D434 Pico Board, and the DUT (as shown in Figure 50). The 4460-PCE10D434 Pico
Board is set to its normal (~+10 dBm) or to a reduced (~0 dBm) power state. However, the nominal +10 dBm power
setting (state of 0x2D) is valid at 3.3 V VDD only. At 3 V VDD,supplied by the two AA batteries, the power level is
lower, around +8.8 dBm. At the nominal 0 dBm setting (state of 0x07) the power decrease is negligible at 3 V VDD.
The range was tested in a flat land area without obstacles.
During the range test, the following settings were used:
Set
1: Txpow=10 dBm (~8.8 dBm @ 3 V VDD), 40 kbps, 20 kHz dev., RXBW=82.64 kHz
(sens ~–105.5 dBm)
Set 2: Txpow=10 dBm (~8.8 dBm @ 3 V VDD), 100 kbps, 50 kHz dev., RXBW=206.12 kHz
(sens ~–100.7 dBm)
Set 3: Txpow=0 dBm, 2.4 kbps, 2.4 kHz dev., RXBW=25.77 kHz
(sens ~–115.9 dBm)
Using the above settings (Set 1, Set 2, and Set 3) the following range tests are done here:
1. Range measurement with the MEDIUM HELICAL Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are
HORIZONTALLY polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied
setting is "Set 1".
2. Range measurement with the MEDIUM HELICAL Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are
VERTICALLY polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied
setting is "Set 1".
3. Range measurement with the MEDIUM HELICAL Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are
VERTICALLY polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied
setting is "Set 2".
4. Range measurement with the MEDIUM HELICAL Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are
VERTICALLY polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied
setting is "Set 3".
5. Range measurement with the MEDIUM HELICAL Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are
VERTICALLY polarized and the boards are facing each other in their direction of maximum radiation. The
applied setting is "Set 1".
6. Reference range measurement with two 434 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (ANT-433-HETH from Linx
Technologies) in VERTICAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 1".
7. Reference range measurement with two 434 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (ANT-433-HETH from Linx
Technologies) in VERTICAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 3".
8. Reference range measurement with a 434 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (ANT-433-HETH from Linx
Technologies) in HORIZONTAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 1".
The measurement results are summarized in Figure 60.
The indoor range test was not performed, due to the lack of a large enough building. But from the TX power and
sensitivity data, an indoor range estimation can be given if one assumes a propagation factor of 4.5, which is a
typical value in normal office environments. Use the Silicon Labs’ range calculator, which can be found here:
http://www.silabs.com/support/pages/document-library.aspx?p=Wireless&f=EZRadioPRO&pn=Si4460
57
Rev. 1.0
Assuming a –2.4 dBi antenna gain (front direction, X-axes facing) in the XY cut and setting "Set 1" (40 kbps, 1%
PER, +8.8 dBm), the estimated indoor range is 112 m, as shown in Figure 61. To the maximum antenna gain
direction the indoor range between two identical units is ~195 m.
F
Set1 10dBm
Set2 10dBm
40kbps
100kbps
+/-20kHz
+/-50kHz
Set3
2.4kbps
+/-2.4kHz
0dBm
Medium Helical
GPS
N
47.152880°
Base
E
19.180930°
Distance [m]
0.0
H pol; Norm. direction
Medium Helical (WES0074)
1
Set1
10dBm
40kbps
+/-20kHz
GPS
N
E
47.161360° 19.173700°
1089.9
V pol; Norm. direction
2
3
4
Set1
Set2
Set3
10dBm
10dBm
0dBm
40kbps
100kbps
2.4kbps
+/-20kHz
+/-50kHz
+/-2.4kHz
GPS
N
E
47.162360° 19.173520°
47.160090° 19.173880°
47.162760° 19.173440°
1193.8
962.8
1236.0
Max. direction: XYH 300°
5
Set1
10dBm
40kbps
+/-20kHz
GPS
N
E
47.163850° 19.173290°
1349.7
ANT-433-HETH from LINX
V pol; Norm. direction
6
7
Set1
Set3
10dBm
0dBm
40kbps
2.4kbps
+/-20kHz
+/-2.4kHz
GPS
N
E
47.167850° 19.172640°
47.162300°
19.17351
1778.7
1188.2
H pol; Norm. direction
8
Set1
10dBm
40kbps
+/-20kHz
GPS
N
E
47.163520° 19.173330°
1315.3
Figure 60. Outdoor Range Test Results with Two Identical Medium Sized Helical Antenna Boards
Driven by Reduced Power 4460-PCE10D434 Pico Boards and WMB-930 Wireless Motherboards.
Range Test Results with Reference Monopoles are Also Shown.
Rev. 1.0
58
Figure 61. Indoor Range Estimation with Two Identical Medium Sized Helical Antenna Boards
Driven by Reduced Power 4460-PCE10D434 Pico Boards and WMB-930 Wireless Motherboards
59
Rev. 1.0
6. Panic Button IFA (WES0075-01-APF434P-01)
The Panic Button IFA antenna has the following characteristics:
The
antenna trace width is 0.5 mm.
distance between the antenna trace outer edge and the PCB cutting edge is 1.5 mm.
The distance between the antenna trace inner edge and ground metal is 2 mm.
No capacitance (Ctop) at the end of the antenna is required.
No parallel capacitance or any other matching element at the antenna input is required. Only a series 0 Ω
is used to connect the antenna as it is shown in Figure 63.
The antenna is shown in Figure 64.
The
Figure 62. External Matching Network for the Panic Button IFA Antenna
Figure 63. Small IFA Antenna for Panic Button Applications
Rev. 1.0
60
6.1. Antenna Impedance (WES0075-01-APF434P-01)
The impedance measurement setup is shown in Figure 64. The antenna board is connected to the 4455PCE10D434 Pico Board through a male-to-male SMA transition with the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard driving
the Pico Board.
During the range test, the user’s hand holds the motherboard. Typical hand position is shown in Figure 65.
Figure 64. DUT in the Impedance Measurement Setup
(Panic Button IFA Antenna Board [WES0075])
61
Rev. 1.0
Figure 65. Typical Hand Effect on the Main Board during Impedance and Range Measurement
(Panic Button IFA [WES0075] Antenna Board)
Rev. 1.0
62
The measured impedance of the antenna with its external matching network is shown in Figure 66 (up to 1.5 GHz)
with motherboard hand effect.
Figure 66. Measured Impedance up to 1.5 GHz with Hand Effect on the Main Board
63
Rev. 1.0
6.2. Antenna Gain (WES0075-01-APF434P-01)
The antenna gain is calculated from the measured radiated power at the fundamental and from the delivered power
to the antenna. In the radiation measurement the 4455-PCE10D434 Pico Board is set to a reduced (~+9 dBm)
power level and the entire setup is fed by two AA batteries. The conducted SA measurement result of the 4455PCE10D434 Pico Board in this reduced (~10 dBm) power state is shown in Figure 67. This method can be
effectively applied because the S11 of the antenna is much better than –10 dB, so the reflection is negligible.
Figure 67. Conducted Measurement Result, 4455-PCE10D434 in Reduced (~+9 dBm) Power
Level: the State is 0x4F, and VDD is ~2.9 V (Two AA Batteries)
The measured radiated power maximum is at the XZ cut (Table 6). It is around 4 dBm EIRP, so the maximum gain
number is ~–5 dBi, as shown in Figure 72.
This gain number is surprisingly high for a panic button antenna. It should be emphasized that in typical panic
button applications the grounding environment and the strength of the hand effect is different. In real panic button
applications (instead of the SMA connector, SMA male-male transition, Pico Board and wireless motherboard),
only a lithium coin battery is applied and the achievable antenna gain is much weaker.
Also, in wrist applications the very close parallel hand has a strong detuning effect. In these applications, further
impedance tuning of the antenna is required, and the radiation efficiency degrades strongly. Refer to the
application note, “AN853: Single-ended Antenna Matrix Design Guide” for more information.
64
Rev. 1.0
6.3. Radiation Patterns (WES0075-01-APF434P-01)
The radiation patterns of the small IFA antenna were measured in an antenna chamber using the 4455PCE10D434 Pico Board connected through a male-to-male SMA transition with the WMB-930 Wireless
Motherboard driving the Pico Board. Figure 69—Figure 74 show the radiation patterns at the fundamental
frequency in the XY, XZ, and YZ cut, with both horizontal and vertical receiver antenna polarization. The rotator
was stepped in five degrees to record the radiation pattern in 360 degrees.
The DUT with coordinate system under the radiated measurements is shown in Figure 68. In the XY cut the
rotation starts from the X-axis, while in the XZ and YZ cuts rotation starts from the Z-axis.
Figure 68. DUT in the Antenna Chamber
65
Rev. 1.0
The measured radiation patterns (antenna gain in dBi) are shown in the following six figures (Figure 69–Figure 74).
Figure 69. Radiation Pattern in the XY Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 70. Radiation Pattern in the XY Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
Rev. 1.0
66
Figure 71. Radiation Pattern in the XZ Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 72. Radiation Pattern in the XZ Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
67
Rev. 1.0
Figure 73. Radiation Pattern in the YZ Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 74. Radiation Pattern in the YZ Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
Rev. 1.0
68
6.4. Radiated Harmonics (WES0075-01-APF434P-01)
The radiated harmonics of the small Panic IFA antenna were also measured in an antenna chamber using the
4455-PCE10D434 Pico Board connected through a male-to-male SMA transition with the WMB-930 Wireless
Motherboard driving the Pico Board. The 4455-PCE10D434 Pico Board is set to a power state of 0x4F and a VDD
of ~2.9 V (two AA batteries) to deliver ~9 dBm, as shown in Figure 67. The maximum radiated power levels, up to
the 10th harmonic, were measured in the XY, XZ, and YZ cut with both horizontal and vertical polarized receiver
antenna. The results are shown in the following EIRP table (Table 6) together with the corresponding standard
limits.
The small sized panic button IFA antenna driven by the Si4455/60 Class E match complies with the ETSI harmonic
regulations.
Table 6. Radiated Harmonics, Panic Button IFA Board Connected to Reduced Power (~+9 dBm)
4455-PCE10D434 Driven by WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard
69
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
ETSI limit in
EIRP [dBm]
Measured
radiated power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
XY
V
Fund.
434
12.14
–0.74
12.9
XY
V
2nd
868
–33.88
–70.76
36.9
XY
V
3rd
1302
–27.86
–66.79
38.9
XY
V
4th
1736
–27.86
–45.68
17.8
XY
V
5th
2170
–27.86
–45.41
17.5
XY
V
6th
2604
–27.86
–48.82
21.0
XY
V
7th
3038
–27.86
–56.41
28.6
XY
V
8th
3472
–27.86
–46.96
19.1
XY
V
9th
3906
–27.86
–51.31
23.5
XY
V
10th
4340
–27.86
–43.31
15.5
XY
H
Fund.
434
12.14
1.57
10.6
XY
H
2nd
868
–33.88
–70.53
36.6
XY
H
3rd
1302
–27.86
–69.10
41.2
XY
H
4th
1736
–27.86
–48.97
21.1
XY
H
5th
2170
–27.86
–51.43
23.6
XY
H
6th
2604
–27.86
–49.31
21.4
XY
H
7th
3038
–27.86
–56.57
28.7
XY
H
8th
3472
–27.86
–48.28
20.4
XY
H
9th
3906
–27.86
–51.04
23.2
Rev. 1.0
Table 6. Radiated Harmonics, Panic Button IFA Board Connected to Reduced Power (~+9 dBm)
4455-PCE10D434 Driven by WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard(Continued)
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
ETSI limit in
EIRP [dBm]
Measured
radiated power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
XY
H
10th
4340
–27.86
–43.80
15.9
XZ
V
Fund.
434
12.14
–8.77
20.9
XZ
V
2nd
868
–33.88
–66.76
32.9
XZ
V
3rd
1302
–27.86
–67.25
39.4
XZ
V
4th
1736
–27.86
–48.68
20.8
XZ
V
5th
2170
–27.86
–46.32
18.5
XZ
V
6th
2604
–27.86
–47.16
19.3
XZ
V
7th
3038
–27.86
–55.47
27.6
XZ
V
8th
3472
–27.86
–46.54
18.7
XZ
V
9th
3906
–27.86
–50.74
22.9
XZ
V
10th
4340
–27.86
–38.75
10.9
XZ
H
Fund.
434
12.14
3.96
8.2
XZ
H
2nd
868
–33.88
–70.01
36.1
XZ
H
3rd
1302
–27.86
–70.36
42.5
XZ
H
4th
1736
–27.86
–47.32
19.5
XZ
H
5th
2170
–27.86
–46.36
18.5
XZ
H
6th
2604
–27.86
–43.00
15.1
XZ
H
7th
3038
–27.86
–54.80
26.9
XZ
H
8th
3472
–27.86
–45.84
18.0
XZ
H
9th
3906
–27.86
–52.94
25.1
XZ
H
10th
4340
–27.86
–40.69
12.8
YZ
V
Fund.
434
12.14
–0.11
12.3
YZ
V
2nd
868
–33.88
–66.13
32.3
YZ
V
3rd
1302
–27.86
–67.48
39.6
Rev. 1.0
70
Table 6. Radiated Harmonics, Panic Button IFA Board Connected to Reduced Power (~+9 dBm)
4455-PCE10D434 Driven by WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard(Continued)
71
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
ETSI limit in
EIRP [dBm]
Measured
radiated power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
YZ
V
4th
1736
–27.86
–47.41
19.6
YZ
V
5th
2170
–27.86
–47.86
20.0
YZ
V
6th
2604
–27.86
–48.97
21.1
YZ
V
7th
3038
–27.86
–55.14
27.3
YZ
V
8th
3472
–27.86
–45.64
17.8
YZ
V
9th
3906
–27.86
–52.48
24.6
YZ
V
10th
4340
–27.86
–44.76
16.9
YZ
H
Fund.
434
12.14
0.21
11.9
YZ
H
2nd
868
–33.88
–69.26
35.4
YZ
H
3rd
1302
–27.86
–69.72
41.9
YZ
H
4th
1736
–27.86
–47.73
19.9
YZ
H
5th
2170
–27.86
–49.49
21.6
YZ
H
6th
2604
–27.86
–43.09
15.2
YZ
H
7th
3038
–27.86
–58.56
30.7
YZ
H
8th
3472
–27.86
–47.22
19.4
YZ
H
9th
3906
–27.86
–52.74
24.9
YZ
H
10th
4340
–27.86
–40.70
12.8
Rev. 1.0
6.5. Range Test (WES0075-01-APF434P-01)
The available range was measured using the Range Test Demo. This application is supplied with the standard
development kits for EZRadioPRO®. The target of this measurement is to find the distance between the
transceivers where the one-directional PER (Packet Error Rate, number of lost packets) is not more than 1% at
each side with ten byte long packets. The GPS coordinates have been recorded for each spot. The distance
between the spots has been measured using Google Maps, and results are shown in meters. The range was
tested between two identical units with the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard, 4460-PCE10D434 Pico Board, and
the DUT (as shown in Figure 65) held by the users hand. The 4460-PCE10D434 Pico Board is set to its normal
(~+10 dBm) or to a reduced (~0 dBm) power state. However, the nominal +10 dBm power setting (state of 0x2D) is
valid at 3.3 V VDD only. At 3 V VDD, supplied by the two AA batteries the power level is lower, around +8.8 dBm. At
the nominal 0 dBm setting (state of 0x07) the power decrease is negligible at 3V VDD.
The range was tested in a flat land area without obstacles.
During the range test, the following settings (Set 1, Set 2, and Set 3) were used:
Set
1: Txpow=10 dBm (~8.8 dBm @ 3 V VDD), 40 kbps, 20 kHz dev., RXBW=82.64 kHz
(sens ~–105.5 dBm)
Set 2: Txpow=10 dBm (~8.8 dBm @ 3 V VDD), 100 kbps, 50 kHz dev., RXBW=206.12 kHz
(sens ~–100.7 dBm)
Set 3: Txpow=0 dBm, 2.4 kbps, 2.4 kHz dev., RXBW=25.77 kHz
(sens ~–115.9 dBm)
Using the above settings the following range tests are done here:
1. Range measurement with the PANIC BUTTON IFA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are
HORIZONTALLY polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied
setting is "Set 1".
2. Range measurement with the PANIC BUTTON IFA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are
VERTICALLY polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied
setting is "Set 1".
3. Range measurement with the PANIC BUTTON IFA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are
VERTICALLY polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied
setting is "Set 2".
4. Range measurement with the PANIC BUTTON IFA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are
VERTICALLY polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied
setting is "Set 3".
5. Range measurement with the PANIC BUTTON IFA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are
VERTICALLY polarized and boards are facing each other in their direction of maximum radiation. The
applied setting is "Set 1".
6. Reference range measurement with two 434 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (ANT-433-HETH from Linx
Technologies) in VERTICAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 1".
7. Reference range measurement with two 434 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (ANT-433-HETH from Linx
Technologies) in VERTICAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 3".
8. Reference range measurement with a 434 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (ANT-433-HETH from Linx
Technologies) in HORIZONTAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 1".
The measurement results are summarized in Figure 75.
Note: These range test results are valid with the above configuration and with moderate hand effect. In normal battery-operated, small push-button applications, where there is no large GND (motherboard) close to the antenna and where the
antenna is usually very close to the user's hand, the achievable range is most likely much shorter.
Rev. 1.0
72
The indoor range test was not performed, due to the lack of a large enough building. But from the TX power and
sensitivity data, an indoor range estimation can be given if one assumes a propagation factor of 4.5, which is a
typical value in normal office environments. Use the Silicon Labs’ range calculator, which can be found here:
http://www.silabs.com/support/pages/document-library.aspx?p=Wireless&f=EZRadioPRO&pn=Si4460
Assuming a –9.7 dBi antenna gain (front direction, X axes facing) and the setting "Set 1" (40 kbps, 1% PER,
+8.8 dBm), the estimated indoor range is 53 m, as shown in Figure 76. To the maximum antenna gain direction the
indoor range between two identical units is ~86 m.
F
Set1 10dBm
Set2 10dBm
40kbps
100kbps
+/-20kHz
+/-50kHz
Set3
2.4kbps
+/-2.4kHz
0dBm
Panic Button IFA
GPS
N
47.152880°
Base
E
19.180930°
Distance [m]
0.0
H pol; Norm. direction
Panic Button IFA (WES0075)
1
Set1
10dBm
40kbps
+/-20kHz
GPS
N
E
47.156480° 19.175000°
601.1
V pol; Norm. direction
2
3
4
Set1
Set2
Set3
10dBm
10dBm
0dBm
40kbps
100kbps
2.4kbps
+/-20kHz
+/-50kHz
+/-2.4kHz
GPS
N
E
47.160390° 19.173840°
47.156050° 19.175610°
47.158710° 19.174100°
992.3
534.9
828.8
Max. direction: XZH 245°
5
Set1
10dBm
40kbps
+/-20kHz
GPS
N
E
47.161700° 19.173640°
1125.0
ANT-433-HETH from LINX
V pol; Norm. direction
6
7
Set1
Set3
10dBm
0dBm
40kbps
2.4kbps
+/-20kHz
+/-2.4kHz
GPS
N
E
47.167850° 19.172640°
47.162300° 19.17351
1778.7
1188.2
H pol; Norm. direction
8
Set1
10dBm
40kbps
+/-20kHz
GPS
N
E
47.163520° 19.173330°
1315.3
Figure 75. Outdoor Range Test Results with Two Identical IFA Panic Button Antenna Boards
Driven by Reduced Power 4460-PCE10D434 Pico Boards and WMB-930 Wireless Motherboards.
Range Test Results with Reference Monopoles are Also Shown.
73
Rev. 1.0
Figure 76. Indoor Range Estimation with Two Identical IFA Panic Button Antenna Boards Driven
by Reduced Power 4460-PCE10D434 Pico Boards and WMB-930 Wireless Motherboards
Rev. 1.0
74
7. Panic Button ILA (Printed) Along the Circumference
(WES0076-01-APL434P-01)
The Panic Button ILA antenna has the following characteristics:
The
antenna trace width is 0.5 mm.
distance between the antenna trace outer edge and the PCB cutting edge is 1.5 mm.
The distance between the antenna trace inner edge and ground metal is 2 mm.
External matching network (shown in Figure 77) is required at the antenna input.
The
Figure 77. External Matching Network at 434 MHz for the Panic Button ILA Antenna
The antenna is shown in Figure 78.
Figure 78. Small ILA Antenna for Panic Button Applications
Rev. 1.0
75
7.1. Antenna Impedance (WES0076-01-APL434P-01)
The impedance measurement setup is shown in Figure 79. The antenna board is connected to the 4455PCE10D434 Pico Board through a male-to-male SMA transition with the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard driving
the Pico Board.
During the range test the user’s hand holds the motherboard. Typical hand position is shown in Figure 80.
Figure 79. DUT in the Impedance Measurement Setup (Panic Button ILA [WES0076])
76
Rev. 1.0
Figure 80. Typical Hand Effect on the Main Board During Impedance and Range Measurement
(Panic Button ILA Ceramic Antenna Board (WES0076)
The measured impedance of the antenna with its external matching network is shown in Figure 81 (up to 1.5 GHz)
with motherboard hand effect.
Figure 81. Measured Impedance up to 1.5 GHz with Hand Effect on the Main Board
Rev. 1.0
77
7.2. Antenna Gain (WES0076-01-APL434P-01)
The antenna gain is calculated from the measured radiated power at the fundamental and from the delivered power
to the antenna. In the radiation measurement, the 4455-PCE10D434 Pico Board is set to reduced (~+9 dBm)
power level and the entire setup is fed by two AA batteries. The conducted SA measurement result of the 4455PCE10D434 Pico Board in this reduced (~10 dBm) power state is shown in Figure 82. This method can be
effectively applied because the S11 of the antenna is much better than –10 dB, so the reflection loss is negligible.
Figure 82. Conducted Measurement Result,4455-PCE10D434 in Reduced (~+9 dBm) Power Level:
the State is 0x4F, and VDD is ~2.9 V (Two AA Batteries)
The measured radiated power maximum is at the XZ cut (Table 7). It is around 4.8 dBm EIRP, so the maximum
gain number is ~–4.2 dBi, as shown in Figure 86.
This gain number is surprisingly high for a panic button antenna. It should be emphasized that in typical panic
button applications the grounding environment and the strength of the hand effect is different. In real panic button
applications (instead of the SMA connector, SMA male-male transition, Pico Board and wireless motherboard) only
a lithium coin battery is applied and the achievable antenna gain is much weaker.
Also in wrist applications the very close parallel hand has a strong detuning effect. In these applications further
impedance tuning of the antenna is required and the radiation efficiency degrades strongly. Refer to the application
note, “AN853: Single-ended Antenna Matrix Design Guide” for more information.
78
Rev. 1.0
7.3. Radiation Patterns (WES0076-01-APL434P-01)
The radiation patterns of the small ILA antenna were measured in an antenna chamber using the 4455PCE10D434 Pico Board connected through a male-to-male SMA transition with the WMB-930 Wireless
Motherboard driving the Pico Board. Figure 84—Figure 89 show the radiation patterns at the fundamental
frequency in the XY, XZ, YZ cut, with both horizontal and vertical receiver antenna polarization. The rotator was
stepped in five degrees to record the radiation pattern in 360 degrees.
The DUT with coordinate system under the radiated measurements is shown in Figure 83. In the XY cut the
rotation starts from the X-axis, while in the XZ and YZ cuts rotation starts from the Z-axis.
Figure 83. DUT in the Antenna Chamber
Rev. 1.0
79
The measured radiation patterns (antenna gain in dBi) are shown in the following six figures (Figure 84–Figure 89).
Figure 84. Radiation Pattern in the XY Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 85. Radiation Pattern in the XY Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
80
Rev. 1.0
Figure 86. Radiation Pattern in the XZ Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 87. Radiation Pattern in the XZ Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
Rev. 1.0
81
Figure 88. Radiation Pattern in the YZ Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 89. Radiation Pattern in the YZ Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
82
Rev. 1.0
7.4. Radiated Harmonics (WES0076-01-APL434P-01)
The radiated harmonics of the small ILA antenna were also measured in an antenna chamber using the 4455PCE10D434 Pico Board connected through a male-to-male SMA transition with the WMB-930 Wireless
Motherboard driving the Pico Board. The 4455-PCE10D434 Pico Board is set to a power state of 0x4F and a VDD
of ~2.9 V (two AA batteries) to deliver ~9 dBm, as Figure 82 shows. The maximum radiated power levels, up to the
10th harmonic, were measured in the XY, XZ, and YZ cut, with both horizontal and vertical polarized receiver
antenna. The results are shown in the following EIRP table (Table 7) together with the corresponding standard
limits.
The small sized panic button ILA antenna driven by the Si4455/60 class E match complies with the ETSI harmonic
regulations.
Table 7. Radiated Harmonics, Panic Button ILA Antenna Driven by the Reduced Power (~+9 dBm)
4455-PCE10D434 Pico Board and by the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
ETSI limit in
EIRP [dBm]
Measured
radiated power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
XY
V
Fund.
434
12.14
0.18
12.0
XY
V
2nd
868
–33.88
–71.83
37.9
XY
V
3rd
1302
–27.86
–70.36
42.5
XY
V
4th
1736
–27.86
–44.63
16.8
XY
V
5th
2170
–27.86
–38.37
10.5
XY
V
6th
2604
–27.86
–42.26
14.4
XY
V
7th
3038
–27.86
–46.96
19.1
XY
V
8th
3472
–27.86
–44.19
16.3
XY
V
9th
3906
–27.86
–48.55
20.7
XY
V
10th
4340
–27.86
–39.99
12.1
XY
H
Fund.
434
12.14
2.52
9.6
XY
H
2nd
868
–33.88
–70.00
36.1
XY
H
3rd
1302
–27.86
–70.10
42.2
XY
H
4th
1736
–27.86
–49.32
21.5
XY
H
5th
2170
–27.86
–43.82
16.0
XY
H
6th
2604
–27.86
–43.18
15.3
XY
H
7th
3038
–27.86
–46.17
18.3
XY
H
8th
3472
–27.86
–45.91
18.1
XY
H
9th
3906
–27.86
–48.67
20.8
Rev. 1.0
83
Table 7. Radiated Harmonics, Panic Button ILA Antenna Driven by the Reduced Power (~+9 dBm)
4455-PCE10D434 Pico Board and by the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard(Continued)
84
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
ETSI limit in
EIRP [dBm]
Measured
radiated power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
XY
H
10th
4340
–27.86
–42.94
15.1
XZ
V
Fund.
434
12.14
–6.74
18.9
XZ
V
2nd
868
–33.88
–66.31
32.4
XZ
V
3rd
1302
–27.86
–70.01
42.2
XZ
V
4th
1736
–27.86
–48.79
20.9
XZ
V
5th
2170
–27.86
–39.23
11.4
XZ
V
6th
2604
–27.86
–41.79
13.9
XZ
V
7th
3038
–27.86
–44.83
17.0
XZ
V
8th
3472
–27.86
–45.04
17.2
XZ
V
9th
3906
–27.86
–49.40
21.5
XZ
V
10th
4340
–27.86
–35.75
7.9
XZ
H
Fund.
434
12.14
4.78
7.4
XZ
H
2nd
868
–33.88
–68.28
34.4
XZ
H
3rd
1302
–27.86
–70.18
42.3
XZ
H
4th
1736
–27.86
–47.23
19.4
XZ
H
5th
2170
–27.86
–39.56
11.7
XZ
H
6th
2604
–27.86
–36.85
9.0
XZ
H
7th
3038
–27.86
–44.51
16.7
XZ
H
8th
3472
–27.86
–42.95
15.1
XZ
H
9th
3906
–27.86
–48.81
21.0
XZ
H
10th
4340
–27.86
–38.98
11.1
YZ
V
Fund.
434
12.14
0.86
11.3
YZ
V
2nd
868
–33.88
–64.74
30.9
YZ
V
3rd
1302
–27.86
–69.85
42.0
Rev. 1.0
Table 7. Radiated Harmonics, Panic Button ILA Antenna Driven by the Reduced Power (~+9 dBm)
4455-PCE10D434 Pico Board and by the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard(Continued)
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
ETSI limit in
EIRP [dBm]
Measured
radiated power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
YZ
V
4th
1736
–27.86
–47.41
19.5
YZ
V
5th
2170
–27.86
–42.35
14.5
YZ
V
6th
2604
–27.86
–44.16
16.3
YZ
V
7th
3038
–27.86
–45.82
18.0
YZ
V
8th
3472
–27.86
–41.54
13.7
YZ
V
9th
3906
–27.86
–50.99
23.1
YZ
V
10th
4340
–27.86
–40.67
12.8
YZ
H
Fund.
434
12.14
1.10
11.0
YZ
H
2nd
868
–33.88
–69.15
35.3
YZ
H
3rd
1302
–27.86
–69.75
41.9
YZ
H
4th
1736
–27.86
–47.35
19.5
YZ
H
5th
2170
–27.86
–43.16
15.3
YZ
H
6th
2604
–27.86
–41.12
13.3
YZ
H
7th
3038
–27.86
–50.38
22.5
YZ
H
8th
3472
–27.86
–45.32
17.5
YZ
H
9th
3906
–27.86
–50.73
22.9
YZ
H
10th
4340
–27.86
–37.41
9.5
Rev. 1.0
85
7.5. Range Test (WES0076-01-APL434P-01)
The available range was measured using the Range Test Demo. This application is supplied with the standard
development kits for EZRadioPRO®. The target of this measurement is to find the distance between the
transceivers where the unidirectional PER (Packet Error Rate, number of lost packets) is not more than 1% at each
side with ten byte packet length. The GPS coordinates have been recorded for each spot. The distance between
the spots has been measured using Google Maps, and results are shown in meters. The range was tested
between two identical units with the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard, 4460-PCE10D434 Pico Board and the DUT
(as shown in Figure 80) held by the users hand. During the tests the 4460-PCE10D434 is set to either +10 dBm or
0 dBm power state. The nominal +10 dBm power setting (state of 0x2D) is valid at 3.3 V VDD only. At 3 V VDD,
supplied by the two AA batteries, the power level is lower, around +8.8 dBm. At the nominal 0 dBm setting (state of
0x07) the power decrease is negligible at 3 V VDD.
The range was tested in a flat land area without obstacles.
During the range test, the following settings were used:
Set
1: Txpow=10 dBm (~8.8 dBm @ 3 V VDD), 40 kbps, 20 kHz dev., RXBW=82.64 kHz
(sens ~–105.5 dBm)
Set 2: Txpow=10 dBm (~8.8 dBm @ 3 V VDD), 100 kbps, 50 kHz dev., RXBW=206.12 kHz
(sens ~–100.7 dBm)
Set 3: Txpow=0 dBm, 2.4 kbps, 2.4 kHz dev., RXBW=25.77 kHz
(sens ~–115.9 dBm)
Using the above settings (Set 1, Set 2, and Set 3) the following range tests are done here:
1. Range measurement with the PANIC BUTTON ILA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are
HORIZONTALLY polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied
setting is "Set 1".
2. Range measurement with the PANIC BUTTON ILA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are
VERTICALLY polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied
setting is "Set 1".
3. Range measurement with the PANIC BUTTON ILA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are
VERTICALLY polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied
setting is "Set 2".
4. Range measurement with the PANIC BUTTON ILA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are
VERTICALLY polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied
setting is "Set 3".
5. Range measurement with the PANIC BUTTON ILA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are
VERTICALLY polarized and boards are facing each other in their direction of maximum radiation. The
applied setting is "Set 1".
6. Reference range measurement with two 434 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (ANT-433-HETH from Linx
Technologies) in VERTICAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 1".
7. Reference range measurement with two 434 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (ANT-433-HETH from Linx
Technologies) in VERTICAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 3".
8. Reference range measurement with a 434 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (ANT-433-HETH from Linx
Technologies) in HORIZONTAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 1".
The measurement results are summarized in Figure 90.
Note: These range test results are valid with the above configuration and with moderate hand effect. In normal battery-operated, small push-button applications, where there is no large GND (motherboard) close to the antenna and where the
antenna is usually very close to the user's hand, the achievable range is most likely much shorter.
86
Rev. 1.0
The indoor range test was not performed, due to the lack of a large enough building. But from the TX power and
sensitivity data, an indoor range estimation can be given if one assumes a propagation factor of 4.5, which is a
typical value in normal office environments. Use the Silicon Labs’ range calculator, which can be found here:
http://www.silabs.com/support/pages/document-library.aspx?p=Wireless&f=EZRadioPRO&pn=Si4460
Assuming –8.8 dBi antenna gain (front direction, X-axes facing) and the setting "Set 1" (40 kbps, 1% PER,
+8.8 dBm), the estimated indoor range is 58 m, as shown in Figure 91. To the maximum antenna gain direction, the
indoor range between two identical units is ~92 m.
F
Set1 10dBm
Set2 10dBm
40kbps
100kbps
+/-20kHz
+/-50kHz
Set3
2.4kbps
+/-2.4kHz
0dBm
Panic Button ILA
GPS
N
47.152880°
Base
E
19.180930°
Distance [m]
0.0
H pol; Norm. direction
Panic Button ILA (WES0076)
1
Set1
10dBm
40kbps
+/-20kHz
GPS
N
E
47.155060° 19.176940°
387.0
V pol; Norm. direction
2
3
4
Set1
Set2
Set3
10dBm
10dBm
0dBm
40kbps
100kbps
2.4kbps
+/-20kHz
+/-50kHz
+/-2.4kHz
GPS
N
E
47.158860° 19.174090°
47.155360° 19.176620°
47.158250° 19.174170°
842.4
426.9
786.0
Max. direction: XZH 240°
5
Set1
10dBm
40kbps
+/-20kHz
GPS
N
E
47.160870° 19.173760°
1040.8
ANT-433-HETH from LINX
V pol; Norm. direction
6
7
Set1
Set3
10dBm
0dBm
40kbps
2.4kbps
+/-20kHz
+/-2.4kHz
GPS
N
E
47.167850° 19.172640°
47.162300° 19.17351
1778.7
1188.2
H pol; Norm. direction
8
Set1
10dBm
40kbps
+/-20kHz
GPS
N
E
47.163520° 19.173330°
1315.3
Figure 90. Outdoor Range Test Results with Two Identical ILA Panic Button Antenna Boards
Driven by Reduced Power 4460-PCE10D434 Pico Boards and WMB-930 Wireless Motherboards.
Range Test Results with Reference Monopoles are Also Shown.
Rev. 1.0
87
Figure 91. Indoor Range Estimation with Two Identical ILA Panic Button Antenna Boards Driven
by Reduced Power 4460-PCE10D434 Pico Boards and WMB-930 Wireless Motherboards
88
Rev. 1.0
8. Printed Meander Monopole (WES0077-01-APN434D-01)
For the Printed Meander Monopole, an external matching network (shown in Figure 92) is required at the antenna
input.
Figure 92. External Matching Network at 434 M for the Printed Meander Antenna
The antenna is shown in Figure 93.
Figure 93. Printed Meander Monopole Antenna
Rev. 1.0
89
8.1. Antenna Impedance (WES0077-01-APN434D-01)
The measurement setup is shown in Figure 94. The antenna board is connected to the 4455-PCE10D434 Pico
Board through a male-to-male SMA transition with the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard driving the Pico Board.
During the range test, the user’s hand holds the motherboard. Typical hand position is shown in Figure 95.
Figure 94. DUT in the Impedance Measurement Setup
(Meander Monopole Antenna Board [WES0077])
90
Rev. 1.0
Figure 95. Typical Hand Effect on the Main Board During Impedance and Range Measurement
(Printed Meander Antenna Board [WES0077])
The measured impedance of the antenna with its external matching network is shown in Figure 96 (up to 1.5 GHz)
with motherboard hand effect.
\
Figure 96. Measured Impedance up to 1.5 GHz with Hand Effect on the Main Board
Rev. 1.0
91
8.2. Antenna Gain (WES0077-01-APN434D-01)
The antenna gain is calculated from the measured radiated power at the fundamental and from the delivered power
to the antenna. In the radiation measurement, the 4455-PCE10D434 Pico Board is set to reduced (~+9 dBm)
power level, and the entire setup is fed by two AA batteries. The conducted SA measurement result of the 4455PCE10D434 Pico Board in this reduced (~10 dBm) power state is shown in Figure 97. This method can be
effectively applied because the S11 of the antenna is much better than –10 dB, so the reflection is negligible.
Figure 97. Conducted Measurement Result, 4461-PCE10D434 in Reduced (~10 dBm) Power State
The measured radiated power maximum is at the XY cut (Table 8). It is around 12.1 dBm EIRP, so the maximum
gain number is ~3.1 dBi, as shown in Figure 98.
92
Rev. 1.0
8.3. Radiation Patterns (WES0077-01-APN434D-01)
The radiation patterns of the printed meander antenna were measured in an antenna chamber using the 4455PCE10D434 Pico Board connected through a male-to-male SMA transition with the WMB-930 Wireless
Motherboard driving the Pico Board. Figure 99—Figure 104 show the radiation patterns at the fundamental
frequency in the XY, XZ, and YZ cut, with both horizontal and vertical receiver antenna polarization. The rotator
was stepped in five degrees to record the radiation pattern in 360 degrees.
The DUT with coordinate system under the radiated measurements is shown in Figure 98. In the XY cut the
rotation starts from the X-axis, while in the XZ and YZ cuts rotation starts from the Z-axis.
Figure 98. DUT in the Antenna Chamber
93
Rev. 1.0
The measured radiation patterns (antenna gain in dBi) are shown in the following six figures (Figure 99–
Figure 104).
Figure 99. Radiation Pattern in the XY Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 100. Radiation Pattern in the XY Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
94
Rev. 1.0
Figure 101. Radiation Pattern in the XZ Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 102. Radiation Pattern in the XZ Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
Rev. 1.0
95
Figure 103. Radiation Pattern in the YZ Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 104. Radiation Pattern in the YZ Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
96
Rev. 1.0
8.4. Radiated Harmonics (WES0077-01-APN434D-01)
The radiated harmonics of the printed meander antenna were also measured in an antenna chamber using the
4455-PCE10D434 Pico Board connected through a male-to-male SMA transition with the WMB-930 Wireless
Motherboard driving the Pico Board. The 4455-PCE10D434 Pico Board is set to a power state of 0x4F and a VDD
of ~2.9 V (two AA batteries) to deliver ~9 dBm, as Figure 97shows. The maximum radiated power levels, up to the
10th harmonic, were measured in the XY, XZ, and YZ cut, with both horizontal and vertical polarized receiver
antenna. The results are shown in the following EIRP table(Table 8) together with the corresponding standard
limits.
The antenna is ETSI compliant.
Table 8. Radiated Harmonics, Printed Meander Antenna Board Driven by the
Reduced Power (~+ 9 dBm) 4455-PCE10D434 and by the
WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
ETSI limit in
EIRP [dBm]
Measured
radiated power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
XY
V
Fund.
434
12.14
9.01
3.1
XY
V
2nd
868
–33.88
–70.44
36.6
XY
V
3rd
1302
–27.86
–66.76
38.9
XY
V
4th
1736
–27.86
–50.44
22.6
XY
V
5th
2170
–27.86
–40.45
12.6
XY
V
6th
2604
–27.86
–41.35
13.5
XY
V
7th
3038
–27.86
–44.06
16.2
XY
V
8th
3472
–27.86
–46.53
18.7
XY
V
9th
3906
–27.86
–45.14
17.3
XY
V
10th
4340
–27.86
–40.34
12.5
XY
H
Fund.
434
12.14
7.12
5.0
XY
H
2nd
868
–33.88
–73.16
39.3
XY
H
3rd
1302
–27.86
–67.18
39.3
XY
H
4th
1736
–27.86
–53.85
26.0
XY
H
5th
2170
–27.86
–47.10
19.2
XY
H
6th
2604
–27.86
–40.03
12.2
XY
H
7th
3038
–27.86
–43.65
15.8
XY
H
8th
3472
–27.86
–48.29
20.4
XY
H
9th
3906
–27.86
–45.51
17.7
Rev. 1.0
97
Table 8. Radiated Harmonics, Printed Meander Antenna Board Driven by the
Reduced Power (~+ 9 dBm) 4455-PCE10D434 and by the
WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard(Continued)
98
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
ETSI limit in
EIRP [dBm]
Measured
radiated power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
XY
H
10th
4340
–27.86
–43.00
15.1
XZ
V
Fund.
434
12.14
–3.05
15.2
XZ
V
2nd
868
–33.88
–68.68
34.8
XZ
V
3rd
1302
–27.86
–67.55
39.7
XZ
V
4th
1736
–27.86
–51.86
24.0
XZ
V
5th
2170
–27.86
–41.82
14.0
XZ
V
6th
2604
–27.86
–36.46
8.6
XZ
V
7th
3038
–27.86
–40.66
12.8
XZ
V
8th
3472
–27.86
–45.41
17.6
XZ
V
9th
3906
–27.86
–45.06
17.2
XZ
V
10th
4340
–27.86
–36.05
8.2
XZ
H
Fund.
434
12.14
12.11
0.0
XZ
H
2nd
868
–33.88
–71.04
37.2
XZ
H
3rd
1302
–27.86
–68.00
40.1
XZ
H
4th
1736
–27.86
–52.25
24.4
XZ
H
5th
2170
–27.86
–40.98
13.1
XZ
H
6th
2604
–27.86
–35.21
7.3
XZ
H
7th
3038
–27.86
–43.29
15.4
XZ
H
8th
3472
–27.86
–44.10
16.2
XZ
H
9th
3906
–27.86
–46.27
18.4
XZ
H
10th
4340
–27.86
–39.44
11.6
YZ
V
Fund.
434
12.14
5.04
7.1
YZ
V
2nd
868
–33.88
–67.86
34.0
Rev. 1.0
Table 8. Radiated Harmonics, Printed Meander Antenna Board Driven by the
Reduced Power (~+ 9 dBm) 4455-PCE10D434 and by the
WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard(Continued)
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
ETSI limit in
EIRP [dBm]
Measured
radiated power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
YZ
V
3rd
1302
–27.86
–66.01
38.2
YZ
V
4th
1736
–27.86
–50.03
22.2
YZ
V
5th
2170
–27.86
–43.88
16.0
YZ
V
6th
2604
–27.86
–41.41
13.5
YZ
V
7th
3038
–27.86
–42.86
15.0
YZ
V
8th
3472
–27.86
–41.84
14.0
YZ
V
9th
3906
–27.86
–50.15
22.3
YZ
V
10th
4340
–27.86
–40.73
12.9
YZ
H
Fund.
434
12.14
10.29
1.8
YZ
H
2nd
868
–33.88
–70.64
36.8
YZ
H
3rd
1302
–27.86
–69.30
41.4
YZ
H
4th
1736
–27.86
–49.32
21.5
YZ
H
5th
2170
–27.86
–44.21
16.3
YZ
H
6th
2604
–27.86
–36.19
8.3
YZ
H
7th
3038
–27.86
–44.30
16.4
YZ
H
8th
3472
–27.86
–45.79
17.9
YZ
H
9th
3906
–27.86
–49.87
22.0
YZ
H
10th
4340
–27.86
–37.49
9.6
Rev. 1.0
99
8.5. Range Test(WES0077-01-APN434D-01)
The available range was measured using the Range Test Demo. This application is supplied with the standard
development kits for EZRadioPRO®. The target of this measurement is to find the distance between the
transceivers where the one-directional PER (Packet Error Rate, number of lost packets) is not more than 1% at
each side with ten byte packet length. The GPS coordinates have been recorded for each spot. The distance
between the spots has been measured using Google Maps, and results are shown in meters. The range was
tested between two identical units with the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard, 4460-PCE10D434 Pico Board, and
the DUT (as shown in Figure 95) held by the users hand. During the test the 4460-PCE10D434 Pico Board is set to
either a +10 dBm or 0 dBm power state.
The range was tested in a flat land area without obstacles.
During the range test, the following settings were used:
Set
1: Txpow=10 dBm (~8.8 dBm @ 3 V VDD), 40 kbps, 20 kHz dev., RXBW=82.64 kHz
(sens ~–105.5 dBm)
Set 2: Txpow=10 dBm (~8.8 dBm @ 3 V VDD), 100 kbps, 50 kHz dev., RXBW=206.12 kHz
(sens ~–100.7 dBm)
Set 3: Txpow=0 dBm, 2.4 kbps, 2.4 kHz dev., RXBW=25.77 kHz
(sens ~–115.9 dBm)
Using the above settings (Step 1, Step 2, and Step 3) the following range tests are done here:
1. Range measurement with the PRINTED MEANDER Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are
HORIZONTALLY polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied
setting is "Set 1".
2. Range measurement with the PRINTED MEANDER Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are
VERTICALLY polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied
setting is "Set 1".
3. Range measurement with the PRINTED MEANDER Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are
VERTICALLY polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied
setting is "Set 2".
4. Range measurement with the PRINTED MEANDER Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are
VERTICALLY polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied
setting is "Set 3".
5. Range measurement with the PRINTED MEANDER Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are
VERTICALLY polarized and the boards are facing each other in their direction of maximum radiation. The
applied setting is "Set 1".
6. Reference range measurement with two 434 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (ANT-433-HETH from Linx
Technologies) in VERTICAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 1".
7. Reference range measurement with two 434 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (ANT-433-HETH from Linx
Technologies) in VERTICAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 3".
8. Reference range measurement with a 434 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (ANT-433-HETH from Linx
Technologies) in HORIZONTAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 1".
The measurement results are summarized in Figure 105.
The indoor range was not measured, due to the lack of a large enough building. But from the TX power and
sensitivity data, an indoor range estimation can be given if one assumes an indoor propagation factor of 4.5, which
is a typical value in normal office environments. Use the Silicon Labs’ range calculator, which can be found here:
http://www.silabs.com/support/pages/document-library.aspx?p=Wireless&f=EZRadioPRO&pn=Si4460
Assuming 0 dBi antenna gain (front direction) and the setting "Set 1" (40 kbps, 1% PER, +8.8 dBm), the estimated
indoor range is 143 m, as shown in Figure 106. To the maximum antenna gain direction the indoor range between
two identical units is ~197 m.
100
Rev. 1.0
F
Set1 10dBm
Set2 10dBm
40kbps
100kbps
+/-20kHz
+/-50kHz
Set3
2.4kbps
+/-2.4kHz
0dBm
Meandered Monopole
GPS
N
47.152880°
Base
E
19.180930°
Distance [m]
0.0
Meandered Monopole (WES0077)
H pol; Norm. direction
31
32
33
Set1
Set2
Set3
10dBm
10dBm
0dBm
40kbps
100kbps
2.4kbps
+/-20kHz
+/-50kHz
+/-2.4kHz
GPS
N
E
47.161730° 19.173580°
47.158920° 19.174070°
47.161590° 19.173620°
1130.2
848.6
1115.1
V pol; Norm. direction
34
Set1
10dBm
40kbps
+/-20kHz
GPS
N
E
47.163830° 19.173250°
1349.0
Max. direction: XZH 260°
35
Set1
10dBm
40kbps
+/-20kHz
GPS
N
E
47.165530° 19.173000°
1529.1
ANT-433-HETH from LINX
V pol; Norm. direction
36
37
Set1
Set3
10dBm
0dBm
40kbps
2.4kbps
+/-20kHz
+/-2.4kHz
GPS
N
E
47.167850° 19.172640°
47.162300° 19.17351
1778.7
1188.2
H pol; Norm. direction
38
Set1
10dBm
40kbps
+/-20kHz
GPS
N
E
47.163520° 19.173330°
1315.3
Figure 105. Outdoor Range Test Results with Two Identical Printed Meander Monopole Antenna
Boards Driven by Reduced Power 4460-PCE10D434 Pico Boards and WMB-930 Wireless
Motherboards. Range Test Results with Reference Monopoles are Also Shown.
Rev. 1.0
101
Figure 106. Indoor Range Estimation with Two Identical Printed Meander Monopole Antennas
with the Reduced Power (~+8.8 dBm) 4460-PCE10D434 Pico Board Driven by the
WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard
102
Rev. 1.0
9. Small Sized Printed ILA antenna (WES0078-01-APL434S-01)
The Small Sized Printed ILA antenna has the following characteristics:
The
distance between the antenna trace outer edge and the PCB cutting edge is 1.5 mm.
sized of the separated PCB antenna area is 15x15 mm.
An external matching network (shown in Figure 107) is required at the antenna input.
The
Figure 107. External Antenna Matching Network at 434 M for the Small ILA Antenna
The antenna is shown in Figure 108.
Figure 108. Small Sized Printed ILA Antenna
Rev. 1.0
103
9.1. Antenna Impedance (WES0078-01-APL434S-01)
The impedance measurement setup is shown in Figure 109. The antenna board is connected to the 4455PCE10D434 Pico Board through a male-to-male SMA transition with the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard driving
the Pico Board.
During the range test, the user’s hand holds the motherboard. A typical hand position is shown in Figure 110.
Figure 109. DUT in the Impedance Measurement Setup
(Small Sized ILA Antenna Board [WES0078])
104
Rev. 1.0
Figure 110. Typical Hand Effect on the Main Board During Impedance and Range Measurement
(Small Sized Printed ILA Antenna Board [WES0078])
The measured impedance of the antenna with its external matching network is shown in Figure 111 (up to 1.5 GHz)
with motherboard hand effect.
Figure 111. Measured Impedance up to 1.5 GHz with Hand Effect on the Main Board
Rev. 1.0
105
9.2. Antenna Gain (WES0078-01-APL434S-01)
The antenna gain is calculated from the measured radiated power at the fundamental and from the delivered power
to the antenna. In the radiation measurement, the 4455-PCE10D434 Pico Board is set to reduced (~+9 dBm)
power level and the entire setup is fed by two AA batteries. The conducted SA measurement result of the 4455PCE10D434 Pico Board in this reduced (~10 dBm) power state is shown in Figure 112. This method can be
effectively applied because the S11 of the antenna is much better than –10 dB so the reflection is negligible.
Figure 112. Conducted Measurement Result, 4455-PCE10D434 in a Reduced (~+9 dBm) Power
Level: the State is 0x4F, and VDD is ~2.9 V (Two AA Batteries)
The measured radiated power maximum is at the XZ cut (Table 9). It is around +0.5 dBm EIRP, so the maximum
gain number is ~–8.5 dBi, as shown in Figure 116.
This gain number is surprisingly high for such a small antenna. It should be emphasized that in typical, small
remote applications, the grounding environment and the strength of the hand effect is different. Without the SMA
connector, the SMA male-male transition, the Pico Board, and the wireless motherboard, the achievable antenna
gain is weaker. Fortunately, the typical application of the Small Sized ILA antenna is in dongles, where the
presence of a large computer or laptop chassis supplies the ground and thus the gain improves.
106
Rev. 1.0
9.3. Radiation Patterns (WES0078-01-APL434S-01)
The radiation patterns of the small sized printed ILA antenna were measured in an antenna chamber using the
4455-PCE10D434 Pico Board connected through a male-to-male SMA transition with the WMB-930 Wireless
Motherboard driving the Pico Board. Figure 114—Figure 119 show the radiation patterns at the fundamental
frequency in the XY, XZ, and YZ cut, with both horizontal and vertical receiver antenna polarization. The rotator
was stepped in five degrees to record the radiation pattern in 360 degrees.
The DUT with coordinate system under the radiated measurements is shown in Figure 113. In the XY cut the
rotation starts from the X-axis, while in the XZ and YZ cuts rotation starts from the Z-axis.
Figure 113. DUT in the Antenna Chamber
107
Rev. 1.0
The measured radiation patterns (antenna gain in dBi) are shown in the following six figures (Figure 114–
Figure 119).
Figure 114. Radiation Pattern in the XY Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 115. Radiation Pattern in the XY Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
108
Rev. 1.0
Figure 116. Radiation Pattern in the XZ Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 117. Radiation Pattern in the XZ Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
Rev. 1.0
109
Figure 118. Radiation Pattern in the YZ Cut with Vertical Receiver Antenna Polarization
Figure 119. Radiation Pattern in the YZ Cut with Horizontal Receiver Antenna Polarization
110
Rev. 1.0
9.4. Radiated Harmonics (WES0078-01-APL434S-01)
The radiated harmonics of the small sized printed ILA antenna were also measured in an antenna chamber using
the 4455-PCE10D434 Pico Board connected through a male-to-male SMA transition with the WMB-930 Wireless
Motherboard driving the Pico Board. The 4455-PCE10D434 Pico Board is set to a power state of 0x4F and a VDD
of ~2.9 V (two AA batteries) to deliver ~9 dBm, as Figure 112 shows. The maximum radiated power levels, up to
the 10th harmonic, were measured in the XY, XZ, and YZ cut, with both horizontal and vertical polarized receiver
antenna. The results are shown in the following EIRP table (Table 9) together with the corresponding standard
limits.
The small sized ILA antenna driven by the Si4455/60 class E match complies with the ETSI harmonic regulations
with margin.
Table 9. Radiated harmonics, Small ILA Antenna Board Driven by the
Reduced Power (~+ 9 dBm) 4455-PCE10D434 and by the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
ETSI limit in
EIRP [dBm]
Measured
radiated power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
XY
V
Fund.
434
12.14
–5.78
17.9
XY
V
2nd
868
–33.88
–62.81
28.9
XY
V
3rd
1302
–27.86
–66.60
38.7
XY
V
4th
1736
–27.86
–55.39
27.5
XY
V
5th
2170
–27.86
–40.87
13.0
XY
V
6th
2604
–27.86
–42.90
15.0
XY
V
7th
3038
–27.86
–46.35
18.5
XY
V
8th
3472
–27.86
–47.03
19.2
XY
V
9th
3906
–27.86
–47.58
19.7
XY
V
10th
4340
–27.86
–41.72
13.9
XY
H
Fund.
434
12.14
–0.55
12.7
XY
H
2nd
868
–33.88
–63.55
29.7
XY
H
3rd
1302
–27.86
–69.60
41.7
XY
H
4th
1736
–27.86
–52.89
25.0
XY
H
5th
2170
–27.86
–46.53
18.7
XY
H
6th
2604
–27.86
–42.17
14.3
XY
H
7th
3038
–27.86
–46.46
18.6
XY
H
8th
3472
–27.86
–49.21
21.3
XY
H
9th
3906
–27.86
–48.28
20.4
Rev. 1.0
111
Table 9. Radiated harmonics, Small ILA Antenna Board Driven by the
Reduced Power (~+ 9 dBm) 4455-PCE10D434 and by the WMB-930 Wireless
112
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
ETSI limit in
EIRP [dBm]
Measured
radiated power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
XY
H
10th
4340
–27.86
–45.30
17.4
XZ
V
Fund.
434
12.14
–11.70
23.8
XZ
V
2nd
868
–33.88
–61.69
27.8
XZ
V
3rd
1302
–27.86
–67.28
39.4
XZ
V
4th
1736
–27.86
–54.19
26.3
XZ
V
5th
2170
–27.86
–42.10
14.2
XZ
V
6th
2604
–27.86
–38.15
10.3
XZ
V
7th
3038
–27.86
–43.81
15.9
XZ
V
8th
3472
–27.86
–47.60
19.7
XZ
V
9th
3906
–27.86
–47.58
19.7
XZ
V
10th
4340
–27.86
–38.26
10.4
XZ
H
Fund.
434
12.14
0.54
11.6
XZ
H
2nd
868
–33.88
–62.8
28.9
XZ
H
3rd
1302
–27.86
–70.5
42.6
XZ
H
4th
1736
–27.86
–47.7
19.9
XZ
H
5th
2170
–27.86
–42.4
14.5
XZ
H
6th
2604
–27.86
–37.2
9.4
XZ
H
7th
3038
–27.86
–46
18.1
XZ
H
8th
3472
–27.86
–46.6
18.7
XZ
H
9th
3906
–27.86
–50.5
22.7
XZ
H
10th
4340
–27.86
–42.3
14.4
YZ
V
Fund.
434
12.14
–1.98
14.1
YZ
V
2nd
868
–33.88
–58.46
24.6
YZ
V
3rd
1302
–27.86
–66.07
38.2
Rev. 1.0
Table 9. Radiated harmonics, Small ILA Antenna Board Driven by the
Reduced Power (~+ 9 dBm) 4455-PCE10D434 and by the WMB-930 Wireless
Cut.
Pol.
Freq.
f [MHz]
ETSI limit in
EIRP [dBm]
Measured
radiated power in
EIRP [dBm]
Margin
[dB]
YZ
V
4th
1736
–27.86
–47.60
19.7
YZ
V
5th
2170
–27.86
–45.27
17.4
YZ
V
6th
2604
–27.86
–42.45
14.6
YZ
V
7th
3038
–27.86
–45.15
17.3
YZ
V
8th
3472
–27.86
–46.26
18.4
YZ
V
9th
3906
–27.86
–51.16
23.3
YZ
V
10th
4340
–27.86
–43.77
15.9
YZ
H
Fund.
434
12.14
–4.42
16.6
YZ
H
2nd
868
–33.88
–66.12
32.2
YZ
H
3rd
1302
–27.86
–69.46
41.6
YZ
H
4th
1736
–27.86
–55.60
27.7
YZ
H
5th
2170
–27.86
–46.03
18.2
YZ
H
6th
2604
–27.86
–36.35
8.5
YZ
H
7th
3038
–27.86
–47.28
19.4
YZ
H
8th
3472
–27.86
–47.48
19.6
YZ
H
9th
3906
–27.86
–50.05
22.2
YZ
H
10th
4340
–27.86
–40.30
12.4
Rev. 1.0
113
9.5. Range Test (WES0078-01-APL434S-01)
The available range was measured using the Range Test Demo. This application is supplied with the standard
development kits for EZRadioPRO®. The target of this measurement is to find the distance between the
transceivers where the unidirectional PER (Packet Error Rate, number of lost packets) is not more than 1% at each
side with ten byte packet length. The GPS coordinates have been recorded for each spot. The distance between
the spots has been measured using Google Maps, and results are shown in meters. The range tested between two
identical units with the WMB-930 Wireless Motherboard, 4460-PCE10D434 Pico Board and the DUT (as shown in
Figure 110) held by the users hand. During the tests the 4460-PCE10D434 Pico Board is set either to +10 dBm or
a reduced (0 dBm) power state. The nominal +10 dBm power setting (state of 0x2D) valid at 3.3 V VDD only. At 3 V
VDD, supplied by the two AA batteries, the power level is lower, around +8.8 dBm. At the nominal 0 dBm setting
(state of 0x07) the power decrease is negligible at 3 V VDD.
The range was tested in a flat land area without obstacles.
During the range test, the following settings have been used:
Set
1: Txpow=10 dBm (~8.8 dBm @ 3 V VDD), 40 kbps, 20 kHz dev., RXBW=82.64 kHz
(sens ~–105.5 dBm)
Set 2: Txpow=10 dBm (~8.8 dBm @ 3 V VDD), 100 kbps, 50 kHz dev., RXBW=206.12 kHz
(sens ~–100.7 dBm)
Set 3: Txpow=0 dBm, 2.4 kbps, 2.4 kHz dev., RXBW=25.77 kHz
(sens ~–115.9 dBm)
Using the above settings (Set 1, Set 2, and Set 3) the following range tests are done here:
1. Range measurement with the SMALL SIZE ILA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are
HORIZONTALLY polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied
setting is "Set 1".
2. Range measurement with the SMALL SIZE ILA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are VERTICALLY
polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied setting is "Set 1".
3. Range measurement with the SMALL SIZE ILA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are VERTICALLY
polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied setting is "Set 2".
4. Range measurement with the SMALL SIZE ILA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are VERTICALLY
polarized and the X-axes are facing each other (i.e., normal usage position). The applied setting is "Set 3".
5. Range measurement with the SMALL SIZE ILA Antenna Boards—The antenna boards are VERTICALLY
polarized and the boards are facing each other in their direction of maximum radiation. The applied setting
is "Set 1".
6. Reference range measurement with two 434 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (ANT-433-HETH from Linx
Technologies) in VERTICAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 1".
7. Reference range measurement with two 434 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (ANT-433-HETH from Linx
Technologies) in VERTICAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 3".
8. Reference range measurement with a 434 MHz REFERENCE MONOPOLE (ANT-433-HETH from Linx
Technologies) in HORIZONTAL polarization using the setting denoted by "Set 1".
The measurement results are summarized in Figure 120.
Note: These range test results are valid with the above configuration and with moderate hand effect. In normal battery-operated, remote applications, where there is no large GND (motherboard) close to the antenna and where the antenna is
usually very close to the user's hand, the achievable range is most likely shorter.
114
Rev. 1.0
The indoor range test was not performed, due to the lack of a large enough building. But from the TX power and
sensitivity data an indoor range estimation can be given, if one assumes a propagation factor of 4.5, which is a
typical value in normal office environments. Use the Silicon Labs’ range calculator, which can be found here:
http://www.silabs.com/support/pages/document-library.aspx?p=Wireless&f=EZRadioPRO&pn=Si4460
Assuming –14.8 dBi antenna gain (front direction, X-axes facing) and the setting "Set 1" (40 kbps, 1% PER,
+8.8 dBm), the estimated indoor range is 32 m, as shown in Figure 121. To the maximum antenna gain direction,
the indoor range between two identical units is ~60 m.
F
Set1 10dBm
Set2 10dBm
40kbps
100kbps
+/-20kHz
+/-50kHz
Set3
2.4kbps
+/-2.4kHz
0dBm
Small Printed ILA
GPS
N
47.152880°
Base
E
19.180930°
Distance [m]
0.0
H pol; Norm. direction
Small Printed ILA (WES0078)
1
Set1
10dBm
40kbps
+/-20kHz
GPS
N
E
47.154820° 19.177410°
342.6
V pol; Norm. direction
2
3
4
Set1
Set2
Set3
10dBm
10dBm
0dBm
40kbps
100kbps
2.4kbps
+/-20kHz
+/-50kHz
+/-2.4kHz
GPS
N
E
47.155090° 19.177020°
47.154460° 19.177950°
47.154920° 19.177290°
384.5
285.7
356.7
Max. direction: XZH 230°
5
Set1
10dBm
40kbps
+/-20kHz
GPS
N
E
47.156840° 19.174610°
649.8
ANT-433-HETH from LINX
V pol; Norm. direction
6
7
Set1
Set3
10dBm
0dBm
40kbps
2.4kbps
+/-20kHz
+/-2.4kHz
GPS
N
E
47.167850° 19.172640°
47.162300° 19.17351
1778.7
1188.2
H pol; Norm. direction
8
Set1
10dBm
40kbps
+/-20kHz
GPS
N
E
47.163520° 19.173330°
1315.3
Figure 120. Outdoor Range Test Results with Two Identical Small Sized Printed ILA Antenna
Boards Driven by Reduced Power 4460-PCE10D434 Pico Boards and WMB-930 Wireless
Motherboards. Range Test Results with Reference Monopoles are Also Shown.
Rev. 1.0
115
Figure 121. Indoor Range Estimation with Two Identical Small Sized Printed ILA Antenna Boards
Driven by Reduced Power 4460-PCE10D434 Pico Boards and WMB-930 Wireless Motherboards
116
Rev. 1.0
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