AN971 USB Port-Powered Li-Ion/Li-Polymer Battery Charging Author: Scott Dearborn Microchip Technology Inc. INTRODUCTION The Universal Serial Bus (USB) allows many computer peripherals to be easily swapped without having to turn off the computer. Today, a variety of handheld, batteryoperated peripherals provide USB ports to facilitate data transfer to and from a host computer. With the introduction of the new USB 2.0 specification, CD/DVD players, MP3 players, cameras, personal data assistants and even cell phones can transfer data at rates up to 480 Mbps. These peripherals are, in some instances, selfpowered. As a result, many of these peripherals do not take full advantage of the USB port. Often overshadowed by the data interface is the power capability that a USB port provides. Microchip's MCP73853/55 and MCP73861 advanced, fully-integrated, single-cell LiIon/Li-Polymer charge-management devices allow these peripherals to utilize the full “power” of the USB port. USB-POWERED, SINGLE-CELL, LI-ION BATTERY CHARGER Many of the self-powered peripherals use a separate power supply for battery charging even while connected to a USB port. With the MCP73853/55, harnessing the power of the USB port for battery charging becomes extremely simple. A USB port transfers signal and power over a fourconductor cable, depicted in Figure 1. Each USB port provides a limited amount of power over the cable. The amount of current provided from a USB port is defined in terms of unit loads, where one unit load is defined as 100 mA. The number of unit loads that a port can supply is an absolute maximum, not an average over time. A port may be configured as either low-power (at one unit load) or high-power (providing up to five unit loads). All ports default to low-power. The transition to high-power is under the software’s control. It is the responsibility of the host software to ensure that adequate power is available before allowing peripherals to consume high power. © 2005 Microchip Technology Inc. VBUS D+ DGND FIGURE 1: VBUS D+ DGND USB Cable. The USB high-power port is specified for a maximum current of five unit loads (or 500 mA), with a voltage of 5V, +5%. The USB specification allows for voltage drops in the USB connectors and cables of up to 350 mV when delivering 500 mA. The maximum cable length is specified as 16 feet. Shorter cables will introduce less voltage drop. The minimum voltage seen at the peripheral device will be 4.4V. Limiting the current draw to 400 mA produces an absolute minimum voltage of 4.47V, providing 0.27V of headroom to fully charge a single-cell, Li-Ion battery. The extremely low dropout voltage (200 mV at 400 mA) of the MCP73853/55 makes them an attractive and simple approach for a USB Li-Ion/Li-Polymer battery charger. Figure 2 and Figure 3 illustrate USB-powered, singlecell Li-Ion/Li-Polymer battery chargers. The USB controller communicates with the host to determine if the peripheral is connected to either a low-power or highpower port. The controller then sets the appropriate charge current setting. The MCP73853/55 employs typical charge current settings of 85 mA and 400 mA for low-power and high-power, respectively. These settings ensure that the absolute maximum rating of the USB port is not exceeded. Optionally, the high-power charge current setting can be adjusted lower by placing a resistor between the MCP73853/55 and the USB controller. The appropriate value resistor can be determined from the formula: 13.2 – 33.3 × I REG R PROG = --------------------------------------------14.1 × I REG – 1.2 Where: IREG is the desired high-power charge current setting in amps RPROG is in kilo-ohms DS00971A-page 1 AN971 VBUS GND STAT1 STAT 2 EN VSS2 16 VSET 15 14 13 1 12 2 11 SUSPEND D+ D- VDD1 USB CONTROL + Single Lithium-Ion Cell VBAT2 MCP73853 VDD2 100 mA 500 mA VBAT VBAT3 VSS1 3 10 4 9 5 6 7 PROG THREF THE RM VBAT1 VSS3 8 TIMER CTIMER RPROG RT1 RT2 FIGURE 2: Monitoring. USB-powered, Single-cell, Li-Ion/Li-Polymer Battery Charger with Cell Temperature VBUS GND STAT1 VSET D+ D- SUSPEND USB CONTROL VDD1 VSS1 PROG 100 mA 500 mA FIGURE 3: DS00971A-page 2 1 10 2 9 3 MCP73855 8 4 7 5 6 EN VBAT2 VBAT + Single Lithium-Ion Cell VBAT1 VSS2 TIMER CTIMER Small PCB Area USB-powered, Single-cell, Li-Ion/Li-Polymer Battery Charger © 2005 Microchip Technology Inc. AN971 ADDITIONAL USB SUPPORTED FEATURES FASTER CHARGE CYCLE TIMES WITH WALL ADAPTER In addition to the maximum permissible current draw on the USB power port, additional considerations must be adhered to as well. Any peripheral connected to a USB port must support a Suspend state as defined by the USB specification. A peripheral can enter the Suspend state from either power state (low power or high power). The allowed Suspend current is a function of unit load allocation. Ports operating in the Low-power mode are limited to 500 µA of Suspend current. Ports operating in the High-power mode are limited to 2.5 mA. The USB high-power port is specified for a maximum current of five unit loads, or 500 mA. Utilizing Microchip’s MCP73861, charge currents up to 1.2A can be realized from an alternate power source (such as a wall cube). In the circuits of Figures 1 and 2, the peripheral device’s system power, including the USB controller, is derived directly from the battery. In this manner, the MCP73853/55 controls the charging of the battery, while maintaining the current draw from the USB port below the specification limits. The Suspend state is entered when the USB controller pulls the enable pin of the MCP73853/55 low. Disabled, the MCP73853/55 consumes less than 1 µA of current. The peripheral Suspend current can be computed as the current from VBUS through the bus pull-up and pull-down termination resistors plus 1 µA. In-rush current must also be considered whenever a peripheral is connected to a USB port. The VBUS power lines at the port are bypassed with a minimum low-ESR capacitance of 120 µF. The maximum load of the peripheral device is limited to 44Ω, in parallel with 10 µF of capacitance. This ensures that the VBUS voltage does not get pulled below its minimum operating voltage when a peripheral is connected to the port. The maximum droop allowed on VBUS is 330 mV. The MCP73853/55 requires a minimum input capacitance of 1 µF, although 4.7 µF is recommended. This is well below the maximum USB specification. In addition, the MCP73853/55 controls the slew rate of the charge current when transitioning from preconditioning to fast charge, and when a new charge current setting is requested (i.e., from low-power to high-power). These unique features prevent large slugs of current from flowing to the charger output capacitor and battery, causing the VBUS voltage to droop excessively. Another important specification to consider when connecting to the USB power bus is that no peripheral shall supply (source) current on VBUS at any time. The MCP73853/55 employs integrated reverse discharge circuitry that prevents current to flow from the battery onto VBUS. Figure 4 depicts the MCP73861 in a system that accepts input power from a USB port or alternate power source. This solution requires only a handful of external components, in addition to the MCP73861. In this manner, charge currents up to 1.2A can be realized when the alternate power source is present. When only USB power is present, the P-channel MOSFET is supplying power to the charger from VBUS. In this case, the programming resistor is not optional. A minimum resistance of 2.2 kΩ must be placed between the USB controller and the MCP73861 PROG input. The 2.2 kΩ programming resistor sets the typical high-power charge current to 420 mA. The high-power charge current setting can be adjusted lower by utilizing a higher value resistor. The appropriate value resistor can be determined from the formula: 13.2 – 11 × I REG R PROG = ---------------------------------------12 × I REG – 1.2 Where: IREG is the desired high-power charge current setting in amps RPROG is in kilo-ohms When an alternate power source is connected, the P-channel MOSFET is turned off. Input power is supplied to the charger from the alternate power source through the Schottky diode. The P-channel MOSFET prevents current from being supplied on VBUS. The alternate power source must provide a voltage greater than the maximum VBUS specification, minus the difference between the forward voltage drop of the MOSFET body diode and the forward voltage drop of the Schottky diode. An absolute minimum voltage of 5V is recommended for the alternate power source. The MCP73861 is rated for a maximum input voltage of 12V, so higher voltages can be utilized. The maximum charge current is increased to 1.2A by pulling the MCP73861 PROG input to ground. The additional N-channel MOSFET is turned on when the alternate power source is present. Increasing the charge current significantly decreases the charge cycle time. Figure 5 depicts complete charge cycles utilizing the MCP73861 with a high-power USB port and an alternate power source. The charge cycles depicted were performed on a 1400 mAh Li-Ion battery pack. Initial conditions were near full discharge. © 2005 Microchip Technology Inc. DS00971A-page 3 AN971 While charging from the USB port, it takes approximately one hour longer until the end of charge is reached. The MCP73861 scales the charge termination current proportionately with the fast charge current. The result is an increase of 40% in charge time with the benefit of a 2% gain in capacity and reduced power dissipation. The change in termination current results in an increase in final capacity from ~98% to ~100%. The system designer has to make a trade-off between charge time, power dissipation and available capacity. +6V VBUS GND STAT1 STAT 2 EN VSS2 16 15 14 13 VSET 1 12 2 11 SUSPEND D+ D- VDD1 USB CONTROL VDD2 VSS1 100 mA 500 mA VBAT VBAT3 + Single - Lithium-Ion Cell VBAT2 MCP73861 3 10 4 9 5 6 7 VBAT1 VSS3 8 PROG THR EF TH ERM TIMER CTIMER RPROG RT1 RT2 FIGURE 4: USB-powered or Externally-powered, Single-Cell, Li-Ion/Li-Polymer Battery Charger with Cell Temperature Monitoring. . MCP73861 Charge Cycles, 1400 mAh Battery VBAT @ Wall Adapter Input 1.40 Voltage (Volts) 4.00 1.20 VBAT @ USB Input 3.50 1.00 3.00 IBAT = 1.2A 2.50 0.80 2.00 0.60 1.50 0.40 1.00 IBAT = 420 mA 0.50 0.00 0.0 50.0 100.0 150.0 Current (Amps) 4.50 0.20 0.00 200.0 Time (minutes) FIGURE 5: DS00971A-page 4 MCP73861 Charge Cycle Waveforms. © 2005 Microchip Technology Inc. AN971 CONCLUSION REFERENCES When utilizing Microchip’s MCP73853/55 or MCP73861, harnessing the power of the USB port for battery charging becomes extremely simple. The devices adhere to all the specifications governing the USB power bus. 1. 2. Three stand-alone linear charging solutions for Li-Ion/ Li-Polymer batteries were presented. The guidelines and considerations presented in this application note should be taken into account whenever the power of a USB port is interfaced. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. © 2005 Microchip Technology Inc. Universal Serial Bus Specification, Revision 2.0 MCP73853/55 Data Sheet, “USB Compatible Li-Ion/Li-Polymer Charge Management Controllers”, DS21915, Microchip Technology Inc., 2004. MCP73861 Data Sheet, “Advanced Single or Dual Cell, Fully Integrated Li-Ion/Li-Polymer Charge Management Controllers”, DS21893, Microchip Technology Inc., 2004. David Linden, Thomas B. Reddy, Handbook of Batteries, Third Edition (New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 2002). AN947: “Power Management in Portable Applications: Charging Lithium-Ion/Lithium-Polymer Batteries”, Scott Dearborn, DS00947, Microchip Technology Inc., 2004. ADN008: “Charging Simplified for High Capacity Batteries”, Bonnie Baker, DS21864, Microchip Technology Inc., 2004. Http://www.powercellkorea.com Http://sanyo.com/batteries/lithium_ion.cfm Http://lgchem.com/en_products/electromaterial/battery/battery.html DS00971A-page 5 AN971 NOTES: DS00971A-page 6 © 2005 Microchip Technology Inc. Note the following details of the code protection feature on Microchip devices: • Microchip products meet the specification contained in their particular Microchip Data Sheet. • Microchip believes that its family of products is one of the most secure families of its kind on the market today, when used in the intended manner and under normal conditions. • There are dishonest and possibly illegal methods used to breach the code protection feature. All of these methods, to our knowledge, require using the Microchip products in a manner outside the operating specifications contained in Microchip’s Data Sheets. Most likely, the person doing so is engaged in theft of intellectual property. • Microchip is willing to work with the customer who is concerned about the integrity of their code. • Neither Microchip nor any other semiconductor manufacturer can guarantee the security of their code. Code protection does not mean that we are guaranteeing the product as “unbreakable.” Code protection is constantly evolving. We at Microchip are committed to continuously improving the code protection features of our products. Attempts to break Microchip’s code protection feature may be a violation of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. If such acts allow unauthorized access to your software or other copyrighted work, you may have a right to sue for relief under that Act. Information contained in this publication regarding device applications and the like is provided only for your convenience and may be superseded by updates. It is your responsibility to ensure that your application meets with your specifications. MICROCHIP MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WRITTEN OR ORAL, STATUTORY OR OTHERWISE, RELATED TO THE INFORMATION, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ITS CONDITION, QUALITY, PERFORMANCE, MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR PURPOSE. Microchip disclaims all liability arising from this information and its use. Use of Microchip’s products as critical components in life support systems is not authorized except with express written approval by Microchip. No licenses are conveyed, implicitly or otherwise, under any Microchip intellectual property rights. Trademarks The Microchip name and logo, the Microchip logo, Accuron, dsPIC, KEELOQ, microID, MPLAB, PIC, PICmicro, PICSTART, PRO MATE, PowerSmart, rfPIC, and SmartShunt are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries. AmpLab, FilterLab, Migratable Memory, MXDEV, MXLAB, PICMASTER, SEEVAL, SmartSensor and The Embedded Control Solutions Company are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. Analog-for-the-Digital Age, Application Maestro, dsPICDEM, dsPICDEM.net, dsPICworks, ECAN, ECONOMONITOR, FanSense, FlexROM, fuzzyLAB, In-Circuit Serial Programming, ICSP, ICEPIC, MPASM, MPLIB, MPLINK, MPSIM, PICkit, PICDEM, PICDEM.net, PICLAB, PICtail, PowerCal, PowerInfo, PowerMate, PowerTool, rfLAB, rfPICDEM, Select Mode, Smart Serial, SmartTel and Total Endurance are trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries. SQTP is a service mark of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. All other trademarks mentioned herein are property of their respective companies. © 2005, Microchip Technology Incorporated, Printed in the U.S.A., All Rights Reserved. Printed on recycled paper. Microchip received ISO/TS-16949:2002 quality system certification for its worldwide headquarters, design and wafer fabrication facilities in Chandler and Tempe, Arizona and Mountain View, California in October 2003. The Company’s quality system processes and procedures are for its PICmicro® 8-bit MCUs, KEELOQ® code hopping devices, Serial EEPROMs, microperipherals, nonvolatile memory and analog products. In addition, Microchip’s quality system for the design and manufacture of development systems is ISO 9001:2000 certified. © 2005 Microchip Technology Inc. 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