EM346 Datasheet

EM346
High-Performance, Integrated Dual ZigBee PRO & RF4CE
Network Coprocessor
Exceptional RF Performance
- Normal mode link budget up to 103 dB; configurable up
Features
- 32-bit ARM® Cortex -M3 processor
- 2.4 GHz IEEE 802.15.4-2003 transceiver & lower MAC
- 192 kB flash, with optional read protection
- 12 kB RAM memory
- AES128 encryption accelerator
- UART/SPI serial communications
- 16 GPIOs
to 110 dB
- –100 dBm normal RX sensitivity; configurable to 
–102 dBm (1% PER, 20 byte packet)
- Configurable up to +8 dBm
- Robust Wi-Fi and Bluetooth coexistence
Innovative network and processor debug
- Packet Trace Port for non-intrusive packet trace with
Industry-leading ARM® Cortex -M3 processor
- Leading 32-bit processing performance
- Highly efficient Thumb-2 instruction set
- Operation at 6, 12, or 24 MHz
- Flexible Nested Vectored Interrupt Controller
Ember development tools
- Serial Wire/JTAG interface
- Standard ARM debug capabilities: Flash Patch & Break-
Low power consumption, advanced management
- RX Current (w/ CPU): 26 mA
- TX Current (w/ CPU, +3 dBm TX): 31 mA
- Low deep sleep current, with retained RAM and GPIO:
400 nA without/800 nA with sleep timer
- Low-frequency internal RC oscillator for low-power sleep
timing
- High-frequency internal RC oscillator for fast (110 µs)
processor start-up from sleep
point; Data Watchpoint & Trace; Instrumentation Trace
Macrocell
Application Flexibility
- Single voltage operation: 2.1–3.6 V with internal 1.8 and
1.25 V regulators
- Optional 32.768 kHz crystal for higher timer accuracy
- Low external component count with single 24 MHz 
crystal
- Support for external power amplifier
- Small 7x7 mm 48-pin QFN package
TX_ACTIVE
PA select
RF_TX_ALT_P,N
SYNTH
DAC
MAC
+
Baseband
PA
RF_P,N
BIAS_R
OSCA
OSCB
LNA
ADC
IF
HF crystal
OSC
1.25V
Regulator
VREG_OUT
1.8V
Regulator
Program
Flash
192kB
ARM® Cortex-M3TM
CPU with NVIC
and MPU
2nd level
Interrupt
controller
CPU debug
TPIU/ITM/
FPB/DWT
Encryption
acclerator
Packet Trace
Bias
VDD_CORE
nRESET
Data
SRAM
12kB
PA
Internal HF
RC-OSC
Calibration
ADC
Always
Powered
Domain
GPIO
registers
Watchdog
Serial
Wire and
JTAG
debug
Chip
manager
Sleep
timer
SWCLK,
JTCK
POR
UART/SPI
LF crystal
OSC
Internal LF
RC-OSC
Rev 1.0 9/14
Copyright © 2014 by Silicon Laboratories
PC7
PC6
PC5
PC4
PC3
PC2
PC1
PC0
PB4
PB3
PB2
PB1
PB0
PA7
PA5
PA4
GPIO multiplexor switch
EM346
EM346
Ta b l e o f C o n t e n ts
1. Typical Application ..............................................................................................................4
2. Electrical Specifications......................................................................................................7
2.1. Absolute Maximum Ratings............................................................................................7
2.2. Recommended Operating Conditions ............................................................................7
2.3. Environmental Characteristics........................................................................................8
2.4. DC Electrical Characteristics..........................................................................................8
2.5. Digital I/O Specifications .............................................................................................. 13
2.6. Non-RF System Electrical Characteristics ................................................................... 14
2.7. RF Electrical Characteristics ........................................................................................ 15
3. Functional Description ...................................................................................................... 21
4. Radio Module ..................................................................................................................... 24
4.1. Receive (RX) Path........................................................................................................24
4.2. Transmit (TX) Path ....................................................................................................... 24
4.3. Calibration .................................................................................................................... 24
4.4. Integrated MAC Module ............................................................................................... 25
4.5. Packet Trace Interface (PTI) ........................................................................................ 25
4.6. Random Number Generator......................................................................................... 25
5. ARM® Cortex™-M3 and Memory Modules ...................................................................... 26
5.1. ARM® Cortex™-M3 Microprocessor............................................................................26
5.2. Embedded Memory ...................................................................................................... 26
5.3. Memory Protection Unit................................................................................................ 32
6. System Modules.................................................................................................................33
6.1. Power Domains ............................................................................................................ 34
6.2. Resets .......................................................................................................................... 35
6.3. Clocks........................................................................................................................... 38
6.4. System Timers ............................................................................................................. 43
6.5. Power Management ..................................................................................................... 44
6.6. Security Accelerator ..................................................................................................... 47
7. GPIO (General Purpose Input/Output) ............................................................................. 48
7.1. GPIO Ports ................................................................................................................... 49
7.2. Configuration ................................................................................................................ 49
7.3. Forced Functions.......................................................................................................... 50
7.4. Reset ............................................................................................................................ 50
7.5. Boot Configuration........................................................................................................51
7.6. GPIO Modes................................................................................................................. 51
7.7. Wake Monitoring .......................................................................................................... 52
7.8. External Interrupts ........................................................................................................53
7.9. Debug Control and Status ............................................................................................ 53
7.10.GPIO Signal Assignment Summary............................................................................. 55
7.11.Registers......................................................................................................................56
8. Serial Controllers ...............................................................................................................68
8.1. Overview ......................................................................................................................68
8.2. Configuration ................................................................................................................ 69
8.3. SPI—Slave Mode ......................................................................................................... 74
2
Rev 1.0
EM346
8.4. UART—Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter............................................... 78
8.5. DMA Channels ............................................................................................................. 86
9. Interrupt System .............................................................................................................. 100
9.1. Nested Vectored Interrupt Controller (NVIC).............................................................. 100
9.2. Event Manager ........................................................................................................... 102
9.3. Non-Maskable Interrupt (NMI).................................................................................... 104
9.4. Faults.......................................................................................................................... 105
9.5. Registers ....................................................................................................................106
10. Trace Port Interface Unit (TPIU)...................................................................................... 113
11. Instrumentation Trace Macrocell (ITM) ..........................................................................114
12. Data Watchpoint and Trace (DWT) .................................................................................115
13. Flash Patch and Breakpoint (FPB) .................................................................................116
14. Integrated Voltage Regulator.......................................................................................... 117
15. Serial Wire and JTAG (SWJ) Interface ........................................................................... 119
16. Ordering Information ....................................................................................................... 120
17. Pin Definitions.................................................................................................................. 121
17.1.Pin Definitions ............................................................................................................ 121
18. Package ............................................................................................................................ 128
19. Top Marking...................................................................................................................... 131
Appendix A—Register Address Table.................................................................................132
Appendix B—Abbreviations and Acronyms....................................................................... 137
Appendix C—References ..................................................................................................... 141
Document Change List ......................................................................................................... 142
Contact Information .............................................................................................................. 143
Rev 1.0
3
EM346
1. Typical Application
Figure 1.1 illustrates the typical application circuit, and Table 1.1 contains an example bill of materials (BOM) for
the off-chip components required by the EM346.
Note: The circuit shown in Figure 1.1 is for example purposes only, and the BOM is for budgetary quotes only. For a complete
reference design, please download one of the latest Ember Hardware Reference Designs from the Silicon Labs website
(www.silabs.com/zigbee-support).
The Balun provides an impedance transformation from the antenna to the EM346 for both TX and RX modes.
L1 tunes the impedance presented to the RF port for maximum transmit power and receive sensitivity.
The harmonic filter (L2, L3, C5, C6 and C9) provides additional suppression of the second harmonic, which
increases the margin over the FCC limit.
The 24 MHz crystal Y1 with loading capacitors is required and provides the high-frequency crystal oscillator source
for the EM346's main system clock. The 32.768 kHz crystal with loading capacitors generates a highly accurate
low-frequency crystal oscillator for use with peripherals, but it is not mandatory as the low-frequency internal RC
oscillator can be used.
Loading capacitance and ESR (C1 and R3) provides stability for the internal 1.8 V regulator.
Loading capacitance C2 provides stability for the internal 1.25 V regulator, no ESR is required because it is
contained within the chip.
Resistor R1 reduces the operating voltage of the flash memory, this reduces current consumption and improves
sensitivity by 1 dB when compared to not using it.
Various decoupling capacitors are required, these should be placed as close to their corresponding pins as
possible. For values and locations see one of the latest reference designs.
An antenna matched to 50  is required.
4
Rev 1.0
EM346
C3
C4
Y1
VBRD
1
Antenna
2
L2
RF_P
EM34x
L1
PB0
PC4
PC3
PC2
JTCK
4
C9
VDD_VCO
5
6
7
8
C5 C6
9
Harmonic
Filter
RF_N
PB2
VDD_RF
RF_TX_ALT_P
RF_TX_ALT_N
VDD_IF
PB1
NC
VDD_PADS
NC
PA5
10
11
PC5
nRESET
PA4
NC
GND
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
49
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
12
VDD_PADSA
PC6
PC7
VREG_OUT
VDD_PADS
VDD_CORE
PA7
PB3
PB4
NC
NC
VDD_PADS
NC
L3
3
VDD_24MHz
DC
Ceramic
Balun
OSCA
OSCB
VDD_SYNTH
VDD_PRE
VDD_CORE
NC
NC
NC
PC0
VDD_MEM
PC1
VDD_PADS
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
R1
C7
Optional
C2
Y2
C8
PC2
PC0
PC3
R3
JTCK
PC4
C1
nReset
PA4
Programing and
debug interface
(these pins should be
routed to test points)
PA5
Figure 1.1. Typical Application Circuit
Rev 1.0
5
EM346
Table 1.1 contains a typical Bill of Materials for the application circuit shown in Figure 1.1. The information within
this table should be used for a rough cost analysis. For a more detailed BOM, please refer to one of Ember EM357based reference designs at the Silicon Labs website (www.silabs.com/zigbee-support).
Table 1.1. Bill of Materials for Typical Application Circuit
Item Qty
6
Reference
Description
Manufacturer
1
1
C2
CAPACITOR, 1 µF, 6.3 V, X5R, 10%, 0402
<not specified>
2
1
C1
CAPACITOR, 2.2 µF, 10 V, X5R, 10%, 0603
<not specified>
3
1
C7
CAPACITOR, 22 pF, ±5%, 50 V, NPO, 0402
<not specified>
4
2
C3,C4
CAPACITOR, 18 pF, ±5%, 50 V, NPO, 0402
<not specified>
5
1
C8
CAPACITOR, 33 pF, ±5%, 50 V, NPO, 0402
<not specified>
6
2
C5, C9
CAPACITOR, 1 pF, ±0.25 pF, 50 V, 0402, NPO
<not specified>
7
1
C6
CAPACITOR, 1.8 pF, ±0.25 pF, 50 V, 0402, NPO
8
1
L1
INDUCTOR, 5.1 nH, ±0.3 nH, 0402 MULTILAYER
Murata LQG15HS5N1
9
2
L2, L3
INDUCTOR, 2.7 nH, ±0.3 nH, 0402, MULTILAYER
Murata LQG15HS2N7
10
1
R1
RESISTOR, 10 Ω, 5%, 0402
<not specified>
11
1
R3
RESISTOR, 1 Ω, 5%, 0402
<not specified>
12
1
U1
EM346 Dual ZigBee PRO & RF4CE Network Coprocessor
Ember EM346
13
1
Y1
CRYSTAL, 24.000 MHz, ± 25 ppm STABILITY
OVER –40 to +85 ºC, 18 pF
ILSI, Abracon, KDS,
Epson
14
1
Y2 (Optional)
CRYSTAL, 32.768 kHz, ±20 ppm INITIAL TOLERANCE AT +25ºC, 12.5 pF
Abracon, KDS, Epson
15
1
BLN1
BALUN, CERAMIC 50/100 Ω
Wurth 748421245
Johanson
2450BL15B100E
Murata LDB212G4010C
16
1
ANT1
ANTENNA
Johanson
2450AT18B100E
Rev 1.0
EM346
2. Electrical Specifications
2.1. Absolute Maximum Ratings
Table 2.1 lists the absolute maximum ratings for the EM346.
Table 2.1. Absolute Maximum Ratings
Parameter
Test Condition
Min
Max
Unit
Regulator input voltage (VDD_PADS)
–0.3
+3.6
V
Analog, Memory and Core voltage (VDD_24MHZ,
VDD_VCO, VDD_RF, VDD_IF, VDD_PADSA,
VDD_MEM, VDD_PRE, VDD_SYNTH, VDD_CORE)
–0.3
+2.0
V
Voltage on RF_P,N; RF_TX_ALT_P,N
–0.3
+3.6
V
—
+15
dBm
Voltage on any GPIO, SWCLK, nRESET, VREG_OUT
–0.3
VDD_PADS
+0.3
V
Voltage on OSCA, OSCB, NC
–0.3 VDD_PADSA
+0.3
V
Storage temperature
–40
°C
RX signal into a lossless
balun
RF Input Power
(for max level for correct packet reception see
Table 2.7)
+140
Note: Exposure to absolute-maximum-rated conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
2.2. Recommended Operating Conditions
Table 2.2 lists the rated operating conditions of the EM346.
Table 2.2. Operating Conditions
Parameter
Test Condition
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
Regulator input voltage (VDD_PADS)
2.1
—
3.6
V
Analog and memory input voltage
(VDD_24MHZ, VDD_VCO, VDD_RF, VDD_IF,
VDD_PADSA, VDD_MEM, VDD_PRE,
VDD_SYNTH)
1.7
1.8
1.9
V
Core input voltage when supplied from internal
regulator (VDD_CORE)
1.18
1.25
1.32
V
Core input voltage when supplied externally
(VDD_CORE)
1.18
—
1.9
V
Operating temperature range, TA
–40
—
+85
°C
Note: Exposure to absolute-maximum-rated conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
Rev 1.0
7
EM346
2.3. Environmental Characteristics
Table 2.3 lists the rated environmental characteristics of the EM346.
Table 2.3. Environmental Characteristics
Parameter
Symbol
Test Condition
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
On any pin
—
—
±2
kV
ESD (charged device model)
Non-RF pins
—
—
±400
V
ESD (charged device model)
RF pins
—
—
±225
V
ESD (human body model)
JA
Package Thermal Resistance*
27.1
°C/W
*Note: Thermal resistance assumes multi-layer PCB with exposed pad soldered to a PCB board.
2.4. DC Electrical Characteristics
Table 2.4 lists the dc electrical characteristics of the EM346.
Table 2.4. DC Characteristics
Measured on Silicon Labs’ EM357 reference design with TA = 25 °C and VDD = 3 V, unless otherwise noted.
Parameter
Test Condition
Regulator input voltage
(VDD_PADS)
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
2.1
—
3.6
V
Power supply range (VDD_MEM)
Regulator output or external input
1.7
1.8
1.9
V
Power supply range (VDD_CORE)
Regulator output
1.18
1.25
1.32
V
–40 °C, VDD_PADS=3.6 V
—
0.4
—
A
+25 °C, VDD_PADS=3.6 V
—
0.4
—
A
+85 °C, VDD_PADS=3.6 V
—
0.7
—
A
–40 °C, VDD_PADS=3.6 V
—
0.7
—
A
+25 °C, VDD_PADS=3.6 V
—
0.7
—
A
+85°C, VDD_PADS=3.6 V
—
1.1
—
A
–40 °C, VDD_PADS=3.6 V
—
0.8
—
A
+25 °C, VDD_PADS=3.6 V
—
1.0
—
A
+85 °C, VDD_PADS=3.6 V
—
1.5
—
A
–40 °C, VDD_PADS=3.6 V
—
1.1
—
A
+25 °C, VDD_PADS=3.6 V
—
1.3
—
A
+85 °C, VDD_PADS=3.6 V
—
1.8
—
A
With no debugger activity
—
300
—
A
Deep Sleep Current
Quiescent current, internal RC
oscillator disabled
Quiescent current, including 
internal RC oscillator
Quiescent current, including
32.768 kHz oscillator
Quiescent current, including 
internal RC oscillator and
32.768 kHz oscillator
Simulated deep sleep (debug
mode) current
8
Rev 1.0
EM346
Table 2.4. DC Characteristics (Continued)
Measured on Silicon Labs’ EM357 reference design with TA = 25 °C and VDD = 3 V, unless otherwise noted.
Parameter
Test Condition
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
Typ at 25 °C/3.0 V
Max at 85 °C/3.6 V
—
1.2
2.0
mA
ARM® CortexTM-M3, RAM, and
flash memory
25 °C, 1.8 V memory and
1.25 V core
ARM® CortexTM-M3 running at 12 MHz
from crystal oscillator
Radio and all peripherals off
—
6.5
—
mA
ARM® CortexTM-M3, RAM, and
flash memory
25 °C, 1.8 V memory and
1.25 V core
ARM® CortexTM-M3 running at 24 MHz
from crystal oscillator
Radio and all peripherals off
—
7.5
—
mA
ARM® CortexTM-M3, RAM, and
flash memory sleep current
25 °C, 1.8 V memory and
1.25 V core
ARM® CortexTM-M3 sleeping, CPU
clock set to 12 MHz from the crystal
oscillator
Radio and all peripherals off
—
3.0
—
mA
ARM® CortexTM-M3, RAM, and
flash memory sleep current
25 °C, 1.8 V memory and
1.25 V core
®
ARM CortexTM-M3 sleeping, CPU
clock set to 6 MHz from the high frequency RC oscillator
Radio and all peripherals off
—
2.0
—
mA
Serial controller current
For each controller at maximum data
rate
—
0.2
—
mA
ARM® CortexTM-M3 sleeping, CPU
clock set to 12 MHz
—
22.0
—
mA
25 °C, VDD_PADS=3.0 V
Total RX current ( = IRadio receiver,
MAC and baseband, CPU + IRAM, ARM® CortexTM-M3 running at 12 MHz
and Flash memory )
25 °C, VDD_PADS=3.0 V
®
ARM CortexTM-M3 running at 24 MHz
—
25.5
—
mA
—
26.5
—
mA
Boost mode total RX current ( =
IRadio receiver, MAC and baseband, CPU+ IRAM, and flash
memory )
25 °C, VDD_PADS=3.0 V
ARM® CortexTM-M3 running at 12 MHz
—
27.5
—
mA
25 °C, VDD_PADS=3.0 V
ARM CortexTM-M3 running at 24 MHz
—
28.5
—
mA
Reset Current
Quiescent current, nRESET
asserted
Processor and Peripheral Currents
RX Current
Radio receiver, MAC, and baseband
®
Rev 1.0
9
EM346
Table 2.4. DC Characteristics (Continued)
Measured on Silicon Labs’ EM357 reference design with TA = 25 °C and VDD = 3 V, unless otherwise noted.
Parameter
Test Condition
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
Radio transmitter, MAC, and baseband
25 °C and 1.8 V core; max. power out
(+3 dBm typical)
®
ARM CortexTM-M3 sleeping, CPU
clock set to 12 MHz
—
26.0
—
mA
Total TX current ( = IRadio transmitter, MAC and baseband, CPU +
IRAM, and flash memory)
25 °C, VDD_PADS=3.0 V; maximum
power setting (+8 dBm); ARM®
CortexTM-M3 running at 12 MHz
—
42.5
—
mA
25 °C, VDD_PADS=3.0 V; +3 dBm
power setting; ARM® CortexTM-M3
running at 12 MHz
—
30.0
—
mA
25 °C, VDD_PADS=3.0 V; 0 dBm power
setting; ARM® CortexTM-M3 running at
12 MHz
—
27.5
—
mA
25 °C, VDD_PADS=3.0 V; minimum
power setting; ARM® CortexTM-M3
running at 12 MHz
—
21.5
—
mA
25 °C, VDD_PADS=3.0 V; maximum
power setting (+8 dBm); ARM® CortexTM-M3 running at 24 MHz
—
43.5
—
mA
25 °C, VDD_PADS=3.0 V; +3 dBm
power setting; ARM® CortexTM-M3
running at 24 MHz
—
31.0
—
mA
25 °C, VDD_PADS=3.0 V; 0 dBm power
setting; ARM® CortexTM-M3 running at
24 MHz
—
28.5
—
mA
25 °C, VDD_PADS=3.0 V; minimum
power setting; ARM® CortexTM-M3
running at 24 MHz
—
22.5
—
mA
TX Current
10
Rev 1.0
EM346
Figure 2.1 shows the variation of current in transmit mode (with the ARM® CortexTM-M3 running at 12 MHz).
Figure 2.1. Transmit Power Consumption
Rev 1.0
11
EM346
Figure 2.2 shows typical output power against power setting on the Silicon Labs reference design.
Figure 2.2. Transmit Output Power
12
Rev 1.0
EM346
2.5. Digital I/O Specifications
Table 2.5 lists the digital I/O specifications for the EM346. The digital I/O power (named VDD_PADS) comes from
three dedicated pins (pins 23, 28 and 37). The voltage applied to these pins sets the I/O voltage.
Table 2.5. Digital I/O Specifications
Parameter
Test Condition
Voltage supply (regulator input voltage)
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
2.1
—
3.6
V
Low Schmitt switching threshold
VSWIL
Schmitt input threshold going
from high to low
0.42 x
VDD_PADS
—
0.50 x
VDD_PADS
V
High Schmitt switching threshold
VSWIH
Schmitt input threshold going
from low to high
0.62 x
VDD_PADS
—
0.80 x
VDD_PADS
V
Input current for logic 0
IIL
—
—
–0.5
μA
Input current for logic 1
IIH
—
—
+0.5
μA
Input pull-up resistor value
RIPU
24
29
34
k
Input pull-down resistor value
RIPD
24
29
34
k
Output voltage for logic 0
VOL
(IOL = 4 mA for standard pads,
8 mA for high current pads)
0
—
0.18 x
VDD_PADS
V
Output voltage for logic 1
VOH
0.82 x
VDD_PADS
(IOH = 4 mA for standard pads,
8 mA for high current pads)
—
VDD_PADS
V
Output source current 
(standard current pad)
IOHS
—
—
4
mA
Output sink current 
(standard current pad)
IOLS
—
—
4
mA
Output source current high current pad:
PA7, PC0
IOHH
—
—
8
mA
Output sink current high current pad:
PA7, PC0
IOLH
—
—
8
mA
IOH + IOL
—
—
40
mA
Total output current (for I/O Pads)
Rev 1.0
13
EM346
Table 2.6 lists the nRESET pin specifications for the EM346. The digital I/O power (named VDD_PADS) comes
from three dedicated pins (pins 23, 28 and 37). The voltage applied to these pins sets the I/O voltage.
Table 2.6. nReset Pin Specifications
Parameter
Test Condition
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
Low Schmitt switching threshold
VSWIL
Schmitt input threshold going from
high to low
0.42 x
VDD_PADS
—
0.50 x
VDD_PADS
V
High Schmitt switching threshold
VSWIH
Schmitt input threshold going from
low to high
0.62 x
VDD_PADS
—
0.80 x
VDD_PADS
V
IIH
—
—
+0.5
μA
Input pull-up resistor value
RIPU
Pull-up value while the chip is not
reset
24
29
34
k
Input pull-up resistor value
RIPURESET
Pull-up value while the chip is
reset
12
14.5
17
k
Input current for logic 1
2.6. Non-RF System Electrical Characteristics
Table 2.7 lists the non-RF system level characteristics for the EM346.
Table 2.7. Non-RF System Electrical Characteristics
Measured on Silicon Labs’ EM357 reference design with TA = 25 °C and VDD = 3 V, unless otherwise noted.
Parameter
Test Condition
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
System wake time from deep
sleep
From wakeup event to first ARM® CortexTM-M3 instruction running from 6 MHz
internal RC clock
Includes supply ramp time and oscillator
startup time
—
110
—
µs
Shutdown time going into deep
sleep
From last ARM® CortexTM-M3 instruction
to deep sleep mode
—
5
—
µs
14
Rev 1.0
EM346
2.7. RF Electrical Characteristics
2.7.1. Receive
Table 2.8 lists the key parameters of the integrated IEEE 802.15.4-2003 receiver on the EM346.
Receive measurements were collected with the Silicon Labs EM357 Ceramic Balun Reference Design (Version
A0) at 2440 MHz. The typical number indicates one standard deviation above the mean, measured at room
temperature (25C). The min and max numbers were measured over process corners at room temperature.
Table 2.8. Receive Characteristics
Parameter
Test Condition
Frequency range
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
2400
—
2500
MHz
Sensitivity (boost mode)
1% PER, 20 byte packet defined by
IEEE 802.15.4-2003;
—
–102
–96
dBm
Sensitivity
1% PER, 20 byte packet defined by
IEEE 802.15.4-2003;
—
–100
–94
dBm
High-side adjacent channel rejection
IEEE 802.15.4-2003 interferer signal,
wanted IEEE 802.15.4-2003 signal
at –82 dBm
—
35
—
dB
Low-side adjacent channel rejection
IEEE 802.15.4-2003 interferer signal,
wanted IEEE 802.15.4-2003 signal
at –82 dBm
—
35
—
dB
2nd high-side adjacent channel rejection
IEEE 802.15.4-2003 interferer signal,
wanted IEEE 802.15.4-2003 signal
at –82 dBm
—
46
—
dB
2nd low-side adjacent channel rejection IEEE 802.15.4-2003 interferer signal,
wanted IEEE 802.15.4-2003 signal
at –82 dBm
—
46
—
dB
High-side adjacent channel rejection
Filtered IEEE 802.15.4-2003 interferer signal, wanted IEEE 802.15.42003 signal at –82 dBm
—
39
—
dB
Low-side adjacent channel rejection
Filtered IEEE 802.15.4-2003 interferer signal, wanted IEEE 802.15.42003 signal at –82 dBm
—
47
—
dB
2nd high-side adjacent channel 
rejection
Filtered IEEE 802.15.4-2003 interferer signal, wanted IEEE 802.15.42003 signal at –82 dBm
—
49
—
dB
2nd low-side adjacent channel rejection
Filtered IEEE 802.15.4-2003 interferer signal, wanted IEEE 802.15.42003 signal at –82 dBm
—
49
—
dB
High-side adjacent channel rejection
CW interferer signal, wanted IEEE
802.15.4-2003 signal at –82 dBm
—
44
—
dB
Low-side adjacent channel rejection
CW interferer signal, wanted IEEE
802.15.4-2003 signal at –82 dBm
—
47
—
dB
Rev 1.0
15
EM346
Table 2.8. Receive Characteristics (Continued)
Parameter
Test Condition
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
2nd high-side adjacent channel 
rejection
CW interferer signal, wanted IEEE
802.15.4-2003 signal at –82 dBm
—
59
—
dB
2nd low-side adjacent channel rejection
CW interferer signal, wanted IEEE
802.15.4-2003 signal at –82 dBm
—
59
—
dB
Channel rejection for all other channels IEEE 802.15.4-2003 interferer signal,
wanted IEEE 802.15.4-2003 signal
at –82 dBm
—
40
—
dB
802.11g rejection centered at +12 MHz IEEE 802.15.4-2003 interferer signal,
or –13 MHz
wanted IEEE 802.15.4-2003 signal
at –82 dBm
—
36
—
dB
Maximum input signal level for correct
operation
0
—
—
dBm
—
–6
—
dBc
Relative frequency error
(50% greater than the 2x40 ppm
required by IEEE 802.15.4-2003)
–120
—
+120
ppm
Relative timing error
(50% greater than the 2x40 ppm
required by IEEE 802.15.4-2003)
–120
—
+120
ppm
40
—
—
dB
–90
—
–40
dBm
Co-channel rejection
Linear RSSI range
IEEE 802.15.4-2003 interferer signal,
wanted IEEE 802.15.4-2003 signal
at –82 dBm
As defined by IEEE 802.15.4-2003
RSSI Range
16
Rev 1.0
EM346
Figure 2.3 shows the variation of receive sensitivity with temperature for boost mode and normal mode for a typical
chip.
Figure 2.3. Receive Sensitivity vs. Temperature
Rev 1.0
17
EM346
2.7.2. Transmit
Table 2.9 lists the key parameters of the integrated IEEE 802.15.4-2003 transmitter on the EM346.
Transmit measurements were collected with the Silicon Labs EM346 Ceramic Balun Reference Design (Version
A0) at 2440 MHz. The Typical number indicates one standard deviation below the mean, measured at room
temperature (25C). The Min and Max numbers were measured over process corners at room temperature. In
terms of impedance, this reference design presents a 3n3 inductor in parallel with a 100:50 Ω balun to the RF pins.
Table 2.9. Transmit Characteristics
Parameter
Test Condition
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
Maximum output power
(boost mode)
At highest boost mode power setting (+8)
—
8
—
dBm
Maximum output power
At highest normal mode power setting (+3)
1
5
—
dBm
Minimum output power
At lowest power setting
—
–55
—
dBm
Error vector magnitude 
(Offset-EVM)
As defined by IEEE 802.15.4-2003,
which sets a 35% maximum
—
5
15
%
–40
—
+40
ppm
Carrier frequency error
PSD mask relative
3.5 MHz away
–20
—
—
dB
PSD mask absolute
3.5 MHz away
–30
—
—
dBm
18
Rev 1.0
EM346
Figure 2.4 shows the variation of transmit power with temperature for maximum boost mode power, and normal
mode for a typical chip.
Figure 2.4. Transmit Power vs. Temperature
Rev 1.0
19
EM346
2.7.3. Synthesizer
Table 2.10 lists the key parameters of the integrated synthesizer on the EM346.
Table 2.10. Synthesizer Characteristics
Measured on Silicon Labs’ EM357 reference design with TA = 25 °C and VDD = 3 V, unless otherwise noted.
Parameter
Test Condition
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
2400
—
2500
MHz
—
11.7
—
kHz
From off
—
—
100
μs
Channel change or RX/TX turnaround
(IEEE 802.15.4-2003 defines 192 μs
turnaround time)
—
—
100
μs
Phase noise at 100 kHz offset
—
–75
—
dBc/Hz
Phase noise at 1 MHz offset
—
–100
—
dBc/Hz
Phase noise at 4 MHz offset
—
–108
—
dBc/Hz
Phase noise at 10 MHz offset
—
–114
—
dBc/Hz
Frequency range
Frequency resolution
Lock time
Relock time
20
Rev 1.0
EM346
3. Functional Description
The EM346 is a fully integrated system-on-chip that integrates a 2.4 GHz, IEEE 802.15.4-2003-compliant
transceiver, 32-bit ARM® Cortex-M3 microprocessor, flash and RAM memory, and peripherals of use to designers
of ZigBee-based RF4CE systems.
The transceiver uses an efficient architecture that exceeds the dynamic range requirements imposed by the IEEE
802.15.4-2003 standard by over 15 dB. The integrated receive channel filtering allows for robust co-existence with
other communication standards in the 2.4 GHz spectrum, such as IEEE 802.11-2007 and Bluetooth. The integrated
regulator, VCO, loop filter, and power amplifier keep the external component count low. An optional high
performance radio mode (boost mode) is software-selectable to boost dynamic range.
The integrated 32-bit ARM® Cortex-M3 microprocessor is highly optimized for high performance, low power
consumption, and efficient memory utilization. Including an integrated MPU, it supports two different modes of
operation—privileged mode and user mode. This architecture could allow for separation of the networking stack
from the application code, and prevents unwanted modification of restricted areas of memory and registers
resulting in increased stability and reliability of deployed solutions.
The EM346 has 192 kB of embedded flash memory. It has 12 kB of integrated RAM for data and program storage.
The Ember software for the EM346 employs an effective wear-leveling algorithm that optimizes the lifetime of the
embedded flash.
To maintain the strict timing requirements imposed by the ZigBee RF4CE and IEEE 802.15.4-2003 standards, the
EM346 integrates a number of MAC functions, AES128 encryption accelerator, and automatic CRC handling into
the hardware. The MAC hardware handles automatic ACK transmission and reception, automatic backoff delay,
and clear channel assessment for transmission, as well as automatic filtering of received packets. The Ember
Packet Trace Interface is also integrated with the MAC, allowing complete, non-intrusive capture of all packets to
and from the EM346 with Ember development tools.
The EM346 offers a number of advanced power management features that enable long battery life. A highfrequency internal RC oscillator allows the processor core to begin code execution quickly upon waking. Various
deep sleep modes are available with less than 1 µA power consumption while retaining RAM contents. To support
user-defined applications, on-chip peripherals include UART, SPI (slave only), as well as up to 16 GPIOs.
Additionally, an integrated voltage regulator, power-on-reset circuit, and sleep timer are available.
Finally, the EM346 utilizes standard Serial Wire and JTAG interfaces for powerful software debugging and
programming of the ARM Cortex-M3 core. The EM346 integrates the standard ARM system debug components:
Flash Patch and Breakpoint (FPB), Data Watchpoint and Trace (DWT), and Instrumentation Trace Macrocell (ITM).
Target applications for the EM346 include the following:
RF4CE
Home
automation and control
and monitoring
General ZibBee wireless sensor networking
Security
The technical data sheet details the EM346 features available to customers using it with Ember software.
Rev 1.0
21
EM346
Figure 3.1 shows a detailed block diagram of the EM346.
TX_ACTIVE
PA select
RF_TX_ALT_P,N
PA
SYNTH
DAC
MAC
+
Baseband
PA
RF_P,N
BIAS_R
OSCA
OSCB
LNA
ADC
IF
HF crystal
OSC
VDD_CORE
VREG_OUT
1.8V
Regulator
Program
Flash
192kB
ARM® Cortex-M3TM
CPU with NVIC
and MPU
2nd level
Interrupt
controller
CPU debug
TPIU/ITM/
FPB/DWT
Encryption
acclerator
Packet Trace
Bias
1.25V
Regulator
nRESET
Data
SRAM
12kB
Internal HF
RC-OSC
Calibration
ADC
Always
Powered
Domain
GPIO
registers
Watchdog
Serial
Wire and
JTAG
debug
Chip
manager
Sleep
timer
SWCLK,
JTCK
POR
UART/SPI
LF crystal
OSC
Internal LF
RC-OSC
PC7
PC5
PC6
PC4
PC3
PC2
PC1
PC0
PB4
PB3
PB2
PB1
PB0
PA7
PA5
PA4
GPIO multiplexor switch
Figure 3.1. EM346 Block Diagram
The EM346 radio receiver is a low-IF, super-heterodyne receiver. The architecture has been chosen to optimize coexistence with other devices in the 2.4 GHz band (namely Wi-Fi and Bluetooth), and to minimize power
consumption. The receiver uses differential signal paths to reduce sensitivity to noise interference. Following RF
amplification, the signal is downconverted by an image-rejecting mixer, filtered, and then digitized by an ADC.
The digital section of the receiver uses a coherent demodulator to generate symbols for the hardware-based MAC.
The digital receiver also contains the analog radio calibration routines, and controls the gain within the receiver
path.
The radio transmitter uses an efficient architecture in which the data stream directly modulates the VCO frequency.
An integrated PA provides the output power. Digital logic controls TX path and output power calibration. If the
EM346 is to be used with an external PA, use the TX_ACTIVE or nTX_ACTIVE signal to control the timing of the
external switching logic.
The integrated 4.8 GHz VCO and loop filter minimize off-chip circuitry. Only a 24 MHz crystal with its loading
capacitors is required to establish the PLL local oscillator signal.
The MAC interfaces the on-chip RAM to the RX and TX baseband modules. The MAC provides hardware-based
IEEE 802.15.4-2003 packet-level filtering. It supplies an accurate symbol time base that minimizes the
synchronization effort of the Ember software and meets the protocol timing requirements. In addition, it provides
timer and synchronization assistance for the IEEE 802.15.4-2003 CSMA-CA algorithm.
The EM346 integrates hardware support for a packet trace module, which allows robust packet-based debug. This
element is a critical component of Ember Desktop, the Ember development environment, and provides advanced
network debug capability when used with the Ember Debug Adapter (ISA3).
The EM346 integrates an ARM® CortexTM-M3 microprocessor, revision r1p1. This industry-leading core provides
32-bit performance and is very power-efficient. It has excellent code density using the ARM® Thumb-2 instruction
22
Rev 1.0
EM346
set. The processor can be operated at 12 or 24 MHz when using the high-frequency crystal oscillator, or at 6 MHz
or 12 MHz when using the high-frequency internal RC oscillator.
The EM346 has 192 kB of flash memory. The chip has 12 kB of RAM on-chip, and the ARM configurable memory
protection unit (MPU).
The EM346 implements both the ARM Serial Wire and JTAG debug interfaces. These interfaces provide real time,
non-intrusive programming and debugging capabilities. Serial Wire and JTAG provide the same functionality, but
are mutually exclusive. The Serial Wire interface uses two pins; the JTAG interface uses five. Serial Wire is
preferred, since it uses fewer pins.
The EM346 contains 16 GPIO pins shared with other peripheral or alternate functions. The integrated serial
controller SC1 can be configured for SPI (master or slave) or UART operation.
The EM346 contains four oscillators: a high-frequency 24 MHz external crystal oscillator, a high-frequency 12 MHz
internal RC oscillator, an optional low-frequency 32.768 kHz external crystal oscillator, and a low-frequency 10 kHz
internal RC oscillator.
The EM346 has an ultra low power, deep sleep state with a choice of clocking modes. The sleep timer can be
clocked with either the external 32.768 kHz crystal oscillator or with a 1 kHz clock derived from the internal 10 kHz
RC oscillator. Alternatively, all clocks can be disabled for the lowest power mode. In the lowest power mode, only
external events on GPIO pins will wake up the chip. The EM346 has a fast startup time (typically 110 µs) from deep
sleep to the execution of the first ARM® CortexTM-M3 instruction.
The EM346 contains three power domains. The always-on high voltage supply powers the GPIO pads and critical
chip functions. Regulated low voltage supplies power the rest of the chip. The low voltage supplies are disabled
during deep sleep to reduce power consumption. Integrated voltage regulators generate regulated 1.25 V and
1.8 V voltages from an unregulated supply voltage. The 1.8 V regulator output is decoupled and routed externally
to supply analog blocks, RAM, and flash memories. The 1.25 V regulator output is decoupled externally and
supplies the core logic.
Rev 1.0
23
EM346
4. Radio Module
The radio module consists of an analog front end and digital baseband as shown in Figure 3.1 on page 22.
4.1. Receive (RX) Path
The RX path uses a low-IF, super-heterodyne receiver that rejects the image frequency using complex mixing and
polyphase filtering. In the analog domain, the input RF signal from the antenna is first amplified and mixed down to
a 4 MHz IF frequency. The mixers’ output is filtered, combined, and amplified before being sampled by a 12 MSPS
ADC. The digitized signal is then demodulated in the digital baseband. The filtering within the RX path improves
the EM346’s co-existence with other 2.4 GHz transceivers such as Zigbee/ 802.15.4-2003, IEEE 802.11-2007, and
Bluetooth radios. The digital baseband also provides gain control of the RX path, both to enable the reception of
small and large wanted signals and to tolerate large interferers.
4.1.1. RX Baseband
The EM346 RX digital baseband implements a coherent demodulator for optimal performance. The baseband
demodulates the O-QPSK signal at the chip level and synchronizes with the IEEE 802.15.4-2003-defined
preamble. An automatic gain control (AGC) module adjusts the analog gain continuously every ¼ symbol until the
preamble is detected. Once detected, the gain is fixed for the remainder of the packet. The baseband despreads
the demodulated data into 4-bit symbols. These symbols are buffered and passed to the hardware-based MAC
module for packet assembly and filtering.
In addition, the RX baseband provides the calibration and control interface to the analog RX modules, including the
LNA, RX baseband filter, and modulation modules. The Ember software includes calibration algorithms that use
this interface to reduce the effects of silicon process and temperature variation.
4.1.2. RSSI and CCA
The EM346 calculates the RSSI over every 8-symbol period as well as at the end of a received packet. The linear
range of RSSI is specified to be at least 40 dB over temperature. At room temperature, the linear range is
approximately 60 dB (–90 dBm to –30 dBm input signal).
The EM346 RX baseband provides support for the IEEE 802.15.4-2003 RSSI CCA method. Clear channel reports
busy medium if RSSI exceeds its threshold.
4.2. Transmit (TX) Path
The EM346 TX path produces an O-QPSK-modulated signal using the analog front end and digital baseband. The
area- and power-efficient TX architecture uses a two-point modulation scheme to modulate the RF signal
generated by the synthesizer. The modulated RF signal is fed to the integrated PA and then out of the EM346.
4.2.1. TX Baseband
The EM346 TX baseband in the digital domain spreads the 4-bit symbol into its IEEE 802.15.4-2003-defined 32chip sequence. It also provides the interface for the Ember software to calibrate the TX module to reduce silicon
process, temperature, and voltage variations.
4.2.2. TX_ACTIVE and nTX_ACTIVE Signals
For applications requiring an external PA, two signals are provided called TX_ACTIVE and nTX_ACTIVE. These
signals are the inverse of each other. They can be used for external PA power management and RF switching
logic. In transmit mode the TX baseband drives TX_ACTIVE high, as described in Table 7.4 on page 55. In receive
mode the TX_ACTIVE signal is low. TX_ACTIVE is the alternate function of PC5, and nTX_ACTIVE is the alternate
function of PC6. See "7. GPIO (General Purpose Input/Output)" on page 48 for details of the alternate GPIO
functions. The digital I/O that provide these signals have a 4 mA output sink and source capability.
4.3. Calibration
The Ember software calibrates the radio using dedicated hardware resources.
24
Rev 1.0
EM346
4.4. Integrated MAC Module
The EM346 integrates most of the IEEE 802.15.4-2003 MAC requirements in hardware. This allows the ARM®
CortexTM-M3 CPU to provide greater bandwidth to application and network operations. In addition, the hardware
acts as a first-line filter for unwanted packets. The EM346 MAC uses a DMA interface to RAM to further reduce the
overall ARM® CortexTM-M3 CPU interaction when transmitting or receiving packets.
When a packet is ready for transmission, the Ember software configures the TX MAC DMA by indicating the packet
buffer RAM location. The MAC waits for the backoff period, then switches the baseband to TX mode and performs
channel assessment. When the channel is clear the MAC reads data from the RAM buffer, calculates the CRC, and
provides 4-bit symbols to the baseband. When the final byte has been read and sent to the baseband, the CRC
remainder is read and transmitted.
The MAC is in RX mode most of the time. In RX mode various format and address filters keep unwanted packets
from using excessive RAM buffers, and prevent the CPU from being unnecessarily interrupted. When the reception
of a packet begins, the MAC reads 4-bit symbols from the baseband and calculates the CRC. It then assembles the
received data for storage in a RAM buffer. RX MAC DMA provides direct access to RAM. Once the packet has
been received additional data, which provides statistical information on the packet to the Ember software, is
appended to the end of the packet in the RAM buffer space.
The primary features of the MAC are as follows:
CRC
generation, appending, and checking
timers and interrupts to achieve the MAC symbol timing
Automatic preamble and SFD pre-pending on TX packets
Address recognition and packet filtering on RX packets
Automatic acknowledgment transmission
Automatic transmission of packets from memory
Automatic transmission after backoff time if channel is clear (CCA)
Automatic acknowledgment checking
Time stamping received and transmitted messages
Attaching packet information to received packets (LQI, RSSI, gain, time stamp, and packet status)
IEEE 802.15.4-2003 timing and slotted/unslotted timing
Hardware
4.5. Packet Trace Interface (PTI)
The EM346 integrates a true PHY-level PTI for effective network-level debugging. It monitors all the PHY TX and
RX packets between the MAC and baseband modules without affecting their normal operation. It cannot be used to
inject packets into the PHY/MAC interface. This 500 kbps asynchronous interface comprises the frame signal
(PTI_EN, PA4) and the data signal (PTI_DATA, PA5). PTI is supported by the Ember development tools.
4.6. Random Number Generator
Thermal noise in the analog circuitry is digitized to provide entropy for a true random number generator (TRNG).
The TRNG produces 16-bit uniformly distributed numbers. The Ember software uses the TRNG to seed a pseudo
random number generator (PRNG). The TRNG is also used directly for cryptographic key generation.
Rev 1.0
25
EM346
5. ARM® Cortex™-M3 and Memory Modules
This chapter discusses the ARM® CortexTM-M3 Microprocessor, and reviews the EM346’s flash and RAM memory
modules as well as the Memory Protection Unit (MPU).
5.1. ARM® Cortex™-M3 Microprocessor
The EM346 integrates the ARM® CortexTM-M3 microprocessor, revision r1p1, developed by ARM Ltd., making the
EM346 a true System-on-Chip solution. The ARM® CortexTM-M3 is an advanced 32-bit modified Harvard
architecture processor that has separate internal program and data buses, but presents a unified program and data
address space to software. The word width is 32 bits for both the program and data sides. The ARM® CortexTM-M3
allows unaligned word and half-word data accesses to support efficiently-packed data structures.
The ARM® CortexTM-M3 in the EM346 has also been enhanced to support two separate memory protection levels.
Basic protection is available without using the MPU, but normal operation uses the MPU. The MPU allows for
protecting unimplemented areas of the memory map to prevent common software bugs from interfering with
software operation. The architecture could also allow for separation of the networking stack from the application
code using a fine granularity RAM protection module. Errant writes are captured and details are reported to the
developer to assist in tracking down and fixing issues.
5.2. Embedded Memory
Figure 5.1 shows the EM346 ARM® CortexTM-M3 memory map.
26
Rev 1.0
EM346
0xE00FFFFF
0xE00FF000
0xE0042000
0xE0041000
0xE0040000
0xE003FFFF
0xE000F000
0xE000E000
0xE0003000
0xE0002000
0xE0001000
0xE0000000
ROM table
Not used
0xFFFFFFFF
Not used
Not used
TPIU
Private periph bus (external)
Not used
Private periph bus (internal)
NVIC
0xE0000000
0xDFFFFFFF
Not used
FPB
DWT
Not used
ITM
0x42002XXX
Register bit band
alias region
mapped onto System
interface
(not used)
0x42000000
0x40000XXX
0x40000000
0x22002000
Registers
mapped onto System
interface
RAM bit band
alias region
mapped onto System
interface
(not used)
0xA0000000
0x9FFFFFFF
Not used
0x60000000
0x5FFFFFFF
Peripheral
0x40000000
0x3FFFFFFF
0x22000000
0x20002FFF
0x20000000
0x08040FFF
0x08040800
0x080407FF
0x08040000
RAM (12kB)
mapped onto System
interface
RAM
0x20000000
0x1FFFFFFF
Customer Info Block (2kB)
Fixed Info Block (2kB)
Flash
0x0802FFFF
0x00000000
Main Flash Block (192kB)
Upper mapping
(Boot mode)
0x08000000
Optional boot mode
maps Fixed Info Block
to the start of memory
0x0002FFFF
0x000007FF
Fixed Info Block (2kB)
Main Flash Block (192kB)
Lower mapping
(Normal Mode)
0x00000000
Figure 5.1. EM346 ARM® CortexTM-M3 Memory Map
5.2.1. Flash Memory
Rev 1.0
27
EM346
5.2.1.1. Flash Overview
The EM346 provides a total of 192 kB of flash memory. The flash memory is provided in three separate blocks:
Main
Flash Block (MFB)
Information Block (FIB)
Customer Information Block (CIB)
Fixed

The MFB is divided into 2048-byte pages. The EM346 has 96 pages. The CIB is a single 2048-byte page. The FIB
is a single 2048-byte page. The smallest erasable unit is one page and the smallest writable unit is an aligned 16bit half-word. The flash is rated to have a guaranteed 20,000 write/erase cycles. The flash cell has been qualified
for a data retention time of >100 years at room temperature.
Flash may be programmed either through the Serial Wire/JTAG interface or through bootloader software.
Programming flash through Serial Wire/JTAG requires the assistance of RAM-based utility code. Programming
through a bootloader requires Ember software for over-the-air loading or serial link loading.
5.2.1.2. Main Flash Block
The start of the MFB is mapped to both address 0x00000000 and address 0x08000000 in normal boot mode, but is
mapped only to address 0x08000000 in FIB monitor mode (see also "7.5. Boot Configuration" on page 51).
Consequently, it is recommended that software intended to execute from the MFB is designed to operate from the
upper address, 0x08000000, since this address mapping is always available in all modes.
The MFB stores all program instructions and constant data. A small portion of the MFB is devoted to non-volatile
token storage using the Ember Simulated EEPROM system.
5.2.1.3. Fixed Information Block
The 2 kB FIB is used to store fixed manufacturing data including serial numbers and calibration values. The start of
the FIB is mapped to address 0x08040000. This block can only be programmed during production by Silicon Labs.
The FIB also contains a monitor program, which is a serial-link-only way of performing low-level memory accesses.
In FIB monitor mode (see "7.5. Boot Configuration" on page 51), the start of the FIB is mapped to both address
0x00000000 and address 0x08040000 so the monitor may be executed out of reset.
5.2.1.4. Customer Information Block
The 2048 byte CIB can be used to store customer data. The start of the CIB is mapped to address 0x08040800.
The CIB cannot be executed.
The first eight half-words of the CIB are dedicated to special storage called option bytes. An option byte is a 16 bit
quantity of flash where the lower 8 bits contain the data and the upper 8 contain the inverse of the lower 8 bits. The
upper 8 bits are automatically generated by hardware and cannot be written to by the user, see Table 5.1.
The option byte hardware also verifies the inverse of each option byte when exiting from reset and generates an
error, which prevents the CPU from executing code, if a discrepancy is found. All of this is transparent to the user.
28
Rev 1.0
EM346
Table 5.1. Option Byte Storage
Address
bits [15:8]
bits [7:0]
Notes
0x08040800 Inverse Option Byte 0
Option Byte 0 Configures flash read protection
0x08040802 Inverse Option Byte 1
Option Byte 1 Reserved
0x08040804 Inverse Option Byte 2
Option Byte 2 Available for customer use1
0x08040806 Inverse Option Byte 3
Option Byte 3 Available for customer use1
0x08040808 Inverse Option Byte 4
Option Byte 4 Configures flash write protection
0x0804080A Inverse Option Byte 5
Option byte 5
0x0804080C Inverse Option Byte 6
Option Byte 6 Configures flash write protection
0x0804080E Inverse Option Byte 7
Option Byte 7 Reserved
Configures flash write protection
Notes:
1. Option bytes 2 and 3 do not link to any specific hardware functionality other than the option byte loader.
Therefore, they are best used for storing data that requires a hardware verification of the data integrity.
Table 5.2 shows the mapping of the option bytes that are used for read and write protection of the flash. Each bit of
the flash write protection option bytes protects a 4 page region of the main flash block. The EM346 has 24 regions
and therefore option bytes 4, 5, and 6 control flash write protection.These write protection bits are active low, and
therefore the erased state of 0xFF disables write protection. Like read protection, write protection only takes effect
after a reset. Write protection not only prevents a write to the region, but also prevents page erasure.
Option byte 0 controls flash read protection. When option byte 0 is set to 0xA5, read protection is disabled. All other
values, including the erased state 0xFF, enable read protection when coming out of reset. The internal state of read
protection (active versus disabled) can only be changed by applying a full chip reset. If a debugger is connected to
the EM346, the intrusion state is latched. Read protection is combined with this latched intrusion signal. When both
read protection and intrusion are set, all flash is disconnected from the internal bus. As a side effect, the CPU
cannot execute code since all flash is disconnected from the bus. This functionality prevents a debug tool from
being able to read the contents of any flash. The only means of clearing the intrusion signal is to disconnect the
debugger and reset the entire chip using the nRESET pin. By requiring a chip reset, a debugger cannot install or
execute malicious code that could allow the contents of the flash to be read.
The only way to disable read protection is to program option byte 0 with the value 0xA5. Option byte 0 must be
erased before it can be programmed. Erasing option byte 0 while read protection is active automatically masserases the main flash block. By automatically erasing main flash, a debugger cannot disable read protection and
readout the contents of main flash without destroying its contents.
When read protection is active, the bottom four flash pages, addresses 0x08000000 to 0x08001FFF, are
automatically write-protected. Write protecting the bottom four flash pages of main flash prevents an attacker from
reprogramming the reset vector and executing arbitrary code.
In general, if read protection is active then write protection should also be active. This prevents an attacker from
reprogramming flash with malicious code that could readout the flash after the debugger is disconnected. Even
though read protection automatically protects the reset vector, the same technique of reprogramming flash could
be performed at an address outside the bottom four flash pages. To obtain fully protected flash, both read
protection and write protection should be active.
Rev 1.0
29
EM346
Table 5.2. Option Byte Write Protection Bit Map
Option Byte
Bit
Option Byte 0
bit [7:0]
Read protection of all flash (MFB, FIB, CIB)
Option Byte 1
bit [7:0]
Reserved for Silicon Labs use
Option Byte 2
bit [7:0]
Available for customer use
Option Byte 3
bit [7:0]
Available for customer use
Option Byte 4
bit [0]
Write protection of address range 0x08000000 – 0x08001FFF
bit [1]
Write protection of address range 0x08002000 – 0x08003FFF
bit [2]
Write protection of address range 0x08004000 – 0x08005FFF
bit [3]
Write protection of address range 0x08006000 – 0x08007FFF
bit [4]
Write protection of address range 0x08008000 – 0x08009FFF
bit [5]
Write protection of address range 0x0800A000 – 0x0800BFFF
bit [6]
Write protection of address range 0x0800C000 – 0x0800DFFF
bit [7]
Write protection of address range 0x0800E000 – 0x0800FFFF
bit [0]
Write protection of address range 0x08010000 – 0x08011FFF
bit [1]
Write protection of address range 0x08012000 – 0x08013FFF
bit [2]
Write protection of address range 0x08014000 – 0x08015FFF
bit [3]
Write protection of address range 0x08016000 – 0x08017FFF
bit [4]
Write protection of address range 0x08018000 – 0x08019FFF
bit [5]
Write protection of address range 0x0801A000 – 0x0801BFFF
bit [6]
Write protection of address range 0x0801C000 – 0x0801DFFF
bit [7]
Write protection of address range 0x0801E000 – 0x0801FFFF
bit [0]
Write protection of address range 0x08020000 – 0x08021FFF
bit [1]
Write protection of address range 0x08022000 – 0x08023FFF
bit [2]
Write protection of address range 0x08024000 – 0x08025FFF
bit [3]
Write protection of address range 0x08026000 – 0x08027FFF
bit [4]
Write protection of address range 0x08028000 – 0x08029FFF
bit [5]
Write protection of address range 0x0802A000 – 0x0802BFFF
bit [6]
Write protection of address range 0x0802C000 – 0x0802DFFF
bit [7]
Write protection of address range 0x0802E000 – 0x0802FFFF
Option Byte 5
Option Byte 6
Option Byte 7
30
bit [7:0]
Notes
Reserved for Silicon Labs use
Rev 1.0
EM346
5.2.1.5. Simulated EEPROM
Ember software reserves 8 kB of the main flash block as a simulated EEPROM storage area for stack and
customer tokens. The simulated EEPROM storage area implements a wear-leveling algorithm to extend the
number of simulated EEPROM write cycles beyond the physical limit of 20,000 write cycles for which each flash
cell is qualified.
5.2.2. RAM
5.2.2.1. RAM Overview
The EM346 has 12 kB of static RAM on-chip. The start of RAM is mapped to address 0x20000000. Although the
ARM® CortexTM-M3 allows bit band accesses to this address region, the standard MPU configuration does not
permit use of the bit-band feature.
The RAM is physically connected to the AHB System bus and is therefore accessible to both the ARM® CortexTMM3 microprocessor and the debugger. The RAM can be accessed for both instruction and data fetches as bytes,
half words, or words. The standard MPU configuration does not permit execution from the RAM, but for special
purposes the MPU may be disabled. To the bus, the RAM appears as 32-bit wide memory and in most situations
has zero wait state read or write access. In the higher CPU clock mode the RAM requires two wait states. This is
handled by hardware transparent to the user application with no configuration required.
5.2.2.2. Direct Memory Access (DMA) to RAM
Several of the peripherals are equipped with DMA controllers allowing them to transfer data into and out of RAM
autonomously. This applies to the radio (802.15.4-2003 MAC) and serial controller. In the case of the serial
controller, the DMA is full duplex so that a read and a write to RAM may be requested at the same time. Thus there
are six DMA channels in total. See "8.5. DMA Channels" on page 86 and "10.1.4. DMA" on page 173 for a
description of how to configure the serial controller for DMA operation. The DMA channels do not use AHB system
bus bandwidth as they access the RAM directly.
The EM346 integrates a DMA arbiter that ensures fair access to the microprocessor as well as the peripherals
through a fixed priority scheme appropriate to the memory bandwidth requirements of each master. The priority
scheme is as follows, with the top peripheral being the highest priority:
1. MAC
2. Serial Controller 1 Receive
3. Serial Controller 1 Transmit
5.2.2.3. RAM Memory Protection
The EM346 integrates two memory protection mechanisms. The first memory protection mechanism is through the
ARM® CortexTM-M3 Memory Protection Unit (MPU) described in “5.3. Memory Protection Unit”. The MPU may be
used to protect any area of memory. MPU configuration is normally handled by Ember software. The second
memory protection mechanism is through a fine granularity RAM protection module. This allows segmentation of
the RAM into 32-byte blocks where any block can be marked as write protected. An attempt to write to a protected
RAM block using a user mode write results in a bus error being signaled on the AHB System bus. A privileged
mode write is allowed at any time and reads are allowed in either mode. The main purpose of this fine granularity
RAM protection module is to notify the software of erroneous writes to system areas of memory. RAM protection is
configured using a group of registers that provide a bit map. Each bit in the map represents a 32-byte block of
RAM. When the bit is set the block is write-protected.
The fine granularity RAM memory protection mechanism is also available to the peripheral DMA controllers. A
register bit enables protection from DMA writes to protected memory. If a DMA write is made to a protected location
in RAM, a management interrupt is generated. At the same time the faulting address and the identification of the
peripheral is captured for later debugging. Note that only peripherals capable of writing data to RAM, such as
received packet data or a received serial port character, can generate this interrupt.
Rev 1.0
31
EM346
5.2.3. Registers
Appendix A, Register Address Table provides a short description of all application-accessible registers within the
EM346. Complete descriptions are provided at the end of each applicable peripheral’s description. The registers
are mapped to the system address space starting at address 0x40000000. These registers allow for the control
and configuration of the various peripherals and modules. The CPU only performs word-aligned accesses on the
system bus. The CPU performs a word aligned read-modify-write for all byte, half-word, and unaligned writes and a
word-aligned read for all reads. Silicon Labs recommends accessing all peripheral registers using word-aligned
addressing.
As with the RAM, the peripheral registers fall within an address range that allows for bit-band access by the ARM®
CortexTM-M3, but the standard MPU configuration does not allow access to this alias address range.
5.3. Memory Protection Unit
The EM346 includes the ARM® CortexTM-M3 Memory Protection Unit, or MPU. The MPU controls access rights
and characteristics of up to eight address regions, each of which may be divided into eight equal sub-regions.
Refer to the ARM® CortexTM-M3 Technical Reference Manual (DDI 0337A) for a detailed description of the MPU.
Ember software configures the MPU in a standard configuration and application software should not modify it. The
configuration is designed for optimal detection of illegal instruction or data accesses. If an illegal access is
attempted, the MPU captures information about the access type, the address being accessed, and the location of
the offending software. This simplifies software debugging and increases the reliability of deployed devices. As a
consequence of this MPU configuration, accessing RAM and register bit-band address alias regions is not
permitted, and generates a bus fault if attempted.
32
Rev 1.0
EM346
6. System Modules
System modules encompass power domains, resets, clocks, system timers, power management, and encryption.
Figure 6.1 shows these modules and how they interact.
CSYSPWRUPREQ
CDBGPWRUPREQ
WAKE_CORE
sleep timer wrap
sleep timer compare a
sleep timer compare b
IRQD
PB2
GPIO wake monitoring
OSCRC
Wakeup Recording
DIV10
CLK32K
OSC32K
OSC32A
OSC32B
deep sleep
wakeup
REG_EN
Power Management
Sleep Timer
CLK1K
watchdog
Watchdog
always-on supply
VDD_PADS
POR HV
POR HV
VREG_1V25
mem supply
VDD_MEM
POR LVmem
core supply
VDD_CORE
External
Regulator
POR LV
Reset Generation
VREG_1V8
Reset Recording
recomended
connections for
internal regulator VREG_OUT
POR LVcore
nRESET
optional
connections for
external regulator
Reset Filter
JRST
CDBGRSTREQ
SWJ
registers
PRESETHV
SYSRESET
PORESET
DAPRESET
RAM
SYSRESETREQ
option byte error
always-on domain
registers
PRESETLV
Flash
ARM®
Cortex-M3
CPU
ARM®
Cortex-M3
Debug
SYSCLK
Security Accelerator
mem domain
clock switch
AHB-AP
FLITF
OSCHF
OSC24M
OSCA
OSCB
core domain
Figure 6.1. System Module Block Diagram
Rev 1.0
33
EM346
6.1. Power Domains
The EM346 contains three power domains:
An
“always-on domain” containing all logic and analog cells required to manage the EM346’s power
modes, including the GPIO controller and sleep timer. This domain must remain powered.
A “core domain” containing the CPU, Nested Vectored Interrupt Controller (NVIC), and peripherals. To save
power, this domain can be powered down using a mode called deep sleep.
A “memory domain” containing the RAM and flash memories. This domain is managed by the power
management controller. When in deep sleep, the RAM portion of this domain is powered from the alwayson domain supply to retain the RAM contents while the regulators are disabled. During deep sleep the flash
portion is completely powered down.
6.1.1. Internally Regulated Power
The preferred and recommended power configuration is to use the internal regulated power supplies to provide
power to the core and memory domains. The internal regulators (VREG_1V25 and VREG_1V8) generate nominal
1.25 and 1.8 V supplies. The 1.25 V supply is internally routed to the core domain and to an external pin. The 1.8 V
supply is routed to an external pin where it can be externally routed back into the chip to supply the memory
domain. The internal regulators are described in "14. Integrated Voltage Regulator" on page 117.
When using the internal regulators, the always-on domain must be powered between 2.1 and 3.6 V at all four
VDD_PADS pins.
When using the internal regulators, the VREG_1V8 regulator output pin (VREG_OUT) must be connected to the
VDD_MEM, VDD_PADSA, VDD_VCO, VDD_RF, VDD_IF, VDD_PRE, and VDD_SYNTH pins.
When using the internal regulators, the VREG_1V25 regulator output and supply requires a connection between
both VDD_CORE pins.
6.1.2. Externally Regulated Power
Optionally, the on-chip regulators may be left unused, and the core and memory domains may instead be powered
from external supplies. For simplicity, the voltage for the core domain can be raised to nominal 1.8 V, requiring only
one external regulator, or the core domain can be powered from the on-chip regulators while the other domains are
powered externally. Note that if the core domain is powered at a higher voltage (1.8 V instead of 1.25 V) then
power consumption increases. A regulator enable signal, REG_EN, is provided for control of external regulators.
This is an open-drain signal that requires an external pull-up resistor. If REG_EN is not required to control external
regulators it can be disabled (see "7.3. Forced Functions" on page 50).
Using an external regulator requires the always-on domain to be powered between 2.1 and 3.6 V at all four
VDD_PADS pins.
When using an external regulator, the VREG_1V8 regulator output pin (VREG_OUT) must be left unconnected.
When using an external regulator, this external nominal 1.8 V supply has to be connected to both VDD_CORE pins
and to the VDD_MEM, VDD_PADSA, VDD_VCO, VDD_RF, VDD_IF, VDD_PRE and VDD_SYNTH pins.
34
Rev 1.0
EM346
6.2. Resets
The EM346 resets are generated from a number of sources. Each of these reset sources feeds into central reset
detection logic that causes various parts of the system to be reset depending on the state of the system and the
nature of the reset event.
6.2.1. Reset Sources
6.2.1.1. Power-On-Resets (POR HV and POR LV)
The EM346 measures the voltage levels supplied to the three power domains. If a supply voltage drops below a
low threshold, then a reset is applied. The reset is released if the supply voltage rises above a high threshold.
There are three detection circuits for power-on-reset as follows:
POR
HV monitors the always-on domain supply voltage. Thresholds are given in Table 6.1.
LV core monitors the core domain supply voltage. Thresholds are given in Table 6.2.
POR LV mem monitors the memory supply voltage. Thresholds are given in Table 6.3.
POR
Table 6.1. POR HV Thresholds
Parameter
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
Always-on domain release
0.62
0.95
1.20
V
Always-on domain assert
0.45
0.65
0.85
V
250
µs
Supply rise time
Test conditions
From 0.5 V to 1.7 V
Table 6.2. POR LVcore Thresholds
Parameter
Test conditions
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
1.25 V domain release
0.9
1.0
1.1
V
1.25 V domain assert
0.8
0.9
1.0
V
Table 6.3. POR LVmem Thresholds
Parameter
Test conditions
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
1.8 V domain release
1.35
1.5
1.65
V
1.8 V domain assert
1.26
1.4
1.54
V
The POR LVcore and POR LVmem reset sources are merged to provide a single reset source, POR LV, to the
Reset Generation module, since the detection of either event needs to reset the same system modules.
Rev 1.0
35
EM346
6.2.1.2. nRESET Pin
A single active low pin, nRESET, is provided to reset the system. This pin has a Schmitt triggered input.
To afford good noise immunity and resistance to switch bounce, the pin is filtered with the Reset Filter module and
generates the pin reset source, nRESET, to the Reset Generation module. Table 6.4 contains the specification for
the filter.
Table 6.4. Reset Filter Specification for nRESET
Parameter
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
Reset filter time constant
2.1
12.0
16.0
µs
Reset pulse width to guarantee a reset
26.0
—
—
µs
0
—
1.0
µs
Reset pulse width guaranteed not to cause a reset
6.2.1.3. Watchdog Reset
The EM346 contains a watchdog timer (see also "6.4.1. Watchdog Timer" on page 43) that is clocked by the
internal 1 kHz timing reference. When the timer expires it generates the reset source WATCHDOG_RESET to the
Reset Generation module.
6.2.1.4. Software Reset
The ARM® CortexTM-M3 CPU can initiate a reset under software control. This is indicated with the reset source
SYSRESETREQ to the Reset Generation module.
6.2.1.5. Option Byte Error
The flash memory controller contains a state machine that reads configuration information from the information
blocks in the flash at system start time. An error check is performed on the option bytes that are read from flash
and, if the check fails, an error is signaled that provides the reset source OPT_BYTE_ERROR to the Reset
Generation module.
If an option byte error is detected, the system restarts and the read and check process is repeated. If the error is
detected again the process is repeated but stops on the 3rd failure. The system is then placed into an emulated
deep sleep where recovery is possible. In this state, flash memory readout protection is forced active to prevent
secure applications from being compromised.
6.2.1.6. Debug Reset
The Serial Wire/JTAG Interface (SWJ) provides access to the SWJ Debug Port (SWJ-DP) registers. By setting the
register bit CDBGRSTREQ in the SWJ-DP, the reset source CDBGRSTREQ is provided to the Reset Generation
module.
6.2.1.7. JRST
One of the EM346’s pins can function as the JTAG reset, conforming to the requirements of the JTAG standard.
This input acts independently of all other reset sources and, when asserted, does not reset any on-chip hardware
except for the JTAG TAP. If the EM346 is in the Serial Wire mode or if the SWJ is disabled, this input has no effect.
36
Rev 1.0
EM346
6.2.1.8. Deep Sleep Reset
The Power Management module informs the Reset Generation module of entry into and exit from the deep sleep
states. The deep sleep reset is applied in the following states: before entry into deep sleep, while removing power
from the memory and core domain, while in deep sleep, while waking from deep sleep, and while reapplying power
until reliable power levels have been detect by POR LV.
The Power Management module allows a special emulated deep sleep state that retains memory and core domain
power while in deep sleep.
6.2.2. Reset Recording
The EM346 records the last reset condition that generated a restart to the system. The reset conditions recorded
are as follows:
POR
HV
LV
nRESET
watchdog
always-on domain power supply failure
core domain (POR LVcore) or memory domain (POR LVmem) power supply failure
pin reset asserted
watchdog timer expired
SYSRESETREQ
software reset by SYSERSETREQ from ARM® CortexTM-M3 CPU
wake-up from deep sleep
error check failed when reading option bytes from flash
POR
deep
sleep wakeup
option byte error
Note: While CPU Lockup is shown as a reset condition in software, CPU Lockup is not specifically a reset event. CPU Lockup
is set to indicate that the CPU entered an unrecoverable exception. Execution stops but a reset is not applied. This is so
that a debugger can interpret the cause of the error. Silicon Labs recommends that in a live application (in other words,
no debugger attached) the watchdog be enabled by default so that the EM346 can be restarted.
6.2.3. Reset Generation Module
The Reset Generation module responds to reset sources and generates the following reset signals:
PORESET
Reset of the ARM® CortexTM-M3 CPU and ARM® CortexTM-M3 System Debug
components (Flash Patch and Breakpoint, Data Watchpoint and Trace,
Instrumentation Trace Macrocell, Nested Vectored Interrupt Controller). ARM
defines PORESET as the region that is reset when power is applied.
SYSRESET
Reset of the ARM® CortexTM-M3 CPU without resetting the Core Debug and
System Debug components, so that a live system can be reset without disturbing
the debug configuration.
Reset to the SWJ’s AHB Access Port (AHB-AP)
Peripheral reset for always-on power domain, for peripherals that are required to
retain their configuration across a deep sleep cycle
Peripheral reset for core power domain, for peripherals that are not required to
retain their configuration across a deep sleep cycle
DAPRESET
PRESETHV
PRESETLV
Rev 1.0
37
EM346
Table 6.5 shows which reset sources generate certain resets.
Table 6.5. Generated Resets
Reset Source
Reset Generation Module Output
PORESET
SYSRESET
DAPRESET
PRESETHV
PRESETLV
POR HV
X
X
X
X
X
POR LV (due to waking from
normal deep sleep)
X
X
X
POR LV (not due to waking
from normal deep sleep)
X
X
X
nRESET
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Watchdog
X
X
X
SYSRESETREQ
X
X
X
Option byte error
X
X
Normal deep sleep
X
X
Emulated deep sleep
X
Debug reset
X
X
X
X
X
6.3. Clocks
The EM346 integrates four oscillators:
12
MHz RC oscillator
MHz crystal oscillator
10 kHz RC oscillator
32.768 kHz crystal oscillator
24
Figure 6.2 shows a block diagram of the clocks in the EM346. This simplified view shows all the clock sources and
the general areas of the chip to which they are routed.
38
Rev 1.0
EM346
OSC24M_CTRL[0]
12MHz
RC
Failover monitor
(selects RC when
XTAL fails)
OSCHF
SYSCLK
oscillator
24MHz
XTAL
/2
PCLK
OSC24M
OSC24M_CTRL[1]
10kHz
RC
OSCRC
/N
(nominal 10)
CLK1K
oscillator
OSC32K
CPU_CLKSEL[0]
32kHz
digital in
FLITF
bus Flash
bus
32kHz
XTAL
SLEEPTMR_CLKEN[0]
CPU
bus
FCLK
RAM CTRL
Watchdog
counter
Sleep Timer
counter
bus
RAM
SysTick
counter
ST_CSR[2]
/(2^N)
SLEEPTMR_CFG[7:4]
MAC Timer
counter
SLEEPTMR_CFG[0]
SCx
RATEGEN
SCxSCLK
digital i/o
DEBUG_EMCR[24]
AND
/2
TRACECLK
digital out
Figure 6.2. Clocks Block Diagram
Rev 1.0
39
EM346
6.3.1. High-Frequency Internal RC Oscillator (OSCHF)
The high-frequency RC oscillator (OSCHF) is used as the default system clock source when power is applied to
the core domain. The nominal frequency coming out of reset is 12 MHz and Ember software calibrates this clock to
12 MHz. Table 6.6 contains the specification for the high frequency RC oscillator.
Most peripherals, excluding the radio peripheral, are fully functional using the OSCHF clock source. Application
software must be aware that peripherals are clocked at different speeds depending on whether OSCHF or
OSC24M is being used. Since the frequency step of OSCHF is 0.3 MHz and the high-frequency crystal oscillator is
used for calibration, the calibrated accuracy of OSCHF is ±150 kHz ±40 ppm. The UART peripheral may not be
usable due to the lower accuracy of the OSCHF frequency.
Table 6.6. High-Frequency RC Oscillator Specification
Parameter
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
Frequency at reset
6
12
20
MHz
Frequency Steps
—
0.3
—
MHz
Duty cycle
40
—
60
%
—
—
5
%
Supply dependence
Test Conditions
Change in supply = 0.1 V
Test at supply changes: 1.8 to 1.7 V
6.3.2. High-Frequency Crystal Oscillator (OSC24M)
The high-frequency crystal oscillator (OSC24M) requires an external 24 MHz crystal with an accuracy of ±40 ppm.
Based upon the application’s bill of materials and current consumption requirements, the external crystal may
cover a range of ESR requirements. Table 6.7 contains the specification for the high frequency crystal oscillator.
The crystal oscillator has a software-programmable bias circuit to minimize current consumption. Ember software
configures the bias circuit for minimum current consumption.
All peripherals including the radio peripheral are fully functional using the OSC24M clock source. Application
software must be aware that peripherals are clocked at different speeds depending on whether OSCHF or
OSC24M is being used.
If the 24 MHz crystal fails, a hardware failover mechanism forces the system to switch back to the high-frequency
RC oscillator as the main clock source, and a non-maskable interrupt (NMI) is signaled to the ARM® CortexTM-M3
NVIC.
40
Rev 1.0
EM346
Table 6.7. High-Frequency Crystal Oscillator Specification
Parameter
Test Conditions
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
—
24
—
MHz
Accuracy
–40
—
+40
ppm
Duty cycle
40
—
60
%
Start-up time at max bias
—
—
1
ms
Start up time at optimal bias
—
—
2
ms
Current consumption
—
200
300
μA
Current consumption at max bias
—
—
1
mA
Crystal with high ESR
—
—
100
Ω
Load capacitance
—
—
10
pF
Crystal capacitance
—
—
7
pF
Crystal power dissipation
—
—
200
µW
—
—
60
Ω
Load capacitance
—
—
18
pF
Crystal capacitance
—
—
7
pF
Crystal power dissipation
—
—
1
mW
Frequency
Crystal with low ESR
6.3.3. Low-Frequency Internal RC Oscillator (OSCRC)
A low-frequency RC oscillator (OSCRC) is provided as an internal timing reference. The nominal frequency coming
out of reset is 10 kHz, and Ember software calibrates this clock to 10 kHz. From the tuned 10 kHz oscillator
(OSCRC) Ember software calibrates a fractional-N divider to produce a 1 kHz reference clock, CLK1K. Table 6.8
contains the specification for the low frequency RC oscillator.
Table 6.8. Low-Frequency RC Oscillator Specification
Parameter
Nominal frequency
Test Condition
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
After trimming
9
10
11
kHz
—
0.5
—
kHz
For a voltage drop from 3.6 V to 3.1 V or 2.6 V to 2.1 V
(without re-calibration)
—
1
—
%
Frequency variation with temperature for a change
from –40 to +85 oC
(without re-calibration)
—
2
—
%
Analog trim step size
Supply dependence
Temperature 
dependence
Rev 1.0
41
EM346
6.3.4. Low-Frequency Crystal Oscillator (OSC32K)
A low-frequency 32.768 kHz crystal oscillator (OSC32K) is provided as an optional timing reference for on-chip
timers. This oscillator is designed for use with an external watch crystal. When using the 32.768 kHz crystal, you
must connect it to GPIO PC6 and PC7 and must configure these two GPIOs for analog input. Alternatively, when
PC7 is configured as a digital input, PC7 can accept an external digital clock input instead of a 32.786 kHz crystal.
The digital clock input signal must be a 1 V peak-to-peak sine wave with a dc bias of 0.5 V. Refer to "7. GPIO
(General Purpose Input/Output)" on page 48 for GPIO configuration details. Using the low-frequency oscillator,
crystal or digital clock, is enabled through Ember software.
Table 6.9 contains the specification for the low frequency crystal oscillator.
Table 6.9. Low-Frequency Crystal Oscillator Specification
Parameter
Test conditions
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
—
32.768
—
kHz
–20
—
+20
ppm
Load capacitance OSC32A
—
27
—
pF
Load capacitance OSC32B
—
18
—
pF
Crystal ESR
—
—
100
kΩ
Start-up time
—
—
2
s
—
—
0.5
μA
Frequency
Accuracy
Current consumption
At 25 ºC
At 25 °C, VDD_PADS=3.0 V
6.3.5. Clock Switching
The EM346 has two switching mechanisms for the main system clock, providing four clock modes. Table 6.10
shows these clock modes and how they affect the internal clocks.
The register bit OSC24M_CTRL_OSC24M_SEL in the OSC24M_CTRL register switches between the highfrequency RC oscillator (OSCHF) and the high-frequency crystal oscillator (OSC24M) as the main system clock
(SYSCLK). The peripheral clock (PCLK) is always half the frequency of SYSCLK.
The register bit CPU_CLKSEL_FIELD in the CPU_CLKSEL register switches between PCLK and SYSCLK to
produce the ARM® CortexTM-M3 CPU clock (FCLK). The default and preferred mode of operation is to run the
CPU at the higher PCLK frequency, 24 MHz, to give higher processing performance for all applications and
improved duty cycling for applications using sleep modes.
In addition to these modes, further automatic control is invoked by hardware when flash programming is enabled.
To ensure accuracy of the flash controller’s timers, the FCLK frequency is forced to 12 MHz during flash
programming and erase operations.
Table 6.10. System Clock Modes
OSC24M_CTRL_OSC24M_ CPU_CLKSEL_ SYSCLK
SEL
FIELD
42
PCLK
FCLK
Flash Program/
Erase Inactive
Flash Program/
Erase Active
0 (OSCHF)
0 (Normal CPU)
12 MHz
6 MHz
6 MHz
12 MHz
0 (OSCHF)
1 (Fast CPU)
12 MHz
6 MHz
12 MHz
12 MHz
1 (OSC24M)
0 (Normal CPU)
24 MHz
12 MHz
12 MHz
12 MHz
1 (OSC24M)
1 (Fast CPU)
24 MHz
12 MHz
24 MHz
12 MHz
Rev 1.0
EM346
6.4. System Timers
6.4.1. Watchdog Timer
The EM346 integrates a watchdog timer which can be enabled to provide protection against software crashes and
ARM® CortexTM-M3 CPU lockup. By default, it is disabled at power up of the always-on power domain. The
watchdog timer uses the calibrated 1 kHz clock (CLK1K) as its reference and provides a nominal 2.048 s timeout.
A low water mark interrupt occurs at 1.792 s and triggers an NMI to the ARM® CortexTM-M3 NVIC as an early
warning. When the watchdog is enabled, the timer must be periodically reset before it expires. The watchdog timer
is paused when the debugger halts the ARM® CortexTM-M3. Additionally, the Ember software that implements
deep sleep functionality disables the watchdog when entering deep sleep and restores the watchdog, if it was
enabled, when exiting deep sleep.
Ember software provides an API for enabling, resetting, and disabling the watchdog timer.
6.4.2. Sleep Timer
The EM346 integrates a 32-bit timer dedicated to system timing and waking from sleep at specific times. The sleep
timer can use either the calibrated 1 kHz reference (CLK1K), or the 32 kHz crystal clock (CLK32K). The default
clock source is the internal 1 kHz clock.
The sleep timer has a prescaler, a divider of the form 2^N, where N can be programmed from 1 to 2^15. This
divider allows for very long periods of sleep to be timed. Ember software’s default configuration is to use the
prescaler to always produce a 1024 Hz sleep timer tick. The timer provides two compare outputs and wrap
detection, all of which can be used to generate an interrupt or a wake up event.
While it is possible to do so, by default the sleep timer is not paused when the debugger halts the ARM® CortexTMM3. Silicon Labs does not advise pausing the sleep timer when the debugger halts the CPU.
To save current during deep sleep, the low-frequency internal RC oscillator (OSCRC) can be turned off. If OSCRC
is turned off during deep sleep and a low-frequency 32.768 kHz crystal oscillator is not being used, then the sleep
timer will not operate during deep sleep and sleep timer wake events cannot be used to wake up the EM346.
Ember software provides the system timer software API for interacting with the sleep timer as well as using the
sleep timer and RC oscillator during deep sleep.
Note: Because the system timer software module handles all interactions with the sleep timer, the module will return the correct value in all situations. In the situation where the chip performs a deep sleep that maintains the system time and is
woken up from an external event (that is, not a sleep timer event), the deep sleep module in the Ember software delays
until the next sleep timer clock tick (up to 1 ms) to guarantee that the sleep timer updates correctly.
6.4.3. Event Timer
The SysTick timer is an ARM® standard system timer in the NVIC. The SysTick timer can be clocked from either
the FCLK (the clock going into the CPU) or the Sleep Timer clock. FCLK is either the SYSCLK or PCLK as selected
by CPU_CLKSEL register (see “6.3.5. Clock Switching” ).
Rev 1.0
43
EM346
6.5. Power Management
The EM346’s power management system is designed to achieve the lowest deep sleep current consumption
possible while still providing flexible wakeup sources, timer activity, and debugger operation. The EM346 has four
main sleep modes:
Idle
Sleep: Puts the CPU into an idle state where execution is suspended until any interrupt occurs. All
power domains remain fully powered and nothing is reset.
Deep Sleep 1: The primary deep sleep state. In this state, the core power domain is fully powered down
and the sleep timer is active.
Deep Sleep 2: The same as Deep Sleep 1 except that the sleep timer is inactive to save power. In this
mode the sleep timer cannot wake up the EM346.
Deep Sleep 0 (also known as Emulated Deep Sleep): The chip emulates a true deep sleep without
powering down the core domain. Instead, the core domain remains powered and all peripherals except the
system debug components (ITM, DWT, FPB, NVIC) are held in reset. The purpose of this sleep state is to
allow EM346 software to perform a deep sleep cycle while maintaining debug configuration such as
breakpoints.
CSYSPWRUPREQ, CDBGPWRUPREQ, and the corresponding CSYSPWRUPACK and
CDBGPWRUPACK are bits in the debug port’s CTRL/STAT register in the SWJ. For further information on
these bits and the operation of the SWJ-DP please refer to the ARM Debug Interface v5 Architecture
Specification (ARM IHI 0031A).
For further power savings when not in deep sleep, the Serial Controller1 peripheral can be individually disabled
through the PERIPHERAL_DISABLE register. Disabling a peripheral saves power by stopping the clock feeding
that peripheral. A peripheral should only be disabled through the PERIPHERAL_DISABLE register when the
peripheral is idle and disabled through the peripheral's own configuration registers, otherwise undefined behavior
may occur. When a peripheral is disabled through the PERIPHERAL_DISABLE register, all registers associated
with that peripheral ignore all subsequent writes, and subsequent reads return the value seen in the register at the
moment the peripheral is disabled.
6.5.1. Wake Sources
When in deep sleep the EM346 can be returned to the running state in a number of ways, and the wake sources
are split depending on deep sleep 1 or deep sleep 2.
The following wake sources are available in both deep sleep 1 and 2.
Wake
on GPIO activity: Wake due to change of state on any GPIO.
Wake on serial controller 1: Wake due to a change of state on GPIO Pin PB2.
Wake on IRQD: Wake due to a change of state on IRQD. Since IRQD can be configured to point to any
GPIO, this wake source is another means of waking on any GPIO activity.
Wake on setting of CDBGPWRUPREQ: Wake due to setting the CDBGPWRUPREQ bit in the debug port
in the SWJ.
Wake on setting of CSYSPWRUPREQ: Wake due to setting the CSYSPWRUPREQ bit in the debug port in
the SWJ.
The following sources are only available in deep sleep 1 since the sleep timer is not active in deep sleep 2.
Wake
on sleep timer compare A.
on sleep timer compare B.
Wake on sleep timer wrap.
The following source is only available in deep sleep 0 since the SWJ is required to write a memory mapped register
to set this wake source and the SWJ only has access to some registers in deep sleep 0.
Wake
Wake on write to the WAKE_CORE register bit.
The Wakeup Recording module monitors all possible wakeup sources. More than one wakeup source may be
recorded because events are continually being recorded (not just in deep-sleep) and another event may happen
between the first wake event and when the EM346 wakes up.
44
Rev 1.0
EM346
6.5.2. Basic Sleep Modes
The power management state diagram in Figure 6.3 shows the basic operation of the power management
controller.
CDBGPWRUPREQ set
EMULATED
DEEP SLEEP
DEEP SLEEP
1
Q= 0
RE EQ=
P
RU PR
PW WRU
G
B
P
CD SYS
&C
ent set
p ev EQ
ke u UPR or)
Wa PWR rocess
S
p
CSY the
OR resets
(
CDB
& CS GPWRUP
YSPW
R
RUPREQ=0
EQ=0
CDBGPWRUPREQ cleared
(re Wak
set e
s t up
he ev
pro ent
ce
sso
r)
Deep sleep requested
(WFI instruction with SLEEP_DEEP=1)
PRE-DEEP
SLEEP
CS
YS
PW
RU
PR
EQ
RUNNING
uested
Sleep req EEP_DEEP=0)
SL
ith
w
n
io
ct
u
(WFI instr
IDLE SLEEP
&I
NH
IBI
T
rupt
Inter
Figure 6.3. Power Management State Diagram
In normal operation an application may request one of two low power modes through program execution:
Idle
Sleep is achieved by executing a WFI instruction while the SLEEPDEEP bit in the Cortex System
Control register (SCS_SCR) is clear. This puts the CPU into an idle state where execution is suspended
until an interrupt occurs. This is indicated by the state at the bottom of the diagram. Power is maintained to
the core logic of the EM346 during the Idle Sleeping state.
Deep sleep is achieved by executing a WFI instruction with the SLEEPDEEP bit in SCS_SCR set. This
triggers the state transitions around the main loop of the diagram, resulting in powering down the EM346's
core logic, and leaving only the always-on domain powered. Wake up is triggered when one of the predetermined events occurs.
If a deep sleep is requested the EM346 first enters a pre-deep sleep state. This state prevents any section of the
chip from being powered off or reset until the SWJ goes idle (by clearing CSYSPWRUPREQ). This pre-deep sleep
state ensures debug operations are not interrupted.
In the deep sleep state the EM346 waits for a wake up event which will return it to the running state. In powering up
the core logic the ARM® CortexTM-M3 is put through a reset cycle and Ember software restores the stack and
application state to the point where deep sleep was invoked.
Rev 1.0
45
EM346
6.5.3. Further Options for Deep Sleep
By default the low-frequency internal RC oscillator (OSCRC) is running during deep sleep (known as deep
sleep 1).
To conserver power, OSCRC can be turned of during deep sleep. This mode is known as deep sleep 2. Since the
OSCRC is disabled, the sleep timer and watchdog timer do not function and cannot wake the chip unless the lowfrequency 32.768 kHz crystal oscillator is used. Non-timer based wake sources continue to function. Once a wake
event does occur, OSCRC is restarted and comes back up.
6.5.4. Use of Debugger with Sleep Modes
The debugger communicates with the EM346 using the SWJ.
When the debugger is logically connected, the CDBGPWRUPREQ bit in the debug port in the SWJ is set, and the
EM346 will only enter deep sleep 0 (the Emulated Deep Sleep state). The CDBGPWRUPREQ bit indicates that a
debug tool is logically connected to the chip and therefore debug state may be in the system debug components.
To maintain the debug state in the system debug components only deep sleep 0 may be used, since deep sleep 0
will not cause a power cycle or reset of the core domain. The CSYSPWRUPREQ bit in the debug port in the SWJ
indicates that a debugger wants to access memory actively in the EM346. Therefore, whenever the
CSYSPWRUPREQ bit is set while the EM346 is awake, the EM346 cannot enter deep sleep until this bit is cleared.
This ensures the EM346 does not disrupt debug communication into memory.
Clearing both CSYSPWRUPREQ and CDBGPWRUPREQ allows the EM346 to achieve a true deep sleep state
(deep sleep 1 or 2). Both of these signals also operate as wake sources, so that when a debugger logically
connects to the EM346 and begins accessing the chip, the EM346 automatically comes out of deep sleep. When
the debugger initiates access while the EM346 is in deep sleep, the SWJ intelligently holds off the debugger for a
brief period of time until the EM346 is properly powered and ready.
Note: The SWJ-DP signals CSYSPWRUPREQ and CDBGPWRUPREQ are only reset by a power-on-reset or a debugger.
Physically connecting or disconnecting a debugger from the chip will not alter the state of these signals. A debugger
must logically communicate with the SWJ-DP to set or clear these two signals.
For more information regarding the SWJ and the interaction of debuggers with deep sleep, contact customer
support for Application Notes and ARM® CoreSightTM documentation.
46
Rev 1.0
EM346
6.5.5. Registers
Register 6.1. PERIPHERAL_DISABLE
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name
0
0
PERIDIS_RSVD
0
0
0
PERIDIS_SC1
0
Address: 0x40004038 Reset: 0x0
Bitname
Bitfield
Access
Description
PERIDIS_RSVD
[5]
RW
Reserved: This bit can change during normal operation. When writing to
PERIPHERAL_DISABLE, the value of this bit must be preserved.
PERIDIS_SC1
[1]
RW
Disable the clock to the SC1 peripheral.
6.6. Security Accelerator
The EM346 contains a hardware AES encryption engine accessible from the ARM® CortexTM-M3. NIST-based
CCM, CCM*, CBC-MAC, and CTR modes are implemented in hardware. These modes are described in the IEEE
802.15.4-2003 specification, with the exception of CCM*, which is described in the ZigBee Security Services
Specification 1.0.
Rev 1.0
47
EM346
7. GPIO (General Purpose Input/Output)
The EM346 has 16 GPIO pins, which may be individually configured as follows:
General
purpose output
purpose open-drain output
Alternate output controlled by a peripheral device
Alternate open-drain output controlled by a peripheral device
Analog
General purpose input
General purpose input with pull-up or pull-down resistor
The basic structure of a single GPIO is illustrated in GPIO Block DiagramFigure 7.1.
General
GPIO_PxCFGH/L
VDD_PADS
GPIO_PxSET
Output control
(push pull ,
open drain , or
disabled )
GPIO_PxOUT
GPIO_PxCLR
P-MOS
VDD_PADS
VDD_PADS
Protection
diode
N-MOS
GND
Alternate output
PIN
Alternate input
GPIO_PxIN
Schmitt trigger
GND
Analog
functions
Protection
diode
GND
Wake detection
GPIO_PxWAKE
Figure 7.1. GPIO Block Diagram
A Schmitt trigger converts the GPIO pin voltage to a digital input value. The digital input signal is then always
routed to the GPIO_PxIN register; to the alternate inputs of associated peripheral devices; to wake detection logic
if wake detection is enabled; and, for certain pins, to interrupt generation logic. Configuring a pin in analog mode
disconnects the digital input from the pin and applies a high logic level to the input of the Schmitt trigger.
Only one device at a time can control a GPIO output. The output is controlled in normal output mode by the
GPIO_PxOUT register and in alternate output mode by a peripheral device. When in input mode or analog mode,
digital output is disabled.
48
Rev 1.0
EM346
7.1. GPIO Ports
The 16 GPIO pins are grouped into three ports: PA, PB, and PC. Individual GPIOs within a port are numbered 0 to
7 according to their bit positions within the GPIO registers.
Note: Because GPIO port registers’ functions are identical, the notation Px is used here to refer to PA, PB, or PC. For example,
GPIO_PxIN refers to the registers GPIO_PAIN, GPIO_PBIN, and GPIO_PCIN.
Each of the three GPIO ports has the following registers whose low-order eight bits correspond to the port’s eight
GPIO pins:
GPIO_PxIN
(input data register) returns the pin level (unless in analog mode).
GPIO_PxOUT (output data register) controls the output level in normal output mode.
GPIO_PxCLR (clear output data register) clears bits in GPIO_PxOUT.
GPIO_PxSET (set output data register) sets bits in GPIO_PxOUT.
GPIO_PxWAKE (wake monitor register) specifies the pins that can wake the EM346.
In addition to these registers, each port has a pair of configuration registers, GPIO_PxCFGH and GPIO_PxCFGL.
These registers specify the basic operating mode for the port’s pins. GPIO_PxCFGL configures the pins Px[3:0]
and GPIO_PxCFGH configures the pins Px[7:4]. For brevity, the notation GPIO_PxCFGH/L refers to the pair of
configuration registers.
Two GPIO pins (PA7 and PC0) can sink and source higher current than standard GPIO outputs. Refer to Table 2.5
Digital I/O Specifications in "2. Electrical Specifications" on page 7 for more information.
7.2. Configuration
Each pin has a 4-bit configuration value in the GPIO_PxCFGH/L register. The various GPIO modes and their 4-bit
configuration values are shown in Table 7.1.
Table 7.1. GPIO Configuration Modes
GPIO Mode
GPIO_PxCFGH/L
Description
Analog
0x0
Analog input or output. When in analog mode, the digital input (GPIO_PxIN) always reads 1.
Input (floating)
0x4
Digital input without an internal pull up or pull down. Output is disabled.
Input (pull-up or
pull-down)
0x8
Digital input with an internal pull up or pull down. A set bit in GPIO_PxOUT selects pull up and a cleared bit selects pull down. Output is disabled.
Output (push-pull)
0x1
Push-pull output. GPIO_PxOUT controls the output.
Output (opendrain)
0x5
Open-drain output. GPIO_PxOUT controls the output. If a pull up is
required, it must be external.
Alternate Output
(push-pull)
0x9
Push-pull output. An onboard peripheral controls the output.
Alternate Output
(open-drain)
0xD
Open-drain output. An onboard peripheral controls the output. If a pull
up is required, it must be external.
If a GPIO has two peripherals that can be the source of alternate output mode data, then other registers in addition
to GPIO_PxCFGH/L determine which peripheral controls the output.
If a GPIO does not have an associated peripheral in alternate output mode, its output is set to 0.
For outputs assigned to the serial controllers, the serial interface mode registers (SCx_MODE) determine how the
GPIO pins are used. The alternate outputs of PA4 and PA5 can either provide packet trace data (PTI_EN and
PTI_DATA) or synchronous CPU trace data (TRACEDATA2 and TRACEDATA3). The selection of packet trace or
CPU trace is made through the Ember software.
Rev 1.0
49
EM346
7.3. Forced Functions
For some GPIOs, the GPIO_PxCFGH/L configuration will be overridden. These functions are forced when the
EM346 is reset and remain forced until software overrides the forced functions. Table 7.2 shows the GPIOs that
have different functions forced on them regardless of the GPIO_PxCFGH/L registers.
Table 7.2. GPIO Forced Functions
GPIO
Forced Mode
Forced Signal
PA7
Open-drain output
REG_EN
PC0
Input with pull up
JRST
PC2
Push-pull output
JTDO
PC3
Input with pull up
JDTI
PC4*
Input with pull up
JTMS
PC4*
Bidirectional (push-pull output or floating input) controlled by debugger interface
SWDIO
*Note: The choice of PC4’s forced signal is controlled by an external debug tool. JTMS is forced when the SWJ is in JTAG
mode, and SWDIO is forced when the SWJ is in Serial Wire mode.
PA7 is forced to be the regulator enable signal, REG_EN. If an external regulator is used and controlled through
REG_EN, PA7’s forced functionality must not be overridden. If an external regulator is not used, REG_EN may be
disabled and PA7 may be reclaimed as a normal GPIO. Disabling REG_EN is done by clearing the bit
GPIO_EXTREGEN in the GPIO_DBGCFG register.
PC0, PC2, PC3, and PC4 are forced to be the Serial Wire and JTAG (SWJ) Interface. When the EM346 resets,
these four GPIOs are forced to operate in JTAG mode. Switching the debug interface between JTAG mode and
Serial Wire mode can only be accomplished by the external debug tool and cannot be affected by software
executing on the EM346. Due to the fact that Serial Wire mode can only be invoked by an external debug tool and
JTAG mode is forced when the EM346 resets, a designer must treat all four debug GPIOs as working in unison
even though the Serial Wire interface only uses one of the GPIO, PC4.
Note: An application must disable all debug SWJ debug functionality to reclaim any of the four GPIOs: PC0, PC2, PC3, and
PC4. Disabling SWJ debug functionality prevents external debug tools from operating, including flash programming and
high-level debug tools.
Disabling the SWJ debugger interface is accomplished by setting the GPIO_DEBUGDIS bit in the GPIO_DBGCFG
register. When this bit is set, all debugger-related pins (PC0, PC2, PC3, PC4) behave as standard GPIOs. If the
SWJ debugger interface is already active, the bit GPIO_DEBUGDIS cannot be set. When GPIO_DEBUGDIS is
set, the SWJ debugger interface can be reclaimed by activating the SWJ while the EM346 is held in reset. If the
SWJ debugger interface is forced active in this manner, the bit GPIO_FORCEDBG is set in the GPIO_DBGSTAT
register. The SWJ debugger interface is defined as active when the CDBGPWRUPREQ signal, a bit in the debug
port’s CRTL/STAT register in the SWJ, is set high by an external debug tool.
7.4. Reset
A full chip reset is one due to power on (low or high voltage), the nRESET pin, the watchdog, or the
SYSRESETREQ bit. A full chip reset affects the GPIO configuration as follows:
The
GPIO_PxCFGH/L configurations of all pins are configured as floating inputs.
The GPIO_EXTREGEN bit is set in the GPIO_DBGCFG register, which overrides the normal configuration
for PA7.
The GPIO_DEBUGDIS bit in the GPIO_DBGCFG register is cleared, allowing Serial Wire/JTAG access to
override the normal configuration of PC0, PC2, PC3, and PC4.
50
Rev 1.0
EM346
7.5. Boot Configuration
nBOOTMODE is a special alternate function of PA5 that is active only during a pin reset (nRESET) or a power-onreset of the always-powered domain (POR HV). If nBOOTMODE is asserted (pulled or driven low) when coming
out of reset, the processor starts executing an embedded serial-link-only monitor instead of its normal program.
While in reset and during the subsequent power-on-reset startup delay (512 OSCHF clocks), PA5 is automatically
configured as an input with a pull-up resistor. At the end of this time, the EM346 samples nBOOTMODE: a high
level selects normal boot mode, and a low level selects the embedded monitor. Figure 7.2 shows the timing
parameters for invoking monitor mode from a pin (nRESET) reset. Because OSCHF is running uncalibrated during
the reset sequence, the time for 512 OSCHF clocks may vary as indicated.
26 µsec min
. . .
. . .
nRESET
512 clocks;
26 µsec min – 85 µsec max
OSCHF
. . .
. . .
nBOOTMODE Sampled;
FIB Monitor mode entered
nBOOTMODE
. . .
. . .
nBOOTMODE Sampled by
FIB Monitor code
Figure 7.2. nBOOTMODE and nRESET Timing
Timing for a power-on-reset is similar except that OSCHF does not begin oscillating until up to 70 µsec after both
core and HV supplies are valid. Combined with the maximum 250 µsec allowed for HV to ramp from 0.5 V to 1.7 V,
an additional 320 µsec may be added to the 512 OSCHF clocks until nBOOTMODE is sampled.
If the monitor mode is selected (nBOOTMODE is low after 512 clocks), the FIB monitor software begins execution.
In order to filter out inadvertent jumps into the monitor, the FIB monitor re-samples the nBOOTMODE signal after a
3 ms delay. If the signal is still low, then the device stays in monitor mode. If the signal is high, then monitor mode
is exited and the normal program begins execution. In summary, the nBOOTMODE signal must be held low for
4 ms in order to properly invoke the FIB monitor.
After nBOOTMODE has been sampled, PA5 is configured as a floating input like the other GPIO configurations.
The GPIO_BOOTMODE bit in the GPIO_DBGSTAT register captures the state of nBOOTMODE so that software
may act on this signal if required.
Note: To avoid inadvertently asserting nBOOTMODE, PA5’s capacitive load may not exceed 250 pF.
7.6. GPIO Modes
7.6.1. Analog Mode
Analog mode enables analog functions, and disconnects a pin from the digital input and output logic. Only the
following GPIO pins have analog functions:
PC6
and PC7 can connect to an optional 32.768 kHz crystal.
Note: When an external timing source is required, a 32.768 kHz crystal is commonly connected to PC6 and PC7. Alternatively,
when PC7 is configured as a digital input, PC7 can accept a digital external clock input.
When configured in analog mode:
The
output drivers are disabled.
The internal pull-up and pull-down resistors are disabled.
The Schmitt trigger input is connected to a high logic level.
Rev 1.0
51
EM346
Reading
GPIO_PxIN returns a constant 1.
7.6.2. Input Mode
Input mode is used both for general purpose input and for on-chip peripheral inputs. Input floating mode disables
the internal pull-up and pull-down resistors, leaving the pin in a high-impedance state. Input pull-up or pull-down
mode enables either an internal pull-up or pull-down resistor based on the GPIO_PxOUT register. Setting a bit to 0
in GPIO_PxOUT enables the pull-down and setting a bit to 1 enables the pull up.
When configured in input mode:
The
output drivers are disabled.
An internal pull-up or pull-down resistor may be activated depending on GPIO_PxCFGH/L and
GPIO_PxOUT.
The Schmitt trigger input is connected to the pin.
Reading GPIO_PxIN returns the input at the pin.
The input is also available to on-chip peripherals.
7.6.3. Output Mode
Output mode provides a general purpose output under direct software control. Regardless of whether an output is
configured as push-pull or open-drain, the GPIO’s bit in the GPIO_PxOUT register controls the output. The
GPIO_PxSET and GPIO_PxCLR registers can atomically set and clear bits within GPIO_PxOUT register. These
set and clear registers simplify software using the output port because they eliminate the need to disable interrupts
to perform an atomic read-modify-write operation of GPIO_PxOUT.
When configured in output mode:
The
output drivers are enabled and are controlled by the value written to GPIO_PxOUT:
In
In
open-drain mode: 0 activates the N-MOS current sink; 1 tri-states the pin.
push-pull mode: 0 activates the N-MOS current sink; 1 activates the P-MOS current source.
The
internal pull-up and pull-down resistors are disabled.
Schmitt trigger input is connected to the pin.
Reading GPIO_PxIN returns the input at the pin.
The
Note: Reading GPIO_PxOUT returns the last value written to the register.
Depending on configuration and usage, GPIO_PxOUT and GPIO_PxIN may not have the same value.
7.6.4. Alternate Output Mode
In this mode, the output is controlled by an on-chip peripheral instead of GPIO_PxOUT and may be configured as
either push-pull or open-drain. Most peripherals require a particular output type, but since using a peripheral does
not by itself configure a pin, the GPIO_PxCFGH/L registers must be configured properly for a peripheral’s particular
needs. As described in "7.2. Configuration" on page 49, when more than one peripheral can be the source of
output data, registers in addition to GPIO_PxCFGH/L determine which to use.
When configured in alternate output mode:
The
output drivers are enabled and are controlled by the output of an on-chip peripheral:
In
In
open-drain mode: 0 activates the N-MOS current sink; 1 tri-states the pin.
push-pull mode: 0 activates the N-MOS current sink; 1 activates the P-MOS current source.
The
internal pull-up and pull-down resistors are disabled.
The Schmitt trigger input is connected to the pin.
Note: Reading GPIO_PxIN returns the input to the pin.
Depending on configuration and usage, GPIO_PxOUT and GPIO_PxIN may not have the same value.
7.7. Wake Monitoring
The GPIO_PxWAKE registers specify which GPIOs are monitored to wake the processor. If a GPIO’s wake enable
bit is set in GPIO_PxWAKE, then a change in the logic value of that GPIO causes the EM346 to wake from deep
sleep. The logic values of all GPIOs are captured by hardware upon entering sleep. If any GPIO’s logic value
changes while in sleep and that GPIO’s GPIO_PxWAKE bit is set, then the EM346 wakes from deep sleep. (There
is no mechanism for selecting a specific rising-edge, falling-edge, or level on a GPIO: any change in logic value
52
Rev 1.0
EM346
triggers a wake event.) Hardware records the fact that GPIO activity caused a wake event, but not which specific
GPIO was responsible. Instead, the Ember software reads the state of the GPIOs on waking to determine this.
The register GPIO_WAKEFILT contains bits to enable digital filtering of the external wakeup event sources: the
GPIO pins, SC1 activity, and IRQD. The digital filter operates by taking samples based on the (nominal) 10 kHz RC
oscillator. If three samples in a row all have the same logic value, and this sampled logic value is different from the
logic value seen upon entering sleep, the filter outputs a wakeup event.
In order to use GPIO pins to wake the EM346 from deep sleep, the GPIO_WAKE bit in the WAKE_SEL register
must be set. Waking up from GPIO activity does not work with pins configured for analog mode since the digital
logic input is always set to 1 when in analog mode. Refer to "6. System Modules" on page 33 for information on the
EM346’s power management and sleep modes.
7.8. External Interrupts
The EM346 can use up to three external interrupt sources (IRQA, IRQC, and IRQD), each with its own top-level
NVIC interrupt vector. Since these external interrupt sources connect to the standard GPIO input path, an external
interrupt pin may simultaneously be used by a peripheral device or even configured as an output. Analog mode is
the only GPIO configuration that is not compatible with using a pin as an external interrupt.
External interrupts have individual triggering and filtering options selected using the registers GPIO_INTCFGA,
GPIO_INTCFGB, GPIO_INTCFGC, and GPIO_INTCFGD. The bit field GPIO_INTMOD of the GPIO_INTCFGx
register enables IRQx’s second-level interrupt and selects the triggering mode: 0 is disabled; 1 for rising edge; 2 for
falling edge; 3 for both edges; 4 for active high level; 5 for active low level. The minimum width needed to latch an
unfiltered external interrupt in both level- and edge-triggered mode is 80 ns. With the digital filter enabled (the
GPIO_INTFILT bit in the GPIO_INTCFGx register is set), the minimum width needed is 450 ns.
The register INT_GPIOFLAG is the second-level interrupt flag register that indicates pending external interrupts.
Writing 1 to a bit in the INT_GPIOFLAG register clears the flag while writing 0 has no effect. If the interrupt is leveltriggered, the flag bit is set again immediately after being cleared if its input is still in the active state.
IRQA has a fixed pin assignment. The other two external interrupts, IRQC and IRQD, can use any GPIO pin. The
GPIO_IRQCSEL and GPIO_IRQDSEL registers specify the GPIO pins assigned to IRQC and IRQD, respectively.
Table 7.3 shows how the GPIO_IRQCSEL and GPIO_IRQDSEL register values select the GPIO pin used for the
external interrupt.
Table 7.3. IRQC/D GPIO Selection
GPIO_IRQxSEL
GPIO
GPIO_IRQxSEL
GPIO
GPIO_IRQxSEL
GPIO
4
PA4
8
PB0
16
PC0
5
PA5
9
PB1
17
PC1
7
PA7
10
PB2
18
PC2
11
PB3
19
PC3
12
PB4
20
PC4
21
PC5
22
PC6
23
PC7
In some cases, it may be useful to assign IRQC or IRQD to an input also in use by a peripheral, for example to
generate an interrupt from the slave select signal (nSSEL) in an SPI slave mode interface.
Refer to "9. Interrupt System" on page 100 for further information regarding the EM346 interrupt system.
7.9. Debug Control and Status
Two GPIO registers are largely concerned with debugger functions. GPIO_DBGCFG can disable debugger
Rev 1.0
53
EM346
operation, but has other miscellaneous control bits as well. GPIO_DBGSTAT, a read-only register, returns status
related to debugger activity (GPIO_FORCEDBG and GPIO_SWEN), as well a flag (GPIO_BOOTMODE) indicating
whether nBOOTMODE was asserted at the last power-on or nRESET-based reset.
7.10. GPIO Signal Assignment Summary
The GPIO signal assignments are shown in Table 7.4.
Table 7.4. GPIO Signal Assignments
GPIO
Analog
Alternate Output
Input
Output Current
Drive
PA4
PTI_EN, TRACEDATA2
PA5
PTI_DATA, TRACEDATA3
PA7
REG_EN2
PB0
TRACECLK
IRQA
Standard
PB1
SC1TXD, SC1MOSI, SC1MISO,
SC1SDA
SC1SDA
Standard
PB2
SC1SCLK
SC1MISO, SC1MOSI, SC1SCL,
SC1RXD
Standard
PB3
SC1SCLK
SC1SCLK, SC1nCTS
Standard
PB4
SC1nRTS
SC1nSSEL
Standard
PC0
TRACEDATA1
PC1
TRACEDATA0, SWO
JTDO4,
PC2
Standard
nBOOTMODE1
Standard
High
JRST
3
High
Standard
SWO
Standard
JTDI3
PC3
PC4
PC5
TX_ACTIVE
Standard
nTX_ACTIVE
Standard
PC6
OSC32B
PC7
OSC32A
SWDIO5,
JTMS5
Standard
SWDIO5
Standard
Standard
Notes:
1. Overrides during reset as an input with pull up.
2. Overrides after reset as an open-drain output.
3. Overrides in JTAG mode as a input with pull up.
4. Overrides in JTAG mode as a push-pull output.
5. Overrides in Serial Wire mode as either a push-pull output, or a floating input, controlled by the debugger.
54
Rev 1.0
EM346
7.11. Registers
Note: Substitute “A”, “B”, or “C” for “x” in the following detailed descriptions.
Register 7.1. GPIO_PxCFGL
GPIO_PACFGL: Port A Configuration Register (Low)
GPIO_PBCFGL: Port B Configuration Register (Low)
GPIO_PCCFGL: Port C Configuration Register (Low)
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
1
0
Name
Bit
Px3_CFG
7
6
Name
Px2_CFG
5
4
3
2
Px1_CFG
Px0_CFG
GPIO_PACFGL: Address: 0x4000B000 Reset: 0x4444
GPIO_PBCFGL: Address: 0x4000B400 Reset: 0x4444
GPIO_PCCFGL: Address: 0x4000B800 Reset: 0x4444
Bitname
Bitfield
Access
Description
Px3_CFG
[15:12]
RW
GPIO configuration control.
0x0: Analog, input or output (GPIO_PxIN always reads 1).
0x1: Output, push-pull (GPIO_PxOUT controls the output).
0x4: Input, floating.
0x5: Output, open-drain (GPIO_PxOUT controls the output).
0x8: Input, pulled up or down (selected by GPIO_PxOUT: 0 = pull-down,
1 = pull-up).
0x9: Alternate output, push-pull (peripheral controls the output).
0xD: Alternate output, open-drain (peripheral controls the output).
Px2_CFG
[11:8]
RW
GPIO configuration control: see Px3_CFG above.
Px1_CFG
[7:4]
RW
GPIO configuration control: see Px3_CFG above.
Px0_CFG
[3:0]
RW
GPIO configuration control: see Px3_CFG above.
Rev 1.0
55
EM346
Register 7.2. GPIO_PxCFGH
GPIO_PACFGH: Port A Configuration Register (High)
GPIO_PBCFGH: Port B Configuration Register (High)
GPIO_PCCFGH: Port C Configuration Register (High)
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
1
0
Name
Bit
Px7_CFG
7
6
Name
Px6_CFG
5
4
3
2
Px5_CFG
Px4_CFG
GPIO_PACFGH: Address: 0x4000B004 Reset: 0x4444
GPIO_PBCFGH: Address: 0x4000B404 Reset: 0x4444
GPIO_PCCFGH: Address: 0x4000B804 Reset: 0x4444
56
Bitname
Bitfield
Access
Description
Px7_CFG
[15:12]
RW
GPIO configuration control.
0x0: Analog, input or output (GPIO_PxIN always reads 1).
0x1: Output, push-pull (GPIO_PxOUT controls the output).
0x4: Input, floating.
0x5: Output, open-drain (GPIO_PxOUT controls the output).
0x8: Input, pulled up or down (selected by GPIO_PxOUT: 0 = pull-down,
1 = pull-up).
0x9: Alternate output, push-pull (peripheral controls the output).
0xD: Alternate output, open-drain (peripheral controls the output).
Px6_CFG
[11:8]
RW
GPIO configuration control: see Px7_CFG above.
Px5_CFG
[7:4]
RW
GPIO configuration control: see Px7_CFG above.
Px4_CFG
[3:0]
RW
GPIO configuration control: see Px7_CFG above.
Rev 1.0
EM346
Register 7.3. GPIO_PxIN
GPIO_PAIN: Port A Input Data Register
GPIO_PBIN: Port B Input Data Register
GPIO_PCIN: Port C Input Data Register
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name
Px7
Px6
Px5
Px4
Px3
Px2
Px1
Px0
GPIO_PAIN: Address: 0x4000B008 Reset: 0x0
GPIO_PBIN: Address: 0x4000B408 Reset: 0x0
GPIO_PCIN: Address: 0x4000B808 Reset: 0x0
Bitname
Bitfield
Access
Description
Px7
[7]
RW
Input level at pin Px7.
Px6
[6]
RW
Input level at pin Px6.
Px5
[5]
RW
Input level at pin Px5.
Px4
[4]
RW
Input level at pin Px4.
Px3
[3]
RW
Input level at pin Px3.
Px2
[2]
RW
Input level at pin Px2.
Px1
[1]
RW
Input level at pin Px1.
Px0
[0]
RW
Input level at pin Px0.
Rev 1.0
57
EM346
Register 7.4. GPIO_PxOUT
GPIO_PAOUT: Port A Output Data Register
GPIO_PBOUT: Port B Output Data Register
GPIO_PCOUT: Port C Output Data Register
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name
Px7
Px6
Px5
Px4
Px3
Px2
Px1
Px0
GPIO_PAOUT: Address: 0x4000B00C Reset: 0x0
GPIO_PBOUT: Address: 0x4000B40C Reset: 0x0
GPIO_PCOUT: Address: 0x4000B80C Reset: 0x0
58
Bitname
Bitfield
Access
Description
Px7
[7]
RW
Output data for Px7.
Px6
[6]
RW
Output data for Px6.
Px5
[5]
RW
Output data for Px5.
Px4
[4]
RW
Output data for Px4.
Px3
[3]
RW
Output data for Px3.
Px2
[2]
RW
Output data for Px2.
Px1
[1]
RW
Output data for Px1.
Px0
[0]
RW
Output data for Px0.
Rev 1.0
EM346
Register 7.5. GPIO_PxCLR
GPIO_PACLR: Port A Output Clear Register
GPIO_PBCLR: Port B Output Clear Register
GPIO_PCCLR: Port C Output Clear Register
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name
Px7
Px6
Px5
Px4
Px3
Px2
Px1
Px0
GPIO_PACLR: Address: 0x4000B014 Reset: 0x0
GPIO_PBCLR: Address: 0x4000B414 Reset: 0x0
GPIO_PCCLR: Address: 0x4000B814 Reset: 0x0
Bitname
Bitfield
Access
Description
Px7
[7]
W
Write 1 to clear the output data bit for Px7 (writing 0 has no effect).
Px6
[6]
W
Write 1 to clear the output data bit for Px6 (writing 0 has no effect).
Px5
[5]
W
Write 1 to clear the output data bit for Px5 (writing 0 has no effect).
Px4
[4]
W
Write 1 to clear the output data bit for Px4 (writing 0 has no effect).
Px3
[3]
W
Write 1 to clear the output data bit for Px3 (writing 0 has no effect).
Px2
[2]
W
Write 1 to clear the output data bit for Px2 (writing 0 has no effect).
Px1
[1]
W
Write 1 to clear the output data bit for Px1 (writing 0 has no effect).
Px0
[0]
W
Write 1 to clear the output data bit for Px0 (writing 0 has no effect).
Rev 1.0
59
EM346
Register 7.6. GPIO_PxSET
GPIO_PASET: Port A Output Set Register
GPIO_PBSET: Port B Output Set Register
GPIO_PCSET: Port C Output Set Register
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Name
GPIO_PXSETRSVD
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name
Px7
Px6
Px5
Px4
Px3
Px2
Px1
Px0
GPIO_PASET: Address: 0x4000B010 Reset: 0x0
GPIO_PBSET: Address: 0x4000B410 Reset: 0x0
GPIO_PCSET: Address: 0x4000B810 Reset: 0x0
Bitname
Bitfield
Access
GPIO_PXSETRSVD
[15:8]
W
Reserved: these bits must be set to 0.
Px7
[7]
W
Write 1 to set the output data bit for Px7 (writing 0 has no effect).
Px6
[6]
W
Write 1 to set the output data bit for Px6 (writing 0 has no effect).
Px5
[5]
W
Write 1 to set the output data bit for Px5 (writing 0 has no effect).
Px4
[4]
W
Write 1 to set the output data bit for Px4 (writing 0 has no effect).
Px3
[3]
W
Write 1 to set the output data bit for Px3 (writing 0 has no effect).
Px2
[2]
W
Write 1 to set the output data bit for Px2 (writing 0 has no effect).
Px1
[1]
W
Write 1 to set the output data bit for Px1 (writing 0 has no effect).
Px0
[0]
W
Write 1 to set the output data bit for Px0 (writing 0 has no effect).
60
Description
Rev 1.0
EM346
Register 7.7. GPIO_PxWAKE
GPIO_PAWAKE: Port A Wakeup Monitor Register
GPIO_PBWAKE: Port B Wakeup Monitor Register
GPIO_PCWAKE: Port C Wakeup Monitor Register
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name
Px7
Px6
Px5
Px4
Px3
Px2
Px1
Px0
GPIO_PAWAKE: Address: 0x4000BC08 Reset: 0x0
GPIO_PBWAKE: Address: 0x4000BC0C Reset: 0x0
GPIO_PCWAKE: Address: 0x4000BC10 Reset: 0x0
Bitname
Bitfield
Access
Description
Px7
[7]
RW
Write 1 to enable wakeup monitoring of Px7.
Px6
[6]
RW
Write 1 to enable wakeup monitoring of Px6.
Px5
[5]
RW
Write 1 to enable wakeup monitoring of Px5.
Px4
[4]
RW
Write 1 to enable wakeup monitoring of Px4.
Px3
[3]
RW
Write 1 to enable wakeup monitoring of Px3.
Px2
[2]
RW
Write 1 to enable wakeup monitoring of Px2.
Px1
[1]
RW
Write 1 to enable wakeup monitoring of Px1.
Px0
[0]
RW
Write 1 to enable wakeup monitoring of Px0.
Rev 1.0
61
EM346
Register 7.8. GPIO_WAKEFILT: GPIO Wakeup Filtering Register
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name
0
0
0
0
IRQD_WAKE_
FILTER
0
SC1_WAKE_
FILTER
GPIO_WAKE_
FILTER
Address: 0x4000BC1C Reset: 0x0
Bitname
Bitfield
Access
IRQD_WAKE_FILTER
[3]
RW
Enable filter on GPIO wakeup source IRQD.
SC1_WAKE_FILTER
[1]
RW
Enable filter on GPIO wakeup source SC1 (PB2).
GPIO_WAKE_FILTER
[0]
RW
Enable filter on GPIO wakeup sources enabled by the GPIO_PnWAKE registers.
62
Description
Rev 1.0
EM346
Note: Substitute “C” or “D” for “x” in the following detailed description.
Register 7.9. GPIO_IRQxSEL
GPIO_IRQCSEL: Interrupt C Select Register
GPIO_IRQDSEL: Interrupt D Select Register
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name
0
0
0
SEL_GPIO
GPIO_IRQCSEL: Address: 0x4000BC14 Reset: 0xF
GPIO_IRQDSEL: Address: 0x4000BC18 Reset: 0x10
Bitname
Bitfield
Access
SEL_GPIO
[4:0]
RW
Description
Pin assigned to IRQx.
0x04: PA4
0x05: PA5
0x07: PA7
0x08: PB0
0x09: PB1
0x0A: PB2
0x0B: PB3
0x0C: PB4
0x10: PC0
0x11: PC1
0x12: PC2
0x13: PC3
0x14: PC4
0x15: PC5
0x16: PC6
0x17: PC7
0x18–0x1F: Reserved
Rev 1.0
63
EM346
Note: Substitute “A”, “B”, “C”, or “D” for “x” in the following detailed description.
Register 7.10. GPIO_INTCFGx
GPIO_INTCFGA: GPIO Interrupt A Configuration Register
GPIO_INTCFGB: GPIO Interrupt B Configuration Register
GPIO_INTCFGC: GPIO Interrupt C Configuration Register
GPIO_INTCFGD: GPIO Interrupt D Configuration Register
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
GPIO_INTFILT
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
Name
GPIO_INTMOD
GPIO_INTCFGA: Address: 0x4000A860
GPIO_INTCFGB: Address: 0x4000A864
GPIO_INTCFGC: Address: 0x4000A868
GPIO_INTCFGD: Address: 0x4000A86C
Reset: 0x0
Reset: 0x0
Reset: 0x0
Reset: 0x0
Bitname
Bitfield
Access
GPIO_INTFILT
[8]
RW
Set this bit to enable digital filtering on IRQx.
GPIO_INTMOD
[7:5]
RW
IRQx triggering mode.
0x0: Disabled.
0x1: Rising edge triggered.
0x2: Falling edge triggered.
0x3: Rising and falling edge triggered.
0x4: Active high level triggered.
0x5: Active low level triggered.
0x6, 0x7: Reserved.
64
Description
Rev 1.0
EM346
Register 7.11. INT_GPIOFLAG: GPIO Interrupt Flag Register
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name
0
0
0
0
0
INT_IRQAFLAG
INT_IRQDFLAG INT_IRQCFLAG
Address: 0x4000A814 Reset: 0x0
Bitname
Bitfield
Access
Description
INT_IRQDFLAG
[3]
RW
IRQD interrupt pending. Write 1 to clear IRQD interrupt (writing 0 has no effect).
INT_IRQCFLAG
[2]
RW
IRQC interrupt pending. Write 1 to clear IRQC interrupt (writing 0 has no effect).
INT_IRQAFLAG
[0]
RW
IRQA interrupt pending. Write 1 to clear IRQA interrupt (writing 0 has no effect).
Register 7.12. GPIO_DBGCFG: GPIO Debug Configuration Register
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name
0
0
GPIO_DEBUGDIS
GPIO_EXTREGEN
GPIO_DBGCFGRSVD
0
0
0
Address: 0x4000BC00 Reset: 0x10
Bitname
Bitfield
Access
Description
GPIO_DEBUGDIS
[5]
RW
Disable debug interface override of normal GPIO configuration.
0: Permit debug interface to be active.
1: Disable debug interface (if it is not already active).
GPIO_EXTREGEN
[4]
RW
Enable REG_EN override of PA7's normal GPIO configuration.
0: Disable override.
1: Enable override.
GPIO_DBGCFGRSVD
[3]
RW
Reserved: this bit can change during normal operation. When writing to GPIO_DBGCFG, the value of this bit must be preserved.
Rev 1.0
65
EM346
Register 7.13. GPIO_DBGSTAT: GPIO Debug Status Register
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name
0
0
0
0
GPIO_BOOTMODE
0
GPIO_FORCEDBG GPIO_SWEN
Address: 0x4000BC04 Reset: 0x0
Bitname
Bitfield
Access
GPIO_BOOTMODE
[3]
R
The state of the nBOOTMODE signal sampled at the end of reset.
0: nBOOTMODE was not asserted (it read high).
1: nBOOTMODE was asserted (it read low).
GPIO_FORCEDBG
[1]
R
Status of debugger interface.
0: Debugger interface not forced active.
1: Debugger interface forced active by debugger cable.
GPIO_SWEN
[0]
R
Status of Serial Wire interface.
0: Not enabled by SWJ-DP.
1: Enabled by SWJ-DP.
66
Description
Rev 1.0
EM346
8. Serial Controllers
8.1. Overview
The EM346 has one serial controller, SC1, which provides several options for full-duplex synchronous and
asynchronous serial communications.
SPI
(Serial Peripheral Interface), slave only
UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter)
Receive and transmit FIFOs and DMA channels, SPI and UART modes
Receive and transmit FIFOs allow faster data speeds using byte-at-a-time interrupts. For the highest SPI and
UART speeds, dedicated receive and transmit DMA channels reduce CPU loading and extend the allowable time
to service a serial controller interrupt. Polled operation is also possible using direct access to the serial data
registers. Figure 8.1 shows the components of the serial controllers.
SC1 Interrupt
OFF
0
SC 1
only
UAR T
1
INT _ SC1CFG
INT _ SC1FLAG
SC 1 _ UARTPER / FRAC
Baud Generator
SC 1 _ UARTSTAT
SC 1 _ UARTCFG
UART
Controller
TXD
RXD
n RTS
n CTS
SC1 _ SPISTAT
SC1 _ SPICFG
SPI Slave
Controller
MISO
M OSI
S CLK
nSSEL
SC1 _ RATELIN / EXP
Clock Generator
SC1 _ MODE
2
SPI
SC1 _ DATA
TX - FIFO
SC1 TX DMA
channel
SC1 _ DMACTRL
SC1 RX DMA
channel
SC1 _ DMASTAT
DMA
Controller
SC1 _ RXCNTA /B
SC1 _ RXCNTSAVED
SC1 _ TXCNT
SC1 _TX / RXBEGA /B
SC1 _TX / RXENDA /B
SC1 _ RXERRA /B
RX - FIFO
Figure 8.1. Serial Controller Block Diagram
68
Rev 1.0
EM346
8.2. Configuration
Before using a serial controller, configure and initialize it as follows:
1. Set up the parameters specific to the operating mode (slave for SPI, baud rate for UART, etc.).
2. Configure the GPIO pins used by the serial controller as shown in Tables 8.1. 
"7.2. Configuration" on page 49 shows how to configure GPIO pins.
3. If using DMA, set up the DMA and buffers. This is described fully in "8.5. DMA Channels" on page 86.
4. If using interrupts, select edge- or level-triggered interrupts with the SCx_INTMODE register, enable the
desired second-level interrupt sources in the INT_SCxCFG register, and finally enable the top-level SCx
interrupt in the NVIC.
5. Write the serial interface operating mode (SPI or UART) to the SCx_MODE register.
Table 8.1. SC1 GPIO Usage and Configuration
PB1
PB2
PB3
PB4
SPI - Slave
SC1MISO
Alternate Output
(push-pull)
SC1MOSI
Input
SC1SCLK
Input
SC1nSSEL
Input
UART
TXD
Alternate Output
(push-pull)
RXD
Input
nCTS
Input1
nRTS
Alternate Output
(push-pull)*
*Note: used if RTS/CTS hardware flow control is enabled.
Rev 1.0
69
EM346
8.2.1. Registers
Register 8.1. SC1_MODE: Serial Mode Register
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
SC1_MODE: Address: 0x4000C854 Reset: 0x0
Bitname
Bitfield
Access
SC_MODE
[1:0]
RW
70
Description
Serial controller mode.
0: Disabled.
1: UART mode .
2: SPI mode.
Rev 1.0
SC_MODE
EM346
Register 8.2. INT_SC1FLAG: Serial Controller 1 Interrupt Flag Register
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Name
0
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
Name
0
0
0
INT_
SCTXUND
INT_
SCRXOVF
INT_
SCTXIDLE
INT_
INT_
INT_
INT_
INT_
INT_
SC1PARERR SC1FRMERR SCTXULDB SCTXULDA SCRXULDB SCRXULDA
1
0
0
INT_
INT_SCRXVAL
SCTXFREE
INT_SC1FLAG: Address: 0x4000A808 Reset: 0x0
Bitname
Bitfield
Access
Description
INT_SC1PARERR
[14]
RW
Parity error received (UART) interrupt pending.
INT_SC1FRMERR
[13]
RW
Frame error received (UART) interrupt pending.
INT_SCTXULDB
[12]
RW
DMA transmit buffer B unloaded interrupt pending.
INT_SCTXULDA
[11]
RW
DMA transmit buffer A unloaded interrupt pending.
INT_SCRXULDB
[10]
RW
DMA receive buffer B unloaded interrupt pending.
INT_SCRXULDA
[9]
RW
DMA receive buffer A unloaded interrupt pending.
INT_SCTXUND
[4]
RW
Transmit buffer underrun interrupt pending.
INT_SCRXOVF
[3]
RW
Receive buffer overrun interrupt pending.
INT_SCTXIDLE
[2]
RW
Transmitter idle interrupt pending.
INT_SCTXFREE
[1]
RW
Transmit buffer free interrupt pending.
INT_SCRXVAL
[0]
RW
Receive buffer has data interrupt pending.
Rev 1.0
71
EM346
Register 8.3. INT_SC1CFG: Serial Controller 1 Interrupt Configuration Register
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Name
0
INT_
SCTXULDA
INT_
SCRXULDB
INT_
SCRXULDA
0
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name
0
0
0
INT_
SCTXUND
INT_
SCRXOVF
INT_
SCTXIDLE
INT_
SCTXFREE
INT_
SCRXVAL
INT_
INT_
INT_
SC1PARERR SC1FRMERR SCTXULDB
INT_SC1CFG: Address: 0x4000A848 Reset: 0x0
72
Bitname
Bitfield
Access
Description
INT_SC1PARERR
[14]
RW
Parity error received (UART) interrupt enable.
INT_SC1FRMERR
[13]
RW
Frame error received (UART) interrupt enable.
INT_SCTXULDB
[12]
RW
DMA transmit buffer B unloaded interrupt enable.
INT_SCTXULDA
[11]
RW
DMA transmit buffer A unloaded interrupt enable.
INT_SCRXULDB
[10]
RW
DMA receive buffer B unloaded interrupt enable.
INT_SCRXULDA
[9]
RW
DMA receive buffer A unloaded interrupt enable.
INT_SCTXUND
[4]
RW
Transmit buffer underrun interrupt enable.
INT_SCRXOVF
[3]
RW
Receive buffer overrun interrupt enable.
INT_SCTXIDLE
[2]
RW
Transmitter idle interrupt enable.
INT_SCTXFREE
[1]
RW
Transmit buffer free interrupt enable.
INT_SCRXVAL
[0]
RW
Receive buffer has data interrupt enable.
Rev 1.0
EM346
Register 8.4. SC1_INTMODE: Serial Controller 1 Interrupt Mode Register
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name
0
0
0
0
0
SC_TXIDLELEVEL SC_TXFREELEVEL SC_RXVALLEVEL
SC1_INTMODE: Address: 0x4000A854 Reset: 0x0
Bitname
Bitfield
Access
Description
SC_TXIDLELEVEL
[2]
RW
Transmitter idle interrupt mode - 0: edge triggered, 1: level triggered.
SC_TXFREELEVEL
[1]
RW
Transmit buffer free interrupt mode - 0: edge triggered, 1: level triggered.
SC_RXVALLEVEL
[0]
RW
Receive buffer has data interrupt mode - 0: edge triggered, 1: level triggered.
Rev 1.0
73
EM346
8.3. SPI—Slave Mode
The SC1 controller includes an SPI slave controller with these features:
Full
duplex operation
Up to 5 Mbps data transfer rate
Programmable clock polarity and clock phase
Selectable data shift direction (either LSB or MSB first)
Slave select input
8.3.1. GPIO Usage
The SPI slave controller uses four signals:
MOSI
(Master Out, Slave In) - inputs serial data from the master
(Master In, Slave Out) - outputs serial data to the master
SCLK (Serial Clock) - clocks data transfers on MOSI and MISO
nSSEL (Slave Select) - enables serial communication with the slave
MISO
Note: The SPI slave controller does not tri-state the MISO signal when slave select is deasserted.
The GPIO pins that can be assigned to these signals are shown in Table 8.2.
Table 8.2. SPI Slave GPIO Usage
74
MOSI
MISO
SCLK
nSSEL
Direction
Input
Output
Input
Input
GPIO Configuration
Input
Alternate Output
(push-pull)
Input
Input
SC1 pin
PB2
PB1
PB3
PB4
Rev 1.0
EM346
8.3.2. Set Up and Configuration
The serial controller, SC1, supports SPI slave mode. SPI slave mode is enabled by the following register settings:
The
serial controller mode register, SCx_MODE, is 2
SC_SPIMST bit in the SPI configuration register, SCx_SPICFG, is 0
The SPI slave controller receives its clock from an external SPI master device and supports rates up to 5 Mbps.
The
The SPI slave controller supports various frame formats depending upon the clock polarity (SC_SPIPOL), clock
phase (SC_SPIPHA), and direction of data (SC_SPIORD) (see Table 8.3). The SC_SPIPOL, SC_SPIPHA, and
SC_SPIORD bits are defined within the SCx_SPICFG registers.
Table 8.3. SPI Slave Formats
SCx_SPICFG
Frame Format
SC_SPIxxx*
MST
ORD
PHA
POL
0
0
0
0
nSSEL
SCLKin
0
0
0
MOSI in
RX[7]
RX[6]
RX[5]
RX[4]
RX[3]
RX[2]
RX[1]
RX[0]
MISOout
TX[7]
TX[6]
TX[5]
TX[4]
TX[3]
TX[2]
TX[1]
TX[0]
MOSIin
RX[7]
RX[6]
RX[5]
RX[4]
RX[3]
RX[2]
RX[1]
RX[0]
MISOout
TX[7]
TX[6]
TX[5]
TX[4]
TX[3]
TX[2]
TX[1]
TX[0]
MOSIin
RX[7]
RX[6]
RX[5]
RX[4]
RX[3]
RX[2]
RX[1]
RX[0]
MISOout
TX[7]
TX[6]
TX[5]
TX[4]
TX[3]
TX[2]
TX[1]
TX[0]
MOSIin
RX[7]
RX[6]
RX[5]
RX[4]
RX[3]
RX[2]
RX[1]
RX[0]
MISOout
TX[7]
TX[6]
TX[5]
TX[4]
TX[3]
TX[2]
TX[1]
TX[0]
1
SCLKin
0
0
1
0
nSSEL
SCLKin
0
0
1
1
nSSEL
SCLKin
0
1
—
—
Same as above except LSB first instead of MSB first
*Note: The notation “xxx” means that the corresponding column header below is inserted to form the field name.
Rev 1.0
75
EM346
8.3.3. Operation
When the slave select (nSSEL) signal is asserted by the master, SPI transmit data is driven to the output pin MISO,
and SPI data is received from the input pin MOSI. The nSSEL pin has to be asserted to enable the transmit
serializer to drive data to the output signal MISO. A falling edge on nSSEL resets the SPI slave shift registers.
Note: The SPI slave controller does not tri-state the MISO signal when slave select is deasserted.
Characters transmitted and received by the SPI slave controller are buffered in the transmit and receive FIFOs that
are both four entries deep. When software writes a character to the SCx_DATA register, it is pushed onto the
transmit FIFO. Similarly, when software reads from the SCx_DATA register, the character returned is pulled from
the receive FIFO. If the transmit and receive DMA channels are used, the DMA channels also write to and read
from the transmit and receive FIFOs.
Characters received are stored in the receive FIFO. Receiving characters sets the SC_SPIRXVAL bit in the
SCx_SPISTAT register, to indicate that characters can be read from the receive FIFO. Characters received while
the receive FIFO is full are dropped, and the SC_SPIRXOVF bit in the SCx_SPISTAT register is set. The receive
FIFO hardware generates the INT_SCRXOVF interrupt, but the DMA register will not indicate the error condition
until the receive FIFO is drained. Once the DMA marks a receive error, two conditions will clear the error indication:
setting the appropriate SC_TX/RXDMARST bit in the SCx_DMACTRL register, or loading the appropriate DMA
buffer after it has unloaded.
Receiving a character causes the serial transmission of a character pulled from the transmit FIFO. When the
transmit FIFO is empty, a transmit underrun is detected (no data in transmit FIFO) and the INT_SCTXUND bit in
the INT_SCxFLAG register is set. Because no character is available for serialization, the SPI serializer retransmits
the last transmitted character or a busy token (0xFF), determined by the SC_SPIRPT bit in the SCx_SPICFG
register. Refer to the register description of SCx_SPICFG for more detailed information about SC_SPIRPT.
When the transmit FIFO and the serializer are both empty, writing a character to the transmit FIFO clears the
SC_SPITXIDLE bit in the SCx_SPISTAT register. This indicates that not all characters have been transmitted. If
characters are written to the transmit FIFO until it is full, the SC_SPITXFREE bit in the SCx_SPISTAT register is
cleared. Shifting out a transmit character to the MISO pin causes the SC_SPITXFREE bit in the SCx_SPISTAT
register to get set. When the transmit FIFO empties and the last character has been shifted out, the
SC_SPITXIDLE bit in the SCx_SPISTAT register is set.
The SPI slave controller must guarantee that there is time to move new transmit data from the transmit FIFO into
the hardware serializer. To provide sufficient time, the SPI slave controller inserts a byte of padding at the start of
every new string of transmit data defined by every time nSSEL is asserted. This byte is inserted as if this byte was
placed there by software. The value of the byte of padding is always 0xFF.
8.3.4. DMA
The DMA Channels "8.5. DMA Channels" on page 86 describes how to configure and use the serial receive and
transmit DMA channels.
When using the receive DMA channel and nSSEL transitions to the high (deasserted) state, the active buffer's
receive DMA count register (SCx_RXCNTA/B) is saved in the SCx_RXCNTSAVED register. SCx_RXCNTSAVED
is only written the first time nSSEL goes high after a buffer has been loaded. Subsequent rising edges set a status
bit but are otherwise ignored. The 3-bit field SC_RXSSEL in the SCx_DMASTAT register records what, if anything,
was saved to the SCx_RXCNTSAVED register, and whether or not another rising edge occurred on nSSEL.
76
Rev 1.0
EM346
8.3.5. Interrupts
SPI slave controller second-level interrupts are generated on the following events:
Transmit
FIFO empty and last character shifted out (depending on SCx_INTMODE, either the 0 to 1
transition or the high level of SC_SPITXIDLE)
Transmit FIFO changed from full to not full (depending on SCx_INTMODE, either the 0 to 1 transition or the
high level of SC_SPITXFREE)
Receive FIFO changed from empty to not empty (depending on SCx_INTMODE, either the 0 to 1 transition
or the high level of SC_SPIRXVAL)
Transmit DMA buffer A/B complete (1 to 0 transition of SC_TXACTA/B)
Receive DMA buffer A/B complete (1 to 0 transition of SC_RXACTA/B)
Received and lost character while receive FIFO was full (receive overrun error)
Transmitted character while transmit FIFO was empty (transmit underrun error)
To enable CPU interrupts, set desired interrupt bits in the second-level INT_SCxCFG register, and also enable the
top-level SCx interrupt in the NVIC by writing the INT_SCx bit in the INT_CFGSET register.
Rev 1.0
77
EM346
8.4. UART—Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter
The SC1 UART is enabled by writing 1 to SC1_MODE. The UART supports the following features:
Flexible
baud rate clock (300 bps to 921.6 kbps)
Data bits (7 or 8)
Parity bits (none, odd, or even)
Stop bits (1 or 2)
False start bit and noise filtering
Receive and transmit FIFOs
Optional RTS/CTS flow control
Receive and transmit DMA channels
8.4.1. GPIO Usage
The UART uses two signals to transmit and receive serial data:
TXD
(Transmitted Data) - serial data sent by the EM346
RXD (Received Data) - serial data received by the EM346
If RTS/CTS flow control is enabled, these two signals are also used:
nRTS
(Request To Send) - indicates the EM346 is able to receive data
(Clear To Send) - inhibits sending data from the EM346 if not asserted
The GPIO pins assigned to these signals are shown in Table 8.4.
nCTS
Table 8.4. UART GPIO Usage
TXD
RXD
nCTS1
nRTS*
Direction
Output
Input
Input
Output
GPIO Configuration
Alternate
Output (push-pull)
Input
Input
Alternate
Output (push-pull)
SC1 pin
PB1
PB2
PB3
PB4
*Note: Only used if RTS/CTS hardware flow control is enabled.
78
Rev 1.0
EM346
8.4.2. Set Up and Configuration
The UART baud rate clock is produced by a programmable baud generator starting from the 24 Hz clock:
24 MHz
baud = -------------------2N + F
The integer portion of the divisor, N, is written to the SC1_UARTPER register and the fractional part, F, to the
SC1_UARTFRAC register. Table 8.5 shows the values used to generate some common baud rates and their
associated clock frequency error. The UART requires an internal clock that is at least eight times the baud rate
clock, so the minimum allowable setting for SC1_UARTPER is 8.
Table 8.5. UART Baud Rate Divisors for Common Baud Rates
Baud Rate
(bits/sec)
SC1_UARTPER
SC1_UARTFRAC
Baud Rate Error (%)
300
40000
0
0
2400
5000
0
0
4800
2500
0
0
9600
1250
0
0
19200
625
0
0
38400
312
1
0
57600
208
1
– 0.08
115200
104
0
+ 0.16
230400
52
0
+ 0.16
460800
26
0
+ 0.16
921600
13
0
+ 0.16
The UART can miss bytes when the inter-byte gap is long or there is a baud rate mismatch between receiver and
transmitter. The UART may detect a parity and/or framing error on the corrupted byte, but there will not necessarily
be any error detected.
The UART is best operated in systems where the other side of the communication link also uses a crystal as its
timing reference, and baud rates should be selected to minimize the baud rate mismatch to the crystal tolerance.
Additionally, UART protocols should contain some form of error checking (for example CRC) at the packet level to
detect, and retry in the event of errors. Since the probability of corruption is low, there would only be a small effect
on UART throughput due to retries.
Errors may occur when:
6
10
T gap  -------------------------------------baud  Ferror
Where:
T gap = inter-byte gap in seconds
baud = baud rate in bps
Ferror = relative frequency error in ppm
Rev 1.0
79
EM346
For example, if the baud rate tolerance between receive and transmit is 200 ppm (reasonable if both sides are
derived from a crystal), and the baud rate is 115200 bps, then errors will not occur until the inter-byte gap exceeds
43 ms. If the gap is exceeded then the chance of an error is essentially random, with a probability of approximately
P = baud / 24e6. At 115200 bps, the probability of corruption is 0.5%.
The UART character frame format is determined by four bits in the SC1_UARTCFG register:
SC_UART8BIT
specifies the number of data bits in received and transmitted characters. If this bit is clear,
characters have 7 data bits; if set, characters have 8 data bits.
SC_UART2STP selects the number of stop bits in transmitted characters. (Only one stop bit is required in
received characters.) If this bit is clear, characters are transmitted with one stop bit; if set, characters are
transmitted with two stop bits.
SC_UARTPAR controls whether or not received and transmitted characters include a parity bit. If
SC_UARTPAR is clear, characters do not contain a parity bit, otherwise, characters do contain a parity bit.
SC_UARTODD specifies whether transmitted and received parity bits contain odd or even parity. If this bit
is clear, the parity bit is even, and if set, the parity bit is odd. Even parity is the exclusive-or of all of the data
bits, and odd parity is the inverse of the even parity value. SC_UARTODD has no effect if SC_UARTPAR is
clear.
A UART character frame contains, in sequence:
The
start bit
The least significant data bit
The remaining data bits
If parity is enabled, the parity bit
The stop bit, or bits, if 2 stop bits are selected.
Figure 8.2 shows the UART character frame format, with optional bits indicated. Depending on the options chosen
for the character frame, the length of a character frame ranges from 9 to 12 bit times.
Note that asynchronous serial data may have arbitrarily long idle periods between characters. When idle, serial
data (TXD or RXD) is held in the high state. Serial data transitions to the low state in the start bit at the beginning of
a character frame.
UART Character Frame Format
(optional sections are in italics)
TXD
or
RXD
Idle time
Start
Bit
Data
Bit 0
Data
Bit 1
Data
Bit 2
Data
Bit 3
Data
Bit 4
Data
Bit 5
Data
Bit 6
Data
Bit 7
Figure 8.2. UART Character Frame Format
80
Rev 1.0
Parity
Bit
Stop
Bit
Stop
Bit
Next
Start Bit
or
IdleTime
EM346
8.4.3. FIFOs
Characters transmitted and received by the UART are buffered in the transmit and receive FIFOs that are both 4
entries deep (see Figure 8.3). When software writes a character to the SC1_DATA register, it is pushed onto the
transmit FIFO. Similarly, when software reads from the SC1_DATA register, the character returned is pulled from
the receive FIFO. If the transmit and receive DMA channels are used, the DMA channels also write to and read
from the transmit and receive FIFOs.
Receive Shift Register
Parity/Frame Errors
Transmit Shift Register
SC1_DATA (read)
SC1_UARTSTAT
SC1_DATA (write)
TXD
Transmit FIFO
Receive FIFO
RXD
CPU and DMA
Channel Access
Figure 8.3. UART FIFOs
8.4.4. RTS/CTS Flow control
RTS/CTS flow control, also called hardware flow control, uses two signals (nRTS and nCTS) in addition to received
and transmitted data (see Figure 8.4). Flow control is used by a data receiver to prevent buffer overflow, by
signaling an external device when it is and is not allowed to transmit.
EM346
UART Receiver
Other Device
RXD
TXD
nRTS
nCTS
TXD
UART Transmitter
UART Transmitter
RXD
nCTS
nRTS
UART Receiver
Figure 8.4. RTS/CTS Flow Control Connections
The UART RTS/CTS flow control options are selected by the SC_UARTFLOW and SC_UARTAUTO bits in the
SC1_UARTCFG register (see Table 8.6). Whenever the SC_UARTFLOW bit is set, the UART will not start
transmitting a character unless nCTS is low (asserted). If nCTS transitions to the high state (deasserts) while a
character is being transmitted, transmission of that character continues until it is complete.
If the SC_UARTAUTO bit is set, nRTS is controlled automatically by hardware: nRTS is put into the low state
(asserted) when the receive FIFO has room for at least two characters, otherwise is it in the high state
(unasserted). If SC_UARTAUTO is clear, software controls the nRTS output by setting or clearing the
SC_UARTRTS bit in the SC1_UARTCFG register. Software control of nRTS is useful if the external serial device
cannot stop transmitting characters promptly when nRTS is set to the high state (deasserted).
Rev 1.0
81
EM346
Table 8.6. UART RTS/CTS Flow Control Configurations
SC1_UARTCFG
Pins Used
Operating Mode
SC_UARTxxx*
FLOW
AUTO
RTS
0
—
—
1
0
0/1
TXD, RXD, Flow control using RTS/CTS with software control of nRTS:
nCTS, nRTS nRTS controlled by SC_UARTRTS bit in SC1_UARTCFG register
1
1
—
TXD, RXD, Flow control using RTS/CTS with hardware control of nRTS:
nCTS, nRTS nRTS is asserted if room for at least 2 characters in receive FIFO
TXD, RXD
No RTS/CTS flow control
*Note: The notation “xxx” means that the corresponding column header below is inserted to form the field name.
8.4.5. DMA
"8.5. DMA Channels" on page 86 describes how to configure and use the serial receive and transmit DMA
channels.
The receive DMA channel has special provisions to record UART receive errors. When the DMA channel transfers
a character from the receive FIFO to a buffer in memory, it checks the stored parity and frame error status flags.
When an error is flagged, the SC1_RXERRA/B register is updated, marking the offset to the first received
character with a parity or frame error. Similarly if a receive overrun error occurs, the SC1_RXERRA/B registers
mark the error offset. The receive FIFO hardware generates the INT_SCRXOVF interrupt and DMA status register
indicates the error immediately, but in this case the error offset is 4 characters ahead of the actual overflow at the
input to the receive FIFO. Two conditions will clear the error indication: setting the appropriate SC_RXDMARST bit
in the SC1_DMACTRL register, or loading the appropriate DMA buffer after it has unloaded.
8.4.6. Interrupts
UART interrupts are generated on the following events:
Transmit
FIFO empty and last character shifted out (depending on SCx_INTMODE, either the 0 to 1
transition or the high level of SC_UARTTXIDLE)
Transmit FIFO changed from full to not full (depending on SCx_INTMODE, either the 0 to 1 transition or the
high level of SC_UARTTXFREE)
Receive FIFO changed from empty to not empty (depending on SCx_INTMODE, either the 0 to 1 transition
or the high level of SC_UARTRXVAL)
Transmit DMA buffer A/B complete (1 to 0 transition of SC_TXACTA/B)
Receive DMA buffer A/B complete (1 to 0 transition of SC_RXACTA/B)
Character received with parity error
Character received with frame error
Character received and lost when receive FIFO was full (receive overrun error)
To enable CPU interrupts, set the desired interrupt bits in the second-level INT_SCxCFG register, and enable the
top-level SCx interrupt in the NVIC by writing the INT_SCx bit in the INT_CFGSET register.
82
Rev 1.0
EM346
8.4.7. Registers
Refer to " " on page 73 (in “ ” ) for a description of the SCx_DATA register.
Register 8.9. SC1_UARTSTAT: UART Status Register
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name
0
SC_
UARTTXIDLE
SC_
SC_
SC_
SC_
SC_
SC_
UARTPARERR UARTFRMERR UARTRXOVF UARTTXFREE UARTRXVAL UARTCTS
SC1_UARTSTAT: Address: 0x4000C848 Reset: 0x40
Bitname
Bitfield Access
Description
SC_UARTTXIDLE
[6]
R
This bit is set when both the transmit FIFO and the transmit serializer are empty.
SC_UARTPARERR
[5]
R
This bit is set when the byte in the data register was received with a parity error. This
bit is updated when the data register is read, and is cleared if the receive FIFO is
empty.
SC_UARTFRMERR
[4]
R
This bit is set when the byte in the data register was received with a frame error. This
bit is updated when the data register is read, and is cleared if the receive FIFO is
empty.
SC_UARTRXOVF
[3]
R
This bit is set when the receive FIFO has been overrun. This occurs if a byte is
received when the receive FIFO is full. This bit is cleared by reading the data register.
SC_UARTTXFREE
[2]
R
This bit is set when the transmit FIFO has space for at least one byte.
SC_UARTRXVAL
[1]
R
This bit is set when the receive FIFO contains at least one byte.
SC_UARTCTS
[0]
R
This bit shows the logical state (not voltage level) of the nCTS input:
0: nCTS is deasserted (pin is high, 'XOFF', RS232 negative voltage); the UART is
inhibited from starting to transmit a byte.
1: nCTS is asserted (pin is low, 'XON', RS232 positive voltage); the UART may
transmit.
Rev 1.0
83
EM346
Register 8.10. SC1_UARTCFG: UART Configuration Register
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name
0
SC_
UARTAUTO
SC_
UARTFLOW
SC_
UARTODD
SC_
UARTPAR
SC_
UART2STP
SC_
UART8BIT
SC_
UARTRTS
SC1_UARTCFG: Address: 0x4000C85C Reset: 0x0
Bitname
Bitfield
Access
Description
SC_UARTAUTO
[6]
RW
Set this bit to enable automatic nRTS control by hardware (SC_UARTFLOW must
also be set). When automatic control is enabled, nRTS will be deasserted when the
receive FIFO has space for only one more byte (inhibits transmission from the other
device) and will be asserted if it has space for more than one byte (enables transmission from the other device). The SC_UARTRTS bit in this register has no effect if
this bit is set.
SC_UARTFLOW
[5]
RW
Set this bit to enable using nRTS/nCTS flow control signals. Clear this bit to disable
the signals. When this bit is clear, the UART transmitter will not be inhibited by
nCTS.
SC_UARTODD
[4]
RW
If parity is enabled, specifies the kind of parity.
0: Even parity.
1: Odd parity.
SC_UARTPAR
[3]
RW
Specifies whether to use parity bits.
0: Don't use parity.
1: Use parity.
SC_UART2STP
[2]
RW
Number of stop bits transmitted.
0: 1 stop bit.
1: 2 stop bits.
SC_UART8BIT
[1]
RW
Number of data bits.
0: 7 data bits.
1: 8 data bits.
SC_UARTRTS
[0]
RW
nRTS is an output to control the flow of serial data sent to the EM346 from another
device. This bit directly controls the output at the nRTS pin (SC_UARTFLOW must
be set and SC_UARTAUTO must be cleared). When this bit is set, nRTS is asserted
(pin is low, 'XON', RS232 positive voltage); the other device's transmission is
enabled. When this bit is cleared, nRTS is deasserted (pin is high, 'XOFF', RS232
negative voltage), the other device's transmission is inhibited.
84
Rev 1.0
EM346
Register 8.11. SC1_UARTPER: UART Baud Rate Period Register
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
2
1
0
Name
SC_UARTPER
Bit
7
6
5
4
Name
3
SC_UARTPER
SC1_UARTPER: Address: 0x4000C868 Reset: 0x0
Bitname
Bitfield
Access
SC_UARTPER
[15:0]
RW
Description
The integer part of baud rate period (N) in the equation:
24 MHz
rate = --------------------------------2  N + F
Register 8.12. SC1_UARTFRAC: UART Baud Rate Fractional Period Register
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
SC_UARTFRAC
SC1_UARTFRAC: Address: 0x4000C86C Reset: 0x0
Bitname
Bitfield
Access
SC_UARTFRAC
[0]
RW
Description
The fractional part of the baud rate period (F) in the equation:
24 MHz
rate = --------------------------------2  N + F
Rev 1.0
85
EM346
8.5. DMA Channels
The EM346 serial DMA channels enable efficient, high-speed operation of the SPI and UART controllers by
reducing the load on the CPU as well as decreasing the frequency of interrupts that it must service. The transmit
and receive DMA channels can transfer data between the transmit and receive FIFOs and the DMA buffers in main
memory as quickly as it can be transmitted or received. Once software defines, configures, and activates the DMA,
it only needs to handle an interrupt when a transmit buffer has been emptied or a receive buffer has been filled.
The DMA channels each support two memory buffers, labeled A and B, and can alternate ("ping-pong") between
them automatically to allow continuous communication without critical interrupt timing.
Note: DMA memory buffer terminology
load
- make a buffer available for the DMA channel to use
- a buffer loaded but not yet active
active - the buffer that will be used for the next DMA transfer
unload - DMA channel action when it has finished with a buffer
idle - a buffer that has not been loaded, or has been unloaded
To use a DMA channel, software should follow these steps:
pending
1. Reset the DMA channel by setting the SC_TXDMARST (or SC_RXDMARST) bit in the SCx_DMACTRL
register.
2. Set up the DMA buffers. The two DMA buffers, A and B, are defined by writing the start address to
SCx_TXBEGA/B (or SCx_RXBEGA/B) and the (inclusive) end address to SCx_TXENDA/B (or
SCx_RXENDA/B). Note that DMA buffers must be in RAM.
3. Configure and initialize SCx for the desired operating mode.
4. Enable second-level interrupts triggered when DMA buffers unload by setting the INT_SCTXULDA/B (or
INT_SCRXULDA/B) bits in the INT_SCxFLAG register.
5. Enable top-level NVIC interrupts by setting the INT_SCx bit in the INT_CFGSET register.
6. Start the DMA by loading the DMA buffers by setting the SC_TXLODA/B (or SC_RXLODA/B) bits in the
SCx_DMACTRL register.
A DMA buffer's end address, SCx_TXENDA/B (or SCx_RXENDA/B), can be written while the buffer is loaded or
active. This is useful for receiving messages that contain an initial byte count, since it allows software to set the
buffer end address at the last byte of the message.
As the DMA channel transfers data between the transmit or receive FIFO and a memory buffer, the DMA count
register contains the byte offset from the start of the buffer to the address of the next byte that will be written or
read. A transmit DMA channel has a single DMA count register (SCx_TXCNT) that applies to whichever transmit
buffer is active, but a receive DMA channel has two DMA count registers (SCx_RXCNTA/B), one for each receive
buffer. The DMA count register contents are preserved until the corresponding buffer, or either buffer in the case of
the transmit DMA count, is loaded, or until the DMA is reset.
The receive DMA count register may be written while the corresponding buffer is loaded. If the buffer is not loaded,
writing the DMA count register also loads the buffer while preserving the count value written. This feature can
simplify handling UART receive errors.
The DMA channel stops using a buffer and unloads it when the following is true:
(DMA buffer start address + DMA buffer count) > DMA buffer end address
Typically a transmit buffer is unloaded after all its data has been sent, and a receive buffer is unloaded after it is
filled with data, but writing to the buffer end address or buffer count registers can also cause a buffer to unload
early.
Serial controller DMA channels include additional features specific to the SPI and UART operation and are
described in those sections.
86
Rev 1.0
EM346
8.5.1. Registers
Register 8.13. SC1_DMACTRL: Serial DMA Control Register
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name
0
0
SC_TXDMARST SC_RXDMARST SC_TXLODB SC_TXLODA SC_RXLODB SC_RXLODA
SC1_DMACTRL: Address: 0x4000C830 Reset: 0x0
Bitname
Bitfield
Access
Description
SC_TXDMARST
[5]
W
Setting this bit resets the transmit DMA. The bit clears automatically.
SC_RXDMARST
[4]
W
Setting this bit resets the receive DMA. The bit clears automatically.
SC_TXLODB
[3]
RW
Setting this bit loads DMA transmit buffer B addresses and allows the DMA controller
to start processing transmit buffer B. If both buffer A and B are loaded simultaneously, buffer A will be used first. This bit is cleared when DMA completes. Writing a
zero to this bit has no effect.
Reading this bit returns DMA buffer status:
0: DMA processing is complete or idle.
1: DMA processing is active or pending.
SC_TXLODA
[2]
RW
Setting this bit loads DMA transmit buffer A addresses and allows the DMA controller
to start processing transmit buffer A. If both buffer A and B are loaded simultaneously, buffer A will be used first. This bit is cleared when DMA completes. Writing a
zero to this bit has no effect.
Reading this bit returns DMA buffer status:
0: DMA processing is complete or idle.
1: DMA processing is active or pending.
SC_RXLODB
[1]
RW
Setting this bit loads DMA receive buffer B addresses and allows the DMA controller
to start processing receive buffer B. If both buffer A and B are loaded simultaneously,
buffer A will be used first. This bit is cleared when DMA completes. Writing a zero to
this bit has no effect.
Reading this bit returns DMA buffer status:
0: DMA processing is complete or idle.
1: DMA processing is active or pending.
SC_RXLODA
[0]
RW
Setting this bit loads DMA receive buffer A addresses and allows the DMA controller
to start processing receive buffer A. If both buffer A and B are loaded simultaneously,
buffer A will be used first. This bit is cleared when DMA completes. Writing a zero to
this bit has no effect.
Reading this bit returns DMA buffer status:
0: DMA processing is complete or idle.
1: DMA processing is active or pending.
Rev 1.0
87
EM346
Register 8.14. SC1_DMASTAT: Serial DMA Status Register
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Name
0
0
0
Bit
7
6
5
SC_RXSSEL
4
3
SC_RXFRMB SC_RXFRMA
2
1
0
Name SC_RXPARB SC_RXPARA SC_RXOVFB SC_RXOVFA SC_TXACTB SC_TXACTA SC_RXACTB SC_RXACTA
SC1_DMASTAT: Address: 0x4000C82C Reset: 0x0
Bitname
Bitfield Access
Description
SC_RXSSEL
[12:10]
R
Status of the receive count saved in SCx_RXCNTSAVED (SPI slave mode) when nSSEL
deasserts. Cleared when a receive buffer is loaded and when the receive DMA is reset.
0: No count was saved because nSSEL did not deassert.
2: Buffer A's count was saved, nSSEL deasserted once.
3: Buffer B's count was saved, nSSEL deasserted once.
6: Buffer A's count was saved, nSSEL deasserted more than once.
7: Buffer B's count was saved, nSSEL deasserted more than once.
1, 4, 5: Reserved.
SC_RXFRMB
[9]
R
This bit is set when DMA receive buffer B reads a byte with a frame error from the receive
FIFO. It is cleared the next time buffer B is loaded or when the receive DMA is reset. (SC1
in UART mode only)
SC_RXFRMA
[8]
R
This bit is set when DMA receive buffer A reads a byte with a frame error from the receive
FIFO. It is cleared the next time buffer A is loaded or when the receive DMA is reset. (SC1
in UART mode only)
SC_RXPARB
[7]
R
This bit is set when DMA receive buffer B reads a byte with a parity error from the receive
FIFO. It is cleared the next time buffer B is loaded or when the receive DMA is reset. (SC1
in UART mode only)
SC_RXPARA
[6]
R
This bit is set when DMA receive buffer A reads a byte with a parity error from the receive
FIFO. It is cleared the next time buffer A is loaded or when the receive DMA is reset. (SC1
in UART mode only)
SC_RXOVFB
[5]
R
This bit is set when DMA receive buffer B was passed an overrun error from the receive
FIFO. Neither receive buffer was capable of accepting any more bytes (unloaded), and the
FIFO filled up. Buffer B was the next buffer to load, and when it drained the FIFO the overrun error was passed up to the DMA and flagged with this bit. Cleared the next time buffer
B is loaded and when the receive DMA is reset.
SC_RXOVFA
[4]
R
This bit is set when DMA receive buffer A was passed an overrun error from the receive
FIFO. Neither receive buffer was capable of accepting any more bytes (unloaded), and the
FIFO filled up. Buffer A was the next buffer to load, and when it drained the FIFO the overrun error was passed up to the DMA and flagged with this bit. Cleared the next time buffer
A is loaded and when the receive DMA is reset.
SC_TXACTB
[3]
R
This bit is set when DMA transmit buffer B is active.
SC_TXACTA
[2]
R
This bit is set when DMA transmit buffer A is active.
88
Rev 1.0
EM346
SC_RXACTB
[1]
R
This bit is set when DMA receive buffer B is active.
SC_RXACTA
[0]
R
This bit is set when DMA receive buffer A is active.
Register 8.15. SC1_TXBEGA: Transmit DMA Begin Address Register A
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Name
0
0
Bit
7
6
1
0
SC_TXBEGA
5
Name
4
3
2
SC_TXBEGA
SC1_TXBEGA: Address: 0x4000C810 Reset: 0x20000000
Bitname
Bitfield
Access
SC_TXBEGA
[13:0]
RW
Description
DMA transmit buffer A start address.
Rev 1.0
89
EM346
Register 8.16. SC1_TXBEGB: Transmit DMA Begin Address Register B
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Name
0
0
Bit
7
6
1
0
SC_TXBEGB
5
Name
4
3
2
SC_TXBEGB
SC1_TXBEGB: Transmit DMA Begin Address Register B
Bitname
Bitfield
Access
SC_TXBEGB
[13:0]
RW
Description
DMA transmit buffer B start address.
Register 8.17. SC1_TXENDA: Transmit DMA End Address Register A
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Name
0
0
Bit
7
6
1
0
Name
SC_TXENDA
5
4
3
2
SC_TXENDA
SC1_TXENDA: Address: 0x4000C814 Reset: 0x20000000
Bitname
SC_TXENDA
90
Bitfield Access
[13:0]
RW
Description
Address of the last byte that will be read from the DMA transmit buffer A.
Rev 1.0
EM346
Register 8.18. SC1_TXENDB: Transmit DMA End Address Register B
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Name
0
0
Bit
7
6
1
0
SC_TXENDB
5
Name
4
3
2
SC_TXENDB
SC1_TXENDB: Address: 0x4000C81C Reset: 0x20000000
Bitname
Bitfield Access
SC_TXENDB
[13:0]
RW
Description
Address of the last byte that will be read from the DMA transmit buffer B.
Register 8.19. SC1_TXCNT: Transmit DMA Count Register
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Name
0
0
Bit
7
6
1
0
SC_TXCNT
5
Name
4
3
2
SC_TXCNT
SC1_TXCNT: Address: 0x4000C828 Reset: 0x0
Bitname
SC_TXCNT
Bitfield Access
[13:0]
R
Description
The offset from the start of the active DMA transmit buffer from which the next
byte will be read. This register is set to zero when the buffer is loaded and
when the DMA is reset.
Rev 1.0
91
EM346
Register 8.20. SC1_RXBEGA: Receive DMA Begin Address Register A
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Name
0
0
Bit
7
6
1
0
SC_RXBEGA
5
Name
4
3
2
SC_RXBEGA
SC1_RXBEGA: Address: 0x4000C800 Reset: 0x20000000
Bitname
Bitfield
Access
SC_RXBEGA
[13:0]
RW
Description
DMA receive buffer A start address.
Register 8.21. SC1_RXBEGB: Receive DMA Begin Address Register B
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Name
0
0
Bit
7
6
1
0
Name
SC_RXBEGB
5
4
SC_RXBEGB
SC1_RXBEGB: Address: 0x4000C808 Reset: 0x20000000
92
3
Rev 1.0
2
EM346
Bitname
Bitfield
Access
SC_RXBEGB
[13:0]
RW
Description
DMA receive buffer B start address.
Register 8.22. SC1_RXENDA: Receive DMA End Address Register A
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Name
0
0
Bit
7
6
1
0
SC_RXENDA
5
Name
4
3
2
SC_RXENDA
SC1_RXENDA: Address: 0x4000C804 Reset: 0x20000000
Bitname
Bitfield
Access
SC_RXENDA
[13:0]
RW
Description
Address of the last byte that will be written in the DMA receive buffer A.
Rev 1.0
93
EM346
Register 8.23. SC1_RXENDB: Receive DMA End Address Register B
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Name
0
0
Bit
7
6
1
0
SC_RXENDB
5
Name
4
3
2
SC_RXENDB
SC1_RXENDB: Address: 0x4000C80C Reset: 0x20000000
94
Bitname
Bitfield
Access
SC_RXENDB
[13:0]
RW
Description
Address of the last byte that will be written in the DMA receive buffer B.
Rev 1.0
EM346
Register 8.24. SC1_RXCNTA: Receive DMA Count Register A
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Name
0
0
Bit
7
6
1
0
SC_RXCNTA
5
Name
4
3
2
SC_RXCNTA
SC1_RXCNTA: Address: 0x4000C820 Reset: 0x0
Bitname
SC_RXCNTA
Bitfield Access
[13:0]
RW
Description
The offset from the start of DMA receive buffer A at which the next byte will
be written. This register is set to zero when the buffer is loaded and when
the DMA is reset. If this register is written when the buffer is not loaded, the
buffer is loaded.
Rev 1.0
95
EM346
Register 8.25. SC1_RXCNTB: Receive DMA Count Register B
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Name
0
0
Bit
7
6
1
0
SC_RXCNTB
5
Name
4
3
2
SC_RXCNTB
SC1_RXCNTB: Address: 0x4000C824 Reset: 0x0
Bitname
SC_RXCNTB
96
Bitfield Access
[13:0]
RW
Description
The offset from the start of DMA receive buffer B at which the next byte will
be written. This register is set to zero when the buffer is loaded and when the
DMA is reset. If this register is written when the buffer is not loaded, the buffer is loaded.
Rev 1.0
EM346
Register 8.26. SC1_RXCNTSAVED: Saved Receive DMA Count Register
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Name
0
0
Bit
7
6
1
0
SC_RXCNTSAVED
5
Name
4
3
2
SC_RXCNTSAVED
SC1_RXCNTSAVED: Address: 0x4000C870 Reset: 0x0
Bitname
SC_RXCNTSAVED
Bitfield Acces
s
[13:0]
R
Description
Receive DMA count saved in SPI slave mode when nSSEL deasserts.
The count is only saved the first time nSSEL deasserts.
Rev 1.0
97
EM346
Register 8.27. SC1_RXERRA: DMA First Receive Error Register A
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Name
0
0
Bit
7
6
1
0
SC_RXERRA
5
Name
4
3
2
SC_RXERRA
SC1_RXERRA: DMA First Receive Error Register A
Bitname
Bitfield
Access
Description
SC_RXERRA
[13:0]
R
The offset from the start of DMA receive buffer A of the first byte received
with a parity, frame, or overflow error. Note that an overflow error occurs at
the input to the receive FIFO, so this offset is 4 bytes before the overflow
position. If there is no error, it reads zero. This register will not be updated
by subsequent errors until the buffer unloads and is reloaded, or the
receive DMA is reset.
98
Rev 1.0
EM346
Register 8.28. SC1_RXERRB: DMA First Receive Error Register B
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Name
0
0
Bit
7
6
1
0
SC_RXERRB
5
Name
4
3
2
SC_RXERRB
SC1_RXERRB: Address: 0x4000C838 Reset: 0x0
Bitname
Bitfield
Access
Description
SC_RXERRB
[13:0]
R
The offset from the start of DMA receive buffer B of the first byte received
with a parity, frame, or overflow error. Note that an overflow error occurs at
the input to the receive FIFO, so this offset is 4 bytes before the overflow
position. If there is no error, it reads zero. This register will not be updated
by subsequent errors until the buffer unloads and is reloaded, or the receive
DMA is reset.
Rev 1.0
99
EM346
9. Interrupt System
The EM346's interrupt system is composed of two parts: a standard ARM® CortexTM-M3 Nested Vectored Interrupt
Controller (NVIC) that provides top-level interrupts, and a proprietary Event Manager (EM) that provides secondlevel interrupts. The NVIC and EM provide a simple hierarchy. All second-level interrupts from the EM feed into toplevel interrupts in the NVIC. This two-level hierarchy allows for both fine granular control of interrupt sources and
coarse granular control over entire peripherals, while allowing peripherals to have their own interrupt vector.
"9.1. Nested Vectored Interrupt Controller (NVIC)" on page 100 provides a description of the NVIC and an overview
of the exception table (ARM nomenclature refers to interrupts as exceptions). "9.2. Event Manager" on page 102
provides a more detailed description of the Event Manager including a table of all top-level peripheral interrupts
and their second-level interrupt sources.
In practice, top-level peripheral interrupts are only used to enable or disable interrupts for an entire peripheral.
Second-level interrupts originate from hardware sources, and therefore are the main focus of applications using
interrupts.
9.1. Nested Vectored Interrupt Controller (NVIC)
The ARM® CortexTM-M3 Nested Vectored Interrupt Controller (NVIC) facilitates low-latency exception and interrupt
handling. The NVIC and the processor core interface are closely coupled, which enables low-latency interrupt
processing and efficient processing of late-arriving interrupts. The NVIC also maintains knowledge of the stacked
(nested) interrupts to enable tail-chaining of interrupts.
The ARM® CortexTM-M3 NVIC contains 10 standard interrupts that are related to chip and CPU operation and
management. In addition to the 10 standard interrupts, it contains 17 individually vectored peripheral interrupts
specific to the EM346.
The NVIC defines a list of exceptions. These exceptions include not only traditional peripheral interrupts, but also
more specialized events such as faults and CPU reset. In the ARM® CortexTM-M3 NVIC, a CPU reset event is
considered an exception of the highest priority, and the stack pointer is loaded from the first position in the NVIC
exception table. The NVIC exception table defines all exceptions and their position, including peripheral interrupts.
The position of each exception is important since it directly translates to the location of a 32-bit interrupt vector for
each interrupt, and defines the hardware priority of exceptions. Each exception in the table is a 32-bit address that
is loaded into the program counter when that exception occurs. Table 9.1 lists the entire exception table.
Exceptions 0 (stack pointer) through 15 (SysTick) are part of the standard ARM® CortexTM-M3 NVIC, while
exceptions 18 (Management) through 32 (Debug) are the peripheral interrupts specific to the EM346 peripherals.
The peripheral interrupts are listed in greater detail in Table 9.2.
100
Rev 1.0
EM346
Table 9.1. NVIC Exception Table
Exception
Position
Description
—
0
Stack top is loaded from first entry of vector table on reset.
Reset
1
Invoked on power up and warm reset. On first instruction, drops to lowest priority (Thread mode). Asynchronous.
NMI
2
Cannot be stopped or preempted by any exception but reset. Asynchronous.
Hard Fault
3
All classes of fault, when the fault cannot activate because of priority or the
Configurable Fault handler has been disabled. Synchronous.
Memory Fault
4
MPU mismatch, including access violation and no match. Synchronous.
Bus Fault
5
Pre-fetch, memory access, and other address/memory-related faults. Synchronous when precise and asynchronous when imprecise.
Usage Fault
6
Usage fault, such as “undefined instruction executed” or “illegal state transition
attempt”. Synchronous.
—
7–10
SVCall
11
System service call with SVC instruction. Synchronous.
Debug Monitor
12
Debug monitor, when not halting. Synchronous, but only active when enabled.
It does not activate if lower priority than the current activation.
—
13
Reserved.
PendSV
14
Pendable request for system service. Asynchronous and only pended by software.
SysTick
15
System tick timer has fired. Asynchronous.
—
16
Reserved.
—
17
Reserved.
Management
18
Management peripheral interrupt.
Baseband
19
Baseband peripheral interrupt.
Sleep Timer
20
Sleep Timer peripheral interrupt.
Serial Controller 1
21
Serial Controller 1 peripheral interrupt.
—
22
Reserved.
Security
23
Security peripheral interrupt.
MAC Timer
24
MAC Timer peripheral interrupt.
MAC Transmit
25
MAC Transmit peripheral interrupt.
MAC Receive
26
MAC Receive peripheral interrupt.
—
27
Reserved.
IRQA
28
IRQA peripheral interrupt.
—
29
Reserved
IRQC
30
IRQC peripheral interrupt.
IRQD
31
IRQD peripheral interrupt.
Debug
32
Debug peripheral interrupt.
Reserved.
Rev 1.0
101
EM346
The NVIC also contains a software-configurable interrupt prioritization mechanism. The Reset, NMI, and Hard
Fault exceptions, in that order, are always the highest priority, and are not software-configurable. All other
exceptions can be assigned a 5-bit priority number, with low values representing higher priority. If any exceptions
have the same software-configurable priority, then the NVIC uses the hardware-defined priority. The hardwaredefined priority number is the same as the position of the exception in the exception table. For example, if IRQA
and IRQC both fire at the same time and have the same software-defined priority, the NVIC handles IRQA, with
priority number 28, first because it has a higher hardware priority than IRQC with priority number 30.
The top-level interrupts are controlled through five ARM® CortexTM-M3 NVIC registers: INT_CFGSET,
INT_CFGCLR, INT_PENDSET, INT_PENDCLR, and INT_ACTIVE. Writing 0 into any bit in any of these five
register is ineffective.
INT_CFGSET—Writing
1 to a bit in INT_CFGSET enables that top-level interrupt.
1 to a bit in INT_CFGCLR disables that top-level interrupt.
INT_PENDSET—Writing 1 to a bit in INT_PENDSET triggers that top-level interrupt.
INT_PENDCLR—Writing 1 to a bit in INT_PENDCLR clears that top-level interrupt.
INT_ACTIVE cannot be written to and is used for indicating which interrupts are currently active.
INT_PENDSET and INT_PENDCLR set and clear a simple latch; INT_CFGSET and INT_CFGCLR set and clear a
mask on the output of the latch. Interrupts may be pended and cleared at any time, but any pended interrupt will
not be taken unless the corresponding mask (INT_CFGSET) is set, which allows that interrupt to propagate. If an
INT_CFGSET bit is set and the corresponding INT_PENDSET bit is set, then the interrupt will propagate and be
taken. If INT_CFGSET is set after INT_PENDSET is set, then the interrupt will also propagate and be taken.
Interrupt flags (signals) from the top-level interrupts are level-sensitive.
INT_CFGCLR—Writing
The second-level interrupt registers, which provide control of the second-level Event Manager peripheral interrupts,
are described in “9.2. Event Manager” .
For further information on the NVIC and ARM® CortexTM-M3 exceptions, refer to the ARM® CortexTM-M3 Technical
Reference Manual and the ARM ARMv7-M Architecture Reference Manual.
9.2. Event Manager
While the standard ARM® CortexTM-M3 Nested Vectored Interrupt Controller provides top-level interrupts into the
CPU, the proprietary Event Manager provides second-level interrupts. The Event Manager takes a large variety of
hardware interrupt sources from the peripherals and merges them into a smaller group of interrupts in the NVIC.
Effectively, all second-level interrupts from a peripheral are “ORd” together into a single interrupt in the NVIC. In
addition, the Event Manager provides missed indicators for the top-level peripheral interrupts with the register
INT_MISS.
The description of each peripheral's interrupt configuration and flag registers can be found in the chapters of this
datasheet describing each peripheral. Figure 9.1 shows the Peripheral Interrupts Block Diagram.
102
Rev 1.0
EM346
Interrupts into NVIC/CPU
AND
Peripheral Interrupt Instance
read
Q
latch
S
OR
R
OR
AND
write 1
INT_CFGCLR
write 1
INT_CFGSET
INT_periphCFG
read
Q
latch
AND
S
read
Q
latch
S
R
OR
write 1
INT_PENDCLR
write 1
INT_PENDSET
INT_periphFLAG
R
read
Q
latch
write 1
S
R
write 1
INT_MISS
Source Interrupt Events
Interrupts from all Peripherals
Figure 9.1. Peripheral Interrupts Block Diagram
Given a peripheral, “periph”, the Event Manager registers (INT_periphCFG and INT_periphFLAG) follow the form:
INT_periphCFG
enables and disables second-level interrupts. Writing 1 to a bit in the INT_periphCFG
register enables the second-level interrupt. Writing 0 to a bit in the INT_periphCFG register disables it. The
INT_periphCFG register behaves like a mask, and is responsible for allowing the INT_periphFLAG bits to
propagate into the top-level NVIC interrupts.
INT_periphFLAG indicates second-level interrupts that have occurred. Writing 1 to a bit in a
INT_periphFLAG register clears the second-level interrupt. Writing 0 to any bit in the INT_periphFLAG
register is ineffective. The INT_periphFLAG register is always active and may be set or cleared at any time,
meaning if any second-level interrupt occurs, then the corresponding bit in the INT_periphFLAG register is
set regardless of the state of INT_periphCFG.
If a bit in the INT_periphCFG register is set after the corresponding bit in the INT_periphFLAG register is set then
the second-level interrupt propagates into the top-level interrupts. The interrupt flags (signals) from the secondlevel interrupts into the top-level interrupts are level-sensitive. If a top-level NVIC interrupt is driven by a secondlevel EM interrupt, then the top-level NVIC interrupt cannot be cleared until all second-level EM interrupts are
cleared.
The INT_periphFLAG register bits are designed to remain set if the second-level interrupt event re-occurs at the
same moment as the INT_periphFLAG register bit is being cleared. This ensures the re-occurring second-level
interrupt event is not missed.
If another enabled second-level interrupt event of the same type occurs before the first interrupt event is cleared,
the second interrupt event is lost because no counting or queuing is used. However, this condition is detected and
stored in the top-level INT_MISS register to facilitate software detection of such problems. The INT_MISS register
is “acknowledged” in the same way as the INT_periphFLAG register-by writing a 1 into the corresponding bit to be
cleared.
Rev 1.0
103
EM346
Table 9.2 provides a map of all peripheral interrupts. This map lists the top-level NVIC Interrupt bits and, if there is
one, the corresponding second-level EM Interrupt register bits that feed the top-level interrupts.
Table 9.2. NVIC and EM Peripheral Interrupt Map
NVIC Interrupt
(Top-Level)
EM Interrupt
(Second-Level)
NVIC Interrupt
(Top-Level)
16
INT_DEBUG
4
INT_SLEEPTMR
15
INT_IRQD
3
INT_BB
14
INT_IRQC
2
INT_MGMT
13
Reserved
1
Reserved.
12
INT_IRQA
0
Reserved
11
Reserved
10
INT_MACRX
9
INT_MACTX
8
INT_MACTMR
7
INT_SEC
6
Reserved
5
INT_SC1
EM Interrupt
(Second-Level)
INT_SC1FLAG register
14
INT_SC1PARERR
13
INT_SC1FRMERR
12
INT_SCTXULDB
11
INT_SCTXULDA
10
INT_SCRXULDB
9
INT_SCRXULDA
8
INT_SCNAK
7
INT_SCCDMFIN
6
INT_SCTXFIN
5
INT_SCRXFIN
4
INT_SCTXUND
3
INT_SCRXOVF
2
INT_SCTXIDLE
1
INT_SCTXFREE
0
INT_SCRXVAL
9.3. Non-Maskable Interrupt (NMI)
The non-maskable interrupt (NMI) is a special case. Despite being one of the 10 standard ARM® CortexTM-M3
NVIC interrupts, it is sourced from the Event Manager like a peripheral interrupt. The NMI has two second-level
sources; failure of the 24 MHz crystal and watchdog low water mark.
1. Failure of the 24 MHz crystal: If the EM346's main clock, SYSCLK, is operating from the 24 MHz crystal
and the crystal fails, the EM346 detects the failure and automatically switches to the internal 12 MHz RC
clock. When this failure detection and switch has occurred, the EM346 triggers the CLK24M_FAIL second-
104
Rev 1.0
EM346
level interrupt, which then triggers the NMI.
2. Watchdog low water mark: If the EM346's watchdog is active and the watchdog counter has not been reset
for nominally 1.792 s, the watchdog triggers the WATCHDOG_INT second-level interrupt, which then
triggers the NMI.
9.4. Faults
Four of the exceptions in the NVIC are faults: Hard Fault, Memory Fault, Bus Fault, and Usage Fault. Of these,
three (Hard Fault, Memory Fault, and Usage Fault) are standard ARM® CortexTM-M3 exceptions.
The Bus Fault, though, is derived from EM346-specific sources. The Bus Fault sources are recorded in the
SCS_AFSR register. Note that it is possible for one access to set multiple SCS_AFSR bits. Also note that MPU
configurations could prevent most of these bus fault accesses from occurring, with the advantage that illegal writes
are made precise faults. The four bus faults are:
WRONGSIZE—Generated
by an 8-bit or 16-bit read or write of an APB peripheral register. This fault can
also result from an unaligned 32-bit access.
PROTECTED—Generated by a user mode (unprivileged) write to a system APB or AHB peripheral or
protected RAM (see "5.2.2.3. RAM Memory Protection" on page 31).
RESERVED—Generated by a read or write to an address within an APB peripheral's 4 kB block range, but
the address is above the last physical register in that block range. Also generated by a read or write to an
address above the top of RAM or flash.
MISSED—Generated by a second SCS_AFSR fault. In practice, this bit is not seen since a second fault
also generates a hard fault, and the hard fault preempts the bus fault.
Rev 1.0
105
EM346
9.5. Registers
Register 9.1. INT_CFGSET: Top-Level Set Interrupts Configuration Register
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
INT_DEBUG
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Name
INT_IRQD
INT_IRQC
Reserved
INT_IRQA
Reserved
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name
INT_SEC
Reserved
INT_SC1
INT_SLEEPTMR
INT_BB
INT_MGMT
Reserved
Reserved
INT_MACRX INT_MACTX INT_MACTMR
Address: 0xE000E100; Reset: 0x0
106
Bit Name
Bit Field
Access
Description
INT_DEBUG
[16]
RW
Write 1 to enable debug interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
INT_IRQD
[15]
RW
Write 1 to enable IRQD interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
INT_IRQC
[14]
RW
Write 1 to enable IRQC interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
INT_IRQA
[12]
RW
Write 1 to enable IRQA interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
INT_MACRX
[10]
RW
Write 1 to enable MAC receive interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
INT_MACTX
[9]
RW
Write 1 to enable MAC transmit interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
INT_MACTMR
[8]
RW
Write 1 to enable MAC timer interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
INT_SEC
[7]
RW
Write 1 to enable security interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
INT_SC1
[5]
RW
Write 1 to enable serial controller 1 interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
INT_SLEEPTMR
[4]
RW
Write 1 to enable sleep timer interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
INT_BB
[3]
RW
Write 1 to enable baseband interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
INT_MGMT
[2]
RW
Write 1 to enable management interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
Rev 1.0
EM346
Register 9.2. INT_CFGCLR: Top-Level Clear Interrupts Configuration Register
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
INT_DEBUG
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Name
INT_IRQD
INT_IRQC
Reserved
INT_IRQA
Reserved
INT_MACRX
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name
INT_SEC
Reserved
INT_SC1
INT_SLEEPTMR
INT_BB
INT_MGMT
Reserved
Reserved
INT_MACTX INT_MACTMR
Address: 0xE000E180 Reset: 0x0
Bitname
Bitfield
Access
Description
INT_DEBUG
[16]
RW
Write 1 to disable debug interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
INT_IRQD
[15]
RW
Write 1 to disable IRQD interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
INT_IRQC
[14]
RW
Write 1 to disable IRQC interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
INT_IRQA
[12]
RW
Write 1 to disable IRQA interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
INT_MACRX
[10]
RW
Write 1 to disable MAC receive interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
INT_MACTX
[9]
RW
Write 1 to disable MAC transmit interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
INT_MACTMR
[8]
RW
Write 1 to disable MAC timer interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
INT_SEC
[7]
RW
Write 1 to disable security interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
INT_SC1
[5]
RW
Write 1 to disable serial controller 1 interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
INT_SLEEPTMR
[4]
RW
Write 1 to disable sleep timer interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
INT_BB
[3]
RW
Write 1 to disable baseband interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
INT_MGMT
[2]
RW
Write 1 to disable management interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
Rev 1.0
107
EM346
Register 9.3. INT_PENDSET: Top-Level Set Interrupts Pending Register
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
INT_DEBUG
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Name
INT_IRQD
INT_IRQC
Reserved
INT_IRQA
Reserved
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name
INT_SEC
Reserved
INT_SC1
INT_SLEEPTMR
INT_BB
INT_MGMT
Reserved
Reserved
INT_MACRX INT_MACTX
INT_MACTMR
Address: 0xE000E200 Reset: 0x0
Bitname
Bitfield
Access
INT_DEBUG
[16]
RW
Write 1 to pend debug interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
INT_IRQD
[15]
RW
Write 1 to pend IRQD interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
INT_IRQC
[14]
RW
Write 1 to pend IRQC interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.).
INT_IRQA
[12]
RW
Write 1 to pend IRQA interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
INT_MACRX
[10]
RW
Write 1 to pend MAC receive interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
INT_MACTX
[9]
RW
Write 1 to pend MAC transmit interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
INT_MACTMR
[8]
RW
Write 1 to pend MAC timer interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
INT_SEC
[7]
RW
Write 1 to pend security interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
INT_SC1
[5]
RW
Write 1 to pend serial controller 1 interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
INT_SLEEPTMR
[4]
RW
Write 1 to pend sleep timer interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
INT_BB
[3]
RW
Write 1 to pend baseband interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
INT_MGMT
[2]
RW
Write 1 to pend management interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
108
Description
Rev 1.0
EM346
Register 9.4. INT_PENDCLR: Top-Level Clear Interrupts Pending Register
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
INT_DEBUG
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Name
INT_IRQD
INT_IRQC
Reserved
INT_IRQA
Reserved
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name
INT_SEC
Reserved
INT_SC1
INT_SLEEPTMR
INT_BB
INT_MGMT
Reserved
Reserved
INT_MACRX INT_MACTX INT_MACTMR
Address: 0xE000E280 Reset: 0x0
Bitname
Bitfield
Access
Description
INT_DEBUG
[16]
RW
Write 1 to unpend debug interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
INT_IRQD
[15]
RW
Write 1 to unpend IRQD interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
INT_IRQC
[14]
RW
Write 1 to unpend IRQC interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
INT_IRQA
[12]
RW
Write 1 to unpend IRQA interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
INT_MACRX
[10]
RW
Write 1 to unpend MAC receive interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
INT_MACTX
[9]
RW
Write 1 to unpend MAC transmit interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
INT_MACTMR
[8]
RW
Write 1 to unpend MAC timer interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
INT_SEC
[7]
RW
Write 1 to unpend security interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
INT_SC1
[5]
RW
Write 1 to unpend serial controller 1 interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
INT_SLEEPTMR
[4]
RW
Write 1 to unpend sleep timer interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
INT_BB
[3]
RW
Write 1 to unpend baseband interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
INT_MGMT
[2]
RW
Write 1 to unpend management interrupt. (Writing 0 has no effect.)
Rev 1.0
109
EM346
Register 9.5. INT_ACTIVE: Top-Level Active Interrupts Register
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
INT_DEBUG
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Name
INT_IRQD
INT_IRQC
Reserved
INT_IRQA
Reserved
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name
INT_SEC
Reserved
INT_SC1
INT_SLEEPTMR
INT_BB
INT_MGMT
Reserved
Reserved
INT_MACRX INT_MACTX
Address: 0xE000E300 Reset: 0x0
Bitname
Bitfield
Access
INT_DEBUG
[16]
R
Debug interrupt active.
INT_IRQD
[15]
R
IRQD interrupt active.
INT_IRQC
[14]
R
IRQC interrupt active.
INT_IRQA
[12]
R
IRQA interrupt active.
INT_MACRX
[10]
R
MAC receive interrupt active.
INT_MACTX
[9]
R
MAC transmit interrupt active.
INT_MACTMR
[8]
R
MAC timer interrupt active.
INT_SEC
[7]
R
Security interrupt active.
INT_SC1
[5]
R
Serial controller 1 interrupt active.
INT_SLEEPTMR
[4]
R
Sleep timer interrupt active.
INT_BB
[3]
R
Baseband interrupt active.
INT_MGMT
[2]
R
Management interrupt active.
110
Description
Rev 1.0
INT_MACTMR
EM346
Register 9.6. INT_MISS: Top-Level Missed Interrupts Register
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Name
INT_
MISSIRQD
INT_
MISSIRQC
Reserved
INT_
MISSIRQA
Reserved
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name
INT_
MISSSEC
Reserved
INT_
MISSSC1
INT_
MISSSLEEP
INT_
MISSBB
INT_
MISSMGMT
0
0
INT_
INT_
INT_
MISSMACRX MISSMACTX MISSMACTMR
Address: 0x4000A820 Reset: 0x0
Bitname
Bitfield
Access
Description
INT_MISSIRQD
[15]
RW
IRQD interrupt missed.
INT_MISSIRQC
[14]
RW
IRQC interrupt missed.
INT_MISSIRQA
[12]
RW
IRQA interrupt missed.
INT_MISSMACRX
[10]
RW
MAC receive interrupt missed.
INT_MISSMACTX
[9]
RW
MAC transmit interrupt missed.
INT_MISSMACTMR
[8]
RW
MAC Timer interrupt missed.
INT_MISSSEC
[7]
RW
Security interrupt missed.
INT_MISSSC1
[5]
RW
Serial controller 1 interrupt missed.
INT_MISSSLEEP
[4]
RW
Sleep timer interrupt missed.
INT_MISSBB
[3]
RW
Baseband interrupt missed.
INT_MISSMGMT
[2]
RW
Management interrupt missed.
Rev 1.0
111
EM346
Register 9.7. SCS_AFSR: Auxiliary Fault Status Register
Bit
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Name
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name
0
0
0
0
WRONGSIZE
PROTECTED
RESERVED
MISSED
Address: 0xE000ED3C Reset: 0x0
Bitname
Bitfield
Access
Description
WRONGSIZE
[3]
RW
A bus fault resulted from an 8-bit or 16-bit read or write of an APB peripheral register.
This fault can also result from an unaligned 32-bit access.
PROTECTED
[2]
RW
A bus fault resulted from a user mode (unprivileged) write to a system APB or AHB
peripheral or protected RAM.
RESERVED
[1]
RW
A bus fault resulted from a read or write to an address within an APB peripheral's 4 kB
block range, but above the last physical register in that block. Can also result from a
read or write to an address above the top of RAM or flash.
MISSED
[0]
RW
A bus fault occurred when a bit was already set in this register.
112
Rev 1.0
EM346
10. Trace Port Interface Unit (TPIU)
The EM346 integrates the standard ARM® Trace Port Interface Unit (TPIU). The TPIU receives a data stream from
the on-chip trace data generated by the standard ARM® Instrument Trace Macrocell (ITM), buffers the data in a
FIFO, formats the data, and serializes the data to be sent off-chip through alternate functions of the GPIO. Since
the primary function of the TPIU is to provide a bridge between on-chip ARM system debug components and
external GPIO, the TPIU itself does not generate data. Figure 10.1 illustrates the three primary components of the
TPIU.
SWO
TRACECLK
ITM
Asynchronous
FIFO
Trace Out
(Serializer)
Formatter
TRACEDATA0
TRACEDATA1
TRACEDATA2
TRACEDATA3
Figure 10.1. TPIU Block Diagram
The TPIU is composed of:
Asynchronous
FIFO: The asynchronous FIFO receives a data stream generated by the ITM and enables
the trace data to be sent off-chip at a speed that is not dependent on the speed of the data source.
Formatter: The formatter inserts source ID signals into the data packet stream so that trace data can be reassociated with its trace source. Since the EM346 has only one trace source, the ITM, it is not necessary to
use the formatter, and, therefore, the formatter only adds overhead into the data stream. Since certain
modes of the TPIU automatically enable the formatter, these modes should be avoided whenever possible.
Trace Out: The trace out block serializes the data and sends it off-chip by the proper alternate output GPIO
functions.
The six pins available to the TPIU are:
SWO
TRACECLK
TRACEDATA0
TRACEDATA1
TRACEDATA2
TRACEDATA3
Since these pins are alternate outputs of GPIO, refer to "17. Pin Definitions" on page 121 and "7. GPIO (General
Purpose Input/Output)" on page 48 for complete pin descriptions and configurations.
Notes:
1. The SWO alternate output is mirrored on GPIO PC1 and PC2.
2. GPIO PC1 shares both the SWO and TRACEDATA0 alternate outputs. This is possible because SWO and
TRACEDATA0 are mutually exclusive, and only one may be selected at a time in the trace-out block.
The Ember software utilizes the TPIU to efficiently output debug data. Altering the TPIU configuration may conflict
with Ember debug output.
For further information on the TPIU, contact Silicon Labs support for the ARM® CortexTM-M3 Technical Reference
Manual, the ARM® CoreSightTM Components Technical Reference Manual, the ARM® v7-M Architecture
Reference Manual, and the ARM® v7-M Architecture Application Level Reference Manual.
Rev 1.0
113
EM346
11. Instrumentation Trace Macrocell (ITM)
The EM346 integrates the standard ARM® Instrumentation Trace Macrocell (ITM). The ITM is an application-driven
trace source that supports printf style debugging to trace software events and emits diagnostic system information
from the ARM® Data Watchpoint and Trace (DWT). Software using the ITM generates Software Instrumentation
Trace (SWIT). In addition, the ITM provides coarse-grained timestamp functionality. The ITM emits trace
information as packets, and these packets are sent to the Trace Port Interface Unit (TPIU). Three sources can
generate packets. If multiple sources generate packets at the same time, the ITM arbitrates the order in which the
packets are output. The three sources, in decreasing order of priority, are:
Software
trace. Software can write directly to ITM stimulus registers, emitting packets.
trace. The DWT generates packets that the ITM emits.
Time stamping. Timestamps are emitted relative to packets, and the ITM contains a 21-bit counter to
generate the timestamps.
The Ember software utilizes the ITM for efficiently generating debug data. Altering the ITM configuration may
conflict with Ember debug output.
Hardware
For further information on the ITM, contact Silicon Labs support for the ARM® CortexTM-M3 Technical Reference
Manual, the ARM® CoreSight™ Components Technical Reference Manual, the ARM® v7-M Architecture
Reference Manual, and the ARM® v7-M Architecture Application Level Reference Manual.
114
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EM346
12. Data Watchpoint and Trace (DWT)
The EM346 integrates the standard ARM® Data Watchpoint and Trace (DWT). The DWT provides hardware
support for profiling and debugging functionality. The DWT offers the following features:
PC
sampling
Comparators
to support:
Watchpoints
- enters debug state
tracing
Cycle count matched PC sampling
Data
Exception
trace support
cycle count calculation support
Apart from exception tracing, DWT functionality is counter- or comparator-based. Watchpoint and data trace
support use a set of compare, mask, and function registers. DWT-generated events result in one of two actions:
Instruction
Generation
of a hardware event packet. Packets are generated and combined with software events and
timestamp packets for transmission through the ITM/TPIU.
A core halt - entry to debug state.
When exception tracing is enabled, the DWT emits an exception trace packet under the following conditions:
Exception
entry (from thread mode or pre-emption of a thread or handler).
Exception exit when exiting a handler.
Exception return when reentering a preempted thread or handler code sequence.
The DWT is designed for use with advanced profiling and debug tools, available from multiple vendors. Altering
DWT configuration may conflict with the operation of advanced profiling and debug tools.
For further information on the DWT, contact Silicon Labs support for the ARM® CortexTM-M3 Technical Reference
Manual, the ARM® CoreSight™ Components Technical Reference Manual, the ARM® v7-M Architecture
Reference Manual, and the ARM® v7-M Architecture Application Level Reference Manual.
Rev 1.0
115
EM346
13. Flash Patch and Breakpoint (FPB)
The EM346 integrates the standard ARM® Flash Patch and Breakpoint (FPB). The FPB implements hardware
breakpoints. The FPB also provides support for remapping of specific instruction or literal locations from flash
memory to an address in RAM memory. The FPB contains:
Two
literal comparators for matching against literal loads from flash space and remapping to a
corresponding RAM space.
Six instruction comparators for matching against instruction fetches from flash space and remapping to a
corresponding RAM space. Alternatively, the comparators can be individually configured to return a
breakpoint instruction to the processor core on a match, implementing hardware breakpoint capability.
The FPB contains a global enable, but also individual enables for the eight comparators. If the comparison for an
entry matches, the address is remapped to the address defined in the remap register plus and offset corresponding
to the comparator that matched. Alternately, the address is remapped to a breakpoint instruction. The comparison
happens on the fly, but the result of the comparison occurs too late to stop the original instruction fetch or literal
load taking place from the flash space. The processor ignores this transaction, however, and only the remapped
transaction is used.
Memory Protection Unit (MPU) lookups are performed for the original address, not the remapped address.
Unaligned literal accesses are not remapped. The original access to the bus takes place in this case.
The FPB is designed for use with advanced debug tools, available from multiple vendors. Altering the FPB
configuration may conflict with the operation of advanced debug tools.
For further information on the FPB, contact Silicon Labs support for the ARM® CortexTM-M3 Technical Reference
Manual, the ARM® CoreSight™ Components Technical Reference Manual, the ARM® v7-M Architecture
Reference Manual, and the ARM® v7-M Architecture Application Level Reference Manual.
116
Rev 1.0
EM346
14. Integrated Voltage Regulator
The EM346 integrates two low dropout regulators to provide 1.8 V and 1.25 V power supplies as detailed in
Table 14.1. The 1V8 regulator supplies the analog and memories, and the 1V25 regulator supplies the digital core.
In deep sleep, the voltage regulators are disabled.
When enabled, the 1V8 regulator steps down the pads supply voltage (VDD_PADS) from a nominal 3.0 V to 1.8 V.
The regulator output pin (VREG_OUT) must be decoupled externally with a suitable capacitor. VREG_OUT should
be connected to the 1.8 V supply pins VDDA, VDD_RF, VDD_VCO, VDD_SYNTH, VDD_IF, and VDD_MEM. The
1V8 regulator can supply a maximum of 50 mA.
When enabled, the 1V25 regulator steps down VDD_PADS to 1.25 V. The regulator output pin (VDD_CORE, Pin
17) must be decoupled externally with a suitable capacitor. It should connect to the other VDD_CORE pin (Pin 44).
The 1V25 regulator can supply a maximum of 10 mA.
The regulators are controlled by the digital portion of the chip as described in "6. System Modules" on page 33.
An example of decoupling capacitors and PCB layout can be found in the application notes (see the various Ember
EM35x reference design documentation).
Table 14.1. Integrated Voltage Regulator Specifications
Spec Point
Supply range for regulator
Min
Typ
2.1
Max
Units
3.6
V
VDD_PADS
V
Regulator output after initialization
1V8 regulator output
–5%
1.8
+5%
1V8 regulator output after
reset
–5%
1.75
+5%
1V25 regulator output
–5%
1.25
+5%
1V25 regulator output after
reset
–5%
1.45
+5%
Comments
Regulator output after reset
V
Regulator output after initialization
Regulator output after reset
1V8 regulator capacitor
2.2
µF
Low ESR tantalum capacitor
ESR greater than 2 
ESR less than 10 
de-coupling less than 100 nF ceramic
1V25 regulator capacitor
1.0
µF
Ceramic capacitor (0603)
1V8 regulator output current
0
50
mA
Regulator output current
1V25 regulator output 
current
0
10
mA
Regulator output current
No load current
600
µA
No load current (bandgap and regulators)
1V8 regulator current limit
200
mA
Short circuit current limit
1V25 regulator current limit
25
mA
Short circuit current limit
1V8 regulator start-up time
50
µs
0 V to POR threshold
2.2 µF capacitor
1V25 regulator start-up time
50
µs
0 V to POR threshold
1.0 µF capacitor
Rev 1.0
117
EM346
An external 1.8 V regulator may replace both internal regulators. The EM346 can control external regulators during
deep sleep using open-drain GPIO PA7, as described in "7. GPIO (General Purpose Input/Output)" on page 48.
The EM346 drives PA7 low during deep sleep to disable the external regulator, and an external pull-up is required
to release this signal to indicate that supply voltage should be provided. Current consumption increases
approximately 2 mA when using an external regulator. When using an external regulator, the internal regulators
should be disabled through Ember software. The always-on domain needs to be minimally powered at 2.1 V and
cannot be powered from the external 1.8 V regulator.
118
Rev 1.0
EM346
15. Serial Wire and JTAG (SWJ) Interface
The EM346 includes a standard Serial Wire and JTAG (SWJ) Interface. The SWJ is the primary debug and
programming interface of the EM346. The SWJ gives debug tools access to the internal buses of the EM346 and
allows for non-intrusive memory and register access as well as CPU halt-step style debugging. Therefore, any
design implementing the EM346 should make the SWJ signals readily available.
Serial Wire is an ARM® standard, bidirectional, two-wire protocol designed to replace JTAG and provides all the
normal JTAG debug and test functionality. JTAG is a standard five-wire protocol providing debug and test
functionality. In addition, the two Serial Wire signals (SWDIO and SWCLK) are overlaid on two of the JTAG signals
(JTMS and JTCK). This keeps the design compact and allows debug tools to switch between Serial Wire and JTAG
as needed, without changing pin connections.
While Serial Wire and JTAG offer the same debug and test functionality, Silicon Labs recommends Serial Wire.
Serial Wire uses only two pins instead of five, and offers a simple communication protocol, high performance data
rates, low power, built-in error detection, and protection from glitches.
The ARM CoreSight™ Debug Access Port (DAP) comprises the Serial Wire and JTAG Interface (SWJ). As
illustrated in Figure 15.1, the DAP includes two primary components: a debug port (the SWJ-DP) and an access
port (the AHB-AP). The SWJ-DP provides external debug access while the AHB-AP provides internal bus access.
An external debug tool connected to the EM346's debug pins communicates with the SWJ-DP. The SWJ-DP then
communicates with the AHB-AP. Finally, the AHB-AP communicates on the internal bus.
SW J-DAP
SW J-DP
Pins
SW J-DP
Select
SW
Interface
JTAG
Interface
Control and
AP Interface
AHB-AP
AHB
Figure 15.1. SWJ Block Diagram
Serial Wire and JTAG share five pins:
JRST
JTDO
JTDI
SWDIO/JTMS
SWCLK/JTCK
Note: The SWJ pins are forced functions, and their corresponding GPIO_PxCFGH/L configurations are overridden when the
EM346 resets. An application must disable all debug SWJ debug functionality to reclaim any of the four SWJ GPIOs:
PC0, PC2, PC3, and PC4.
Since these pins can be repurposed, refer to "17. Pin Definitions" on page 121 and "7.3. Forced Functions" on
page 50 for complete pin descriptions and configurations.
For further information on the SWJ, contact customer support for application notes and ARM® CoreSight™
documentation.
Rev 1.0
119
EM346
16. Ordering Information
Use the following part number to order the EM346:
Part Number
Part
Packaging Material
Configuration
EM346-RTR
EM346
2000 unit reel
Standard

The EM300 Series package is RoHS-compliant. It conforms to the European Court of Justice decision regarding
the Deca-BDE exemption of the RoHS Directive. It is PFOS-compliant in accordance with European Directive
2006/122/EC*1 released in December 2006. The to EIA Specification 481.
To order parts, contact Silicon Labs at 1+(877) 444-3032, or find a sales office or distributor on our website,
www.silabs.com.
120
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EM346
17. Pin Definitions
VDD_PADS
PC1, SWO, TRACEDATA0
VDD_MEM
PC0, JRST, IRQD, TRACEDATA1
NC
NC
NC
VDD_CORE
VDD_PRE
VDD_SYNTH
OSCB
OSCA
17.1. Pin Definitions
48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37
36
PB0, VREF, IRQA, TRACECLK
35
PC4, JTMS, SWDIO
3
34
PC3, JTDI
RF_N
4
33
PC2, JTDO, SWO
VDD_RF
5
32
SWCLK, JTCK
RF_TX_ALT_P
6
31
PB2, SC1MOSI, SC1RXD
RF_TX_ALT_N
7
30
PB1, SC1MISO, SC1TXD
VDD_IF
8
29
NC
NC
9
28
VDD_PADS
VDD_PADSA
10
27
PA5, PTI_DATA, nBOOTMODE, TRACEDATA3
PC5, TX_ACTIVE
11
26
PA4, PTI_EN, TRACEDATA2
nRESET
12
25
NC
VDD_24MHZ
1
VDD_VCO
2
RF_P
49
GND
EM346
NC
VDD_PADS
NC
NC
PB4, SC1nRTS, SC1nSSEL
PB3, SC1nCTS, SC1SCLK
PA7, REG_EN
VDD_CORE
VDD_PADS
VREG_OUT
PC7, OSC32A, OSC32_EXT
PC6, OSC32B, nTX_ACTIVE
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
Figure 17.1. EM346 Pin Definitions
Refer to "7. GPIO (General Purpose Input/Output)" on page 48 for details about selecting GPIO pin functions.
Rev 1.0
121
EM346
Table 17.1. EM346 Pin Descriptions
Pin #
Signal
Direction
1
VDD_24MHZ
Power
1.8 V high-frequency oscillator supply
2
VDD_VCO
Power
1.8 V VCO supply
3
RF_P
I/O
Differential (with RF_N) receiver input/transmitter output
4
RF_N
I/O
Differential (with RF_P) receiver input/transmitter output
5
VDD_RF
Power
6
RF_TX_ALT_P
O
Differential (with RF_TX_ALT_N) transmitter output (optional)
7
RF_TX_ALT_N
O
Differential (with RF_TX_ALT_P) transmitter output (optional)
8
VDD_IF
Power
9
NC
10
VDD_PADSA
Power
11
PC5
I/O
Digital I/O
TX_ACTIVE
O
Logic-level control for external RX/TX switch. The EM346 baseband controls TX_ACTIVE and drives it high (VDD_PADS) when in TX mode.
Select alternate output function with GPIO_PCCFGH[7:4]
12
nRESET
I
Active low chip reset (internal pull-up)
13
PC6
I/O
Digital I/O
OSC32B
I/O
32.768 kHz crystal oscillator
Select analog function with GPIO_PCCFGH[11:8]
nTX_ACTIVE
O
Inverted TX_ACTIVE signal (see PC5)
Select alternate output function with GPIO_PCCFGH[11:8]
PC7
I/O
Digital I/O
OSC32A
I/O
32.768 kHz crystal oscillator
Select analog function with GPIO_PCCFGH[15:12]
OSC32_EXT
I
15
VREG_OUT
Power
Regulator output (1.8 V while awake, 0 V during deep sleep)
16
VDD_PADS
Power
Pads supply (2.1–3.6 V)
17
VDD_CORE
Power
1.25 V digital core supply decoupling
18
PA7
I/O
High
current
Digital I/O
Disable REG_EN with GPIO_DBGCFG[4]
REG_EN
O
14
122
Description
1.8 V RF supply (LNA and PA)
1.8 V IF supply (mixers and filters)
Do not connect
Analog pad supply (1.8 V)
Digital 32.768 kHz clock input source
External regulator open drain output
Enabled after reset
Rev 1.0
EM346
Table 17.1. EM346 Pin Descriptions (Continued)
Pin #
Signal
Direction
19
PB3
I/O
SC1nCTS
I
UART CTS handshake of Serial Controller 1
Enable with SC1_UARTCFG[5]
Select UART with SC1_MODE
SC1SCLK
I
SPI slave clock of Serial Controller 1
Enable slave with SC1_SPICFG[4]
Select SPI with SC1_MODE
PB4
I/O
Digital I/O
SC1nRTS
O
UART RTS handshake of Serial Controller 1
Enable with SC1_UARTCFG[5]
Select UART with SC1_MODE
Select alternate output function with GPIO_PBCFGH[3:0]
SC1nSSEL
I
SPI slave select of Serial Controller 1
Enable slave with SC1_SPICFG[4]
Select SPI with SC1_MODE
20
Description
Digital I/O
21
NC
Do not connect
22
NC
Do not connect
23
VDD_PADS
24
NC
Do not connect
25
NC
Do not connect
26
PA4
I/O
Digital I/O
PTI_EN
O
Frame signal of Packet Trace Interface (PTI)
Disable trace interface in ARM core
Enable PTI in Ember software
Select alternate output function with GPIO_PACFGH[3:0]
TRACEDATA2
O
Synchronous CPU trace data bit 2
Select 4-wire synchronous trace interface in ARM core
Enable trace interface in ARM core
Select alternate output function with GPIO_PACFGH[3:0]
Power
Pads supply (2.1–3.6 V)
Rev 1.0
123
EM346
Table 17.1. EM346 Pin Descriptions (Continued)
Pin #
Signal
Direction
27
PA5
I/O
Digital I/O
PTI_DATA
O
Data signal of Packet Trace Interface (PTI)
Disable trace interface in ARM core
Enable PTI in Ember software
Select alternate output function with GPIO_PACFGH[7:4]
nBOOTMODE
I
Activate FIB monitor instead of main program or bootloader when coming
out of reset.
Signal is active during and immediately after a reset on nRESET. See "7.5.
Boot Configuration" on page 51.
TRACEDATA3
O
Synchronous CPU trace data bit 3
Select 4-wire synchronous trace interface in ARM core
Enable trace interface in ARM core
Select alternate output function with GPIO_PACFGH[7:4]
28
VDD_PADS
Power
29
NC
30
PB1
I/O
Digital I/O
SC1MISO
O
SPI slave data out of Serial Controller 1
Select SPI with SC1_MODE
Select slave with SC1_SPICR
Select alternate output function with GPIO_PBCFGL[7:4]
SC1TXD
O
UART transmit data of Serial Controller 1
Select UART with SC1_MODE
Select alternate output function with GPIO_PBCFGL[7:4]
PB2
I/O
Digital I/O
SC1MOSI
I
SPI slave data in of Serial Controller 1
Select SPI with SC1_MODE
Select slave with SC1_SPICR
SC1RXD
I
UART receive data of Serial Controller 1
Select UART with SC1_MODE
SWCLK
I/O
Serial Wire clock input/output with debugger
Selected when in Serial Wire mode (see JTMS description, Pin 35)
JTCK
I
JTAG clock input from debugger
Selected when in JTAG mode (default mode, see JTMS description,
Pin 35)
Internal pull-down is enabled
31
32
124
Description
Pads supply (2.1–3.6 V)
Do not connect
Rev 1.0
EM346
Table 17.1. EM346 Pin Descriptions (Continued)
Pin #
Signal
Direction
33
PC2
I/O
Digital I/O
Enable with GPIO_DBGCFG[5]
JTDO
O
JTAG data out to debugger
Selected when in JTAG mode (default mode, see JTMS description,
Pin 35)
SWO
O
Serial Wire Output asynchronous trace output to debugger
Select asynchronous trace interface in ARM core
Enable trace interface in ARM core
Select alternate output function with GPIO_PCCFGL[11:8]
Enable Serial Wire mode (see JTMS description, Pin 35)
Internal pull-up is enabled
PC3
I/O
Digital I/O
Either Enable with GPIO_DBGCFG[5],
or enable Serial Wire mode (see JTMS description)
JTDI
I
PC4
I/O
JTMS
I
JTAG mode select from debugger
Selected when in JTAG mode (default mode)
JTAG mode is enabled after power-up or by forcing nRESET low
Select Serial Wire mode using the ARM-defined protocol through a debugger
Internal pull-up is enabled
SWDIO
I/O
Serial Wire bidirectional data to/from debugger
Enable Serial Wire mode (see JTMS description)
Select Serial Wire mode using the ARM-defined protocol through a debugger
Internal pull-up is enabled
PB0
I/O
Digital I/O
IRQA
I
External interrupt source A
TRACECLK
O
Synchronous CPU trace clock
Enable trace interface in ARM core
Select alternate output function with GPIO_PBCFGL[3:0]
VDD_PADS
Power
34
35
36
37
Description
JTAG data in from debugger
Selected when in JTAG mode (default mode, see JTMS description,
Pin 35)
Internal pull-up is enabled
Digital I/O
Enable with GPIO_DBGCFG[5]
Pads supply (2.1–3.6 V)
Rev 1.0
125
EM346
Table 17.1. EM346 Pin Descriptions (Continued)
Pin #
Signal
Direction
Description
38
PC1
I/O
Digital I/O
SWO
(see also Pin 33)
O
Serial Wire Output asynchronous trace output to debugger
Select asynchronous trace interface in ARM core
Enable trace interface in ARM core
Select alternate output function with GPIO_PCCFGL[7:4]
TRACEDATA0
O
Synchronous CPU trace data bit 0
Select 1-, 2- or 4-wire synchronous trace interface in ARM core
Enable trace interface in ARM core
Select alternate output function with GPIO_PCCFGL[7:4]
39
VDD_MEM
Power
1.8 V supply (flash, RAM)
40
PC0
I/O
High
current
Digital I/O
Either enable with GPIO_DBGCFG[5],
or enable Serial Wire mode (see JTMS description, Pin 35) and disable
TRACEDATA1
JRST
I
JTAG reset input from debugger
Selected when in JTAG mode (default mode, see JTMS description) and
TRACEDATA1 is disabled
Internal pull-up is enabled
IRQD
I
Default external interrupt source D.
IRQC and IRQD external interrupts can be mapped to any digital I/O pin
using the GPIO_IRQSEL and GPIO_IRQDSEL registers.
TRACEDATA1
O
Synchronous CPU trace data bit 1
Select 2- or 4-wire synchronous trace interface in ARM core
Enable trace interface in ARM core
Select alternate output function with GPIO_PCCFGL[3:0]
41
NC
Do not connect
42
NC
Do not connect
43
NC
Do not connect
44
VDD_CORE
Power
1.25 V digital core supply decoupling
45
VDD_PRE
Power
1.8 V prescaler supply
46
VDD_SYNTH
Power
1.8 V synthesizer supply
47
OSCB
I/O
126
24 MHz crystal oscillator or left open when using external clock input on
OSCA
Rev 1.0
EM346
Table 17.1. EM346 Pin Descriptions (Continued)
Pin #
Signal
Direction
Description
48
OSCA
I/O
24 MHz crystal oscillator or external clock input.
(An external clock input should only be used for test and debug purposes.
If used in this manner, the external clock input should be a 1.8 V, 50% duty
cycle, square wave.)
49
GND
Ground
Ground supply pad in the bottom center of the package forms Pin 49. See
the various Ember EM35x Reference Design documentation for PCB considerations.
Rev 1.0
127
EM346
18. Package
The EM346 package is a plastic 48-pin QFN that is 7 mm x 7 mm. Figure 18.1 illustrates the package drawing.
Figure 18.1. Package Drawing
128
Rev 1.0
EM346
Table 18.1. Package Dimensions
Dimension
MIN
NOM
MAX
A
0.80
0.85
0.90
A1
0
0.035
0.05
A2
—
0.65
0.67
A3
b
0.203 REF
0.2
0.25
D
7 BSC
E
7 BSC
e
0.5 BSC
0.3
J
5.2
5.3
5.4
K
5.2
5.3
5.4
L
0.35
0.40
0.45
aaa
0.10
bbb
0.1
ccc
0.08
ddd
0.1
eee
0.1
Notes:
1. All dimensions shown are in millimeters (mm) unless otherwise noted.
2. Dimensioning and Tolerancing per ANSI Y14.5M-1994.
3. This drawing conforms to the JEDEC Solid State Outline MO-220, Variation VKKD-4.
4. Recommended card reflow profile is per the JEDEC/IPC J-STD-020 specification for Small
Body Components.
Rev 1.0
129
EM346
Figure 18.2. Solder Mask Dimensions
Table 18.2. PCB Land Pattern
Dimension
Min
Max
C1
6.80
6.90
C2
6.80
6.90
E
0.50 BSC
X1
0.20
0.30
X2
5.20
5.40
Y1
0.75
0.85
Y2
5.20
5.40
Notes:
General
1. All dimensions shown are in millimeters (mm) unless otherwise noted.
2. This Land Pattern Design is based on the IPC-7351 guidelines.
Solder Mask Design
1. All metal pads are to be non-solder mask defined (NSMD). Clearance between the solder mask and the metal pad is
to be 60mm minimum, all the way around the pad.
Stencil Design
1. A stainless steel, laser-cut and electro-polished stencil with trapezoidal walls should be used to assure good solder
paste release.
2. The stencil thickness should be 0.125 mm (5 mils).
3. The ratio of stencil aperture to land pad size should be 1:1 for all perimeter pads.
4. A 4x4 array of 1.1 mm square openings on 1.3 mm pitch can be used for the center ground pad.
Card Assembly
1. A No-Clean, Type-3 solder paste is recommended.
2. The recommended card reflow profile is per the JEDEC/IPC J-STD-020C specification for Small Body Components.
130
Rev 1.0
EM346
19. Top Marking
Figure 19.1 shows the part marking for the EM346 Series. The circle in the top corner indicates Pin 1. Pins are
numbered counter-clockwise from Pin 1 with 12 pins per package edge.
Figure 19.1. Part Marking for EM346
Table 19.1. 48-Pin QFN Top Marking Explanation
Mark Method:
Laser
Pin 1 Marking:
Circle = 0.40 mm Diameter
(Top-Left Justified)
Line 1 Marking:
Logo and Device Part Number
Right Justified
Silicon Labs logo . 
Line 2 Marking:
TTTTTT = Mfg Code
YY=Year
WW-Work Week
Manufacturing Code from the Assembly Purchase
form. Assigned by the Assembly House. Corresponds to the year and work week.
Right Justified
Line 3 Marking:
Circle = 1.3 mm Diameter
Center Justified
“e3” indicates Sn solder finish.
Country of Origin
ISO abbreviation
Right Justified
TW
Rev 1.0
131
EM346
APPENDIX A—REGISTER ADDRESS TABLE
BLOCK
CM_LV
40004000–40004038 CM_LV
Address
Name
Type
Reset
Description
40004038
PERIPHERAL_DISABLE
RW
0
Peripheral Disable Register
BLOCK
INTERRUPTS
Address
Name
Type
Reset
4000A808
INT_SC1FLAG
RW
0
Serial Controller 1 Interrupt Flag Register
4000A814
INT_GPIOFLAG
RW
0
GPIO Interrupt Flag Register
4000A820
INT_MISS
RW
0
Top-Level Missed Interrupts Register
4000A848
INT_SC1CFG
RW
0
Serial Controller 1 Interrupt Configuration Register
4000A854
SC1_INTMODE
RW
0
Serial Controller 1 Interrupt Mode Register
4000A860
GPIO_INTCFGA
RW
0
GPIO Interrupt A Configuration Register
4000A864
GPIO_INTCFGB
RW
0
GPIO Interrupt B Configuration Register
4000A868
GPIO_INTCFGC
RW
0
GPIO Interrupt C Configuration Register
4000A86C
GPIO_INTCFGD
RW
0
GPIO Interrupt D Configuration Register
132
4000A000–4000AFFF Interrupts
Rev 1.0
Description
EM346
BLOCK
GPIO
4000B000–4000BFFF General Purpose IO
Address
Name
Type
Reset
4000B000
GPIO_PACFGL
RW
4444
Port A Configuration Register (Low)
4000B004
GPIO_PACFGH
RW
4444
Port A Configuration Register (High)
4000B008
GPIO_PAIN
RW
0
Port A Input Data Register
4000B00C
GPIO_PAOUT
RW
0
Port A Output Data Register
4000B010
GPIO_PASET
RW
0
Port A Output Set Register
4000B014
GPIO_PACLR
RW
0
Port A Output Clear Register
4000B400
GPIO_PBCFGL
RW
4444
Port B Configuration Register (Low)
4000B404
GPIO_PBCFGH
RW
4444
Port B Configuration Register (High)
4000B408
GPIO_PBIN
RW
0
Port B Input Data Register
4000B40C
GPIO_PBOUT
RW
0
Port B Output Data Register
4000B410
GPIO_PBSET
RW
0
Port B Output Set Register
4000B414
GPIO_PBCLR
RW
0
Port B Output Clear Register
4000B800
GPIO_PCCFGL
RW
4444
Port C Configuration Register (Low)
4000B804
GPIO_PCCFGH
RW
4444
Port C Configuration Register (High)
4000B808
GPIO_PCIN
RW
0
Port C Input Data Register
4000B80C
GPIO_PCOUT
RW
0
Port C Output Data Register
4000B810
GPIO_PCSET
RW
0
Port C Output Set Register
4000B814
GPIO_PCCLR
RW
0
Port C Output Clear Register
4000BC00
GPIO_DBGCFG
RW
10
GPIO Debug Configuration Register
4000BC04
GPIO_DBGSTAT
R
0
GPIO Debug Status Register
4000BC08
GPIO_PAWAKE
RW
0
Port A Wakeup Monitor Register
4000BC0C
GPIO_PBWAKE
RW
0
Port B Wakeup Monitor Register
4000BC10
GPIO_PCWAKE
RW
0
Port C Wakeup Monitor Register
4000BC14
GPIO_IRQCSEL
RW
F
Interrupt C Select Register
4000BC18
GPIO_IRQDSEL
RW
10
Interrupt D Select Register
4000BC1C
GPIO_WAKEFILT
RW
0
GPIO Wakeup Filtering Register
Rev 1.0
Description
133
EM346
BLOCK
SERIAL
Address
Name
Type
Reset
4000C800
SC1_RXBEGA
RW
20000000
Receive DMA Begin Address Register A
4000C804
SC1_RXENDA
RW
20000000
Receive DMA End Address Register A
4000C808
SC1_RXBEGB
RW
20000000
Receive DMA Begin Address Register B
4000C80C
SC1_RXENDB
RW
20000000
Receive DMA End Address Register B
4000C810
SC1_TXBEGA
RW
20000000
Transmit DMA Begin Address Register A
4000C814
SC1_TXENDA
RW
20000000
Transmit DMA End Address Register A
4000C818
SC1_TXBEGB
RW
20000000
Transmit DMA Begin Address Register B
4000C81C
SC1_TXENDB
RW
20000000
Transmit DMA End Address Register B
4000C820
SC1_RXCNTA
R
0
Receive DMA Count Register A
4000C824
SC1_RXCNTB
R
0
Receive DMA Count Register B
4000C828
SC1_TXCNT
R
0
Transmit DMA Count Register
4000C82C
SC1_DMASTAT
R
0
Serial DMA Status Register
4000C830
SC1_DMACTRL
RW
0
Serial DMA Control Register
4000C834
SC1_RXERRA
R
0
DMA First Receive Error Register A
4000C838
SC1_RXERRB
R
0
DMA First Receive Error Register B
4000C83C
SC1_DATA
RW
0
Serial Data Register
4000C840
SC1_SPISTAT
R
0
SPI Status Register
4000C848
SC1_UARTSTAT
R
40
UART Status Register
4000C854
SC1_MODE
RW
0
Serial Mode Register
4000C858
SC1_SPICFG
RW
0
SPI Configuration Register
4000C85C
SC1_UARTCFG
RW
0
UART Configuration Register
4000C860
SC1_RATELIN
RW
0
Serial Clock Linear Prescaler Register
4000C864
SC1_RATEEXP
RW
0
Serial Clock Exponential Prescaler Register
4000C868
SC1_UARTPER
RW
0
UART Baud Rate Period Register
4000C86C
SC1_UARTFRAC
RW
0
UART Baud Rate Fractional Period Register
4000C870
SC1_RXCNTSAVED
R
0
Saved Receive DMA Count Register
134
4000C000–4000CFFF Serial Controllers
Rev 1.0
Description
EM346
Rev 1.0
135
EM346
BLOCK
NVIC
Address
Name
Type
Reset
E000E100
INT_CFGSET
RW
0
Top-Level Set Interrupts Configuration Register
E000E180
INT_CFGCLR
RW
0
Top-Level Clear Interrupts Configuration Register
E000E200
INT_PENDSET
RW
0
Top-Level Set Interrupts Pending Register
E000E280
INT_PENDCLR
RW
0
Top-Level Clear Interrupts Pending Register
E000E300
INT_ACTIVE
R
0
Top-Level Active Interrupts Register
E000ED3C
SCS_AFSR
RW
0
Auxiliary Fault Status Register
136
E000E000 - E000EFFF Nested Vectored Interrupt Controller
Rev 1.0
Description
EM346
APPENDIX B—ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
Acronym/Abbreviation
Meaning
ACK
Acknowledgment
ADC
Analog to Digital Converter
AES
Advanced Encryption Standard
AGC
Automatic Gain Control
AHB
Advanced High Speed Bus
APB
Advanced Peripheral Bus
CBC-MAC
Cipher Block Chaining—Message Authentication Code
CCA
Clear Channel Assessment
CCM
Counter with CBC-MAC Mode for AES encryption
CCM*
Improved Counter with CBC-MAC Mode for AES encryption
CIB
Customer Information Block
CLK1K
1 kHz Clock
CLK32K
32.768 kHz Crystal Clock
CPU
Central Processing Unit
CRC
Cyclic Redundancy Check
CSMA-CA
Carrier Sense Multiple Access-Collision Avoidance
CTR
Counter Mode
CTS
Clear to Send
DNL
Differential Non-Linearity
DMA
Direct Memory Access
DWT
Data Watchpoint and Trace
EEPROM
EM
Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
Event Manager
ENOB
effective number of bits
ESD
Electro Static Discharge
ESR
Equivalent Series Resistance
ETR
External Trigger Input
FCLK
ARM® CortexTM-M3 CPU Clock
Rev 1.0
137
EM346
Acronym/Abbreviation
FIB
Fixed Information Block
FIFO
First-in, First-out
FPB
Flash Patch and Breakpoint
GPIO
General Purpose I/O (pins)
HF
High Frequency
I2C
Inter-Integrated Circuit
IDE
Integrated Development Environment
IF
IEEE
Intermediate Frequency
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
INL
Integral Non-linearity
ITM
Instrumentation Trace Macrocell
JTAG
LF
138
Meaning
Joint Test Action Group
Low Frequency
LNA
Low Noise Amplifier
LQI
Link Quality Indicator
LSB
Least significant bit
MAC
Medium Access Control
MFB
Main Flash Block
MISO
Master in, slave out
MOS
Metal Oxide Semiconductor (P-channel or N-channel)
MOSI
Master out, slave in
MPU
Memory Protection Unit
MSB
Most significant bit
MSL
Moisture Sensitivity Level
NACK
Negative Acknowledge
NIST
National Institute of Standards and Technology
NMI
Non-Maskable Interrupt
NVIC
Nested Vectored Interrupt Controller
OPM
One-Pulse Mode
Rev 1.0
EM346
Acronym/Abbreviation
Meaning
O-QPSK
Offset-Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
OSC24M
High Frequency Crystal Oscillator
OSC32K
Low-Frequency 32.768 kHz Oscillator
OSCHF
High-Frequency Internal RC Oscillator
OSCRC
Low-Frequency RC Oscillator
PA
Power Amplifier
PCLK
Peripheral clock
PER
Packet Error Rate
PHY
Physical Layer
PLL
Phase-Locked Loop
POR
Power-On-Reset
PRNG
Pseudo Random Number Generator
PSD
Power Spectral Density
PTI
Packet Trace Interface
PWM
Pulse Width Modulation
QFN
Quad Flat Pack
RAM
Random Access Memory
RC
Resistive/Capacitive
RF
Radio Frequency
RMS
Root Mean Square
RoHS
Restriction of Hazardous Substances
RSSI
Receive Signal Strength Indicator
RTS
Request to Send
Rx
SYSCLK
SDFR
SFD
SINAD
SPI
Receive
System clock
Spurious Free Dynamic Range
Start Frame Delimiter
Signal-to-noise and distortion ratio
Serial Peripheral Interface
Rev 1.0
139
EM346
Acronym/Abbreviation
Meaning
SWJ
Serial Wire and JTAG Interface
THD
Total Harmonic Distortion
TRNG
TWI
Tx
UART
True random number generator
Two Wire serial interface
Transmit
Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter
UEV
Update event
VCO
Voltage Controlled Oscillator
Abbreviation
dB
decibel
dBc
decibels relative to the carrier
dBm
decibels relative to 1 mW
GHz
GigaHerz
kB
Kilobyte
kbps
kilobits/second
kHz
kiloherz
kΩ
kiloOhm
kV
kiloVolt
mA
milliAmpere
Mbps
Megabits per second
MHz
megaherz
MΩ
megaOhm
MSPS
Megasamples per second
µA
microAmpere
µsec
microsecond
nH
nanohenry
ns
nanoseconds
Ω
Ohm
pF
picofarad
ppm
V
140
Meaning
part per million
Volt
Rev 1.0
EM346
APPENDIX C—REFERENCES
ZigBee
Specification (www.zigbee.org; ZigBee Document 053474)
Stack Profile (www.zigbee.org; ZigBee Document 074855)
ZigBee Stack Profile (www.zigbee.org; ZigBee Document 064321)
Bluetooth Core Specification v2.1 
(http://www.bluetooth.org/docman/handlers/downloaddoc.ashx?doc_id=241363)
IEEE 802.15.4-2003 (http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/download/802.15.4-2003.pdf)
IEEE 802.11g (standards.ieee.org/getieee802/download/802.11g-2003.pdf)
ZigBee-PRO
ARM
®
Cortex-M3 reference manual (http://infocenter.arm.com/help/topic/com.arm.doc.subset.cortexm.m3/
index.html#cortexm3)
Rev 1.0
141
EM346
DOCUMENT CHANGE LIST
Revision 1.0

Initial Draft
142
Rev 1.0
EM346
CONTACT INFORMATION
Silicon Laboratories Inc.
400 West Cesar Chavez
Austin, TX 78701
Please visit the Silicon Labs Technical Support web page:
https://www.silabs.com/support/pages/contacttechnicalsupport.aspx
and register to submit a technical support request.
Patent Notice
Silicon Labs invests in research and development to help our customers differentiate in the market with innovative low-power, small size, analogintensive mixed-signal solutions. Silicon Labs' extensive patent portfolio is a testament to our unique approach and world-class engineering team.
The information in this document is believed to be accurate in all respects at the time of publication but is subject to change without notice.
Silicon Laboratories assumes no responsibility for errors and omissions, and disclaims responsibility for any consequences resulting from
the use of information included herein. Additionally, Silicon Laboratories assumes no responsibility for the functioning of undescribed features or parameters. Silicon Laboratories reserves the right to make changes without further notice. Silicon Laboratories makes no warranty, representation or guarantee regarding the suitability of its products for any particular purpose, nor does Silicon Laboratories assume any
liability arising out of the application or use of any product or circuit, and specifically disclaims any and all liability, including without limitation
consequential or incidental damages. Silicon Laboratories products are not designed, intended, or authorized for use in applications intended to support or sustain life, or for any other application in which the failure of the Silicon Laboratories product could create a situation where
personal injury or death may occur. Should Buyer purchase or use Silicon Laboratories products for any such unintended or unauthorized
application, Buyer shall indemnify and hold Silicon Laboratories harmless against all claims and damages.
Silicon Laboratories and Silicon Labs are trademarks of Silicon Laboratories Inc.
Other products or brandnames mentioned herein are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders.
Rev 1.0
143
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