AN1265 KEELOQ® with AES Microcontroller-Based Code Hopping Encoder Authors: Enrique Aleman Michael Stuckey Microchip Technology Inc. INTRODUCTION This application note describes the design of a microcontroller-based KEELOQ® Hopping Encoder using the AES encryption algorithm. This encoder is implemented on the Microchip PIC16F636 microcontroller. A description of the encoding process, the encoding hardware and description of the software modules are included within this application note. The software was designed to emulate an HCS365 dual encoder. As it is, this design can be used to implement a secure system transmitter that will have the flexibility to be designed into various types of KEELOQ receiver/ decoders. BACKGROUND The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) was developed in the 1990’s to replace the widely used DES. AES algorithm is also called the “Rijndael” algorithm, after its designers. AES is currently adopted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Rijndael/AES is a symmetric block cipher that utilizes a single key to encrypt data. The implementation of AES in this application note is based on a 16-byte block of data and a 16-byte key size as described on application note AN1044. Operation: • • • • • • • • • • 2.0-5.5V operation Four button inputs 15 functions available Four selectable baud rates Selectable minimum code word completion Battery low signal transmitted to receiver Nonvolatile synchronization data PWM, VPWM, PPM, and Manchester modulation Button queue information transmitted Dual Encoder functionality DUAL ENCODER OPERATION This firmware contains two transmitter configurations with separate serial numbers, encoder keys, discrimination values, counters and seed values. This means that the transmitter can be used as two independent systems. The SHIFT(S3) input pin is used to select between encoder configurations. A low on this pin will select Encoder 1, and a high will select Encoder 2. FUNCTIONAL INPUTS AND OUTPUTS The software implementation makes use of the following pin designations: TABLE 1: Label Pin Number Input/ Output Function S0 2 (RA5) Input Switch Input S0 S1 3 (RA4) Input Switch input S1 S2 4 (RA3) Input Switch Input S2 S3 5 (RA2) Input Switch Input S3 RF_OUT 6 (RA1) Output Encoded transmitter signal output LED 7 (RA0) Output LED On/Off TRANSMITTER OVERVIEW As this is an emulation of the HCS365, the transmitter has the following key features: Security: • • • • • • Two programmable 32-bit serial numbers Two programmable 128-bit encryption keys Two programmable 64-bit seed values Each transmitter is unique 164-bit transmission code length 128-bit hopping code © 2009-2011 Microchip Technology Inc. FUNCTIONAL INPUTS AND OUTPUTS DS01265B-page 1 AN1265 OPERATION FLOW DIAGRAM FIGURE 1: OPERATION FLOW DIAGRAM START Debounce Button Inputs Read Configuration from EEPROM SAMPLE BUTTONS/WAKE-UP Upon power-up, the transmitter verifies the state of the buttons inputs and determines if a button is pressed. If no button pressed is detected, the transmitter will go to Sleep mode. The transmitter will wake-up whenever a button is pressed. Wake-up is achieved by configuring the input port to generate an interrupt-on-change. After the wake event, the input buttons are debounced for 20 ms to make a determination on which buttons have been pressed. The button input values are then placed in the transmission buffer, in the appropriate section. LOAD SYSTEM CONFIGURATION Sample Buttons/ Set Function_TX After waking up and debouncing the input switches, the firmware will read the system Configuration bytes. These Configuration bytes will determine what data and modulation format will be for the transmission. A Increment Counter All the system Configuration bytes are stored in the EEPROM. Below is the EEPROM mapping for the PIC16F636 transmitter showing the configuration and data bits stored. Encrypt Data Load Transmit Buffer/ MTX/ Time Out Timer Reset Transmit Button Time -Out? NO New Button Pressed? A YES NO YES Button Still Pressed? NO MTX = 0? NO MTX = MTX-1 YES SLEEP DS01265B-page 2 © 2009-2011 Microchip Technology Inc. AN1265 TABLE 2: EEPROM MAPPING FOR THE PIC16F636 TRANSMITTER Offset Bytes Bits 7 6 5 4 3 2 0x00 Sync Counter, Byte 0, Transmitter 0, Copy A 0x01 Sync Counter, Byte 1, Transmitter 0, Copy A 0x02 Sync Counter, Byte 2, Transmitter 0, Copy A 0x03 Sync Counter, Byte 3, Transmitter 0, Copy A 0x04 Sync Counter, Byte 0, Transmitter 0, Copy B 0x05 Sync Counter, Byte 1, Transmitter 0, Copy B 0x06 Sync Counter, Byte 2, Transmitter 0, Copy B 0x07 Sync Counter, Byte 3, Transmitter 0, Copy B 0x08 Sync Counter, Byte 0, Transmitter 0, Copy C 0x09 Sync Counter, Byte 1, Transmitter 0, Copy C 0x0A Sync Counter, Byte 2, Transmitter 0, Copy C 0x0B 0x0C — — — — — Sync Counter, Byte 0, Transmitter 1, Copy A 0x0E Sync Counter, Byte 1, Transmitter 1, Copy A 0x0F Sync Counter, Byte 2, Transmitter 1, Copy A 0x10 Sync Counter, Byte 3, Transmitter 1, Copy A 0x11 Sync Counter, Byte 0, Transmitter 1, Copy B 0x12 Sync Counter, Byte 1, Transmitter 1, Copy B 0x13 Sync Counter, Byte 2, Transmitter 1, Copy B 0x14 Sync Counter, Byte 3, Transmitter 1, Copy B 0x15 Sync Counter, Byte 0, Transmitter 1, Copy C 0x16 Sync Counter, Byte 1, Transmitter 1, Copy C 0x17 Sync Counter, Byte 2, Transmitter 1, Copy C 0x18 MNEMONIC EE_CNT0A EE_CNT0B EE_CNT0C — — EE_CNT1A EE_CNT1B EE_CNT1C Sync Counter, Byte 3, Transmitter 1, Copy C — — 0x1A — — — — Serial Number, Byte 0, Transmitter 0 0x1B Serial Number, Byte 1, Transmitter 0 0x1C Serial Number, Byte 2, Transmitter 0 0x1D Serial Number, Byte 3, Transmitter 0 0x1E Seed Value, Byte 0, Transmitter 0 0x1F Seed Value, Byte 1, Transmitter 0 0x20 Seed Value, Byte 2, Transmitter 0 0x21 Seed Value, Byte 3, Transmitter 0 0x22 Seed Value, Byte 4, Transmitter 0 0x23 Seed Value, Byte 5, Transmitter 0 0x24 Seed Value, Byte 6, Transmitter 0 0x25 0x26 0 Sync Counter, Byte 3, Transmitter 0, Copy C — 0x0D 0x19 1 — — EE_SER EE_SEED Seed Value, Byte 7, Transmitter 0 STRTSEL_0 QUEN_0 XSER_0 HEADER_0 TMOD_0:1 TMOD_0:0 0x27 User Value, Byte 0, Transmitter 0 0x28 User Value, Byte 1, Transmitter 0 0x29 User Value, Byte 2, Transmitter 0 0x2A User Value, Byte 3, Transmitter 0 0x2B Encryption Key, Byte 0, Transmitter 0 0x2C Encryption Key, Byte 1, Transmitter 0 © 2009-2011 Microchip Technology Inc. TX0_CFG0 EE_DISC EE_KEY DS01265B-page 3 AN1265 TABLE 2: EEPROM MAPPING FOR THE PIC16F636 TRANSMITTER (CONTINUED) 0x2D Encryption Key, Byte 2, Transmitter 0 0x2E Encryption Key, Byte 3, Transmitter 0 0x2F Encryption Key, Byte 4, Transmitter 0 0x30 Encryption Key, Byte 5, Transmitter 0 0x31 Encryption Key, Byte 6, Transmitter 0 0x32 Encryption Key, Byte 7, Transmitter 0 0x33 Encryption Key, Byte 8, Transmitter 0 0x34 Encryption Key, Byte 9, Transmitter 0 0x35 Encryption Key, Byte 10, Transmitter 0 0x36 Encryption Key, Byte 11, Transmitter 0 0x37 Encryption Key, Byte 12, Transmitter 0 0x38 Encryption Key, Byte 13, Transmitter 0 0x39 Encryption Key, Byte 14, Transmitter 0 0x3A Encryption Key, Byte 15, Transmitter 0 0x3B Serial Number, Byte 0, Transmitter 1 0x3C Serial Number, Byte 1, Transmitter 1 0x3D Serial Number, Byte 2, Transmitter 1 0x3E Serial Number, Byte 3, Transmitter 1 0x3F Seed Value, Byte 0, Transmitter 1 0x40 Seed Value, Byte 1, Transmitter 1 0x41 Seed Value, Byte 2, Transmitter 1 0x42 Seed Value, Byte 3, Transmitter 1 0x43 Seed Value, Byte 4, Transmitter 1 0x44 Seed Value, Byte 5, Transmitter 1 0x45 Seed Value, Byte 6, Transmitter 1 0x46 0x47 B_EE_SEED Seed Value, Byte 7, Transmitter 1 STRTSEL_1 QUEN_1 XSER_1 HEADER_1 TMOD_1:1 TMOD_1:0 0x48 User Value, Byte 0, Transmitter 1 0x49 User Value, Byte 1, Transmitter 1 0x4A User Value, Byte 2, Transmitter 1 0x4B User Value, Byte 3, Transmitter 1 0x4C Encryption Key, Byte 0, Transmitter 1 0x4D Encryption Key, Byte 1, Transmitter 1 0x4E Encryption Key, Byte 2, Transmitter 1 0x4F Encryption Key, Byte 3, Transmitter 1 0x50 Encryption Key, Byte 4, Transmitter 1 0x51 Encryption Key, Byte 5, Transmitter 1 0x52 Encryption Key, Byte 6, Transmitter 1 0x53 Encryption Key, Byte 7, Transmitter 1 0x54 Encryption Key, Byte 8, Transmitter 1 0x55 Encryption Key, Byte 9, Transmitter 1 0x56 Encryption Key, Byte 10, Transmitter 1 0x57 Encryption Key, Byte 11, Transmitter 1 0x58 Encryption Key, Byte 12, Transmitter 1 0x59 Encryption Key, Byte 13, Transmitter 1 0x5A Encryption Key, Byte 14, Transmitter 1 0x5B TX_CFG1 B_EE_DISC B_EE_KEY Encryption Key, Byte 15, Transmitter 1 0x5C 0x5D B_EE_SER GSEL_0 LEDOS_1 DS01265B-page 4 LEDBL_1 BSEL_0 TSEL SDTM_0 RFENO INDESEL SDMD_0 SDLM_0 MTX TX0_CFG1 SYSCFG1 © 2009-2011 Microchip Technology Inc. AN1265 TABLE 2: EEPROM MAPPING FOR THE PIC16F636 TRANSMITTER (CONTINUED) 0x5E GSEL_1 0x5F LEDOS_0 BSEL_1 LEDBL_0 PLLSEL VLOWSEL SDTM_1 VLOWL SDMD_1 CNTSEL SDLM_1 WAKE TX1_CFG1 SYSCFG0 CONFIGURATION WORDS DESCRIPTION TABLE 3: TX0_CFG0 (FOR TRANSMITTER 0, FOR TRANSMITTER 1 USE TX1_CFG0) BIT Field Description Values 0 Not used — — 1 Not used 2 TMOD:0 Transmission Modulation Format 3 TMOD:1 00 = PWM 01 = Manchester 10 = VPWM 11 = PPM 4 HEADER Time Length of Transmission Header 0 = 4*Te 1 = 10*Te 6 QUEN Queue Counter Enable 0 = Disable 1 = Enable 7 STRTSEL Start/Stop Pulse Enable 0 = Disable 1 = Enable TABLE 4: TX0_CFG1 (FOR TRANSMITTER 0, FOR TRANSMITTER 1 USE TX1_CFG1) BIT Field Description Values 0 SDLM Limited Seed Enable 0 = Disable 1 = Enable 1 SDMD Seed Mode 0 = User 1 = Production 2 SDTM <3:2> Time Before Seed Code Word 00 = 0.0 sec 01 = 0.8 sec 10 = 1.6 sec 11 = 3.2 sec BSEL <5:4> Transmission Baud Rate Select 00 = 100 µs 01 = 200 µs 10 = 400 µs 11 = 800 µs GSEL <7:6> Guard Time Select 00 = 0.0 ms 01 = 6.4 ms 10 = 51.2 ms 11 = 102.4 ms 3 4 5 6 7 TABLE 5: SYSCFG0 BIT Field Description Values 0 WAKE <1:0> Wake-up 00 = No wake-up 01 = 75ms 50% 10 = 50ms 33% 11 = 100ms 16.6% 3 VLOWL Low-Voltage Latch Enable 0 = Disable 1 = Enable 4 VLOWSEL Transmission Baud Rate Select 0 = 2.2V 1 = 3.2V 1 © 2009-2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS01265B-page 5 AN1265 TABLE 5: SYSCFG0 (CONTINUED) 5 PLLSEL PLL interface Select 0 = ASK 1 = FSK 6 LEDBL_0 Low-Voltage LED Blink 0 = Continuous 1 = Once 7 LEDOS_0 LED On Time Select 0 = 50 ms 1 = 100 ms TABLE 6: SYSCFG1 BIT Field Description Values 0 MTX <1:0> Maximum Code Words 00 = 1 01 = 2 10 = 4 11 = 8 2 INDESEL Dual Encoder Enable 0 = Disable 1= Enable 3 RFEN0 RF Enable Output Select 0 = Disable 1 = Enable 4 TSEL Time-out Select 00 = Disabled 01 = 0.8 sec 10 = 3.2 sec 11 = 25.6 sec 6 LEDBL_1 Low-Voltage LED Blink 0 = Continuos 1 = Once 7 LEDOS_1 LED On Time Select 0 = 50 ms 1 = 100 ms 1 5 EE_SER AND B_EE_SER COUNTER-CODE DESCRIPTION These locations store the 4 bytes of the 32-bit serial number for transmitter 1 and transmitter 2. There are 32 bits allocated for the serial number and the serial number is meant to be unique for every transmitter. The following addresses save the counter checksum values. The counter value is stored in the Counter locations (COUNTA, COUNTB, COUNTC described on the EEPROM table. This code is contained in module CounterCode.inc. EE_SEED AND B_EE_SEED This is the 64-bit seed code that will be transmitted when seed transmission is selected. EE_SEED for transmitter 0 and B_EE_SEED for transmitter 1. This allows for the implementation of the secure learning scheme. EE_KEY AND B_EE_KEY 128-BIT ENCRYPTION KEY) The 128-bit encryption key is used by the transmitter to create the encrypted message transmitted to the receiver. This key is created using a key generation algorithm. The inputs to the key generation algorithm are the secret manufacturer’s code, the serial number, and/or the SEED value. The user may elect to use the algorithm supplied by Microchip or to create their own method of key generation. DS01265B-page 6 BUTTON PRESS DURING TRANSMIT If the device is in the process of transmitting and detects that a new button is pressed, the current transmission will be aborted, a new code word will be generated based on the new button information and transmitted. If all the buttons are released, a minimum number of code words will be completed. If the time for transmitting the minimum code words is longer than the time-out time, or the button is pressed for that long, the device will time-out. © 2009-2011 Microchip Technology Inc. AN1265 CODE TRANSMISSION FORMAT TABLE 7: The following is the data stream format transmitted (Table 7): KEELOQ®/AES PACKET FORMAT: Plaintext: 40 bits CRC (7 bits) VLOW (1 bit) Function Code (4 bits) Encrypted: 128 bits Serial Number (32 bits) CRC (16 bits) Function Code (16 bits) Serial Number (32 bits) User (32 bits) Counter (32 bits) Plain text transmitted LSB first. Encrypted portion transmitted MSB first. A KEELOQ/AES transmission consists of 128 bits of hopping code data, 43 bits of fixed code data and 1 bit of status information. Each code word contains a preamble, header and data, and is separated from another code by guard time. The Guard Time Select (GSEL) configuration option can select a time period of 0ms, 6.4ms, 51.2ms or 102.4ms. HOPPING CODE PORTION The hopping code portion is calculated by encrypting the counter, discrimination value, and function code with the Encoder Key (KEY). A new hopping code is calculated every time a button press is pressed. All other timing specifications are based on the timing element (Te). This Te can be set to 100 µs, 200 µs, 400 µs or 800 µs with the Baud Rate Select (BSEL) configuration. The calibration header time can be set to 4*Te or 10*Te with the Header Select (HEADER) configuration option. The discrimination value can be programmed with any fixed value to serve as a post decryption check on the receiver end. The firmware has four different transmission modulation formats available. The Modulation select (TMOD) Configuration Option is used to select between: • Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM) – Figure 2 • Manchester (MAN) – Figure 3 • Variable Pulse-Width Modulation (VPWM) – Figure 4 • Pulse Position Modulation (PPM) – Figure 5 FIXED CODE PORTION The 40 bits of fixed consist of 32 bits of serial number and four bits of the 8-bit function code. FIGURE 2: PULSE-WIDTH MODULATION (PWM) TE TE TE LOGIC “0” LOGIC “1” TBP 1 16 4-10 xTE Header 31xTE 50% Preamble FIGURE 3: Encrypted Portion Fixed Code Portion Guard Time MANCHESTER (MAN) TE TE LOGIC “0” LOGIC “1” TBP Start bit bit 0 bit 1 bit 2 1 2 Stop bit 16 31xTE 50% Preamble 4 xTE Header © 2009-2011 Microchip Technology Inc. Encrypted Portion Fixed Code Portion Guard Time DS01265B-page 7 AN1265 FIGURE 4: VARIABLE PULSE-WIDTH MODULATION (VPWM) LOGIC “0” LOGIC “1” TE VPWM BIT ENCODING: TE on Transition Low-to-High TBP TBP 2XTE on Transition High-to-Low LOGIC “0” TE TBP 1 2 FIGURE 5: TBP 2XTE 16 31xTE 50% Preamble 10xTE Header Encrypted Portion LOGIC “1” TE TE Fixed Code Portion Guard Time PULSE POSITION MODULATION (PPM) TE TE TE LOGIC “0” LOGIC “1” TBP 3 X TE Start bit 1 2 16 31xTE 50% Preamble Stop bit TBP 10xTE Header If the Start/Stop Pulse Enable (STEN) configuration option is enabled, the software will place a leading and trailing ‘1’ on each code word. This bit is necessary for modulation formats such as Manchester and PPM to interpret the first and last data bit. A receiver wake-up sequence can be transmitted before the transmission starts. The wake-up sequence is configured with the Wake-up (WAKE) configuration option and can be disabled or set to 50 ms, 75 ms, or 100 ms of pulses of Te width. Encrypted Portion Fixed Code Portion Guard Time FIRMWARE MODULES The following files make up the KEELOQ transmitter firmware: - AES_KLQ 16F636.asm: this file contains the main loop routine as well as the wake-up, debounce, read configuration, load transmit buffer and transmit routines. - AES_KLQ encrypt.inc: this file runs the AES encryption algorithm. - AES_KLQ eeprom.inc: this file contains the EEPROM data as specified on the EEPROM data map. - CounterCode.inc: Calculates the checksums and confirms the validity of the counter. Because of statutory export license restrictions on encryption software, the source code listings for the AES algorithms are not provided here. These applications may be ordered from Microchip Technology Inc. through its sales offices, or through the corporate web site: www.microchip.com. DS01265B-page 8 © 2009-2011 Microchip Technology Inc. AN1265 CONCLUSION REFERENCES This KEELOQ/AES transmitter firmware has all the features of a standard hardware encoder. What makes this firmware implementation useful to the designer is that it gives the designer the power and flexibility of modifying the encoding and/or transmission formats and parameters to suit their security system. C. Gübel, AN821, “Advanced Encryption Standard Using the PIC16XXX” (DS00821), Microchip Technology Inc. 2002. D. Flowers, AN953, “Data Encryption Routines for the PIC18” (DS00953), Microchip Technology Inc., 2005. D. Flowers, AN1044 “Data Encryption Routines for PIC24 and dsPIC® Devices” (DS01044), Microchip Technology Inc. 2006. Institute for Applied Information Processing and Communications, Graz University of Technology, “AES Lounge” (AES public home page), http://www.iaik.tu-graz.ac.at/research/krypto/AES/ © 2009-2011 Microchip Technology Inc. DS01265B-page 9 AN1265 ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Microchip’s Secure Data Products are covered by some or all of the following: Code hopping encoder patents issued in European countries and U.S.A. Secure learning patents issued in European countries, U.S.A. and R.S.A. REVISION HISTORY Revision B (June 2011) • Added new section Additional Information • Minor formatting and text changes were incorporated throughout the document DS01265B-page 10 © 2009-2011 Microchip Technology Inc. Note the following details of the code protection feature on Microchip devices: • Microchip products meet the specification contained in their particular Microchip Data Sheet. • Microchip believes that its family of products is one of the most secure families of its kind on the market today, when used in the intended manner and under normal conditions. • There are dishonest and possibly illegal methods used to breach the code protection feature. All of these methods, to our knowledge, require using the Microchip products in a manner outside the operating specifications contained in Microchip’s Data Sheets. Most likely, the person doing so is engaged in theft of intellectual property. • Microchip is willing to work with the customer who is concerned about the integrity of their code. • Neither Microchip nor any other semiconductor manufacturer can guarantee the security of their code. Code protection does not mean that we are guaranteeing the product as “unbreakable.” Code protection is constantly evolving. We at Microchip are committed to continuously improving the code protection features of our products. Attempts to break Microchip’s code protection feature may be a violation of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. If such acts allow unauthorized access to your software or other copyrighted work, you may have a right to sue for relief under that Act. Information contained in this publication regarding device applications and the like is provided only for your convenience and may be superseded by updates. It is your responsibility to ensure that your application meets with your specifications. MICROCHIP MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WRITTEN OR ORAL, STATUTORY OR OTHERWISE, RELATED TO THE INFORMATION, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ITS CONDITION, QUALITY, PERFORMANCE, MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR PURPOSE. Microchip disclaims all liability arising from this information and its use. Use of Microchip devices in life support and/or safety applications is entirely at the buyer’s risk, and the buyer agrees to defend, indemnify and hold harmless Microchip from any and all damages, claims, suits, or expenses resulting from such use. No licenses are conveyed, implicitly or otherwise, under any Microchip intellectual property rights. Trademarks The Microchip name and logo, the Microchip logo, dsPIC, KEELOQ, KEELOQ logo, MPLAB, PIC, PICmicro, PICSTART, PIC32 logo, rfPIC and UNI/O are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries. FilterLab, Hampshire, HI-TECH C, Linear Active Thermistor, MXDEV, MXLAB, SEEVAL and The Embedded Control Solutions Company are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. Analog-for-the-Digital Age, Application Maestro, chipKIT, chipKIT logo, CodeGuard, dsPICDEM, dsPICDEM.net, dsPICworks, dsSPEAK, ECAN, ECONOMONITOR, FanSense, HI-TIDE, In-Circuit Serial Programming, ICSP, Mindi, MiWi, MPASM, MPLAB Certified logo, MPLIB, MPLINK, mTouch, Omniscient Code Generation, PICC, PICC-18, PICDEM, PICDEM.net, PICkit, PICtail, REAL ICE, rfLAB, Select Mode, Total Endurance, TSHARC, UniWinDriver, WiperLock and ZENA are trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries. SQTP is a service mark of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. All other trademarks mentioned herein are property of their respective companies. © 2009-2011, Microchip Technology Incorporated, Printed in the U.S.A., All Rights Reserved. Printed on recycled paper. ISBN: 978-1-61341-267-1 Microchip received ISO/TS-16949:2002 certification for its worldwide headquarters, design and wafer fabrication facilities in Chandler and Tempe, Arizona; Gresham, Oregon and design centers in California and India. The Company’s quality system processes and procedures are for its PIC® MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs, KEELOQ® code hopping devices, Serial EEPROMs, microperipherals, nonvolatile memory and analog products. In addition, Microchip’s quality system for the design and manufacture of development systems is ISO 9001:2000 certified. © 2009-2011 Microchip Technology Inc. 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