dm00135163

AN4597
Application note
STEVAL-ILH007V1 150 W HID digital ballast based on the
STLUX385A
Introduction
This document describes the digital ballast for 150 W High Intensity Discharge (HID), driven
by the STLUX385A device. This platform is a complete solution for driving HID lamps. The
STEVAL-ILH007V1 is also designed to receive commands from the PLM remote control
unit, to create a network for street lighting based on power line communication. The board
consists of two stages:
1.
A Power Factor Corrector (PFC) based on boost topology to correct the AC input
current in phase with AC voltage mains.
2.
An inverter based on full bridge topology to drive the lamps.
Both stages are driven by the STLUX385A digital controller.
The PFC and output stage have been analyzed in all phases, and some design criteria with
test results are given.
Figure 1. STEVAL-ILH007V1
December 2014
DocID026970 Rev 1
1/43
www.st.com
43
Contents
AN4597
Contents
1
Board specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2
General circuit description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3
Lamp power calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4
Electrical scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5
Board layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
6
Bill of material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
7
PFC dimensioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
7.1
Input specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
7.2
Operating condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
7.3
Power components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
7.3.1
Input capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
7.3.2
Output capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
7.3.3
Boost inductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
7.3.4
Power MOSFET selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
7.3.5
Boost diode selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
8
STLUX385A application pin usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
9
Auxiliary power supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
10
Lamp data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
10.1
Ignition phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
10.2
Warm-up phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
10.3
Burn phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
11
Protections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
12
Remote control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2/43
DocID026970 Rev 1
AN4597
13
Contents
Experimental results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
13.1
Lamp ignition phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
13.2
Warm-up phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
13.3
Burn phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
13.4
PFC test results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
13.5
Board efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
13.6
Thermal measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
13.7
Conducted emission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
14
Consideration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
15
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
16
Revision history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
DocID026970 Rev 1
3/43
43
Board specification
1
AN4597
Board specification
• Input AC voltage: 185 to 265 V
• Power Factor: > 0.95 @ 230 Vac
• Input current THD < 10% @ 230 Vac
• Load: 150 W High Intensity Discharge lamp
4/43
DocID026970 Rev 1
AN4597
2
General circuit description
General circuit description
The block diagram of the ballast is shown in Figure 2. The complete circuit consists of:
• The boost converter, which regulates the DC bus voltage and corrects the power factor.
• The inverter stage, consisting of a full bridge that converts the DC current coming from
the PFC stage into an AC current for the lamp.
The operation mode of the full bridge functions as a buck converter.
The full bridge also supplies the igniter block to generate the high voltage pulses.
Figure 2. 150 W HID ballast block diagram
STTH2L06
Mains
STF13NM60ND
Filter
+
Bridge
STF26NM60N
IGNITER
LIC01-215
STF13NM60N
L6390
L6390
TD220
Lamp
ALTAIR04-900
STLUX385A
TS272
STLM20
Remote Control
Connectors
GSPG1510141440SG
To generate an alternating square wave current in the lamp, the circuit has two operation
modes described below:
Mode A:
1.
When M4 is switched on, M1 operates with a high-frequency pulse width-modulation
(PWM). The duty cycle D is controlled by a constant-current control circuit.
Figure 3. Inductor current during charge phase
During this phase, the inductor current increases linearly and the voltage across the
inductor L is:
Equation 1
DocID026970 Rev 1
5/43
43
General circuit description
AN4597
VL = Vdc − Vlamp
where
VL = Lamp voltage
Vdc = DC Bus Voltage
Vlamp = Lamp Voltage
2.
When M1 is switched OFF, the freewheeling phase begins. The current flows in the
body diode of M2 (see Figure 4) until the inductor current reaches the value zero.
Figure 4. Inductor current during discharge phase
The current through inductor L decreases linearly and the voltage across the inductor is:
Equation 2
VL = −Vlamp
The circuit operates in Transition Mode (TM) at variable frequency.
This circuit is actually a buck converter.
Mode B:
3.
6/43
When M3 is switched on, M2 operates with a high-frequency pulse width-modulation
(PWM).
DocID026970 Rev 1
AN4597
General circuit description
Figure 5. Inductor current during charge phase (negative current)
When M2 is switched off, the freewheeling phase begins. The current flows in the body
diode of M1 (see Figure 6) until the inductor current reaches the value zero.
Figure 6. Inductor current during discharge phase (negative current)
The circuit operates in mode A and B in a complementary fashion, supplying the lamp with a
low-frequency, square-wave, alternate current.
The diagram of the drive circuit for the power switches is shown in Figure 7. To ensure safe
circuit operation, a dead time is necessary between the high and low frequency signals.
DocID026970 Rev 1
7/43
43
General circuit description
AN4597
Figure 7. Drive signals of the switches
MODE A
MODE B
ON
M1
OFF
ON
M2
OFF
ON
M3
OFF
ON
M4
OFF
IL positive
IL negative
GSPG0810141400SG
8/43
DocID026970 Rev 1
AN4597
3
Lamp power calculation
Lamp power calculation
Lamp power is obtained by multiplying the lamp voltage (measured directly across the lamp)
by the lamp current.
In this topology, with the full bridge operating in transition mode, the lamp current equals the
average current of the inductor, calculated from its peak current:
Equation 3
I lamp = I AV =
I peak
2
Where:
Ilamp = Lamp current
IAV = Inductor Average current
Ipeak = Inductor peak current
The lamp power is obtained multiplying the lamp current by the lamp voltage
Equation 4
Plamp = I lamp × Vlamp =
I peak
2
× Vlamp
This equation is implemented in the STLUX385A device to calculate and regulate the lamp
power.
DocID026970 Rev 1
9/43
43
10/43
3.15A T
F1
CX1
1
3
2
3
4
CX2
RV1
S14
DocID026970 Rev 1
R10
10k
C56
100pF
TD220
VCAP
VSUP
GND
GATE
8
7
6
5
PFC_ISENS
R15
R21
D7
TMMBAT46
1
R28
1
3
100pF
C13 270
22
22
PFC_ZCD
R11
R3
47k
2
PFC_OK
PWM4
VCC
VOUT
NC
IN
U1
220nF 305Vac
C3
1000V 3A
L1MAGNETICA 1913.004
D1
4
1
2
3
4
12V
D6
1000V 3A
D4
1000V 3A
1
R4
10k
100nF
C2
D5
1000V 3A
D3
1000V 3A
3
1nF 500VDC
C53
Vac1
2x39 mH
L2
2
2x39 mH
L7
Vac2
1
5
VIN PLM
1
3
N.M.
J2
A C-I N -L1
A C-I N -N
C57
3
2
1
R29
1
R30
1
R22
8.2k
Q1
STF13NM60N
D2
STTH2L06
R5
1M
R2
1M
R1
1M
10k
R18
+
1 0 5
C
100pF
C10
VBUS
C1
100uF 500V
+425V
4
VIN
J1
Electrical scheme
AN4597
Electrical scheme
Figure 8. PFC and input section electric scheme
220nF 305Vac
220nF 305Vac
4
GSPG1109141045SG
C20
100pF
DocID026970 Rev 1
C35
100nF
STTH1L06A
D23
R58
270
STF13NM60ND
D18
Q4
TMMBAT46
1
C32
220pF 630V
L5
STF13NM60ND
Q3
MAGNETICA 1975.0001
1
2
STPS1L30A
D22
0
R52 100
R48
D15
TMMBAT46
R43 270
100
C22 22uF 25V
R38
BRG_ZCD
9
STPS1L30A
9
10 CP+
11
12
13
14
+425V
5
D17
100nF
C29
OP+
CP+
LVG
NC1
NC2
OUT
15
16
3
L6390
GND
OPOUT
OP-
DT
VCC
HIN
HVG
BOOT
STTH1L06A
SD/OD
LIN
U6
3
24k
R47
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
2
11
100pF
C27
PWM1
PWM0
D28
R37
47K
C37
15k 5W
R49
VL1
220nF 305Vac
5
6
T1
4
1
R72
1E 1% 3W
IPEAK
MAGNETICA 1907.0010
R69
R70
1E 1% 3W 1E 1% 3W
680nF 305V
C33
LIC01
D16
C21 100pF 6kV
VL2
VOUT
J3
2
12V
R105
0
R103
N.M.
1
C30
2.2nF 630V
R39
Q5
STF26NM60N
1
1
Q2
STF26NM60N
+425V
3
2
GPIO2
2
3
SD\OD_U6
270
R57
D19
STTH1L06A
4.7uF 50V
C23
270
D20
OP+
CP+
LVG
NC1
NC2
OUT
HVG
BOOT
L6390
STPS1L30A
9
10
CP+_PFC
11
12
13
14
15
16
U7
GND
OPOUT
OP-
DT
VCC
HIN
SD/OD
LIN
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
PWM3
PWM2
240k
R51
STPS1L30A
D21
C31
100nF
SD\OD_U7
R104
N.M.
100pF
C28
12V
100nF
C36
100pF
C24
GPIO3
R106
0
AN4597
Electrical scheme
Figure 9. Full bridge electric scheme
3
GSPG1109141120SG
11/43
43
VL1
R96
0
DocID026970 Rev 1
3.3V
3.3V
UART_TX
UART_RX
DALI_TX
510k
R60
R59
510k
510k
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
1
3
5
7
9
11
PLM
J4
DALI
J7
J8
C38
100pF
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
2
4
6
8
10
12
C39
100pF
DALI_RX
12V
R102
100K
VL+
UART_TX
UART_RX
KEY _DALI
1
4
5
R63
47k
PLM_GPIO_0
USB to UART
R62
47k
VL-
10k
GND
J5
1
2
3
4
3.3V
CON4
R94
R89
R74
47k
5
6
47k
10k
R73
R68
R64
47k
47k
R56
R67
10k
R61
10k
R55
12V
+
1K
1K
R83
+
-
3
2
-
12V
8
0
4
R54
510k
8
4
DN2
3.3V
0
R95
R90
R85
R84
D27
GREEN
D26
RED
3.3V
0
0
0
C40
100nF
10k
R65
DALI_RX
DALI_TX
1uF
SWIM
RESn
C54
22pF
C50
22pF
3.3V
GND
DN1
BAS70-04WFILM
C48
3.3V
D25
TMMBAT46
D24
TMMBAT46
BAS70-04WFILM
TS272IPT
U2B
7
TS272IPT
U2A
1
C34
100nF
KEY _DALI
PWM3
PWM4
PWM5
PWM0
PFC_ZCD
BRG_ZCD
PWM1
PWM2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
VLAMP
C43
10nF
3.3V
GPIO1[0]/PWM[0]
DIGIN[0]/CCO_clk
DIGIN[1]
GPIO1[1]/PWM[1]
GPIO1[2]/PWM[2]
DIGIN[2]
DIGIN[3]
GPIO1[5]/PWM[5]
SWIM
NRST
VDDIO
GNDIO
VOUT
GPIO0[4]/DALI_tx
GPIO0[5]/DALI_rx
GPIO1[4]/PWM[4]
DIGIN[4]
DIGIN[5]
GPIO1[3]/PWM[3]
L6
C45
100nF
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
Bead 500mA
510k
R13
510k
R7
ADCIN[0]
ADCIN[1]
ADCIN[2]
ADCIN[3]
ADCIN[4]
ADCIN[5]
ADCIN[6]
ADCIN[7]
GNDA
VDDA
CPP[0]
CPP[1]
CPM[3]
CPP[2]
CPP[3]
GPIO0[1]/UART_RX
GPIO0[0]/UART_TX
GPIO0[3]/I2C_scl/HSEOscIn
GPIO0[2]/I2C_sda/HSEOscOut
C44
10nF
510k
R12
510k
R6
DIGITAL CONTROLLER STLUX385A
SD\OD_U7
C47
1uF
R100
N.M.
SD\OD_U6
C41
100nF
10k
R101
N.M.
R71
5.6k
R66
Vac1
Vac2
IPEAKOUT
UART_RX
UART_TX
GPIO3
GPIO2
PLM_GPIO_0
VIN
VBUS
PFC_ISENS
PFC_OK
VLAMP
VOUT3.3
C46
100nF
C6
R17
100pF 47k
3.3A
R16
47k
VL1+
VL1-
C5
100pF
470
SW1
RESET
C55
1uF
R99 10K
GND
3.3A
R97
10k
R32
10k
R25
10k
R14
10k
R8
+
-
3
2
PWM5
STLM20
RESn
R91
100k
4
5
3.3V
C51
100nF
TS272IPT
7
U3B
TS272IPT
1
U3A
C4
12V 100nF
12V
+
-
C49
1uF
VOUT VCC
GND2
100nF
GND
NC
3.3V
3
2
1
U8
C52
R33
47k
5
6
47k
R26
R19
47k
47k
R9
8
4
R53
8
12/43
4
VL2
10k
R24
10K
R92
IPEAK
D12
TMMBAT46 C11
D10
TMMBAT46
10K
R93
CP+_PFC
10K
R75
100nF
10k
VIN
PFC_ISENS
C42
100pF
IPEAKOUT
R27
C12
5.6k 1uF
R20
Electrical scheme
AN4597
Figure 10. Control section electric scheme
GSPG1109141130SG
AN4597
Electrical scheme
Figure 11. Auxiliary power supply electric scheme
+425V
D8
SM6T220A
1
L4
10
D9
STPS2150
L3
4.7uH
12V
+
D11
STTH1L06A
R98
22
3
4
8
7
5
6
C7
470uF 25V
C8
+
C9
470uF 25V
470nF 50V
D13
MAGNETICA:2198.0008
STPS1L30A
+
C14
470uF 25V
C16
470nF 50V
D14
TMMBAT46
+
C15
10uF 25V
4.5V
1
U4
ALTAIR04-900
2
C17
VIN
GND
16
15
14
13
4
GND
IREF
5
COMP
FB
7
U5
LD29080S33R
VOUT
3.3V
3
C18
R36
47k
+
VOUT3.3
470nF 50V
10uF 25V
R40
47k
1
2
6
DRAIN4
DRAIN3
SRC1DRAIN2
SRC2DRAIN1
VDD
3
R34
33k
C19
R45
8.2k
R41
33k
C25
470nF
1nF
R46
24k
C26
R42
2.7
R44
2.7
4.7nF
GSPG1109141140SG
DocID026970 Rev 1
13/43
43
Board layout
5
AN4597
Board layout
Figure 12. Board Layout: top view (not in scale)
Figure 13. Board layout: bottom view (not in scale)
14/43
DocID026970 Rev 1
Bill of material
AN4597
6
Table 1. Bill of material
DocID026970 Rev 1
Item
Q.ty
Reference
Part / value
Toll.
(%)
Voltage
1
3
CX1,CX2,
C3,C33
220nF
10%
2
1
C1
100uF
3
14
C2,C4,C11,
C29,C31,
C34,C35,
C36,C40,
C41,
C45,C46,
C51,C52
4
1
5
Power
diss.
Package
Manufacturer
Manufacturer code
520 V
Polypropylene film
capacitor
Through hole lead
spacing 15mm
TDK-EPC
B32672Z5224K000
20%
500 Vdc
Electrolytic
capacitor
Through hole lead
spacing 10 mm
Cornell Dubilier
380LX101M500H452
100nF
10%
50 V
X7R ceramic
capacitor
SMD 0603
any
C3
220nF
10%
520 V
Polypropylene film
capacitor
Through hole lead
spacing 15mm
TDK-EPC
12
C5,C6,C10,
C13,C20,
C24,C27,
C28,C38,
C39, C42,C56
100pF
5%
50 Vdc
C0G ceramic
capacitor
SMD 0603
any
6
3
C7,C9,C14
470uF
20%
25V
Electrolytic
capacitor
Through hole lead
spacing 3.5mm
RUBYCON
7
4
C8,C16,C17,
C19
470nF
10%
50V
X7R ceramic
capacitor
SMD 1206
any
8
5
C12,C47,
C48,C49,C55
1uF
10%
25Vdc
X7R ceramic
capacitor
SMD 0805
any
9
2
C15,C18
10uF
20%
50V
Electrolytic
capacitor
Through hole lead
spacing 2.5 mm
any
10
1
C21
100pF
10%
6.3kV
High voltage
ceramic capacitor
Through hole Lead
spacing 10 mm
Murata
B32672Z5224K000
25YXH470MEFC8X20
DECB33J101KC4B
Bill of material
15/43
Technology
information
Item
Q.ty
Reference
Part / value
Toll.
(%)
Voltage
11
1
C22
22uF
20%
12
1
C23
4.7uF
13
1
C19
14
1
15
Power
diss.
DocID026970 Rev 1
Technology
information
Package
Manufacturer
25V
Electrolytic
capacitor
Through hole lead
spacing 2mm
any
10%
50V
X7R ceramic
capacitor
SMD 1206
any
470nF
10%
50V
X7R ceramic
capacitor
SMD 0603
TDK
C25
1nF
10%
50V
X7R ceramic
capacitor
SMD 0603
any
1
C26
4,7 nF
5%
50V
COG ceramic
capacitor
SMD 0603
TDK
C1608C0G1H472J
16
1
C30
2.2nF
10%
630Vdc
Polypropylene film
capacitor
Through hole lead
spacing 5mm
Wima
MKP2J012201B00KSS
D
17
1
C32
220pF
5%
630Vdc
Polypropylene film
capacitor
Through hole lead
spacing 5mm
Evox Rifa
PFR5 221J630J11L4
18
1
C37
680nF
10%
305Vac
Polypropylene film
capacitor
Through hole lead
spacing 15 mm
TDK-EPC
B32922C3684M189
19
2
C43,C44
10nF
10%
50Vdc
X7R ceramic
capacitor
SMD 0603
any
20
2
C50,C54
22pF
5%
50V
C0G ceramic
capacitor
SMD 0603
any
21
1
C53
1nF
20%
250Vac
Y1 capacitor
Through hole lead
spacing 9.5 mm
any
22
1
C57
220nF
10%
520V
Polypropylene film
capacitor
Through hole lead
spacing 15mm
TDK-EPC
B32672Z5224K000
23
5
D1,D3,D4,D5
D6
1000V 3A
1000V/3A
Standard rectifier
Diode 1000V 3A
SMD SMB
Lite On
S3MB
24
2
DN,DN2
70V,70mA
70V,70mA
Small signal
Schottky diode
SOT23
ST
BAS70-04WFILM
25
1
D2
STTH2L06
2A/600V
ULTRAFAST HIGH
VOLTAGE
RECTIFIER
Through hole
DO41
ST
STTH2L06
Manufacturer code
Bill of material
16/43
Table 1. Bill of material (continued)
C1608X7R1H474K080A
C
AN4597
Toll.
(%)
DocID026970 Rev 1
Package
Manufacturer
Manufacturer code
Small signal
Schottky diode
SMD minimelf
ST
TMMBAT 46
TRANSIL
SMD SMB
ST
SM6T220A
150V/2A
POWER Schottky
diode
SMD SMA
ST
STPS2150A
STTH1L06A
1A/600V
ULTRAFAST HIGH
VOLTAGE
RECTIFIER
SMD SMA
ST
STTH1L06A
D13,D17,D20,
D21,D22
STPS1L30A
30V/1A
POWER Schottky
diode
SMD SMA
ST
STPS1L30A
1
D16
LIC01
255V
LIGHT IGNITION
CIRCUIT
SMD Dpak
ST
LIC01-215B-TR
32
1
D26
red LED
2 mA
High efficiency Red
diffused LED 2mA
3mm
Through hole 3mm
any
33
1
D27
green LED
2 mA
High efficiency
green diffused LED
2mA 3mm
Through hole 3mm
any
34
1
F1
3.15A T
250Vac/3.15A
Fuse
Through hole 5mm
35
1
J1
VIN
not mounted
Through hole
36
1
J2
VIN PLM
low profile female
strip line connector
Through hole
37
1
J3
VOUT
not mounted
Through hole
38
1
J4
PLM
low profile 24 way
(2x12) female strip
line connector
39
1
J5
CON4
low profile female
strip line connector
40
1
J7
DALI
12 pin male double
strip line connector
Q.ty
Reference
Part / value
Voltage
26
8
D7,D10,
D12,D14,D15
D18,D24,D25
TMMBAT46
100V/150mA
27
1
D8
SM6T220A
220V
28
1
D9
STPS2150
29
3
D11,D19,D23,
28
30
5
31
Power
diss.
600W
Stelvio Kontek
4772845125440
Through hole
Stelvio Kontek
4773001150440
Through hole
Stelvio Kontek
4772845125440
Bill of material
17/43
Technology
information
Item
AN4597
Table 1. Bill of material (continued)
Toll.
(%)
DocID026970 Rev 1
Item
Q.ty
Reference
Part / value
41
1
J8
USB TO UART
42
1
L1
600uH
43
2
L2
2x39 mH
44
1
L3
4.7 uH
20%
45
1
L4
2.2mH
10%
46
1
L5
520uH
47
1
L6
4.7 uH
48
1
Q1
49
2
50
Technology
information
Package
Manufacturer
Manufacturer code
Jack stereo
connector
SMD
Switchcraft Inc.
35RASMT2BHNTRX
2.8A
PFC Inductor
Through hole
MAGNETICA
1913.0004
1.2 A
Power Line choke
Through hole
TDK-EPC
B82733F2122B1
1.9A
Power inductor
SMD 4X4.5X3.2
NIC
COMPONENTS
NPI43C4R7MTRF
Through hole
MAGNETICA
2198.0008
Voltage
Power
diss.
11
Bridge Inductor
Through hole
MAGNETICA
1975.0001
740 mA
ferrite filter
SMD 3x3x1,2
Panasonic
ELLVFG4R7NC
STF13NM60N
600V
Power MOSFET
TO220FP
ST
STF13NM60N
Q3,Q4
STF13NM60ND
600V
Power MOSFET
TO220FP
ST
STF13NM60ND
2
Q2,Q5
STF26NM60N
600V
Power MOSFET
TO220FP
ST
STF26NM60N
51
1
RV1
S14K275
275 Vac
Varistor
Through hole
EPCOS
B72214S0271K101
52
3
R1,R2,R5
1M
1%
1/4W
metal film resistor
SMD 1206
any
16
R3,R9,R16,
R17,R19,R26,
R33,R36,R37,
R40,R56,R62,
R63,R64,R68,
R74
47k
1%
1/10W
metal film resistor
SMD 0603
any
54
19
R4,R8,R10,
R14,R18,R20,
R24,R25,R32,
R55,R61,R65,
R66,R67,R73,
R75,R92,R93,
R99
10K
1%
1/10W
metal film resistor
SMD 0603
any
55
4
R6,R7,R12,
R13,R53,R54,
R59,R60
510k
1%
1/4W
metal film resistor
SMD 1206
any
56
3
R11,R15,R98
22
1%
1/4W
metal film resistor
SMD 1206
any
53
30%
AN4597
1.8A
Bill of material
18/43
Table 1. Bill of material (continued)
Item
Q.ty
Reference
Part / value
Toll.
(%)
DocID026970 Rev 1
Technology
information
Package
Manufacturer
57
5
R21,R39,R43,
R57,R58
220
1%
1/4W
metal film resistor
SMD 1206
any
58
2
R22,R45
8.2k
1%
1/10W
metal film resistor
SMD 0603
any
59
2
R27,R71
5.6k
1%
1/10W
metal film resistor
SMD 0603
any
60
3
R28,R29,R30
1
1%
1/4W
metal film resistor
SMD MELF 0204
Vishay
61
1
R34
33k
1%
1/4W
metal film resistor
SMD 1206
any
62
2
R38,R52
100
1%
1/4W
metal film resistor
SMD 1206
any
63
1
R41
33K
1%
1/10W
metal film resistor
SMD 0603
any
64
2
R42,R44
2.7
1%
1/4W
metal film resistor
SMD 1206
any
65
2
R46,R47
24k
1%
1/10W
metal film resistor
SMD 0603
any
66
7
R48,R83,R84,
R85,R90,R95,
R96
0
1/4W
metal film resistor
SMD 1206
any
67
1
R49
15k
5%
5W
ceramic resistor
Through hole
TYCO
68
1
R51
240k
1%
1/10W
metal film resistor
SMD 0603
any
69
3
R69,R70,R72
1
1%
3W
metal film resistor
Through hole
Riedon
70
2
R89,R94
1k
1%
1/10W
metal film resistor
SMD 0603
any
71
2
R91,R102
100k
1%
1/10W
metal film resistor
SMD 0603
any
72
1
R97
470
1%
1/10W
metal film resistor
SMD 0603
any
73
2
R100,R101
0
1/10W
metal film resistor
SMD 0603
any
74
2
R103,R104
0
1/10W
metal film resistor
SMD 0603
any
75
2
R105,R106
0
1/10W
metal film resistor
SMD 0604
any
76
1
SW1
RESET
Tactile Switches
Through hole
any
77
1
T1
Magnetica
Igniter
Through hole
MAGNETICA
1907.0010
78
1
Digital
Controller
STLUX385A
SMD TSSOP38
ST
STLUX385A
Manufacturer code
MMA02040C1008FB300
SQMR515KJ
UB3C-1RF1
Bill of material
19/43
Power
diss.
Voltage
AN4597
Table 1. Bill of material (continued)
DocID026970 Rev 1
Technology
information
Package
Manufacturer
Manufacturer code
TD220
GATE DRIVER
WITH VREG AND
TWO POINT
REGULATOR
SMD SO8
ST
TD220I
U2,U3
TS272
DUAL
OPERATIONAL
AMPLIFIERS
SMD TSSOP8
ST
TS272AIPT
1
U4
ALTAIR04-900
Off-line all-primarysensing switching
regulator
SMD SO16N
ST
ALTAIR04-900
82
1
U5
LD29080S33R
low drop voltage
regulators
SMD SOT223
ST
LD29080S33R
83
1
U6,U7
L6390
High-voltage
high/low-side driver
SO16
ST
L6390D
84
1
U8
STLM20
Analog temperature
sensor
SOT323-5L
ST
STLM20W87F
85
1
20°K/W
HEAT SINK
Through hole 13 x
12.7 x 19.5mm
AAVID
THERMALLOY
PF435G
86
1
3.32 °K/W
HEAT SINK
100 x 27 x 50mm
AAVID
THERMALLOY
0S506/100/B
87
4
Retaining Spring
AAVID
THERMALLOY
MAX10G
88
6
Threaded spacer,
mild steel
10mm, M3
89
4
Hexagon Nut
M3
90
6
Washers
M3
Item
Q.ty
Reference
Part / value
79
1
U1
80
1
81
Toll.
(%)
Voltage
Power
diss.
Bill of material
20/43
Table 1. Bill of material (continued)
Richco
AN4597
AN4597
7
PFC dimensioning
PFC dimensioning
Theoretically, any switching topology can be used to achieve a high PF but, practically, the
boost topology has become the most popular thanks to the advantages it offers: low-cost
solution, low noise on input section and switch easy to drive.
Two methods of controlling a PFC pre-regulator are currently widely used:
1.
fixed frequency average current mode PWM (FF PWM).
2.
transition mode (TM) PWM (fixed ON-time, variable frequency).
In this application the PFC section is realized with a boost converter working in transition
mode with constant ON-Time.
The PFC stage and design criteria are below reported.
7.1
Input specification
Minimum mains voltage (rms value): Vacmin = 185 V
Maximum mains voltage (rms value): Vacmin = 265 V
Minimum main frequency: fmin = 47 Hz
Rated out power: Pout = Plamp / ηbridge = 160 W
Output average current: Iout = Pout / Vout = 0.38 A
Rated lamp power: Plamp = 150 W
Expected bridge efficiency: ηbridge = 95%
Regulated DC output voltage (DC value): Vout = 420 V
Maximum output overvoltage (DC value): ∆OVP = 50 V
Maximum output low-frequency ripple: Vout = 10 V
PFC Minimum switching frequency: fmin = 35 kHz
Expected PFC efficiency: ηPFC 96%
Expected Input section efficiency: ηin 99%
Expected Power Factor: 0.99
7.2
Operating condition
Expected input Power:
Equation 5
Pin =
Plamp
η Bridge ⋅ η PFC ⋅ η in
=
150
= 166W
0.95 ⋅ 0.96 ⋅ 0.99
Maximum RMS input current:
DocID026970 Rev 1
21/43
43
PFC dimensioning
AN4597
Equation 6
I in =
Pin
168
=
= 0.92 A
V ac min ⋅PF 185 ⋅ 0.99
Maximum peak inductor current:
Equation 7
I LPK = 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ I in = 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 0.92 = 2.6 A
Maximum RMS inductor current:
Equation 8
I L1 =
2
2
⋅ I in =
⋅ 0.92 = 1.06 A
3
3
Maximum RMS diode current:
Equation 9
I D = I L1 pk
7.3
Power components
7.3.1
Input capacitor
4 ⋅ 2 Vac min
⋅
= 0.77 A
9 ⋅ π Vout
To calculate the input capacitor, the following relationship can be used:
Equation 10
C in =
I in
2 ⋅ π ⋅ f sw min ⋅ r ⋅ Vac min
=
0.92
= 262nF
2 ⋅ π ⋅ 30k ⋅ 0.1 ⋅ 185
A commercial value of 220 nF is selected. Larger capacitors improve the EMI behavior, but
worsen the THD.
7.3.2
Output capacitor
The output bulk capacitor selection depends on the DC output voltage and the converter
output power.
22/43
DocID026970 Rev 1
AN4597
PFC dimensioning
Equation 11
Co =
Pout
160
=
= 86.6µF
4 ⋅ π ⋅ f min ⋅ Vout ⋅ ∆Vout 4 ⋅ π ⋅ 47 ⋅ 420 ⋅10
Considering the tolerance of the electrolytic capacitors, a 100 µF 500 V is selected.
7.3.3
Boost inductor
The boost inductor must be calculated at minimum and maximum Vac. The minimum
inductance value must be selected.
Equation 12
L=
Vac2 ⋅ (Vout − 2 ⋅ Vac )
2 ⋅ f sw min ⋅ Pin ⋅ Vout
Equation 13
L max =
185 2 ⋅ (420 − 2 ⋅ 185)
= 1.11mH
2 ⋅ 35k ⋅ 166 ⋅ 420
L min =
265 2 ⋅ (420 − 2 ⋅ 265)
= 0.65mH
2 ⋅ 35k ⋅ 166 ⋅ 420
Equation 14
For this application, a boost inductance of 0.6 mH is chosen.
7.3.4
Power MOSFET selection
For Power MOSFET selection, the following parameter must be considered:
1.
Breakdown voltage – which depends on the output voltage, the allowed overvoltage
and the external conditions (e.g., minimum temperature).
2.
RDS(on) – which depends on the output power
The STF13NM60N MOSFET is used here as it guarantees a high breakdown voltage and
low RDS(on).
7.3.5
Boost diode selection
The PFC section is realized with a boost converter operating in transition mode. The
STTHxL06 family, implementing ST Turbo2 600 V technology, is especially suited for the
boost diode in discontinuous or transition mode power factor corrections.
Selection is based on breakdown voltage and current, and can be based on rough
estimation according to the following rule:
DocID026970 Rev 1
23/43
43
PFC dimensioning
AN4597
• The breakdown voltage must be higher than (Vout + Vop) + margin;
• The diode current must be higher than 3 times the average current Iout
Considering that Iout = 0.38 A,
I diode > 3 x Iout > 3 x 0.38 = 1.14. Iout > 1.14 A. In this case, STTH2L06 is chosen.
To evaluate the conduction losses in the selected diode, the following equation may be
used.
Equation 15
PD = 0.89 ⋅ Iout + 0.08 ⋅ ID2 = 0.38W
24/43
DocID026970 Rev 1
AN4597
8
STLUX385A application pin usage
STLUX385A application pin usage
Figure 14. STLUX385A pinout
GPIO1[0]/PWM[0]
1
38
ADCIN[0]
DIGIN[0]/CCO_Clk
2
37
ADCIN[1]
DIGIN1
3
36
ADCIN[2]
GPIO1[1]/PWM[1]
4
35
ADCIN[3]
GPIO1[2]/PWM[2]
5
34
ADCIN[4]
DIGIN[2]
6
33
ADCIN[5]
DIGIN[3]
7
32
ADCIN[6]
GPIO1[5]/PWM[5]
8
31
ADCIN[7]
SWIM
9
30
VSSA
NRST
10
29
VDDA
VDD
11
28
CPP[0]
VSS
12
27
CPP[1]
VOUT
13
26
CPM3
GPIO0[4]/Dali_TX/I2C_sda/Uart_TX
14
25
CPP[2]
GPIO0[5]/Dali_RX/I2C_scl/Uart_RX
15
24
CPP[3]
GPIO1[4]/PWM[4]
16
23
GPIO0[1]/Uart_RX/I2C_scl
DIGIN[4]/I2C_sda
17
22
GPIO0[0]/Uart_TX/I2C_sda
DIGIN[5]/I2C_scl
18
21
GPIO0[3]/I2C_scl/HseOscin/Uart_RX
GPIO1[3]/PWM[3]
19
20
GPIO0[2]/I2C_sda/HseOscout/Uart_TX
Pin 1 PWM(0): SMED (state machine event driven) PWM channel 0 – high-frequency lowside MOSFET gate driver. This signal drives the L6390; the duty cycle is controlled by
STLUX385A.
Pin 2 DIGIN(0): Digital input 0 – the boost type used to perform the PFC stage functioning in
Transition Mode. Thanks to the STLUX385A peripherals specific product, the SMED is
programmed to generate the PWM signal. This input is used to perform zero current
detection in the PFC power section.
Pin 3 DIGIN(1): Digital input 1 – the full bridge operation mode functions as a buck converter
operating in transition mode. The STLUX385A SMED allows this input to be used to perform
zero current detection in the full bridge power section.
DocID026970 Rev 1
25/43
43
STLUX385A application pin usage
AN4597
Pin 4 PWM(1): High frequency MOSFET gate driver – this signal drives the L6390 in order
to drive the high side MOSFET. The duty cycle is controlled by STLUX385A.
Pin 5 PWM(2): Low frequency low-side MOSFET gate driver. The duty cycle of low
frequency devices is fixed at 50% in order to drive the lamp with alternating symmetric
current.
Pin 6 DIGIN(2): Digital input 2 – not used.
Pin 7 DIGIN(3): Digital input – not used.
Pin 8 PWM(5): PWM generator – this PWM signal is used to generate the external
reference for the analog comparator CPM3 in order to control the peak current in the bridge,
which also controls the lamp current.
Pin 9 SWIM: SWIM data interface.
Pin 10 NRST: Reset.
Pin 11 VDD: Power supply voltage 3.3V
Pin 12 GND: Ground.
Pin 13 VDD: 1.8V core power supply voltage – a 1 µF capacitor must be connected to this
pin to supply the internal core of the STLUX385A device.
Pin 14: General purpose I/O 04 – a red led is connected to this pin in order to indicate the
board status.
Pin 15: General purpose I/O 05 – a green led is connected to this pin in order to indicate the
board status
Pin 16: SMED PWM (4) – PWM generator, PFC gate driver. The output signal of this pin is
used to drive the PFC section. The signal drives the TD220 gate driver, which is able to turn
the PFC MOSFET on and off. The PWM is generated by the SMED (State Machine Event
Driven).
26/43
DocID026970 Rev 1
AN4597
STLUX385A application pin usage
Figure 15. PFC section
D1
1000V 3A
+425V
5
1
L1MAGNETICA 1913.004
D2
STTH2L06
C3
R1
1M
+ C1
100uF 500V
3
4
220nF 305Vac
105 C
R3
47k
R2
1M
12V
R5
1M
PFC_ZCD
C2
100nF
U1
R4
10k
VCAP
VSUP
GND
GATE
8
7
6
5
D7
TMMBAT46
R11
22
R15
22
2
VCC
VOUT
NC
IN
Q1
STF13NM60N
1
TD220
3
1
2
3
PWM4 4
R18
VBUS
PFC_OK
C56
100pF
PFC_ISENS
R10
10k
10k
R21
R22
8.2k
C13 270
100pF
C10
100pF
R28
1
R29
1
R30
1
GSPG1410141030SG
Pin 17: DIGIN(4) digital input – not used.
Pin 18: DIGIN(4) digital input – not used.
Pin 19: SMED PWM (3) Low frequency High Side MOSFET gate driver – the duty cycle of
low frequency devices is fixed at 50% in order to drive the lamp with alternate symmetric
current.
Pin 20: General purpose I/O 02 – this pin is used to shut down the high frequency section of
the bridge. The driver L6390 halts the activity of MOSFETs Q3 and Q4.
Pin 21: General purpose I/O 03 – this pin is used to shut down the low frequency section of
the bridge. The driver L6390 halts the activity of MOSFETs Q2 and Q5.
Pin 22: Uart_tx, UART data transmit – this pin is used for external communication.
Pin 23: Uart_rx, UART data receive – this pin is used for external communication.
Pin 24: CPP(3) positive analog comparator input 3, Ipeak_out – the voltage across Rsense is
amplified by the operational amplifier integrated in the half bridge driver U7. The output of
this signal, Ipeak_out, is connected to the CPP(3) pin and is used to perform inductor peak
current control.
Pin 25: CPP(2) positive analog comparator input 2 – not used.
Pin 26: CPM(3) negative analog comparator input 3 – the PWM5 signal is filtered by a low
pass filter (R99 and C55) and the obtained DC voltage is the reference voltage of the analog
comparator 3, used to regulate the peak current in the bridge.
Pin 27: CPP(1), positive analog comparator input 1 – not used.
Pin 28: CPP(0), positive analog comparator input 0 – not used.
Pin 29: VDDA – analog power supply voltage 3.3 V.
Pin 30: VSSA – analog ground.
DocID026970 Rev 1
27/43
43
STLUX385A application pin usage
AN4597
Pin 31: ADCIN(7), analog input 7 – EXT_GPIO_O, this pin could be is used for remote
controls in the communication module.
Pin 32: ADCIN(6), analog input 6 – board temperature measurements, this pin is used to
measure the board temperature. The ST device STLM20 generates a voltage proportional
to ambient temperature, allowing fine control of the board temperature, which also increases
system reliability.
Figure 16. Board temperature circuit
C52
R97 470
100 nF 50 V
U8
1
2
3
NC
GND2
5
C51
100 nF 50 V
GND
VOUT VCC
4
3.3 V
STLM20
GSPG09101410251SG
Pin 33: ADCIN(5), analog input 5, Vout 3.3 – by means a divider resistor, it is possible to
detect the 3.3 V voltage of the auxiliary power supply. This function is not implemented.
Pin 34: ADCIN(4), analog input 4, Vlamp – this pin is used to measure the lamp voltage. The
circuit to measure the lamp voltage is shown below. The voltage across capacitor C41 is
proportional to the lamp voltage and is a signal that is compatible with the STLUX voltage.
Figure 17. Vlamp circuit
R54
510k
510k
R59
R60
VL -
VL2
VL+
VL1
R55
R56
10k
47k
C34
12V 100 nF 50 V
8
R53
2
-
3
+
U2A
1
R61
TS272IPT
510k
10k
R62
47k
C38
100pF
R63
47k
C39
D24
TMMBAT46
4
510k
R64
47k
R65 10k
100pF
R67
R68
10k
47k
D25
TMMBAT46
12V
8
C40
100nF 50V
6
-
5
+
R66 10k
VLAMP
100nF 50V
C41
R71
5.6k
U2B
7
R73
TS272IPT
4
10k
R74
47k
GSPG09101410351SG
Pin 35: ADCIN(3), analog input 3, PFC driver OK – the voltage reference of the TD220
driver in this application is used to enable the PFC section. If the voltage on this pin is out of
range, the board is stopped. A diagram with the PFC_signal is shown below.
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STLUX385A application pin usage
Figure 18. PFC OK circuit
12V
C2
100nF
U1
1
2
3
PWM4 4
R4
10k
VCC
VOUT
NC
IN
VCAP
VSUP
GND
GATE
8
7
6
5
TD220
PFC_OK
C56
100pF
R10
10k
GSPG0910141045SG
Pin 36: ADCIN(2), analog input 2, PFC Isens – the source current of the PFC MOSFET flows
into the sense resistor. The filtered signal is connected to this pin in order to evaluate the
average current that flows into the PFC.
Pin 37: ADCIN(1), analog input 1, Vbus – this pin is used to measure the output voltage of
the PFC. This voltage is used to regulate the DC bus voltage; the board is halted if the
voltage is not with appropriate limits.
Figure 19. PFC output voltage circuit measurement
+425 V
D2
STTH2L06
R1
1M
C1
100 uF 500 V
R2
1M
R5
1M
R18
VBUS
10 k
R22
8.2 k
C10
100 pF
GSPG0910141100SG
A simple divider resistor adapts the high voltage to the level of the STLUX385A device.
Pin 38: ADCIN(0), analog input 0, Vin – this pin is used to measure the input AC voltage.
The circuit to measure this voltage is shown below. This function is not implemented.
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STLUX385A application pin usage
AN4597
Figure 20. Input AC voltage circuit measurement
R8
R9
510k
510k
10k
47k
R12
R13
R14
VL1-
VL1+
Vac1
510k
510k
C5
R16
47k
C6
100pF
R17
47k
C4
12V 100nF
8
R7
2
-
3
+
10k
R19
47k
100pF
U3A
1
4
R6
Vac2
TS272IPT
D10
TMMBAT46
R24
R25
R26
10k
47k
8
R32
C11
100nF
U3B
-
7
5
VIN
R27
5.6k
C12
1uF
D12
TMMBAT46
+
4
10k
10k
10k
12V
6
R20
TS272IPT
R33
47k
GSPG0910141110SG
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9
Auxiliary power supply
Auxiliary power supply
An auxiliary power supply in a double-output power supply configuration has been
developed. The board uses the new ALTAIR04-900, a quasi-resonant (QR) current-mode
controller IC specifically designed for QR ZVS (zero voltage switching at switch turn-on)
flyback converters, which combines a high-performance, low-voltage PWM controller chip
and a 900 V, avalanche-rugged power MOSFET in the same package. The device is
capable of providing constant output voltage regulation using a primary-sensing constant
voltage loop (CV loop). This eliminates the optocoupler and the secondary voltage
reference while still maintaining accurate regulation.
Figure 21. Auxiliary power supply
+425V
D8
SM6T220A
1
L4
10
D9
STPS2150
L3
4.7uH
12V
+
D11
STTH1L06A
R98
22
3
4
8
7
5
6
C7
470uF 25V
C8
+
C9
470uF 25V
470nF 50V
D13
MAGNETICA:2198.0008
STPS1L30A
+
C14
470uF 25V
C16
470nF 50V
D14
TMMBAT46
+
C15
10uF 25V
4.5V
1
U4
ALTAIR04-900
2
C17
VIN
GND
16
15
14
13
4
GND
IREF
5
COMP
FB
7
U5
LD29080S33R
VOUT
3.3V
3
C18
R36
47k
+
VOUT3.3
470nF 50V
10uF 25V
R40
47k
1
2
6
DRAIN4
DRAIN3
SRC1DRAIN2
SRC2DRAIN1
VDD
3
R34
33k
C19
R45
8.2k
R41
33k
C25
470nF
1nF
R46
24k
C26
R42
2.7
R44
2.7
4.7nF
GSPG1109141140SG
This power supply is used in a non-isolated configuration and the secondary side provides
two output voltages:
1.
12 V – used to supply all drivers in the applications and, where necessary, the remote
control circuitry.
2.
3.3 V – low voltage obtained by 3.3 LDO, intended to supply the digital section.
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Lamp data
10
AN4597
Lamp data
The lamp data is given below. Each lamp data is valid for the corresponding operating
phase.
10.1
Ignition phase
The ignition voltage for a cold lamp is about 3/5 kV, which increases with lamp temperature;
the ignition voltage in case of a hot re-strike can reach 25 kV.
The board is not designed to supply such a high voltage pulse.
10.2
Warm-up phase
During this phase, a high warm-up current must be supplied (about 30% higher than
nominal current) to prevent the lamp from extinguishing. For a 150 W metal halide lamp, a
current of approximately of 2 Arms is needed for the warm-up phase.
10.3
Burn phase
The nominal lamp power is 150 W, with a lamp voltage of approximately 95 V for all types of
lamps.
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11
Protections
Protections
STEVAL-ILH007V1 is protected against certain failures:
1.
Short circuit protection – in the short circuit condition, the board checks the output
voltage and stops the switching activity for both the PFC and bridge, avoiding board
damage.
2.
Open circuit protection – when the lamp is not connected or it is broken, the board
attempts to light the lamp with a series of pulse cycles with a duration of 15s and a
pause period of 45s. If the lamp does not light after 15 attempts (15 min), the
STLUX385A halts the PFC and bridge stage.
3.
Protection against abnormal input voltage – this application is designed to work with an
input voltage of between 185 and 265 V. If the mains breaches this range, the board is
stopped.
4.
Overtemperature protection for the electronics.
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Remote control
12
AN4597
Remote control
The STEVAL-ILH007V1 is able to receive commands from a remote control unit. The J4
connector was designed to accept remote control boards in order to create a power net able
to control each board.
For example, the J4 connector is able to receive the STEVAL-IHP005V1 or STEVALIHP007V1, forming a net for street lighting based on power line modem communication. For
more details, please refer to the ST7580 user manual for street lighting stack protocol.
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13
Experimental results
Experimental results
Results are given for the input section and the output stage.
For the PFC stage, the power factor and the THD have been measured in the whole input
voltage range.
Moreover, thermal measurements have been performed.
In the full bridge section, the following phases were analyzed:
13.1
1.
ignition
2.
warm-up
3.
steady-state
Lamp ignition phase
High voltage transformer generates a sufficient ignition voltage to light the lamp; the voltage
across the lamp is shown below. The peak voltage is clearly higher than 3.5 kV.
Figure 22. Lamp ignition voltage
13.2
Warm-up phase
During this phase, the lamp current is limited; the lamp voltage and lamp power increase up
to the nominal lamp power, after which the digital controller maintains constant power.
The entire warm-up phase is shown in Figure 23. As it is possible to observe, the duration of
this phase is about 3 minutes.
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Experimental results
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Figure 23. Lamp current and voltage during Warm-Up phase
Burn Phase
Constant power area
Warm-up Phase
C2 = Lamp current (red waveform)
C3 = Lamp voltage (blue waveform)
F1 = Lamp power (yellow waveform)
13.3
Burn phase
During this phase, the lamp is supplied with a low-frequency square-wave current. The lamp
power is kept constant. Figure 24 shows some waveforms.
Figure 24. Steady State phase: Lamp current, voltage and lamp power
C2 = Lamp current (red waveform)
C3 = Lamp voltage (blue waveform)
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Experimental results
F1 = Lamp power (yellow waveform).
13.4
PFC test results
The input power, power factor and input current THD have been measured during the burn
phase, with the results shown below.
Table 2. Power factor and THD versus AC input voltage
13.5
Vinput
PF
THD %
185
0.997
6.9
230
0.996
7.5
265
0.994
8.5
Board efficiency
Below is a diagram showing total ballast efficiency versus input voltage. System efficiency is
obtained as the ratio of lamp output power to total input power.
Figure 25. Ballast efficiency versus AC input voltage
GSPG0910141200SG
93.0
92.5
92.0
91.5
91.0
90.5
90.0
170
13.6
190
210
230
250
270
Thermal measurement
These measurements were performed at an ambient temperature of 25 °C and a minimum
input voltage (185 V, worst case for the PFC section).
For the board, thermal measurement on the power device was performed with an infrared
thermo camera.
For the PFC section, the temperature was measured on the power MOSFET and on the
diode.
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Experimental results
AN4597
On the power MOSFET mounting a heat sink with Rth = 10 °C/W thermal resistance, the
temperature was 40 °C on the top of the package and 60 °C on top of the boost diode.
On the full bridge devices, a heat sink with Rth = 2.12 °C/W thermal resistance was
mounted. The maximum temperature on these switches was 35 °C.
13.7
Conducted emission
The diagram below shows the measurements for conducted emissions according to the EN
55015 standard. The measurements were performed for both the phase and neutral lines.
Figure 26. Conducted emission. Phase line.
GSPG0910141210SG
100
QP limits
90
AVERAGE
limits
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1.0000E+05
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1.0000E+07
1.0000E+08
AN4597
Experimental results
Figure 27. Conducted emission. Neutral line.
GSPG0910141220SG
100
QP limits
90
AVERAGE
limits
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1.0000E+05
1.0000E+06
DocID026970 Rev 1
1.0000E+07
1.0000E+08
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Consideration
14
AN4597
Consideration
Please note: the PFC_Isense measurement is not implemented
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15
References
References
[1] AN2747
[2] AN3159
[3] AN3290
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Revision history
16
AN4597
Revision history
Table 3. Document revision history
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Date
Revision
16-Dec-2014
1
Changes
Initial release.
DocID026970 Rev 1
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