AN-1123: Controller Area Network (CAN) Implementation Guide (Rev. 0) PDF

AN-1123
APPLICATION NOTE
One Technology Way • P.O. Box 9106 • Norwood, MA 02062-9106, U.S.A. • Tel: 781.329.4700 • Fax: 781.461.3113 • www.analog.com
Controller Area Network (CAN) Implementation Guide
by Dr. Conal Watterson
The controller area network (CAN) is a standard for distributed
communications with built-in fault handling, specified for the
physical and data link layers of the open systems interconnection
(OSI) model in ISO-118981, 2. CAN has been widely adopted in
industrial and instrumentation applications and the automotive
industry due to the inherent strengths of the communication
mechanisms used by CAN.
Features of CAN include
•
•
•
•
•
Allowance for multiple masters on a bus
Inherent priority levels for messages
Bus arbitration by message priority
Error detection and recovery at multiple levels
Synchronization of data timing across nodes with separate
clock sources
At the physical layer, differential data transmission is supported
by the CAN protocol, providing advantages such as
•
•
•
Bidirectional communications across a single pair of
twisted cables
Increased immunity to noise
Wide common-mode range allowing differences in ground
potential between nodes
IMPLEMENTING A CONTROLLER AREA NETWORK
This application note considers the following aspects of how CAN
is implemented in industrial applications:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
CAN implementation layers: how the CAN specification and
protocols relate to hardware/software and CAN transceiver
products
CAN messages: how the message structure is fundamental
to error checking/recovery and arbitration
Arbitration: how the carrier sense multiple access method
specified by CAN allows multiple driving nodes
Error mechanisms: how the CAN specification inherently
enhances communication robustness
Physical bus: what measures ensure proper communication
at the physical layer
Isolation: signal and power isolation of CAN and integrated
isolation solutions for CAN
Stress protection: mechanisms used in CAN for protecting
transceivers from electrical overstress
HOW CAN USES DIFFERENTIAL DATA
TRANSMISSION
In traditional differential data transmission (for example, RS-4853),
Logic 1 is transmitted as a voltage level high on one noninverting
transmission line and low on the inverting line. Correspondingly,
Logic 0 is transmitted as low on the noninverting line and high
on the inverting line. The receiver uses the difference in voltage
between the two lines to determine the Logic 1 or Logic 0 that
was transmitted, as shown in Table 1.
A driver on the bus can also be in a third state, with the driver
outputs in a high impedance state. If all nodes are in this condition,
the bus is in an idle state. In this condition, both bus lines are
usually at a similar voltage with a small differential.
Signaling for CAN differs in that there are only two bus voltage
states; recessive (driver outputs are high impedance) and dominant
(one bus line, CANH, is high and the other, CANL, is low), with
thresholds as shown in Table 1. Transmitting nodes transmit the
dominant state for Logic 0 and the recessive state for Logic 1.
An idle CAN bus is distinguished from recessive bit transmission
simply by detection of multiple recessive bits after an end of
frame or error frame.
Table 1. Comparison of CAN and RS-485 Voltage Levels
Logic
1
0
RS-485 Levels
A − B ≥ +200 mV
A − B ≤ −200 mV
CAN State
Recessive
Dominant
CAN Levels
CANH − CANL ≤ 0.5 V
CANH − CANL ≥ 0.9 V
The two states of dominant and recessive are represented by the
CANH and CANL voltage levels shown in Figure 1 that compares
CAN signaling to RS-485. This signaling method is fundamental
both to the node arbitration and inherent prioritization of messages
with lower message IDs (more initial Logic 0s as the message is
serially transmitted).
IDLE1 0
(R) (D)
0
(D)
1
(R)
0
(D)
1
(R)
1
(R)
0
(D)
CANH
CAN
CANL
INVERTING
RS-485/
RS-422
NONINVERTING
IDLE
0
0
1
0
1
1
NOTES
1. CAN BUS IDLE AFTER MULTIPLE RECESSIVE BITS.
0
10035-001
INTRODUCTION
Figure 1. Comparison of Differential Signaling for CAN and RS-485/RS-422
Rev. 0 | Page 1 of 16
AN-1123
Application Note
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction ...................................................................................... 1 Error Frames ..................................................................................8 Implementing a Controller Area Network.................................... 1 Error Counters...............................................................................8 How CAN Uses Differential Data Transmission.......................... 1 Node Error States ..........................................................................9 Revision History ............................................................................... 2 Transmission Bit Verification ......................................................9 CAN Implementation Layers .......................................................... 3 Bit Stuffing Rules ...........................................................................9 Physical Layer Transceivers......................................................... 3 CRC Check.....................................................................................9 CAN Controllers .......................................................................... 4 Fixed Form, Bit Field Checks.......................................................9 DeviceNet Networks .................................................................... 4 Message Acknowledgment...........................................................9 CANopen Protocol....................................................................... 4 Physical Bus..................................................................................... 10 CAN Message Frame Structure ...................................................... 5 CAN Physical Bus Characteristics ........................................... 10 Arbitration Field ........................................................................... 5 Termination................................................................................. 10 Data Length Code (DLC) Field .................................................. 5 Isolation ........................................................................................... 11 Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) Field .................................... 5 Integrated Signal and Power Isolated CAN Transceivers ..... 11 Acknowledgement (ACK) Slot ................................................... 5 Stress Protection ............................................................................. 13 End of Frame................................................................................. 5 Miswire and Short-Circuit ........................................................ 13 Arbitration......................................................................................... 7 Transient Overvoltage................................................................ 13 Message Priority ........................................................................... 7 References........................................................................................ 14 Error Mechanisms ............................................................................ 8 Related Links............................................................................... 14 REVISION HISTORY
2/12—Revision 0: Initial Version
Rev. 0 | Page 2 of 16
Application Note
AN-1123
CAN IMPLEMENTATION LAYERS
Communication using CAN is defined by the International
Standard Organization (ISO) as ISO-11898 and can be considered
in the context of the seven-layer OSI model for communications.
The ISO-11898-1 standard for CAN relates to the data link layer
and the effects of this on the surrounding layers. ISO-11898-2
relates to part of the data link layer and the physical layer.
Implementations of CAN depend on the following components:
•
•
Physical layer transceiver to translate the CAN messages
to/from differential signals across a physical medium such
as a twisted pair cable.
CAN controller (sometimes embedded in a microprocessor,
as with the Analog Devices, Inc. Blackfin ADSP-BF548) that
implements the data link layer. These adhere to the CAN 2.0b
specification4 to ensure communication conforms to the
ISO 11898 standard.
CAN software application, implementing the application layer
protocol (translating the software application data to/from
CAN messages).
The various blocks that implement a CAN application are shown in
Figure 2, which shows their relationship to OSI layers and the
features implemented by each block.
OSI LAYERS
APPLICATION
CAN
SPECIFICATION
The ADM3051/ADM3052/ADM3053/ADM3054 are designed
for interfacing to CAN controllers and support various CAN
applications. Depending on the application, different high level
protocols can be used with CAN, for example, CANopen or
DeviceNet™.
•
The ADM3054 is a 5 kV rms signal isolated high speed CAN
transceiver.
The ADM3053 is a fully isolated high speed CAN transceiver
with 2.5 kV rms signal and power isolation.
The ADM3052 is a 5 kV rms signal isolated high speed CAN
transceiver with an integrated bus voltage regulator to use
24 V bus power (for example, as in DeviceNet applications).
The ADM3051 is a nonisolated high speed CAN transceiver.
•
•
•
FEATURES
APPLICATION
FOR USER PURPOSES
NODE OPERATIONS
PRESENTATION
SESSION
TRANSPORT
NETWORK
CAN transceivers provide the differential physical layer interface
between the data link layer, the CAN controller (for example,
embedded in some of Analog Devices Blackfin processors), and
the physical wiring of the CAN bus. The Analog Devices portfolio
includes transceivers with integrated iCoupler® digital isolation5
for signal isolation and isoPower® power isolation5, providing
fully isolated off-the-shelf CAN PHYs.
NODE DATA,
NODE STATES,
NODE ADDRESSING,
MANAGE NETWORK
COMPONENTS
USER APPLICATION
PROTOCOL
(FOR EXAMPLE,
DEVICENET,
CANOPEN)
FILTERING/STATUS
DATA LINK
CAN
CONTROLLER
ERROR HANDLING,
CSMA, ACK,
MESSAGE FRAMING,
BIT STUFFING
(MAY BE
EMBEDDED)
MICROCONTROLLER
MICROPROCESSOR
WITH EMBEDDED
CAN CONTROLLER
ADSP-BF548
BIT TIMING
RxD
TxD
R
CAN TRANSCEIVER
(MAY INCLUDE
SIGNAL/POWER
ISOLATION)
CANL
ADM3051
ADM3052
ADM3053
ADM3054
D
PHYSICAL
DRIVING/RECEIVING
DIFFERENTIAL SIGNAL
CANH
PHYSICAL MEDIUM
BUS TOPOLOGY/
CHARACTERISTICS
Figure 2. CAN Implementation Blocks as Related to OSI Layers and Features
Rev. 0 | Page 3 of 16
10035-002
•
PHYSICAL LAYER TRANSCEIVERS
AN-1123
Application Note
CAN CONTROLLERS
The data link layer of CAN and physical bit timing is implemented
by the CAN controller (sometimes embedded within a microcontroller or DSP, for example, ADSP-BF548), according to the
CAN 2.0b specification and conforming to the data link layer
portion of the ISO-11898 standard. The CAN controller handles
message filtering, arbitration, message framing, error handling,
and error detection mechanisms such as bit stuffing.
DeviceNet NETWORKS
DeviceNet6 is a specification managed by the Open DeviceNet
Vendors Association (OVDA) for communication networks.
DeviceNet specifies aspects of the physical layer, the use of
CAN for physical and data links layers, and higher level
communication using the common industrial protocol (CIP).
Industrial and instrumentation commonly use DeviceNet for
CAN applications.
DeviceNet specifies a multidrop network that supports masterslave or distributed control schemes across a linear bus topology.
The network not only comprises the differential signaling bus
lines, but also power and ground, so that nodes can be powered
from the bus.
The physical layer specifications for DeviceNet specify features
such as the use of CAN technology, protection from wiring errors
and the ability to add or remove nodes from the network while it is
operational. Various aspects of the physical layer are specified in
detail, including the transmission media and connectors.
The ADM3052 isolated CAN transceiver meets the physical
layer requirements of DeviceNet, in addition to incorporating
features used by DeviceNet nodes, such as signal isolation, miswire
protection, and a linear regulator to power the bus side of the
device from the 24 V bus power (V+). Figure 3 provides a
functional block diagram of the ADM3052, as well as an
application configuration.
CANopen PROTOCOL
CANopen7 is an application layer protocol maintained by CAN in
Automation (CiA) that uses the CAN data link and physical layers
and specifies standardized profiles for devices, communication,
and applications. This allows interoperability across different
application areas, for example, industrial automation, building
control, and generic I/O. The physical layer conforms to
ISO-11898, with a bus topology and data rates up to 1 Mb.
The ADM3053 can be used to fully isolate communication on
networks such as those using CANopen, with power for the bus
side of the transceiver provided by an integrated isolated dc-to-dc
converter. A functional block diagram of the ADM3053 is shown
in Figure 12.
Alternatively, where an isolated 5 V supply is already present in the
application circuit, the ADM3054 provides an integrated CAN
transceiver with 5 kV rms digital isolator.
3.3V/5V SUPPLY
1µF
100nF
CINT
VDD1
LINEAR
REGULATOR
ADM3052
V+R
RP
VDD2
V+SENSE
DECODE
ENCODE
V+
10µF
BUS
V+SENSE
CAN
CONTROLLER
100nF
V+
BUS
CONNECTOR
VDD2
TxD
V+
ENCODE
DECODE
D
CANH
RxD
CANL
ENCODE
DECODE
CANH
RT
CANL
R
V–
VREF
GND2
VREF
GND2
V–
GND1
LOGIC SIDE
CAN TRANSCEIVER
ISOLATION
BARRIER
BUS SIDE
Figure 3. Application Example Using the ADM3052 Isolated CAN Transceiver
Rev. 0 | Page 4 of 16
10035-003
DIGITAL ISOLATION
Application Note
AN-1123
CAN MESSAGE FRAME STRUCTURE
The structure of a CAN message is fundamental to the schemes
used for achieving robust communications through error detection,
as well as the inherent prioritization of messages and multiple
driver capability based on bit-wise arbitration. The CAN controller
handles the framing of CAN messages, as specified in CAN 2.0b
(for the inclusion of the extended message type detailed here).
DATA LENGTH CODE (DLC) FIELD
As discussed in the Introduction section, signaling for CAN
messages at the physical layer comprises leaving the bus in a high
impedance recessive state for a transmission of 1 and transmitting a
differential high/low dominant state for a transmission of 0. In
Figure 4 and Figure 5, which show the composition of CAN
message frames, white bit fields denote a recessive bus state, dark
grey fields indicate a dominant state, and grey indicates bit fields
that can be dominant or recessive.
CYCLIC REDUNDANCY CHECK (CRC) FIELD
ARBITRATION FIELD
The CRC field is delimited (bus recessive for one bit interval)
from the ACK slot that follows to ensure that the CRC field is
not affected by the ACK behavior.
As shown in Figure 4 and Figure 5, message identifiers form part of
the CAN message frame. In conjunction with a number of flag bits,
this section of the CAN message frame is termed the arbitration
field (indicated in Figure 4 and Figure 5), with the message ID
and flags denoting the message type, dictating arbitration and,
as a result, message priority. There are two main attributes that
can distinguish CAN message types using the flag bits:
•
•
An IDE bit, denoting use of extended identifier
An RTR bit, denoting a remote transmission request
Remote transmission requests are used to request that a certain
message be sent by its originator (normally nodes on a bus send
data autonomously). This remote transmission request is a message
without any data, sent by one node, to request that another node
(or nodes) transmit the message of the same ID but with data.
Up to eight bytes of data can be present in a CAN message frame.
The length of data in the frame is encoded into the DLC field.
A remote transmission request has the data length of the requested
data frame. Note that only values of zero to eight are valid for
the DLC field.
The CRC field is part of the error checking mechanism in the
CAN protocol. The CRC field contains a sequence generated
from the content of the CAN frame, which is the remainder from a
polynomial division operation. The received sequence and data
can be used in another polynomial division operation to check that
no bits have accidentally been received in an inverted/error state.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT (ACK) SLOT
Although the ACK slot is transmitted as Logic 1 (bus recessive)
by the message originator, error-free transmission is achieved
only when during this bit interval the bus is set to a dominant
state by another node. Any other node that receives the previous
message fields error-free will automatically attempt to transmit
Logic 0 to acknowledge receipt of the message.
An ACK delimiter (bus recessive for one bit interval) is present
to allow a space before the remainder of the message in case the
node transmitting the ACK bit has slightly different timing and
the dominant bit overruns into the next bit period (that is, the
delimiter interval).
If the bus remains in a recessive state during the ACK slot, a
node detecting this will begin transmitting an error frame in the
next bit period.
The SRR bit is a substitute remote request in messages with
extended IDs for compatibility with nodes that only use
standard CAN messages.
Some reserved bits are also present for future expansion of the
CAN protocol and must be read as zero to ensure future
compatibility.
END OF FRAME
The end of frame is communicated by a 7-bit interval bus recessive
state, a sequence not occurring during the rest of the message due
to bit stuffing (run-length limited coding where a complementary
bit is inserted after every six consecutive 1s or 0s in the message).
After the end of a frame, a bus recessive interframe space is also
observed (the exact length of this varies depending on the length of
time specified for bus idle for a given CAN controller).
Rev. 0 | Page 5 of 16
AN-1123
Application Note
STANDARD DATA FRAME
SOF
STANDARD IDENTIFIER
(11 BITS)
RB0
IDE
RTR
DATA
(0 BYTES TO 8 BYTES)
DLC
0 X X X X X X X X X X X 0 0 0 X X X X X X X X X X X X
X
END OF
FRAME
(7 BITS)
ACK
SLOT1
CRC
(15 BITS)
X 1 1 1 1
1
KEY:
STANDARD REMOTE FRAME
SOF
1 1
CRC ACK
DELIMITER DELIMITER1
ARBITRATION FIELD
STANDARD IDENTIFIER
(11 BITS)
INTERFRAME
SPACING
(DEVICE-SPECIFIC)
RB0
IDE
RTR
DLC
CRC
(15 BITS)
0 X X X X X X X X X X X 1 0 0 X X X X X
ACK
SLOT1
END OF
FRAME
(7 BITS)
X 1 1 1 1
INTER-FRAME
SPACING
(DEVICE-SPECIFIC)
1 1
RECESSIVE
BIT
0
DOMINANT
BIT
X
BIT MAY BE
EITHER STATE
1
CRC ACK
DELIMITER DELIMITER1
ARBITRATION FIELD
1
10035-004
NOTES
1. ORIGINATOR OF FRAME TRANSMITS RECESSIVE (1) DURING ACK SLOT/DELIMITER. SUCCESSFUL TRANSMISSION OF
MESSAGE FRAME REQUIRES AT LEAST ONE OTHER NODE TO TRANSMIT A DOMINANT (0) BIT DURING THE ACK SLOT.
Figure 4. CAN Standard Message Frame Fields
STANDARD IDENTIFIER
(11 BITS)
SOF
EXTENDED
IDENTIFIER
RB0
IDE (18 BITS)
RB1
RTR
SRR
0 X X X X X X X X X X X 1 1 X
DATA
(0 BYTES TO 8 BYTES)
DLC
X 0 0 0 X X X X X X X X X X X X
CRC
(15 BITS)
X
ACK
SLOT1
END OF
FRAME
(7 BITS)
X 1 1 1 1
EXTENDED REMOTE FRAME
SOF
EXTENDED
IDENTIFIER
RB0
IDE (18 BITS)
RB1
SRR
RTR
0 X X X X X X X X X X X 1 1 X
ARBITRATION FIELD
1 1
1
CRC ACK
DELIMITER DELIMITER1
ARBITRATION FIELD
STANDARD IDENTIFIER
(11 BITS)
INTER-FRAME
SPACING
(DEVICE-SPECIFIC)
KEY:
DLC
CRC
(15 BITS)
X 1 0 0 X X X X X
ACK
SLOT1
END OF INTERFRAME
FRAME SPACING
(7 BITS) (DEVICE-SPECIFIC)
X 1 1 1 1
1 1
NOTES
1. ORIGINATOR OF FRAME TRANSMITS RECESSIVE (1) DURING ACK SLOT/DELIMITER. SUCCESSFUL TRANSMISSION OF
MESSAGE FRAME REQUIRES AT LEAST ONE OTHER NODE TO TRANSMIT A DOMINANT (0) BIT DURING THE ACK SLOT.
Rev. 0 | Page 6 of 16
RECESSIVE
BIT
0
DOMINANT
BIT
X
BIT MAY BE
EITHER STATE
1
CRC ACK
DELIMITER DELIMITER1
Figure 5. CAN Extended Message Frame Fields
1
10035-005
EXTENDED DATA FRAME
Application Note
AN-1123
ARBITRATION
On a single CAN bus, any node can transmit data. Nodes arbitrate
for use of the bus, so that, in the event of two or more nodes
attempting transmission, messages are transmitted one after
another according to their priority.
Nondestructive and transparent arbitration is possible because
transmission of a dominant bit overwrites the recessive bus
state. The CAN controller of each node monitors the bus as it
transmits and, consequently, can detect if another node wins
arbitration. Nondestructive and transparent means that messages
are not corrupted, and transmission of the highest priority
message is uninterrupted by arbitration.
If the bus is active (a node is transmitting or has just finished
transmission), no other nodes will attempt transmission. If, when
the bus is idle (for at least the length of the interframe spacing),
and more than one node begins transmission, arbitration occurs
transparently and nondestructively. Nondestructive arbitration
means that the node winning arbitration can simply continue
transmission of its message without any other node having
interfered with the message transmission.
Using Figure 6 as an example, both nodes have attempted
transmission at the same time. Both CAN nodes monitor the
bus state as they transmit, and as Node 2 attempts to transmit
SID7, it can detect that another node (in this case Node 1) has
written a dominant value to the bus and has won arbitration
accordingly. Node 2 does not attempt retransmission until after
the bus has been idle for the interframe spacing. Node 1 continues
transmission but also monitors the bus to detect errors or detect if
another node wins arbitration in a later arbitration field bit interval.
Note the example of bit stuffing after the initial five dominant
bits transmitted by Node 1. These extra bits are important in
allowing nodes to synchronize their timing and are also used
for error detection.
MESSAGE PRIORITY
CAN message frames are transmitted most significant bit (MSB)
first, and as the message IDs are at the beginning of a frame,
they form part of the arbitration sequence. Messages with a lower
ID (more initial 0s) have a higher priority. In addition, remote
frames (RTR bit = 1) have a lower priority than the data frame
with the same ID.
STUFF
BIT
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
SOF SID10 SID9 SID8 SID7
SID6 SID5 SID4 SID3 SID2 SID1 SID0
NODE 1: MESSAGE ID = 0x016
NODE 1 TX BITS
NODE 1 TX
NODE 2: MESSAGE ID = 0x080
0
0
0
0
0
NODE 2 TX BITS
SOF SID10 SID9 SID8 SID7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
SOF SID10 SID9 SID8 SID7 SID6 SID5
NODE 2 TX
NODE 1 WINS
ARBITRATION
NODE 1 TX
NODE 2 WINS ARBITRATION
AFTER INTERFRAME SPACING
Figure 6. Example of Arbitration Between CAN Nodes
Rev. 0 | Page 7 of 16
10035-006
CAN BUS
AN-1123
Application Note
ERROR MECHANISMS
Any node transmits error frames immediately when it detects
an error. As an error frame itself highlights an error, other nodes
concurrently transmit their own error frames, resulting in a
superposition of multiple error frames.
CAN incorporates various mechanisms for supporting error
checking and handling. These include definitions of the
following error detection schemes:
Transmission bit verification
Bit stuffing rules
CRC check
Fixed-form bit field checks
Mandatory message ACK
The sequence of six consecutive bits is the error flag. An error
frame also comprises an error delimiter to allow for the error
flags from other nodes overrunning the initial six bit periods.
An example of transmission of a CAN frame with an error and a
subsequent CAN active error frame is shown in Figure 7, compared
to an error-free transmission.
These errors are handled using the following mechanisms:
•
•
•
Error frames
Error counters
Node error states
Any node transmitting an error flag subsequently sends recessive
bits until the bus is detected as being in the recessive state, after
which, an additional seven recessive bits are transmitted. The node
can then attempt transmission of regular CAN frames.
The CAN controller detects and handles these errors and
supports the error detection by framing CAN messages
according to CAN 2.0b.
ERROR COUNTERS
Every CAN node must implement two error counters; a transmit
error counter and a receive error counter. These are incremented
on the basis of transmit or receive errors and decremented on
the basis of successful transmission or receiving of messages.
ERROR FRAMES
RTR
IDE
RB
SOF
NORMAL TRANSMISSION WITH ACK
CRC DEL
ACK
ACK DEL
An error frame is distinguished by having six consecutive bits.
This sequence is dominant or recessive depending on the state
of the node transmitting the error. This sequence violates the
normal transmission rules and so is detectable by other nodes.
MSGID: 0x18
DLC
CRC
EOF
IFS
1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 [1] 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 [1] 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 * 11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
CANH
CANL
FAULTY TRANSMISSION WITH ERROR FRAME
CRC BIT ERROR
ERROR
FRAME
1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 [1] 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 [1] 1 1 0 0 11 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1
CANH
*DENOTES TRANSMITTING NODE
TRANSMITS 1, RECEIVING NODE
TRANSMITS 0.
NOTES
1. [ ] DENOTES EXTRA STUFF BIT.
2. ERROR FRAME TRANSMITTED BY
RECEIVING NODE.
CANL
Figure 7. Normal Transmission with ACK and Faulty Transmission with CAN Error Frame
Rev. 0 | Page 8 of 16
10035-007
•
•
•
•
•
Application Note
AN-1123
NODE ERROR STATES
BIT STUFFING RULES
Based on the error counters, a node may be in one of three states:
The process of bit stuffing refers to the scheme whereby a
transmitting node inserts a complementary bit in the transmitted
bit stream after five consecutive message bits of the same value.
This encoding is used for an entire CAN data or remote frame
with the exception of fixed form bit fields for the CRC delimiter,
ACK field, and end of frame. CAN error or overload frames are
also fixed form.
•
•
•
Error active
Error passive
Bus off
In the error active state, the node is expected to be able to
communicate on the bus and send active error flags when errors
are detected. The transmit and receive error counters must be less
than 127 for the node to remain error active.
In the error passive state, the node may communicate on the
bus but only send passive error flags in the event of errors. The
node enters this state when the transmit or receive error counters
reach or surpass 127. The node becomes error active once these
counters again decrease to 127 or below.
In the bus off state, the node is not permitted to communicate
on the bus. This state occurs once the transmit error count
reaches or passes 256. After 11 consecutive recessive bits have
been detected 128 times, the node may have its error counters
reset to 0 and can enter the error active state.
TRANSMISSION BIT VERIFICATION
A transmitting node monitors the bus as it transmits to verify
that each bit appears on the bus as intended. The detection of an
opposite bit level on the bus is termed a bit error, a form of transmit
error. There are two exceptions where an opposite bit level may
be detected without error:
•
•
The arbitration field is transmitted as recessive; however, it
is expected that the bus state will change to dominant as other
nodes acknowledge the message.
It is not a bit error if a node sending a passive error flag
detects the bus in a dominant state.
Any node receiving a message that breaks the bit stuffing rules
(more than five consecutive recessive or dominant bits in a
sequence that should be bit stuffed) will detect this as a receive
error and take action dependant on the node state (for example,
transmit an active or passive error frame).
CRC CHECK
The CRC is a sequence of bits that are calculated based on the
first part of the CAN frame (up to the data field). The transmitting
node computes this sequence by dividing a generator polynomial
into a polynomial formed from the CAN data, to provide a
remainder that serves as the CRC sequence. This CRC sequence
is inserted into the CAN message in the CRC field.
The receiving node divides the generator polynomial into a
polynomial formed from the data and CRC sequences together.
In the event of no errors, the remainder should be zero.
This procedure is termed a CRC check. If the received message
is in error (that is, with inverted bits), the CRC check fails.
FIXED FORM, BIT FIELD CHECKS
Certain bit fields in a CAN message frame are of fixed form,
specifically the CRC delimiter field, ACK field, and end of frame.
Receiving nodes perform a form check to ensure these are correct.
MESSAGE ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Although the arbitration field is transmitted as recessive, the
transmitting node checks for a dominant bit on the bus during
this bit time. This dominant bit is an ACK bit sent by any node
receiving the message correctly. A transmit error occurs if no
other node acknowledges the message. Insertion of the ACK bit
into a CAN message by a receiving node is shown in Figure 7,
depicted with a lower differential such as would be observed
when the receiving node is at the other end of the bus from the
probe point at the transmitting node.
Rev. 0 | Page 9 of 16
AN-1123
Application Note
PHYSICAL BUS
CAN PHYSICAL BUS CHARACTERISTICS
The physical layer characteristics for CAN are specified in
ISO-11898-2. This standard specifies the use of cable
comprising parallel wires with an impedance of nominally
120 Ω (95 Ω minimum and 140 Ω maximum). The use of
shielded twisted pair cables is generally necessary for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) reasons, although ISO-11898-2
also allows for unshielded cable.
A maximum line length of 40 meters is specified for CAN at a
data rate of 1 Mb. However, at lower data rates, potentially much
longer lines are possible. ISO-11898-2 specifies a line topology,
with individual nodes connected using short stubs. Minimize
this stub length (≤0.3 meters at data rates of 1 Mb).
TERMINATION
In a transmission line, there are two current paths, one to carry
the currents from the driver to the receiver and another to provide
the return path back to the driver. CAN links are a little more
complicated because of the fact that they have two signal wires
that share a termination as well as a ground return path. However,
the basic principles of transmission lines are the same. For reliable
CAN communications, it is essential that the reflections in the
transmission line be kept as small as possible. This can only be
done by proper cable termination. Figure 8 demonstrates two
termination schemes for CAN applications.
Reflections happen very quickly during and just after signal
transitions. On a long line, the reflections are more likely to
continue long enough to cause the receiver to misread logic
levels. On short lines, the reflections occur much sooner and
have no effect on the received logic levels.
Parallel Termination
In CAN applications, both ends of the bus must be terminated
because any node on the bus may transmit data. Each end of
the link has a termination resistor equal to the characteristic
impedance of the cable, although the recommended value for
the termination resistors is nominally 120 Ω (100 Ω minimum
and 130 Ω maximum). There should be no more than two
terminating resistors in the network, regardless of how many
nodes are connected, because additional terminations place
extra load on the drivers.
ISO-11898-2 recommends not integrating a terminating resistor
into a node but rather attaching standalone termination resistors at
the furthest ends of the bus. This is to avoid a loss of a termination
resistor if a node containing that resistor is disconnected. The
concept also applies to avoiding the connection of more than two
termination resistors to the bus, or locating termination resistors
at other points in the bus rather than at the two ends.
Parallel Termination with Common-Mode Filtering
To further enhance signal quality, split the terminating resistors
at each end in two and place a filter capacitor, CT, between the
two resistors. This filters unwanted high frequency noise from
the bus lines and reduces common-mode emissions.
PARALLEL TERMINATION
RT
RT
PARALLEL TERMINATION WITH COMMON MODE FILTER
RT/2
RT/2
RT/2
NOTES
1. RT IS EQUAL TO THE CHARACTERISTIC IMPEDANCE OF THE CABLE.
Figure 8. Termination Schemes for CAN Applications
Rev. 0 | Page 10 of 16
CT
10035-008
CT
RT/2
Application Note
AN-1123
ISOLATION
In CAN applications, there are often long links that can cause
the ground potential at different nodes on the bus to be slightly
different. This causes ground currents to flow through the path
of least resistance through either the common earth ground or
the ground wire. If the same electrical system is used to connect
the power supplies of all nodes to the same earth ground, the
ground connection may have reduced noise. Note, however,
that motors, switches, and other electrically noisy equipment
can still induce ground noise into the system.
ISOLATOR
Analog Devices offer CAN transceivers for various applications,
including
•
•
•
POINT B
INFORMATION FLOW
NO CURRENT FLOW
•
PROTECT HUMANS/
EQUIPMENT
ELIMINATE GROUNDING
PROBLEMS
IMPROVE SYSTEM
PERFORMANCE
ISOLATION
BARRIER
ADM3054 with integrated 5 kV rms signal isolation for
systems with an existing isolated 5 V supply
ADM3053 with integrated signal and power isolation for
complete isolation of CAN applications
ADM3052 with integrated signal isolation and voltage
regulator for isolated applications using 24 V bus power
(for example, DeviceNet)
ADM3051 for nonisolated applications or applications
using traditional isolation methods
When galvanic isolation is implemented, some method is
required of providing power to the bus side of the application
circuit. In DeviceNet applications, 24 V is supplied to all nodes
on the CAN bus, as demonstrated with the ADM3052. The high
level of integration that can be achieved with the ADM3052 is
shown in Figure 10. This part requires a minimum of external
components and internally incorporates signal isolation via
Analog Devices iCoupler technology, in addition to integrating
a regulator to supply 5 V to the bus side of the device from 24 V
bus power. An isolation rating of 5 kV rms is achieved with the
ADM3052.
10035-009
POINT A
INTEGRATED SIGNAL AND POWER ISOLATED CAN
TRANSCEIVERS
Figure 9. Galvanic Isolation Allows Information Flow While Preventing
Ground Current Flow
Different power systems are required in some applications. This
is likely to increase the impedance of the earth ground, and the
ground currents from other sources are more likely to find their
way into the ground wire of the link. Isolating the link reduces
or even eliminates these problems. Galvanic isolation is the
recommended solution if there is no guarantee that the potential
at the earth grounds at different nodes in the system are within
the common-mode range of the transceiver. Galvanic isolation
allows information flow but prevents current flow (see Figure 9).
For applications where an isolated supply is discretely provided,
or bus power is used for various circuit elements, the ADM3054
can be used with a 5 V isolated power supply on the bus side of
the device.
TRADITIONAL ISOLATION
ADM3052 CAN TRANSCEIVER WITH INTEGRATED SIGNAL
ISOLATION AND BUS-SIDE LINEAR REGULATOR.
5V
5V
VOLTAGE
REGULATION
V+
VCC
V+SENSE
CINT
V+
V–
ADM3052
TxD
TXD
V+
V+R
V+SENSE
CANH
RxD
CANL
VDD2
OPTOCOUPLERS
GND1
TXD
V–
V–
CANH
CAN
TRANSCEIVER
RXD
CANL
VREF
10035-010
RXD
VREF
Figure 10. Comparison of Traditional Isolation with Bus Power vs. ADM3052
Rev. 0 | Page 11 of 16
AN-1123
Application Note
In other applications, power from a supply on the logic side of the
circuit can be transferred across the isolation barrier. Traditionally,
this is achieved by use of a dc-to-dc converter implemented
with an oscillator, transformer, and regulator using discrete
components.
via an integrated isolated dc-to-dc converter using Analog Devices
isoPower technology. An isolation rating of 2.5 kV rms is achieved
with the ADM3053. Figure 11 compares the traditional solution
using discrete devices to the ADM3053. The internal blocks of
the ADM3053 are shown in the functional block diagram in
Figure 12.
The ADM3053 integrates power isolation in addition to signal
isolation. A single 5 V supply can supply power to the bus side
TRADITIONAL ISOLATION
ADM3053 CAN TRANSCEIVER
WITH INTEGRATED ISOLATION.
VDD1
5V
VDD1
VDD2
D1
EN
TRANSFORMER
DRIVER
EN
IN
+
OUT
ADP3330
VCC
VISOOUT
D2
SET
VISOIN
3.3V OR 5V
SHDN
VIO
VDD2
ADM3053
TxD
TXD
RS
RxD
CANH
CANL
VREF
VDD2
GND1
TXD
OPTOCOUPLERS
GND2
RS
CAN
TRANSCEIVER
CANH
CANL
RXD
VREF
10035-011
RXD
Figure 11. Comparison of Traditional Isolation (Signal and Power) vs. ADM3053
VCC
VISOOUT
isoPower DC-TO-DC CONVERTER
ADM3053
OSCILLATOR
RECTIFIER
VISOIN
REGULATOR
RS
DIGITAL ISOLATION iCoupler
TxD
ENCODE
PROTECTION
DECODE
D
MODE
CANH
DECODE
ENCODE
R
CANL
REFERENCE
VOLTAGE
LOGIC SIDE
ISOLATION
BARRIER
BUS SIDE
CAN
TRANSCEIVER
VREF
GND1
GND2
Figure 12. ADM3053 Functional Block Diagram
Rev. 0 | Page 12 of 16
09293-012
RxD
Application Note
AN-1123
STRESS PROTECTION
Some CAN applications, such as DeviceNet, in addition to
carrying data on the bus lines, CANH and CANL, also distribute
power along the bus. In such systems, bus power of typically
24 V is routed along the bus, along with a common ground.
In such systems, the connector for each CAN node has four wires,
CANH, CANL, 24 V, and ground. To prevent damage in the
case of miswiring of these signals, CAN nodes using 24 V bus
power require protection on all bus lines (CANH, CANL, power,
and ground). Miswire protection is a requirement for the
DeviceNet protocol. The ADM3052 isolated CAN transceiver
with integrated bus power regulator incorporates ±36 V miswire
protection on the CANH, CANL, V+, and V− pins.
Other CAN nodes that do not use power from the bus may still
require this protection. In such cases, the CAN node still requires
protection against shorting of CANH or CANL by connection to a
power or ground line. For this reason, the ADM3051, ADM3053,
and ADM3054 CAN transceivers also incorporate ±36 V
protection on CANH and CANL.
TRANSIENT OVERVOLTAGE
In I&I applications, lightning strikes, power source fluctuations,
inductive switching, and electrostatic discharge can cause damage
to CAN transceivers by generating large transient voltages. The
following ESD protection, EFT protection, and surge protection
specifications are relevant to industrial applications:
The protection is accomplished by clamping the voltage spike
to a limit, by the low impedance avalanche breakdown of a PN
junction. TVS diodes are ideally open-circuit devices. A TVS
diode can be modeled as a large resistance in parallel with some
capacitance while working below its breakdown voltage. When
a transient is generated, and the surge voltage is larger than the
breakdown voltage of the TVS, the resistance of the TVS decreases
to keep the clamping voltage constant. The selection of TVS
diode is such that the clamping voltage is less than the voltage
rating of the device that it is protecting. The transients are
clamped instantaneously (<1 ns), and the damaging current is
diverted away from the protected device (see Figure 13).
The function of a TVS in CAN applications is to protect the
CAN transceiver by clamping voltages on the bus that are
outside the maximum ratings. Some TVS devices have been
specifically designed for CAN applications. An example circuit
using bidirectional Zener diodes to implement TVS on a CAN
bus is shown in Figure 14.
IEC 61000-4-2 ESD protection
IEC 61000-4-4 EFT protection
IEC 61000-4-5 surge protection
TRANSIENT
CURRENT
TVS
PROTECTED
DEVICE
Figure 13. Transient Voltage Suppressor
VCC
TxD
MICROPROCESSOR
AND CAN
CONTROLLER
D
CANH
RxD
RT
R
CANL
TVS
CAN
TRANSCEIVER
GND
Figure 14. TVS Application Circuit
Rev. 0 | Page 13 of 16
10035-014
•
•
•
The ADM3051, ADM3052, and ADM3053 CAN transceivers
offered by Analog Devices include basic ESD protection on all
pins. The level of protection can be further enhanced on the bus
pins when using external clamping devices, such as TVS diodes.
TVS diodes are normally used to protect silicon devices, like
CAN transceivers, from transients.
10035-013
MISWIRE AND SHORT-CIRCUIT
AN-1123
Application Note
REFERENCES
1
ISO 11898-1:2003, “Road Vehicles — Controller Area Network (CAN — Part 1: Data Link Layer and Physical Signalling,”
(ISO International Standard, 2003).
2
ISO 11898-2:2003, “Road Vehicles — Controller Area Network (CAN) — Part 2: High Speed Medium Access Unit,” (ISO International
Standard, 2003).
3
Hein Marais, Application Note AN-960, “S-485/RS-422 Circuit Implementation Guide,” (Analog Devices, Inc., 2008).
4
CAN Specification 2.0, Part B, (CAN in Automation, 1991).
5
Boaxing Chen, “iCoupler® Products with isoPower™ Technology: Signal and Power Transfer Across Isolation Barrier Using MicroTransformers,” Technical Article, (Analog Devices, Inc., 2006).
6
DeviceNet™ Technical Overview, (Open DeviceNet™ Vendor Association, Inc., 2001), X to XI.
7
EN 50325-4:2002, “Industrial Communication Subsystem Based on ISO 11898 (CAN) for Controller-Device Interfaces, CANopen,”
(CAN in Automation, 2002).
RELATED LINKS
Resource
ADM3051
ADM3052
ADM3053
ADM3054
ADSP-BF548
AN-960
Description
Product Page, High Speed Industrial CAN Transceiver with Bus Protection for 24 V Systems
Product Page, Isolated CAN Transceiver with Integrated High Voltage, Bus-Side, Linear Regulator
Product Page, Signal and Power isolated CAN Transceiver with Integrated Isolated DC-to-DC Converter
Product Page, 5 kV rms Signal Isolated High Speed CAN Transceiver with Bus Protection
Product Page, High Performance Convergent Multimedia Blackfin Processor
RS-485/RS-422 Circuit Implementation Guide
Rev. 0 | Page 14 of 16
Application Note
AN-1123
NOTES
Rev. 0 | Page 15 of 16
AN-1123
Application Note
NOTES
©2012 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved. Trademarks and
registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
AN10035-0-2/12(0)
Rev. 0 | Page 16 of 16
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