AN-892: Temperature Measurement Theory and Practical Techniques (Rev. 0) PDF

AN-892
APPLICATION NOTE
One Technology Way • P.O. Box 9106 • Norwood, MA 02062-9106, U.S.A. • Tel: 781.329.4700 • Fax: 781.461.3113 • www.analog.com
Temperature Measurement Theory and Practical Techniques
By Donal McNamara
HEAT TRANSFER THEORY
The transfer of heat is normally from a high temperature object
to a lower temperature object. Heat transfer from a cold region
to a hot region can be done by forcing the system (refrigerators,
for example) to perform the energy transfer.
WARM AIR
RISES
Heat transfer is accomplished by three basic methods.
•
•
•
Conduction
Convection
Radiation
HEATER
Figure 2. Convection
Conduction
Conduction is the most common means of heat transfer in a
solid. On a microscopic scale, conduction occurs as hot, rapidly
moving or vibrating atoms and molecules interacting with
neighboring atoms and molecules, transferring some of their
energy (heat) to these neighboring atoms.
CROSS SECTIONAL AREA = A
Radiation
Radiation is the only form of heat transfer that can occur in the
absence of any form of medium and as such, is the only means
of heat transfer through a vacuum. Thermal radiation is a direct
result of the movements of atoms and molecules in a material.
Because the amount of emitted radiation increases with increasing
temperature, a net transfer of energy from higher temperatures
to lower temperatures results.
COLD
HEAT FLOW
L
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HOT
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COOLER AIR DROPS
AND REPLACES THE
WARMER AIR
Figure 1. Conduction
Convection
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Convection is usually the dominant form of heat transfer in
liquids and gases. This is a term used to characterize the
combined effects of conduction and fluid flow. In convection,
heat content transfer occurs by the movement of hot or cold
portions of the fluid together with heat transfer by conduction.
Figure 3. Radiation
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AN-892
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Heat Transfer Theory ....................................................................... 1
Correct PCB Layout for Measuring PCB Temperature........... 4
Correct PCB Layout for Measuring Ambient Temperature ... 5
Packages ......................................................................................... 6
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AN-892
Fact: Conduction is the Most Prevalent Heat Transfer
Method in PCBs
If one end of a PCB is at a higher temperature, energy is
transferred down the PCB towards the colder end. The higher
speed particles collide with the slower ones with a net transfer
of energy to the slower ones. The rate of conduction heat
transfer is
A
(K × A(THOT − TCOLD ))
H
L
Figure 4. Conduction Heat Transfer Rate
where:
H = energy conducted in time (J/sec)
K = thermal conductivity of the copper (385 W/(m•K) @ room
temperature)
A = area of copper on PCB
T = temperature
L = distance between hot and cold bodies.
Figure 4 shows that heat travels faster from a hot body to a
cold body if the area of the medium it is conducting through
(copper, for example) is increased. Likewise, if the area of the
copper is reduced, the heat transfer rate is reduced. Common
sense deduces that the further away the two bodies are from
each other, the longer it takes for the cold body to heat up.
06506-004
H=
T
Copper is an excellent conductor of heat and is subsequently
used in many PCB designs to dissipate heat from a heat source.
Silver and diamond are the only other materials to have better
thermal conductivity (see Table 1).
Table 1. Material Thermal Conductivity Table
Material
Diamond
Silver
Copper
Gold
Rev. 0 | Page 3 of 8
Thermal Conductivity (W/m•K)
1000 to 2600
406
385
320
AN-892
CORRECT PCB LAYOUT FOR MEASURING PCB TEMPERATURE
The pins transfer 60% to 65% of the PCB heat to the die thermal sensor. The GND pin is connected to the substrate, therefore, the GND
pin has the least thermal resistance between the temperature sensor and heat source (see Figure 5).
MAIN HEAT SOURCE
(µCONTROLLER)
06506-005
TEMPERATURE
SENSOR
Figure 5. Correct Layout for Measuring Temperature of PCB
Tips for Efficient PCB Temperature Measurement
Apply the following tips to ensure that the temperature sensor tracks and accurately measures the PCB temperature and subsequently, the
main heat source, as shown in Figure 6.
•
•
•
Use a common GND plane between the temperature sensor and heat source.
Ensure that all GND pins of the temperature sensor are connected to the heat source GND plan.
Keep the temperature sensor and heat source as close as possible to each other on the PCB.
28.0
27.5
MAIN HEAT SOURCE
(µCONTROLLER)
TEMPERATURE
SENSOR
TEMPERATURE (°C)
27.0
26.5
26.0
25.5
25.0
24.0
TIME (Minutes)
06506-006
24.5
Figure 6. Digital Temperature Sensor Accurately Tracks the Temperature of the Heat Source
Most customers want to use IC temperature sensors to measure the temperature of the PCB or a component. Therefore, it is better to use
the PCB layout technique shown in Figure 5 and Figure 6.
Rev. 0 | Page 4 of 8
AN-892
CORRECT PCB LAYOUT FOR MEASURING AMBIENT TEMPERATURE
Many designers don’t want to measure the PCB temperature. They just want to measure the ambient air temperature. The problem is, how
do designers prevent the PCB heat sources from affecting the ambient temperature measurement of the temperature sensor? The answer
is to use the PCB layout design shown in Figure 7.
MAIN HEAT SOURCE
(µCONTROLLER)
HASH GND
PLANE
06506-007
SOLID GND
PLANE UNDER
µCONTROLLER
TEMPERATURE
SENSOR
Figure 7. Correct Layout for Measuring Ambient Temperature
Tips for Efficient Ambient Temperature Measurement
Use the following tips to prevent the heat dissipated by the main heat source from affecting the temperature sensor and to accurately
monitor ambient temperature:
•
•
•
•
•
Use a hash GND plane. Reduce the GND plane area to increase thermal resistance.
Keep the temperature sensor as far away from heat sources as possible.
Use a separate GND plane for the temperature sensor and keep connections to the main GND plane as low as possible.
Use narrow GND connections to increase thermal resistance.
Use a solid GND plane under the main heat source and expose the green solder mask. This gives the minimum thermal resistance for
the main heat source to dissipate heat.
26.0
25.5
MAIN HEAT SOURCE
(µCONTROLLER)
TEMPERATURE
SENSOR
TEMPERATURE (°C)
25.0
24.5
24.0
23.5
23.0
22.5
22.0
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TIME (Minutes)
Figure 8. Digital Temperature Sensor Accurately Tracks the Ambient Temperature
Some customers want to monitor air temperature and also use the accuracy, linearity, speedy response, and convenience of an IC
temperature sensor. It is best for them to use the PCB layout technique shown in Figure 7 and Figure 8.
Rev. 0 | Page 5 of 8
AN-892
PACKAGES
Apart from size and pin count, there are a number of other
package considerations.
Package thermal resistance
Power dissipated in the device
Soldering temperatures
Response to thermal shock
•
•
8-Lead MSOP = 205.9°C/W
8-Lead SOIC = 157°C/W
Junction-to-Case (θJC) Thermal Resistance
Package Thermal Resistance
This measures ease of heat flow between the chip surface and
the package surface. It also reflects how heat flows into the
external heat sink, making it relevant for packages used with
external heat sinks. θJC thermal resistance is measured in °C/W.
The lower the value, the more easily the heat flows into a heat
sink. For example,
Two package performance metrics are usually indicated in data
sheets, junction-to-air (θJA) thermal resistance and junction-tocase (θJC) thermal resistance.
Junction-to-Air (θJA) Thermal Resistance
This measures ease of heat flow between the die surface and
air. It also reflects how heat flows from junction-to-ambient
temperature via all paths. The primary path is leads to board.
•
•
8-Lead MSOP = 43.74°C/W
8-Lead SOIC = 56°C/W
TA
MOLD COMPOUND
GOLD WIRE
TJ
LEADFRAME
DIE
DIE ATTACH
ADHESIVE
TCASE
DIE ATTACH PAD
06506-009
•
•
•
•
θJA thermal resistance is relevant for packages used without
external heat sinks, and it is measured in °C/W. The lower the
value, the better. For example,
Figure 9. TSSOP Package Cross Section
PATHS TO AIR:
1. PACKAGE TOP TO AIR: 15%
2. PACKAGE BOTTOM TO BOARD: 20%
3. PACKAGE LEADS TO BOARD: 65%
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DIE
Figure 10. Major Paths to Air
PATHS TO AIR:
NEARLY ALL HEAT FLOWING
OUT OF TOP OF PACKAGE
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DIE
Figure 11. Paths to Air
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AN-892
Power Dissipated in the Device
This following equation is available in the absolute maximum ratings section of data sheets. It is defined as a maximum power rating.
WMAX =
(T
AMB max
− TA
)
θ JA
where:
WMAX = maximum power dissipated in the device.
TAMB max = maximum ambient temperature specified in the data sheet.
TA = junction temperature.
θJA = junction-to-ambient thermal resistance in °C/W.
LOWER θJA
HAS BETTER
POWER DISSIPATION
1.2
SOIC
1.0
0.8
MSOP
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
–55
SOIC PD @ 150°C = 4.4mW
MSOP PD @ 150°C = 3.4mW
0
50
100
06506-012
MAXIMUM POWER IDSSIPATION (W)
1.4
150
TEMPERATURE (°C)
Figure 12. Power Dissipation in SOIC and MSOP Packages
Package Soldering Information
Analog Devices, Inc. produces two types of package leads, Sn-Pb leaded leads and Pb-free unleaded leads (as of 2006, all new parts
released from Analog Devices only contain Pb-free materials). There are different time and temperature parameters when soldering both
types of leads. The most important difference between leaded and unleaded leads is the peak soldering temperature. This difference is
shaded in gray in Table 2.
Table 2. Data Table for Soldering Sn-Pb and Pb-free Packages
Average Ramp-Up Rate
Preheat
Temperature Minimum (TSMIN)
Temperature Maximum (TSMAX)
Time (TSMIN to TSMAX)
Time Maintained Above
Temperature
Time
Peak Soldering Temperature
Time Within 5°C of Actual Peak Temperature
Ramp-Down Rate
Time from 25°C to Peak Temperature
Sn-Pb Assembly (3°C/sec max)
Pb-Free Assembly (3°C/sec max)
100°C
150°C
60 sec to 120 sec
100°C
150°C
60 sec to 120 sec
183°C
60 sec to 150 sec
220°C
10 sec to 30 sec
6°C/sec max
6 min max
217°C
60 sec to 150 sec
260°C
20 sec to 40 sec
6°C/sec max
6 min max
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AN-892
Response to Thermal Shock
Reducing the thermal resistance between the die and the heat
source reduces the thermal time constant and improves the
thermal response of the die. One thermal time constant is the
time it takes for a temperature Δ to change to 63.2% of its final
value. In Figure 13, the ADT7301 experiences a thermal shock
from 25°C to 125°C; it takes typically 2 sec for the ADT7301 to
reach 88.2°C.
140
In general, effective GND pin contact to the ground plane of the
heat source is far more important than the package type. Most
modern temperature sensors draw very little current (μA). As a
result, power dissipation and consequently, self heating, are not
factors to be overly concerned about.
In the case of current output temperature sensors (for example,
the AD590, AD592, and TMP17), package types TO-52, T0-92
(see Figure 14), CQFP, and SOIC rely on a low θJC + θJA for fast
thermal response. Note that there are no GND pins on these parts.
100
80
60
06506-014
TEMPERATURE (°C)
120
40
Figure 14. TO-92
20
0
5
t = 2SECONDS
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
TIME (Seconds)
50
06506-013
0
The LFCSP (see Figure 15) has a metal stub at the base that is
directly connected to the GND of the die. Connecting this stub
to the PCB GND plane gives the LFCSP a lower thermal
resistance than most packages.
Figure 13 also shows that the same thermal time constant is used
for both ADT7301 packages, SOT-23 and MSOP. Evaluation data
has shown that package type has only a small effect on thermal
time constant value. This indicates that most of the heat flows
through the package leads. θJA (junction-to-air thermal resistance)
and θJC (junction-to-case thermal resistance) have little effect on the
thermal response of surface mount digital temperature sensors.
©2006 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved. Trademarks and
registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
AN06506-0-12/06(0)
Rev. 0 | Page 8 of 8
06506-015
Figure 13. ADT7301 Thermal Time Constant
Figure 15. LFCSP
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