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2016
01
Cover Story PAGE 4
Technological progress
in large-format photomultiplier tubes
at Super-Kamiokande
OPTO-SEMICONDUCTOR PRODUCTS
PAGE 21
16 ch distance measurement
APD array for direct TOF
ELECTRON TUBE PRODUCTS
LIGHTNINGCURE LC-L5G
High output 10 W/cm2
PAGE 24
SYSTEMS PRODUCTS
PAGE 39
A new NanoZoomer for whole
slide imaging
Hamamatsu Photonics congratulates
winners of the 2015 Nobel Prize
in Physics
Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. would like to congratulate Professor Takaaki Kajita of the University of Tokyo and
Professor Arthur B. McDonald of Queen's University (Canada) for being jointly awarded the 2015 Nobel Prize
in Physics for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass.
Hamamatsu employees are especially delighted by the recognition of Professor Kajita, whose research at the Super Kamiokande was conducted
in a large-scale facility that included photomultiplier tubes manufactured by the company’s Electron Tube Division. Professor Kajita was one of
several top-tier physics researchers in Japan that provided feedback to Hamamatsu during the development of the high-performance 20-inch
photomultiplier tube (R3600-05) that was installed at the Super Kamiokande facility to detect atmospheric and solar neutrinos. When observations
at the facility began in 1996, there were 11,200 pieces of this photomultiplier tube installed in a 50,000-ton tank of pure water placed 1,000
meters underground. In 1998, when Professor Kajita announced the results of his observations at an international conference on neutrino
astrophysics in Gifu Prefecture, his statement that “there is mass in neutrinos” was widely reported by news media in Japan. It is a source of great
pride of Hamamatsu employees to have contributed to the discovery of new knowledge, as this is part of the company’s mission to continually
support humankind’s journey of scientific discovery.
For further information contact us on email: europe@hamamatsu.de
or visit our website: www.hamamatsu.com
2
News 2016 Vol. 1
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Content
OPTO-SEMICONDUCTOR PRODUCTS
17 MPPC S13360 Series
18 MPPC module C13365 Series, C13366 Series
19 MPPC S13190 Series, S13615 Series
20 Micro-Spectrometer TF Series C13555MA, C13053-54MA
21 Photosensor with front-end IC S13645-01CR
22 Photo IC for Rangefinder S13021-01CT
23 CMOS Linear Image Sensors S11639-01, S13496
ELECTRON TUBE PRODUCTS
24 Linear Type UV-LED Unit LIGHTNINGCURE LC-L5G L12990-2303
25 Deuterium Lamp for Photoionization L13301
26 20 W Xenon Flash Lamp Module L12745 Series
27 Excimer Lamp Light Source "FLAT EXCIMERTM" EX-86U L13129
28 Micro PMT Photon Counting Head H12406/-01
29 Photomultiplier Tube Assembly H13175U-01/20/110
30 High Speed HPD (Hybrid Photo Detector) Assembly H13223-40
31 Head-on Type PMT/Assembly R12421-300 and H12690-300
32 Side-on Type Photomultiplier Tube R13194
33 Side-on Type Photomultiplier Tube R13456
34 Photomultiplier Tube Module H13320 Series
35 Photon Counting Head H13467 Series
36 Wide dynamic Range PMT Unit H13126, C12918 Series
37 High Voltage Power Supply Module C12766-12
SYSTEMS PRODUCTS
38 Optical NanoGauge Thickness Measurement System C13027-02
39 NanoZoomer S210 Digital Slide Scanner C13239-01
41 InGaAs Camera C12741-03, C12741-11
LASER PRODUCTS
43 Fiber Output Laser Diode L13181-01
44 Fiber Output Laser Diode L13421-01
45 CW Laser Diode L13421-04
46 CW Laser Diode L13400, L13402
47 Quantum Cascade Laser
48 Fiber Output Laser Diode Bar Module L13705-20-940DA
49 Pulsed Laser Diode Bar Module L13713-25P940
Cover Story
Application Report
4Technological progress in large-format photomultiplier tubes
at Super-Kamiokande
12Using super-resolution nanorulers to study the capabilities of EM-CCD
and sCMOS cameras beyond the diffraction limit
R&D Interview
SERVICE
8Taking the lead by offering new choices in both high throughput
and energy saving to the world's UV printing market.
50 Global Exhibitions 2016
51 Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. Sales Offices
News 2016 Vol. 1
3
Cover Story
Technological progress in large-format photomultiplier tubes
at Super-Kamiokande
Hiroyuki Kyushima, Electron Tube Technical Department, Electron Tube Division
Super-Kamiokande*1 is a neutrino observatory located in the town of
Kamioka in Hida city, Gifu prefecture, Japan. Super-Kamiokande leads
the world in research on studying the properties of neutrinos*2 by
de­tecting the faint Cherenkov light*3 generated by neutrinos in the
rare cases where they collide with water molecules. Super-Kamiokande
drew a great deal of international attention when Professor Takaaki
Kajita, Director of the Institute for Cosmic Radiation Research, University
of Tokyo, was awarded the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physics, following the
2002 Nobel Prize in Physics given to Masatoshi Koshiba, Emeritus
Professor of University of Tokyo.
reaching the tank wall, making it difficult to obtain a 50 centimeter
position resolution equivalent to the diameter of one 20-inch photo­
multiplier tube. The specifications required by Professor Koshiba called
for: (1) Obtaining pattern information for the Cherenkov light, (2) Time
characteristics within 3 nanoseconds, and (3) Capable of clearly discrim­
i­nating the peak of the single-photon pulse height distribution from the
noise level that becomes relatively noticeable as the number of photons
decreases. Improving these characteristics made it essential to boost
performance by creating a new 20-inch photomultiplier tube.
Specs required for photomultiplier tubes at Super-Kamiokande
In July 1986 we talked with Professor Koshiba about the next planning
(for the Super-Kamiokande facility) after Kamiokande. This was some
7 months before Kamiokande succeeded for the first time in human
history in observing neutrinos arriving from the supernova that ex­plod­
ed in the Large Magellanic Cloud.
Method for boosting performance of 20-inch photomultiplier
tube
We studied how to detect even just one photon more reliably wher­ever
that photon might hit the surface of the photocathode. Fabricating a
smaller electron multiplier section makes it harder to focus photoelec­
trons from photocathode onto the electron multiplier section with an
electron lens due to geomagnetic effects. On the other hand, making
the electron multiplier larger creates another problem that the thin
elec­trodes droop during fabrication due to thermal effects. There was
also the issue of how to minimize the difference in response time of
photoelectrons emitted from the center and from the periphery of the
photocathode surface.
Professor Koshiba’s new plan called for enlarging the pure water tank
size about 20 times from 3,000 tons to 50,000 tons. However, this en­
largement plan would cause a drastic drop in the number of photons
To achieve these goals, we designed a new dynode with a large surface
area. More specifically, to improve the time characteristics of the vene­­tian-blind dynode, we halved the dynode width (pitch) to 2.5 mm to ob­
This article tells of an episode when we developed the large-format
photomultiplier tubes*4 used at Super-Kamiokande and also describes
how the technology we invented at that time is applied to our current
products.
4
News 2016 Vol. 1
Cover Story
tain a scale effect. We also widened the electron multiplier aper­ture to
90 mm from its prior diameter of 75 mm to minimize the geomagnetic
effects. Furthermore, in order to make the photoelectrons emitted from
the photocathode enter the first dynode more efficiently, we found the
optimal position relation between the first and second dynodes and
also arranged a grid pattern immediately in front of the first dynode to
match each blade of the venetian-blind dynode. Since photoelectrons
are emitted from the photocathode surface formed on the inner sur­face
of a semispherical glass bulb in response to the incoming photons,
they are greatly focused on the first dynode by the curvature of the
semispherical surface and further focused by the grid pattern onto
each blade of the first dynode.
In this way we improved the time characteristics whilst simultaneously
retaining the ability to clearly differentiate the peak of the single-photon
pulse height distribution.
Three patents from the development process
Patent 1
Patent 2
Grid pattern placed immediately in
front of first dynode
[Objective] Arrange a designated pattern for
the focusing electrode (grid pattern) placed
between the photocathode and the first dy­
Fig.1 20 inch photomultiplier tube*1
node to
focus photoelectrons by electron lens
effect to efficiently guide photoelectrons from
the photocathode to the first dynode.
Patent 3
Optimized position relation between
first and second dynodes
[Objective] Fabricate a secondary electron
multiplier and a photomultiplier tube with
good collection efficiency by correcting the
trajectory of secondary electrons emitted
from the first dynode to increase number of
electrons reaching the second dynode.
Prevention of feedback to photocathode
[Objective] Prevent ions and weak light gen­
er­ated near the anode of the photo­multiplier
tube from feeding back to the photocathode
by utilizing an optimal number of frame
shaped insulated spacers in the electron
multi­plier section.
20 inch photomultiplier tube*4
Ø 508 mm
Photocathode*5
Focusing electrode*6
Second dynode
Grid between dynodes
First dynode
680 mm
Anode*8
Sectional view of
20 inch photomultiplier tube
Patent 3
Enlarged sectional view of
electron multiplier*7
Patent 2
Patent 1
Enlarged sectional view of focusing
electrode (grid pattern) and dynode
*5 Photocathode: A photoemissive surface that emits electrons (photoelectrons) when
*1 Super-Kamiokande: World’s largest water Cherenkov type neutrino observatory.
struck by light (photons) in a vacuum.
*2 Neutrino: A type of elementary particle having no electric charge and very rarely inter­acting
*6 Focusing
electrode: Electrode
designedoftoaguide
the photoelectrons
emitted
from the
*1.with
Photomultiplier
tube:
A type
of vacuumdifficult
tube that
functions
an extremely
high sensitive
photosensor.
A typical photomultiplier
tube is comprised
photocathode
(photoemissive
surface),
matter, which
makes
it extremely
to detect.
Theasgroup
led by Professor
T. Kajita
photocathode toward the electron multiplier.
provedelectrode,
that neutrinos
domultiplier
have mass.
focusing
electron
section, and an anode.
*7 Electron multiplier: A secondary electron multiplier made up of multi-stage electrodes
*3 Cherenkov light: Very faint bluish light emitted when charged particles pass through
*2. Photocathode: A photoemissive surface that emits electrons (photoelectrons) when struck by light (photons) in a vacuum.
(called dynodes) capable of multiplying electrons 1-10 million times.
water at velocities close to the speed of light.
*3. Focusing electrode:tube:
Electrode
designed
to guide
photoelectrons
from the
photocathode*8 Anode:
toward the electron
multiplier.
An electrode
that collects the electrons multiplied by the electron multiplier.
*4 Photomultiplier
A type
of vacuum
tubethe
that
functions as emitted
an extremely
high
*4.sensitivity
Electron multiplier:
A
secondary
electron
multiplier
made
up
of
multi-stage
electrodes
(called
dynodes)
capable
of
multiplying
electrons to 1 million or even up to 10 million times.
photosensor. A typical photomultiplier tube is comprised of a photocathode
surface),
electrode,
electron
multiplier
section, multiplier.
and an anode.
*5.(photoemissive
Anode: An electrode
thatfocusing
collects the
electrons
multiplied
by the electron
News 2016 Vol. 1
5
Cover Story
Episode
1 Could not fabricate the electrode structure as designed
A problem occurred in which the mold for making the dynode blades
to dimensions of a 2.5 mm width and 90 mm length was broken only
after a few press-work cycles. To resolve this problem, the High Energy
Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) made mold fabrication ex­per­
iments. Then, the Hamamatsu-Electronic Press Co. Ltd. continued the
development to fabricate a mold that splits in the center also by using
several molds (2 cutting and bending processes, 2 forming and bending
processes) and finally succeeded in making practical and hard-to-break
molds with the stress applied to a single mold properly dispersed.
2 Problem of a large noise level
The noise level drastically increased when a voltage of 1,000 V or more
was applied. As a countermeasure to this problem, we interposed an
insulating materials between the adjacent dynodes to prevent ions and
light from feeding back to the photocathode in the electron multi­plica­
tion process.
3 Dedicated manufacturing plant was needed
A dedicated factory was required in order to manufacture 11,200
20-inch photomultiplier tubes. We adopted a design using an easy-toFig.2
Metal package photomultiplier tube
see, easy-to-understand counterclockwise process layout within the
plant. Up until that time, the workers held a large photomultiplier tube
in their hands while moving them, but in the new plant, photo­multiplier
tubes are moved by cranes and roller conveyors after the sealing pro­
cess. The factory layout left in a room on the first floor of building No. 7
at the Toyooka Factory reminds us of the work at that time.
some 250 km away. This was the first time in the world that artificial
neutrinos were detected and this was verified by the detector at SuperKamiokande.
Applying Super-Kamiokande technology (Technological continuity)
1 A
pplying this technology to metal package
photo­multi­plier tubes
The technology for placing a grid pattern immediately in front of the first
dynode has been even further simplified and applied to metal package
photomultiplier tubes developed in 1992. Moreover, the technology for
optimizing the position relation between the first and second dynodes
has been utilized to invent metal channel dynodes with no grid patterns,
which can be mounted between each of the further evolved venetianblind type dynodes. To obtain the same effect in preventing ions
and light from feeding back to the photocathode without using grid
patterns, the feedback prevention has been improved by minimizing
the gap between dynodes and also by using metal packages.
Metal package photomultiplier tube
1 inch square type
22 mm
Flat panel type
52 mm
22 mm
32,7 mm
The neutrino has mass
On June 5, 1998, Professor Kajita made the startling announcement
that “The neutrino has mass” at the ”International Conference on
Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics” held at Takayama city, Japan. The
conclusion that the neutrino has mass was reached from data found
from observing atmospheric neutrinos over 2 years at Super-Kamiokan­
de. This led to a push to reconsider the conventional “Standard Model”
of particle physics.
On June 19, 1999, in order to verify that neutrinos have mass by
utilizing artificial neutrinos, an experiment called K2K (or KEK to
Kamioka) was performed in which a large quantity of muon-neutrinos
made at the KEK synchrotron (proton accelerator) in the city of
Tsukuba were launched through the earth toward Super-Kamiokande
6
News 2016 Vol. 1
TO-8 type
Ø 16 mm
12 mm
Electron
Grid pattern
First dynode
Second dynode
Cover Story
As a result, we developed the world’s smallest (at that time) TO-8
metal package photomultiplier tubes that inherited the technology
originally developed for the world’s largest photomultiplier tubes to
achieve a compact design with excellent time characteristics and the
ability to clearly differentiate the peak of single-photon pulse-height
distribution.
Dynodes have been downsized to a width of 1 mm or 1 mm pitch,
and the forming method was changed from press-working to etching.
These are utilized in TO-8 type, square type, and flat-panel type
photomultiplier tubes.
2 Using this technology in micro PMT
The cross section structure of a micro PMT (photomultiplier tube) we
successfully developed in September 2010 is basically based on the
same concept. It incorporates the grid pattern placed immediately in
front of the first dynode and the optimized position relation between
the first and second dynodes. To obtain the same effect in preventing
ions and light from feeding back to the photocathode, its vacuum
envelope is made of glass plates with the inner side metalized with
aluminum and a silicon substrate that blocks out light
MEMS technology for deep microstructure RIE (reactive ion etching)
which did not yet exist at the time of initial development of the micro
PMT. This MEMS technology allowed forming the focusing electrode
(grid pattern), all dynodes, anode, and the vacuum envelope at one
time. These processes proved ideal for mass production of the micro
PMT for the first time in the world in a manner similar to semiconduc­
tor manufacturing processes.
The photomultiplier tubes utilized the latest technologies available
at that time and provided an innovative design and enhanced value.
Those technologies were applied to various products ranging from the
world’s largest 20-inch photomultiplier tubes to the world’s smallest
micro PMT and from hereon we can anticipate even further dramatic
advances.
Product size comparison (1/10th of actual dimensions)
a)
A 3-dimensional curved dynode structure was utilized in view of the
vacuum envelope thickness to help minimize the gap between dy­nodes
while providing electron multiplier pathways. Achieving this kind of
3-dimensional deep microstructure of silicon required advances in
Micro PMT (Photomultiplier tube)
φ 508 mm x H 680 mm max.
b)
Connection terminal
Second dynode
First dynode
Focusing electrode (grid pattern)
c)
Secondary electron
φ 16 mm x H 12 mm
Vacuum (to 10-4 Pa)
e)
1cm
Anode
Direction of light
Photocathode and input window
d)
Vacuum tube
Last dynode
Electron multiplier (dynodes)
52 x H 16.5 mm
1cm
30 x H 18.7 mm
W 10 mm x H 18 mm
a) 20-inch photomultiplier tube; b) flat panel type multianode photomultiplier
tube; c) 1-inch square metal package photomultiplier tube; d) TO-8 metal package
photomultiplier tube; e) micro PMT
News 2016 Vol. 1
7
Taking the lead by offering new choices
in both high throughput and energy saving
to the world's UV printing market.
リニア照射型UV-LEDユニット
Linear type UV-LED unit LIGHTNINGCURE® LC-L5G
Printers express and reproduce colors to an unbelievably
realistic level to boost the basic product value. Among
these, UV printers (printers using ultraviolet light to dry ink)
are popular since they can print on almost any surface.
The UV-LED light sources made by Hamamatsu Photonics
are gaining a big name for themselves in the market of
UV printers. Now, Hamamatsu offers the new linear type
8
News 2016 Vol. 1
UV-LED unit ”LIGHTNINGCURE LC-L5G.” Compared to the
conventional model LC-L5, the LC-L5G delivers dras­tically
higher specs including 1.5 times the input power, 7 times
the light output and half the cost, yet its size is one-third
that of the LC-L5. We interviewed the de­velop­ment team
members to find out how they succeeded in creating this
new model which is drawing global attention at exhibitions.
R&D Interview
Big expectations for UV-LED light sources from
features found in conventional models
So what type of product is the LIGHTNINGCURE LC-L5G?
Suzuki: The LC-L5G is an LED light source that emits ultraviolet light.
This product was designed to target the UV printing market. In add­ition
to paper, UV printing works on all kinds of items including containers,
cardboard boxes and boards. Moreover, the print quality is high and
tact time (time for printing and drying) is short. Therefore the UV print­
ing mar­ket is rapidly expanding all over the world.
Matsui: The technology to dry ink with ultraviolet light has been
around for 60 years and UV printing itself has been steadily expanding
for some 45 years. At the start of the 21st century, we saw an increasing
demand in the UV printing market for shifting light sources from
con­­ventional metal halide lamps to energy-saving LED. At that time,
UV-LED did not have enough output power and so failed to be­come
widespread. About 5 to 6 years ago, UV-LED appeared having a light
output equivalent to metal halide lamps. So now the use of UV-LED
light sources has become practical.
Suzuki: When the conventional model LC-L5 was released 5 years
ago, we foresaw it would be used in the market of UV curing for
assembly of smartphones and tablet computers. Applying ultraviolet
light to dry the adhesive is one application of UV curing. What we also
Irradiance distribution
focused on, at the same time, was the market of UV printers. There
were plenty of enquiries about the conventional model, but these
ended with the comment “it still does not have enough power.” So we
started designing and developing the LC-L5G in a bid to capture the
printing market with a high-power model.
In other words, the ultimate mission for developing the LC-L5G was
to make a high power model, right?
Suzuki: Yes, we knew through our conventional model that increased
needs would arise in the printing market. We had to face the painful
realization that our conventional model did not have enough power.
In other words, we knew if we could increase light output we could
acquire a larger market. We therefore poured all our efforts into accom­
plishing that goal.
Matsui: The LC-L5G achieves specs of 10 W/cm2, which is the world’s
highest output level among air-cooled types. It is 1.2 times that of our
competitor’s products. Increasing the light output also boosts the printer
throughput or, in other words, the production line speed.
Suzuki: Currently, the metal halide lamp is the mainstream in light
sources for UV printers, but it has a product service life of only 2,000 to
3,000 hours. However, by switching to UV-LED light sources, service life
could be extended to 20,000 hours. The UV-LED may be more expen­
sive in terms of initial investment, but the low running costs make it a
true bargain in the long term.
Irradiance distribution
X direction
Y direction
12000
12000
Distance from beam exit point: 2 mm
8000
7 times
UP
6000
4000
2000
0
-50
Conventional model
LC-L5
-40
-30
LC-L5G
10000
Irradiance distribution (mW/cm2)
Irradiance distribution (mW/cm2)
10000
Distance from beam exit point: 2 mm
LC-L5G
-20
8000
4000
2000
-10
0
10
20
Distance from irradiated center (mm)
30
40
50
7 times
UP
6000
0
-30
Conventional model
LC-L5
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
Distance from irradiated center (mm)
News 2016 Vol. 1
9
R&D Interview
The battle against heat, assessing options from every angle
What were the critical factors in designing a high power UV-LED?
Kashiwabara: The development requirements were extremely chal­
len­ging … one third of the size, 1.5 times higher input power, 7 times
higher light output and half the cost, yet a housing temperature about
the same as a conventional model.
Murayama: The first time I heard these challenging requirements,
they seemed so impossible that I couldn’t believe my ears. Even on
the conventional model we had a really hard time satisfying the heat
dissipation require­ments. Yet in spite of all that, we had to deal with
increased heat emis­­sions caused by the higher power output. More­
over, we were told this would not be water-cooled but must be
air-cooled. To be honest, I thought accomplishing this was totally
impossible.
But in spite of all this, you achieved your goals didn’t you?
Matsui: At a point where about one year had passed since the start
of LC-L5G development, we had reached the same level as our com­
pe­ti­tor’s products and had mostly secured orders from customers
satis­fied with how our prototype functioned. However, at that point in
time, we had only reached about 70 % of our target relating to heat
dissipation design; a critical requirement. So we faced the extremely
tough situation of how to reach a 100 % successful design in only
about 3 months. In the end it was Mr. Murayama who succeeded.
Murayama: I knew I had to manage this heat dissipation issue,
other­wise we couldn't complete development of this product. I studied
the issue from all angles including selection of the housing material,
heatsink size and fan, and the bal­ance between the heatsink and the
fan in an attempt to find a solution.
Matsui: Mr. Kashiwabara and I also worked on each respon­sible area
drying)All
ensures clear printing.
to get Pinning
ridPinning
of (temporary
excess
heat.
were
studied in each area and
(temporary
drying) aspects
ensures clear
printing.
Mr. Murayama came through for us with the final breakthrough.
You also had to re-evaluate the electronic circuits I suppose?
Kashiwabara: Yes, we had to first reduce the circuit board size to
one-third of the conventional model, which meant taking a new look
at each and every circuit and closely examining what functions are
needed and what functions are not. We basically had to scrape off any
excess and if performance was low, select high performance parts and
improve the circuit design in order to satisfy our target specifications.
Of course we also had to meet demands to reduce costs which meant
striking a balance between selecting electronic components and circuit
design.
A team that never forgot “Don’t say I can’t. Say I’ll try”
What was the reason for setting all of these tough design
requirements?
Matsui: We first started out by fabricating what was basically an ex­
ten­sion of our conventional model. However, a competitor of the same
type UV-LED light sources already had a product capable of a light out­­­­put of 8 W/cm2. That was the point we realized that just making a better
model than our old one only gave us a product with half the light out­
put power of our competitors. That fact made us realize that “if another
company can achieve such specs in that size, then we can do the same
thing or even better. There is nothing that we cannot do if it’s already on
the market” and so we set all of these tough design conditions.
Suzuki: Those tough design conditions were also driven by customer
demands and needs. Mr. Matsui set these design conditions to respond
to what the market wanted to get.
And so you were finally able to overtake the competitor’s product?
Matsui: I think the area where we overtook our competitors was
due to the successful efforts of Mr. Murayama and Mr. Kashiwabara.
At this point I can now say that if it came to the worse case scenario
and Mr. Murayama’s heat dissipation design didn’t work, then I was
starting to think of lowering our specifications to the same level as our
competitor’s product.
Without pinning
Without pinning
(temporary
drying)
(temporary drying)
With pinning
With pinning
(temporary
drying)
(temporary drying)
Pinning
Pinning
(temporary
drying) Drying
(temporary drying) Drying
Drying
Drying
Printing process
Printing process
Example:
Example:
Barcode
printing
Barcode printing
Printing process
Printing process
Example:
Example:
Barcode
printing
Barcode printing
Pinning (temporary drying) ensures clear printing.
10
News 2016 Vol. 1
R&D Interview
Murayama: I never heard about that… (laughter). Actually in the
final part of development, we simply could not get the internal tem­
perature to drop no matter what we did and so kept trying different
experiments while sighing and hoping for better results. There were
many times when I thought of going to Mr. Matsui and saying “I am
really sorry, please make do with this.” But something inside kept
pushing hard to make me continue trying to make those target prod­
uct specs a reality. After all kinds of experiments and design changes
we finally succeeded, just barely meeting the deadline. I was really
glad (laughter).
Making our photonics technology major in the UV
printing market
What do you
see as the likely new trends in the future?
Pinning (temporary drying) ensures clear printing.
Suzuki: During 2016 and beyond we will be offering various types
of UV-LED to support a variety of printers including inkjet, screen,
Without pinning
flexographic, pre-drying, etc. I recently
visited a printer exhibition in
(temporary drying)
Europe where I found that the UV printing market is demanding light
Dryingtions. That will be
output power higher than current product specifica­
Example:
the next future issue to deal with.
Suzuki: Our development team really showed great teamwork. I was
involved in sales and even if I gave them a tough request such as “We
need this” after listening to customer requests, the team would never
say, “That’s impossible” but would start thinking about what to do
Barcode printing
Printing process
next. This team takes the words of Mr. Teruo Hiruma (Chairman of the
Board of Hamamatsu Photonics) to heart “Don’t say I can’t. Say I’ll try.” Murayama: That means I will have to start looking for a more efficient
method to reduce heat.
Mr. Matsui you really know how to put together a great team.
What is your secret?
Kashiwabara: I will be studying how to increase the input power to
Matsui: That’s not something I consciously think about, but I always
the circuitry. But driving circuits with high electrical power generates a
welcome any ideas the members have to offer.
great deal of heat. Figuring out how to put heat dissipation tech­nol­ogy
to work to eliminate heat in a limited space will be a development issue
Murayama: He always listens to our ideas and if it looks possible
where our entire team will have to work together to make progress.
he immediately says: “Let’s try it.” He is definitely someone easy to
approach with new ideas and plans. When I was having a hard time
Matsui: I hope our UV-LED light sources will prove a valuable asset in
with some problem, then Mr. Matsui and Mr. Kashiwabara would
markets involvedPinning
with (temporary
printing drying)
applications.
I think it would be great
ensures clear printing.
always come up with a lot of plans and suggestions which in turn
if technology utilizing light and optics could be expanded even further
caused many ideas to bubble up inside me.
into the printing market.
Kashiwabara: If I proposed some type of approach to a problem
with a circuit I was in charge of, then Mr. Matsui would say: “You
might also try this other approach.” These types of exchanges helped
create new ideas and after agreeing on them we were able to start
making progress.
Please read also product information on page 24.
With pinning
(temporary dry
Without
Suzuki: Applying not only UV-LED light sources but
alsopinning
excimer lamp
(temporary drying)
light sources to printing applications is being studied.
Hamamatsu
Photonics is a major player in the medical treatment and chemical
analytical markets, but is still not well known in the printing market. Drying
We will be working hard to also gain a name for “Hamamatsu” in the
printing market.
Printing process
Members (from the left)
Hiroya Kashiwabara, Electron Tube Division, Manuf. #4
(in charge of electrical circuitry)
Kyoichi Murayama, Electron Tube Division, Manuf. #4
(in charge of housing & heat dissipation design)
Ryotaro Matsui, Electron Tube Division, Manuf. #4
(coordinator of development project, in charge of LED)
Akimasa Suzuki, Electron Tube Division, Business
Promotion 2nd Group (in charge of sales)
News 2016 Vol. 1
11
Pinning
(temporary d
Printing pro
Application Report
sing super-resolution nanorulers to study the capabilities of
U
EM-CCD and sCMOS cameras beyond the diffraction limit
Light microscopes enabling super-resolution imaging suffer from a
standardized quantification method. We demonstrate the quantifica­tion
of a super-resolution microscope by using standardized DNA origami
samples with the help of two leading camera technologies (EM-CCD
and sCMOS).
1. Overview
Recently, the Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to Stephan Hell,
Eric Betzig and William E. Moerner for their groundbreaking im­prove­
ments in optical and single molecule microscopy. Their fundamental
work and innovative approaches made it possible to image structures
smaller than the diffraction barrier of light (~200 nm), a limit which
was first introduced by Ernst Abbe in 1873. The development of novel
types of microscopes, so called ‘super-resolution’ microscopes, en­abled
the visualization of biological processes on a molecular level and im­­
proved the insight in diverse fields of biomedicine such as neuro­sci­ence,
morphogenesis or drug delivery, to name a few. Researchers de­veloped
a large number of methods to overcome the diffraction barrier based
on spatiotemporal fluorescent switching.
In this paper, we performed a standard single molecule switching nano­
scopy (SMSN) technique to demonstrate how two camera tech­nol­ogies
(EM-CCD and sCMOS) can resolve the world’s first stand­ard­ized nano
samples. The utilization of nanostructured standards from GATTAquant
GmbH offered the opportunity to test the super-resolution capability
of Hamamatsu´s leading camera technologies in a quantitative and
reproducible way.
2. Introduction
In nature nearly all biomolecules are smaller than 200 nm. As a con­­
sequence, the finest structures of fluorescently labeled cells and their
molecular components are hidden under the intensity peak from a
single point source of light (point-spread function – PSF), which is
emitted by a nanoscaled fluorophore. To overcome this barrier, superresolution microscopy makes use of the changing states of fluor­es­cence
markers and measures the shape of the blinking PSF1. In general there
are two main techniques to achieve a bright ON or dark OFF state of
fluorophores, either by deterministic photoswitching in space or by
stochastically switching single molecule fluorescence ON and OFF in
space and time. Prominent methods of the first technique involves
ground state depletion (GSD) microscopy2, reversible saturable optical
12
News 2016 Vol. 1
fluorescence transition (RESOLFT) microscopy3, linear or saturated
structured illumination microscopy4, 5 ((S)SIM) or stimulated emission
depletion (STED) microscopy6. In the field of stochastic imaging (direct)
stochastic optical reconstruction mi­croscopy7, 8 ((d)STORM), (fluores­
cence) photo-activation localization mi­cros­copy9, 10 ((f)PALM), or (DNAbased) point accumulation for imaging in nano­scale top­og­raphy11
((DNA-)PAINT) are known to be commonly used.
Nevertheless, whichever technique is applied, samples with standard­
ized dimensions are missing. Recently founded GATTAquant GmbH
utilizes state-of-the-art innovations in the field of DNA nano­technol­ogy
to fabricate probes for fast, easy and precise quantification of superresolution systems12, 13. The samples allow the quantification of the
resolution of the microscope with a precision of a few nanometers.
This is possible by using special nanoconstructs, so called ‘DNA origami
structures’14-16, as a breadboard for placing single dye molecules in
an exactly defined pattern. This technique allows the placement of
fluorophores in preassigned distances, subsequently serving as a ruler
on the nanoscale. To study the capabilities of different cameras we
focused on nanorulers using DNA-PAINT as SMSN technique (GATTAPAINT 80R nanoruler). DNA-PAINT is based on the transient binding
of fluorophore-labeled “imager” strands to complementary target
positions on the nanoruler, enabling a stochastic blinking and subse­
quently allowing for the reconstruction of a super-resolved image17.
Besides the blinking technique itself and the optical instrument, which
is necessary to perform super-resolution imaging, the camera is a key
component. The sensor records the PSF, which is used to reconstruct
the super-resolved image. Currently there are two leading camera
tech­nologies on the market, which are suitable for super-resolution
imaging. In general, both offer a very low readout noise characteristic.
The widespread electron multiplying charge coupled device (EM-CCD)
cameras multiply the number of electrons on-chip before digitalization.
New scientific complementary metal oxide semiconductor (sCMOS)
cameras show comparable low-light sensitivities. In general, they are
governed by an order of magnitude higher read noise (~1 e-) but do
not suffer from electron multiplication noise compared to EM-CCDs.
The goal of this white paper is to envision the capability of Hamamatsu’s
cameras for super-resolution imaging using both EM-CCD and sCMOS
technologies with the help of GATTAquant’s standardized nanorulers.
Application Report
In the equation, QE is the quantum efficiency which is the ratio of inci­
dent photons to converted electrons. For the sCMOS camera the peak
quantum efficiency is 72 % (at 560 nm) and for the EM-CCD 92 % (at
560 nm). Further, S is the digital signal value in analogue digital units
(ADU). Ib is the signal intensity of the background in the experiments.
Nr is the readout noise and is a statistical expression of the variability
within the electronics that convert the charge of the photoelectrons in
each pixel to a digital number. EM gain occurs in a voltage dependent,
stepwise manner and the total amount is a combination of the voltage
applied and number of steps in the EM register. EM gain has a statistical
distribution and an associated variance, which is accounted for by Fn.
At typical EM-CCD gains up to 1200, Fn = ≈1.4. Since CCD and CMOS
do not have EM gain, Fn = 1 in these cameras. Please note that in this
calculation the dark current is neglected because exposure times in
localization experiments are typically less than 1 s.
In Figure 1, the signal-to-noise ratio in absolute values versus input
signal photons in number of photons per pixel is plotted. Values are
taken from the data sheets of the cameras. The blue line corresponds
to the sCMOS camera and the green line to the EM-CCD camera.
Add­itionally the effect of excess noise in EM-CCD cameras is plotted
and expressed by the purple line. As sCMOS technology has a six fold
smaller pixel area, the corrected plot for sCMOS is also shown and
de­noted as the red line. The graph suggests small advantages for
sCMOS technology in terms of sensitivity of more than 10 photons per
indi­vid­ual pixel (intersection of blue and green line). If excess noise is
1000
3
2,5
2
1,5
100
Signal to noise ratio
3. Imaging technologies
Currently, there are two leading technologies in the field of ultra-low
light camera detectors. Super-resolution imaging is clearly considered
for ultra-low light applications since typical light levels are less than
1000 photons per pixel per frame. On the one hand there is the Elec­tron
Multiplying Charge Coupled Device (EM-CCD) sensor which multiplies
the photoelectrons in an electron multiplying register on the chip and
on the other hand the scientific grade Complementary Metal Oxide
Semiconductor (sCMOS) sensor which amplifies the photoelectrons on
the pixel directly. Typically, these different signal processes introduce
different readout noise levels and characteristics20, 21. The electron mul­
ti­pli­cation in EM-CCD enables the detection of weak light and lowers
the readout noise to less than 1e- (rms) but introduces additional noise
(excess noise) which effectively lowers the superior quantum efficiency
of more than 90 % by a factor of 2. In contrast, sCMOS cameras do
not suffer from excess noise but show a higher readout noise of 1.4 e(rms). With the help of the following equation the signal-to-noise ratio
can be calculated theoretically.
1
5
10
15 20
10
1
sCMOS
EM-CCD
sCMOS (compensated pixel size)
EM-CCD (excess noise)
0.1
1
10
100
Input signal / photons per pixel
1000
10000
Figure 1: Theoretical signal-to-noise ratios for EM-CCD (green) and sCMOS (blue)
in dependency of input photons per individual pixel at 688 nm. The purple line is
the excess noise corrected SNR-plot for the EM-CCD and the red line compensates
the different pixel sizes of the two sensors.
accounted for with the EM-CCD, this intersection shifts to 4 photons
per individual pixel. However, the corrected pixel sizes for the sCMOS
camera reveals a 30 % better SNR.
In some super resolution applications the acquisition speed may be
another interesting sensor parameter that makes your application de­
mand­ing. The EM-CCD camera allows 70 fps at full resolution whereas
the rolling shutter in the sCMOS camera allows for an operation at
100 fps at full resolution.
4. Materials and methods
Super-resolution standards (GATTA-PAINT 80R nanoruler) were provided
as ready-to-use slides from GATTAquant GmbH, Braun­schweig, Germany.
High sensitivity cameras (ImagEM X2 and ORCA-Flash4.0 V2) were
provided by Hamamatsu Photonics Deutschland GmbH, Herrsching,
Germany.
Super-resolution imaging was performed on a custom-built total in­
tern­al reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscope, based on an in­verted
microscope body (IX71, Olympus). For excitation, a 150 mW, 644 nm
diode laser was used (iBeam smart, Toptica Photonics) which was
spectrally filtered using a clean-up filter (Brightline HC 650/13, Semrock)
and coupled into the microscope with a beamsplitter (zt 647 rdc,
Chroma). The laser beam was focused to the backfocal plane of an
oil-immersion objective (100x, NA = 1.4, UPlanSApo, Olympus) and
News 2016 Vol. 1
13
Application Report
b)
a)
Frequency
Frequency
200
150
100
50
Frequency
100
Distance (nm)
150
f)
600
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
binding
20
40
FWHM (nm)
60
0
20
40
FWHM (nm)
60
350
300
400
250
300
200
200
150
100
100
0
0
400
500
Frequency
e)
d)
50
OFF
designed with a distance of 80 nm between two adjacent marks (and
consequently 160 nm between the two exterior marks). The fluo­res­
cence signal is based on the transient binding of ATTO 655 labeled
imager oligonucleotides to the complementary target marks on the
c)
0
ON
Figure 2: Illustration of the DNA-PAINT imaging technique: The transient binding
and unbinding of fluorescently labeled oligonucleotides to specifically designed
binding sites, mimics a signal of blinking dye molecules which can be processed in
the same way as standard localization based SR microscopy.
300
0
OFF
Time
250
100 nm
ON
binding
binding
Intensity
OFF
unbinding
5. Results and discussion
The GATTA-PAINT 80R nanorulers are straight rods based on DNA
origami structures, featuring three marks for DNA-PAINT imaging
ON
unbinding
Typical acquisition parameters were: laser power: ~9 kW/cm2, inte­
gra­tion time: 30 ms, number of frames: 10,000, EM gain (for EM-CCD
camera): 150. Acquisition was controlled by open source microscopy
software Micro-Manager, followed by analysis using custom-built spot
finding and 2D-Gaussian fitting algorithms based on MATLAB and
LabVIEW. Reconstructed images with resolved nanorulers were finally
analyzed using the GATTAnalysis software from GATTAquant GmbH.
OFF
unbinding
aligned for TIRF illumination. In addition, a 1.6x optical magnification
was applied resulting in an effective pixel size of 100 nm (EM-CCD)
or 40.6 nm (sCMOS). The fluorescence light was spectrally filtered by
an emission filter (ET 700/75, Chroma). For imaging, an electron multi­
plying charge coupled device (EM-CCD, ImagEM X2, Hamamatsu) or
a scientific complementary metal oxide semiconductor (sCMOS, ORCAFlash4.0, Hamamatsu) camera was used. To minimize setup and sample
drift, the microscope was mounted on an actively stabilized optical
table (TS-300, JRS Scientific Instruments). Additionally, the ob­ject­ive
was mounted via a nosepiece (IX2-NPS, Olympus).
50
0
50
100
Distance (nm)
150
0
Figure 3: a) DNA-PAINT images of GATTA-PAINT 80R nanorulers acquired with an EM-CCD camera. b) Gained distance histogram showing an average distance of
(77 ± 14) nm. c) Gained histogram of the individual mark FWHMs showing an average FWHM of (25 ± 6) nm. d) DNA-PAINT images of GATTA-PAINT 80R nanorulers
acquired with an sCMOS camera. e) Gained distance histogram showing an average distance of (79 ± 18) nm. f) Gained histogram of the individual mark FWHMs showing
an average FWHM of (19 ± 8) nm.
14
News 2016 Vol. 1
Application Report
nanoruler (Figure 2). The data presented originates from the identical
probe, whereas the cameras were exchanged during this study.
For both camera types – the EM-CCD and the sCMOS – hundreds of
nanorulers could be resolved, confirming the qualitative capability for
super-resolution imaging and subsequent image reconstruction. The re­
con­structed image, given as a 2D heat map of the single events, clearly
shows the three in-line marks of the nanoruler (Figure 3a and d).
Using the GATTAnalysis software both the distances between adjacent
marks and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of every individual
mark is determined for each ruler, respectively. The results are binned in
a histogram and fitted accordingly with a Gaussian. The EM-CCD cam­era
shows an average distance of (77 ± 14) nm for the GATTA-PAINT 80R
nano­ruler (Figure 3b) with a FWHM of (25 ± 6) nm (Figure 3c). Using
the same acquisition parameters for the sCMOS camera, the distance
values of (79 ± 18) nm tend to be very similar in comparison to the
EM-CCD camera (Figure 3e), nevertheless the FWHM is clearly shifted
to (19 ± 8) nm, resulting in an improved FWHM by 24 % (Figure 3f).
In the following the intensity signals of the blinking events are iden­
tified in detail for both the EM-CCD and sCMOS. Therefore, 10 inten­sity
levels from the blinking spots from 10 different frames are measured.
The EM-CCD showed average intensity values of (29,098 ± 8,590) ADU
a)
1400
2 µm
and the sCMOS (768 ± 266) ADU. Both camera sensors allow 16 bit
ADU values so that the EM-CCD is saturated by 44 % and the sCMOS
to only 1.2 % on average. However to calculate the signal-to-noise ratio
the background signal also has to be taken into account. To identify
the average background signals the mean value of a square is
meas­ured (see Figure 4). The EM-CCD has background intensities of
(15,224 ± 564) ADU and the sCMOS (282 ± 21) ADU. Now these
values can be used to calculate the signal-to-noise ratios as previously
explained (see equation 1). The EM-CCD shows a SNR of 93 per pixel
and the sCMOS 20 per pixel. Considering the six times smaller pixel
area (256 µm² / 42.25 µm² = 6) of the sCMOS this value increases
to 120. In other words the sCMOS sensor has an improved SNR of
30 %. This fact validates the theoretical SNR consideration discussed
before (see Imaging Technologies).
Nevertheless the intensities are highly sufficient for threshold-based spot
finding and subsequent 2D Gaussian fitting. The calculated dis­tance
values of the reconstructed nanorulers only slightly deviate for each
camera type. Further they strongly agree with the designed distance of
80 nm within the given standard error. The FWHM for the EM-CCD is
found to be around 25 nm, a value comparable to previous DNA-PAINT
measurements17-19. Nevertheless, our finding that the FWHM for the
sCMOS is around 19 nm opens the potential use of these camera types
for single molecule measurements.
b)
37500
750
22750
100
8000
2 µm
Figure 4: a) sCMOS raw image (480 x 360 pxls) b) EM-CCD raw image (192 x 144 pxls). The images are 8bit LUT corrected. A red square identifies the area where the
background intensity was identified in the SNR calculation. The red circle measures a PSF of a fluorophore. The color scales indicate the intensity values in ADU.
News 2016 Vol. 1
15
Application Report
6. Conclusions
The utilization of GATTAquant´s standardized nanostructures for superreso­lution microscopy offers a variety of advantages compared to previ­
ous test samples like microtubules or fluorescent beads. It is the first
time that a large amount of identical patterns, with defined distances, is
available and these nanorulers allow for the parallel analysis and stat­is­
ti­cal validation of the resolution of the set-up. In addition, their fluo­res­­cent properties are – due to the selected type and number of dyes –
comparable to real samples, for instance mimicking classically stained cell
samples in a more comparable way to setup parameters and settings.
Now, the utilization of these standard probes enables the verification
of the performance of different camera types under uniform (or stable)
conditions. The statistical data evaluation allows a direct comparison of
Hamamatsu´s EM-CCD and sCMOS cameras and confirms their benefit
for super-resolution imaging.
The SNR measurement showed small advantages for sCMOS technol­
ogy. Recently, Hamamatsu launched a new sCMOS camera with 10 %
in­crease of quantum efficiency over the visible spectra. This makes
sCMOS technology even more suitable for super-resolution imaging.
Key words
DNA-PAINT, Standardized Super Resolution, Ultra Low Light Camera, Nano­ruler,
sCMOS, EM-CCD
Authors
Dr. Benjamin Eggart, Application Engineer
+49 (8152) 375 205, beggart@hamamatsu.de
Hamamatsu Photonics Deutschland GmbH
http://www.hamamatsu.de
Dr. Max Boy Scheible, Research and Development
+49 (531) 391 5349, scheible@gattaquant.com
GATTAquant GmbH
http://www.gattaquant.com/
Dr. Carsten Forthmann
+49 (531) 391 5349, forthmann@gattaquant.com
GATTAquant GmbH
http://www.gattaquant.com/
References
1. Hell, S. W., Far-field optical nanoscopy. In Science, 2007; Vol. 316, p 1153.
2.Hell, S. W.; Kroug, M., Ground-state-depletion fluorscence microscopy: A
concept for breaking the diffraction resolution limit. In Applied Physics B,
Springer: 1995; Vol. 60, pp 495-497.
3.Hofmann, M.; Eggeling, C.; Jakobs, S.; Hell, S. W., Breaking the diffraction
barrier in fluorescence microscopy at low light intensities by using reversibly
photoswitchable proteins. In Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2005; Vol. 102, pp
17565-17569.
4.Gustafsson, M. G. L., Surpassing the lateral resolution limit by a factor of two
using structured illumination microscopy. In Journal of Microscopy, 2000;
Vol. 198, pp 82-87.
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News 2016 Vol. 1
5.
Gustafsson, M., Nonlinear structured-illumination microscopy: Wide-field
fluorescence imaging with theoretically unlimited resolution. In Proceedings
of the National Academy of …, 2005.
6.
Hell, S. W.; Wichmann, J., Breaking the diffraction resolution limit by
stimulated emission: stimulated-emission-depletion fluorescence microscopy.
In Opt Lett, Optical Society of America: 1994; Vol. 19, pp 780-782.
7.Rust, M. J.; Bates, M.; Zhuang, X., Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic
optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM). In Nat Meth, 2006; Vol. 3, pp
793-795.
8.
Heilemann, M.; van de Linde, S.; Schüttpelz, M.; Kasper, R.; Seefeldt,
B.; Mukherjee, A.; Tinnefeld, P.; Sauer, M., Subdiffraction-Resolution
Fluorescence Imaging with Conventional Fluorescent Probes. In Angew
Chem Int Ed Engl, 2008; Vol. 47, pp 6172-6176.
9.Betzig, E.; Patterson, G. H.; Sougrat, R.; Lindwasser, O. W.; Olenych, S.;
Bonifacino, J. S.; Davidson, M. W.; Lippincott-Schwartz, J.; Hess, H. F.,
Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution. In
Science, 2006; Vol. 313, pp 1642-1645.
10.Hess, S. T.; Girirajan, T. P. K.; Mason, M. D., Ultra-high resolution imaging by
fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy. In Biophys J, 2006; Vol.
91, pp 4258-4272.
11.Sharonov, A.; Hochstrasser, R., Wide-field subdiffraction imaging by accu­
mu­lated binding of diffusing probes. In Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2006;
Vol. 103, p 18911.
12.
Schmied, J. J.; Gietl, A.; Holzmeister, P.; Forthmann, C.; Steinhauer, C.;
Dammeyer, T.; Tinnefeld, P., Fluorescence and super-resolution standards
based on DNA origami. In Nat Meth, 2012; Vol. 9, pp 1133-1134.
13.Schmied, J. J.; Raab, M.; Forthmann, C.; Pibiri, E.; Wünsch, B.; Dammeyer,
T.; Tinnefeld, P., DNA origami-based standards for quantitative fluorescence
microscopy. In Nat Protoc, 2014; Vol. 9, pp 1367-1391.
14.Rothemund, P. W. K., Folding DNA to create nanoscale shapes and patterns.
In Nature, 2006; Vol. 440, pp 297-302.
15.Douglas, S. M.; Dietz, H.; Liedl, T.; Högberg, B.; Graf, F.; Shih, W. M., Selfassembly of DNA into nanoscale three-dimensional shapes. In Nature, 2009;
Vol. 459, pp 414-418.
16.Dietz, H.; Douglas, S. M.; Shih, W. M., Folding DNA into twisted and curved
nanoscale shapes. In Science, 2009; Vol. 325, pp 725-730.
17.
Jungmann, R.; Steinhauer, C.; Scheible, M. B.; Kuzyk, A.; Tinnefeld, P.;
Simmel, F. C., Single-molecule kinetics and super-resolution microscopy by
fluorescence imaging of transient binding on DNA origami. In Nano Lett,
2010; Vol. 10, pp 4756-4761.
18.Lin, C.; Jungmann, R.; Leifer, A. M.; Li, C.; Levner, D.; Church, G. M.; Shih,
W. M.; Yin, P., Submicrometre geometrically encoded fluorescent barcodes
self-assembled from DNA. In Nat Chem, 2012; Vol. 4, pp 832-839.
19.Scheible, M. B.; Pardatscher, G.; Kuzyk, A.; Simmel, F. C., Single molecule
characterization of DNA binding and strand displacement reactions on
lithographic DNA origami microarrays. In Nano Lett, 2014; Vol. 14, pp 16271633.
20.Hernandez-Palacios, J., and L. L. Randeberg. “Intercomparison of EM-CCDand sCMOS-based imaging spectrometers for biomedical applications in lowlight conditions.“ SPIE BiOS. International Society for Optics and Photonics,
2012.
21.Long, Fan, Shaoqun Zeng, and Zhen-Li Huang. “Localization-based superresolution microscopy with an sCMOS camera Part II: Experimental meth­
odology for comparing sCMOS with EM-CCD cameras.“ Optics express
20.16 (2012): 17741-17759.
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M
OPTO-SEMICONDUCTOR PRODUCTS
MPPC
S13360 Series
New
Low crosstalk MPPC® for precision measurement
The S13360 series are MPPCs for precision measurement. They inherit
the superb low afterpulse characteristics of previous products and further
provide lower crosstalk and lower dark count. Various types with different
photosensitive areas and pixel pitches are available.
Features
„„ Reduced crosstalk and dark count (compared to previous products)
„„ Excellent photon-counting capability (excellent detection efficiency versus
number of incident photons)
„„ MPPC array also available (S13361 series)
S13360 series
Applications
„„ Fluorescence measurement
„„ Laser microscope
„„ Flow cytometry
„„ DNA sequencer
For details on product specifications, visit our website.
Pulse waveform comparison (typical example)
NEW S13360-3050CS series
(M = 1.25 × 106)
(M = 1.25 × 106)
50 mV
50 mV
Previous product
10 ns
10 ns
News 2016 Vol. 1
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OPTO-SEMICONDUCTOR PRODUCTS
MPPC module
C13365 Series, C13366 Series
New
Low-light-level measurement module with built-in
new MPPC The C13365/C13366 series are modules capable of low-light-level detection
with a new built-in MPPC for precision measurement. These modules consist of
an MPPC, an amplifier, a high-voltage power supply circuit, and a temperature
compensation circuit. The modules operate by simply connecting them to an
external power supply (±5 V). Digital output and analog output types are
available.
Features
„„ New MPPC for precision measurement built-in
„„ High sensitivity in the short wavelength range
„„ Low noise equivalent power
„„ Built-in temperature compensation circuit
„„ Compact and lightweight
C13365 series, C13366 series
Applications
„„ Low-light-level measurement
Specifications
Parameter
C13365
-1350SA
C13366
-3050SA
-1350GA
-3050GA
-1350GD
-3050GD
Output
Analog
Analog
Digital
Cooling
Non-cooled
Cooled
Cooled
Photosensitive area
Number of pixels
1.3 x 1.3
667
Pixel pitch
Photoelectric sensitivity
Photon detection efficiency
Noise equivalent power*1
Dark count*2
*1 Dark state
*2 Threshold: 0.5 p.e.
18
News 2016 Vol. 1
3.0 x 3.0
1.3 x 1.3
3,600
667
50
50
1.0 x 109
0.5
1.2
-
3.0 x 3.0
1.3 x 1.3
3,600
667
Unit
-
3.0 x 3.0
3,600
mm
-
50
µm
1.0 x 109
-
V/W
-
40
%
-
fW/Hz1/2
0.1
0.15
-
2.5
12
kcps
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OPTO-SEMICONDUCTOR PRODUCTS
MPPC
S13190 Series, S13615 Series
New
MPPCs in a chip size package miniaturized through
the adoption of TSV*1 structure
1m
m
The S13190/S13615 series are MPPCs for precision measurement mini­aturized
by the use of TSV and CSP*2 technologies. The adoption of a TSV structure made
it possible to eliminate wiring on the photosensitive area side, resulting in a
compact structure with little dead space compared with previous products. The
four-side buttable structure allows multiple devices to be arranged side by side
to fabricate large-area devices. The S13190 series offers wide dynamic range,
whereas the S13615 series feature low crosstalk. MPPC arrays with higher
resolution than previous products are also available.
m
1m
S13190 series, S13615 series
Features
„„ Compact chip size package with little dead space
„„ Low cost
„„ Wide dynamic range
„„ Low afterpulses
„„ MPPC arrays also available
8 x 8 ch
Applications
„„ Distance measurement
„„ Nuclear medicine
„„ High energy physics experiments
4 x 4 ch
16 x 16 ch
Examples of MPPC arrays
*1 Through-silicon via *2 Chip size package
Structure comparison with a previous product
2,425 mm
Previous product
300 µm
Epoxy resin
250 µm
MPCC
300 µm
Solder
Circuit board
(prepared by the user)
1.13 mm
New
MPPC
S13190/S13615 series
Miniaturization
Support glass
310 µm
50 µm
TSV
MPCC
Solder
Circuit board
(prepared by the user)
News 2016 Vol. 1
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OPTO-SEMICONDUCTOR PRODUCTS
Micro-Spectrometer TF Series
C13555MA, C13053MA, C13054MA
New
High performance mini-spectrometers in an ultraslim package The TF series are high performance mini-spectrometers in a 12 mm deep, ultraslim package. Utilising a high-sensitivity CMOS linear image sensor results in a
sensitivity equivalent to that of a CCD, with low power consumption. A trigger
function for short integration times, enables spectroscopic measurement of
pulse emissions. The C13054MA is a high resolution mini-spectrometer suitable
for Raman spectroscopy.
Features
„„ Compact, ultra-thin package
„„ High-sensitivity CMOS linear image sensor
„„ Trigger compatible (software trigger, external trigger)
„„ USB bus powered (no external power supply necessary)
C13054MA
Applications
C13555MA
„„ Visible light source inspection
„„ Color measurement
C13053MA
„„ Sugar content and acidity measurement of foods
„„ Plastic screening
„„ Film thickness gauge
C13054MA
„„ Raman spectroscopy
Specifications
Type
Type no.
C13555MA
Photo
Spectral response range (nm)
200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400
Spectral
resoltion
max. (mm)
Integration
time
(μs)
Trigger
function
High sensitivity
500 to 1,100
3.5
High Resolution
TF series
for Raman spectroscopy
20
News 2016 Vol. 1
C13054MA
Type
Pixels
Highsensitivity
CMOS
linear image
sensor
512
3
340 to 830
TF series
C13053MA
Internal image sensor
790 to 920
0.7
11 to
100,000
Yes
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OPTO-SEMICONDUCTOR PRODUCTS
Photosensor with front-end IC
S13645-01CR
New
16 channel distance measurement APD array for
direct TOF*1
The S13645-01CR is a device designed for direct TOF measurement. It
integrates Hamamatsu's 16 ch Si APD array and TIA*2. It has a built-in DC
feedback circuit for reducing the effects of background light. It also provides
excellent noise and frequency characteristics.
Features
„„ Integration of 16 ch Si APDs and TIA
„„ High-speed response: 200 MHz
„„ Background light elimination function
„„ Switchable gain amp (x1 or x20)
„„ No waveform distortion with excessive incident light
S13645-01CR
Block diagram
GND-TIAVdd-TIA
Applications
„„ Distance measurement
„„ Object detection
Dummy cathode
SW1
Buffer
TIA
DCFB
*1 Time-of-Flight *2 Trans-impedance amplifier
SW2
VGA
Buffer
SW3
Dummy
amp
DC current replica
out1
out2
Gain
TIA
Specifications
DCFB
Parameter
Photosensitive area/ch (H x V)
Specification
Unit
0.4 x 1.0
mm
Peak sensitivity wavelength
840
nm
Feedback resistance
2.5
kΩ
Cutoff frequency
200
MHz
Noise equivalent characteristics
160
fW/Hz1/2*3
Gain
GND-VGAVdd-VGA
High gain
1,000
Low gain
50
DCM
Select logic
APD-Anode
DCM_dis D0 D1 D2 D3
kV/W*3
*3 λ = 840 nm, M = 50 at 10 MHz.
News 2016 Vol. 1
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OPTO-SEMICONDUCTOR PRODUCTS
Photo IC for Rangefinder
S13021-01CT
New
1 channel distance measurement photo IC for
indirect TOF*1
The S13021-01CT is a distance measurement device using the indirect TOF
method. It integrates Hamamatsu’s CMOS sensor and signal processing circuit.
The sensor outputs signals proportional to the time for the pulse-modulated
light reflect by the target object and return. The output value can be used to
calculate the distance to the target object. The S13021-01CT runs on low
voltage (3.3 V) and supports I2C and SPI interfaces.
Features
„„ Low voltage operation (3.3 V)
„„ I2C interface/SPI ready
„„ Built-in 16-bit A/D converter
S13021-01CT
Block diagram
Applications
„„ Distance measurement
„„ Object detection
CMOS
sensor
*1 Time-of-Flight
Specifications
Parameter
Photosensitive area
Specification
Unit
0.4 x 0.4
mm
Peak sensitivity wavelength
800
µm
Current consumption
12
mA
Output voltage
Dark state*2
1.4
When saturated
0.65
VDD = 3.3 V
*2Output value immediately after reset
22
News 2016 Vol. 1
V
S/H
∆∑ A/D
converter
I2 C
timing
SPI
LED
driver
Microcomputer
FPGA
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OPTO-SEMICONDUCTOR PRODUCTS
CMOS Linear Image Sensors
S11639-01, S13496
New
High sensitivity, employs vertically long pixels
The S11639-01 and S13496 are high sensitivity CMOS linear image sensors
employing a photosensitive area consisting of vertically long pixels (pixel height:
200 μm). High sensitivity and high resistance have been achieved, even in the
ultraviolet region. These sensors operate on a single 5 V power supply making
them suitable for low cost spectrometers.
Differences from previous products
Readout noise and dark current were reduced to approximately half those of
the previous product. Moreover, variations in sensitivity in the ultraviolet region
(200 to 300 nm) have been suppressed.
Spectral response (typical example)
Features
„„ High sensitivity in the UV to near IR region
„„ Simultaneous integration of all pixels
„„ Variable integration time function (electronic shutter function)
„„ Single 5 V power supply operation
(Ta = 25 deg. C.)
100
100
RelativeRelative
sensitivity
(%) (%)
sensitivity
80
Applications
„„ Spectroscopy
„„ Position detection
„„ Image scanning
„„ Encoders
80
60
60
40
40
20
20
0
Specifications
0
Number of effective pixels
Pixel size (H x V)
S 11639-01
S13496
Unit
2,048
4,096
pixels
14 x 200
Effective photosensitive area length
Spectral response range
Photosensitivity
7 x 200
µm
28.672
mm
200 to 1,000
nm
1,300
650
200
e- rms
Video data rate (max.)
10
MHz
500
700
800
900
1000
400
Wavelength (nm)
500
600
700
600
800
900
1000
0.16
(Ta = 25 deg. C.)
0.16
•
16
300
400
Spectral response in the ultraviolet region (S11639-01, typical example)
V/(lx s)
Readout noise
300
Wavelength (nm)
S11639-01
0.12
Photosensitivity
(A/W) (A/W)
Photosensitivity
Parameter
200
S11639-01
0.12
0.08
Previous product
S11639
Previous product
S11639
0.08
0.04
0.04
0
200
0
220
240
260
280
300
200
220
Wavelength (nm)
240
260
280
300
Wavelength (nm)
News 2016 Vol. 1
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ELECTRON TUBE PRODUCTS
Linear Type UV-LED Unit LIGHTNINGCURE LC-L5G
L12990-2303
New
High output 10,000 mW/cm2
UV-LED replacing metal-halide lamps The L12990-2303 delivers high power while still maintaining the features of
our current product original LC-L5 including compact size, light weight and air
cooling. These features have traditionally been a challenge for UV-LED light
sources until now.
The L12990-2303 offers a light intensity of 10,000 mW/cm2 which is about
7 times higher than our original product (LC-L5), making it suitable for high
throughput applications that requires a high UV output.
L12990-2303
Features
„„ High output 10,000 mW/cm2
„„ Air cooling by fan
• No exhaust duct installation and no chiller equipment required
„„ Compact and light weight
Irradiance distribution
Distance from beam exit point: 2 mm
Irradiance (mW/cm2)
10000
Applications
„„ UV ink drying
• UV inkjet printer
• UV seal & label printing
• UV offset printing
„„ UV coating agent drying
• Printed circuit board protective film
• IC card & IC tag coating
• Blu-ray & DVD media coating
• Furniture & building material (wall, floor, etc.)/woodworking applications
„„ Fluorescence excitation/scratch & flaw inspection lighting
X direction
12000
LC-L5G
8000
7 times
up
6000
4000
2000
0
-50
Conventional type
LC-L5
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
Distance from irradiated center (mm)
Y direction
12000
Distance from beam exit point: 2 mm
Specification
Unit
Irradiation area*1
12 x 75
mm
Maximum UV irradiance intensity*2
10,000
mW/cm2
Peak wavelength
385±5
nm
Input voltage (DC)
48
V
600
W
20,000
h
Power consumption (max.)
LED design life*3
*1 Area subject to at least 80 % irradiance at distance of 2 mm.
*2 Within irradiation area, at 2 mm of irradiation distance.
*3 Average time until irradiance reaches 70 % of initial value.
Please read also R & D Interview on page 8.
24
News 2016 Vol. 1
Irradiance (mW/cm2)
Parameter
LC-L5G
10000
Specifications
8000
7 times
up
6000
4000
2000
0
-30
Conventional type
LC-L5
-20
-10
0
10
Distance from irradiated center (mm)
20
30
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ELECTRON TUBE PRODUCTS
Deuterium Lamp for Photoionization
L13301
New
Higher output than PID lamps
Compact deuterium lamp for photoionization
In mass spectrometry and gas chromatography, photoionization or ionization
by light is the focus of attention as a soft ionization technique that does not
cause excessive damage to measurement samples. Up until now, PID (photo­
ionization detector) lamps and lasers have been used as the light sources for
photoionization. However, PID lamps have insufficient output and lasers require
designing a large, complicated system that is not easy to handle. The L13301
deuterium lamp optimized for soft photoionization will solve those problems.
Features
„„ Capable of soft ionization
„„ High energy: 10.78 eV
„„ Long life
„„ Compact
L13301
Schematic diagram of mass spectrometry
Ionization
Separation
Detection
Sample (Gas)
Applications
„„ Mass spectrometry
„„ Environmental analysis
• Gas detection
L13301
Electron multiplier
Ion
Ion
Ion
MCP assembly or Phosphor
Specifications
Parameter
Window material
Specification
MgF2
Spectral distribution
Output stability
at 230 nm
Drift (max.)
Fluctuation (p-p) (max.)
Unit
-
115 to 400
nm
±0.25
%/h
0.05
%
Guaranteed life*1 at 230 nm
1,000
h
Type number of power supply
C10707
-
*1Life end is defined as the time when the light output intensity at 230 nm falls to 50 % of its initial
value or when output fluctuations exceed 0.05 % (p-p).
News 2016 Vol. 1
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ELECTRON TUBE PRODUCTS
20 W Xenon Flash Lamp Module
L12745 Series
New
High output of 20 W
High repetition operation The L12745 series is a 20 W xenon flash lamp module integrated with a
regulated drive power supply and a lamp trigger socket. The light-emitting
point of the lamp is preadjusted so the L12745 can be easily installed into
equipment.
Features
„„ High output power 20 W
„„ High stability
„„ High repetition operation
„„ Preadjusted light-emitting point
120
[20 W] L12745-01 (320 mJ)
[10 W] L13046-01 (160 mJ)
[5 W] L9455-01 (40 mJ)
[2 W] L12336-01 (25 mJ)
Relative light output (%)
L12745
100series
Emission
80 pulse waveform
Relative light output (%)
Applications
„„ Spectrophotometry
„„ Environmental analysis
• Water quality and pollution analysis
• Air pollution analysis
• Laboratory testing
• Urine analysis
• Blood analysis
„„ Semiconductor inspection
Operating conditions
Main discharge voltage
L12745/L13046-01: 1,000 V
L9455/L12336-01: 600 V
[20 W] L12745-01
Measurement
distance: (320
20 cmmJ)
[10 W] L13046-01 (160 mJ)
[5 W] L9455-01 (40 mJ)
[2 W] L12336-01 (25 mJ)
120
60
100
40
80
20
600
0
1
2
0
1
2
Operating conditions
Main discharge voltage
L12745/L13046-01: 1,000 V
L9455/L12336-01: 600 V
3
4
5
Measurement distance: 20 cm
Time (µS)
40
6
20
Specifications
L12745
Light output spectral range
-02
185 to 2,000
Main discharge voltage variable range
300 to 1,000
Main discharge capacitance
-01
0.64
Maximum average input (continuous)
Guaranteed life*1
*1 20 W operation, at 791 V, 0.64 μF, 100 Hz
391
Unit
5
6
V
0.1
μF
Life characteristics
W
1
% CV
1x109
flashes
781
4
nm
20
Light output stability (typ.)
Maximum repetitive emission frequency
0.32
-03
3
Time (µS)
1,000
120
110
Hz
100
90
Relative irradianec (%)
Parameter
0
80
70
Guaranteed life range
120
60
110
50
100
40
Relative irradianec (%)
90
30
80
20
Average input: 20 W
70
10
600
50
0
Guaranteed life range
0.5x109
1x109
Number of flashes
40
1.5x109
2x109
1.0x10 flashes = 2,777 h
with 100 Hz operation
9
30
20
26
News 2016 Vol. 1
Average input: 20 W
10
0
0
0.5x109
1x109
1.5x109
2x109
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ELECTRON TUBE PRODUCTS
Excimer Lamp Light Source "FLAT EXCIMER " EX-86U
L13129
TM
New
Modification, cleaning and bonding with light
Unlike the excimer lamps of other manufacturers, our FLAT EXCIMER light
source uses a flat lamp that ensures uniform irradiation. Processing by light
(vacuum UV light at 172 nm) does not cause damage to objects, dust particle
generation, or processing unevenness, which are usually caused by corona /
plasma discharge methods.
Compared to our current in-line type (EX-400), the L13129 is more compact,
lightweight and contains a power supply so that it can be easily installed
almost anywhere without installation hassles. These features make it simple to
incorporate the L13129 into existing production lines.
L13129
Features
„„ No damage to objects
„„ No generation of dust particles
„„ Uniform irradiation
„„ Instantaneous ON/OFF
„„ Long life
„„ Less flickering
Applications
„„ Surface modification
• Pretreatment for adhesives (adhesive strength improvement)
• Coating/printing adhesion improvement
„„ Material dry cleaning
• Silicon wafer and glass substrate cleaning
• Removal of organic films/adhesive residues
„„ Bonding of microfluidic devices
Irradiation area
Installation example
Installation example
EX-86U
AC 100 V to AC 240 V
Specifications
Parameter
Specification
Unit
Emission wavelength
172
nm
Irradiance*1
50
mW/cm2
2,000
h
86 x 40
mm
Lamp design life
Irradiation area (W x H)
*1Value calculated on the assumption that the irradiance is measured with a Hamamatsu UV power
meter C9536/H9535-172 placed in the immediate vicinity of the lamp.
Ozone exhaust duct
Ozone is formed in air irradiated with vacuum UV light, so we ask that
customers install exhaust air ducts that enclose the unit as shown in
the example. The E12685 ozone decomposition unit (option) requiring
no exhaust air duct can be used under certain conditions, depending on
the installation environment and conditions.
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Micro PMT Photon Counting Head
H12406/-01
New
Contains the world's smallest*, thinnest and lightest
photomultiplier tube
Capable of photon counting measurement 38
mm
R
The H12406 and H12406-01 contain the world's smallest photomultiplier tube,
"micro-PMT" together with a high voltage power supply and a photon counting
circuit. Photon counting measurement can be performed by supplying +5 V.
Two kinds of photocathodes (bialkali and multialkali) are selectable.
The cubic volume is about 1/2 compared to a metal package photomultiplier
tube (H10682), so will help reduce equipment size.
Features
„„ Low voltage (+5 V) operation
15 mm
30
mm
H12406/-01
Count sensitivity characteristics
Count sensitivity characteristics
Applications
„„ Portable medical devices
„„ Portable environmental measurement devices
„„ Hygiene monitoring system, etc.
10 6
H12406-01
* As of Oct. 2015, based on our research
Specifications
Parameter
Spectral response range
H12406
H12406-01
300 to 650
300 to 850
Effective photocathode area (X x Y)
3x1
Input voltage
Count linearity*1
Dark count (typ.)
Pulse-pair resolution
Output pulse width
Output pulse height (typ.)*2
*1 Random pulse, at 10 % count loss
*2 Input voltage +5 V, load resistance 50Ω
Unit
nm
mm
+5
V
5x106
s-1
10
100
Count sensitivity (s-1・pW-1)
10 5
H12406
10 4
s-1
20
ns
10
ns
+2.2
V
10 3
200
300
400
500
600
700
Wavelength (nm)
28
News 2016 Vol. 1
800
900
1000
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Photomultiplier Tube Assembly
H13175U-01/20/110
New
Head-on photomultiplier tube assembly with
the shortest overall length
Ø 17.5 mm
The H13175U-01/20/110 are photomultiplier tube assemblies using a TO-8
metal-package photomultiplier tube R9880 integrated with a voltage divider
circuit. The overall length of these photomultiplier tube assemblies is shorter
than the length of the R9880U combined with a D-type socket assembly, so
helps reduce equipment size.
Features
„„ Compact and light weight: 7.5 g
„„ High gain
19.5 mm
H13175U-01/20/110
Spectral response Applications
„„ Portable medical devices
„„ Portable environmental measurement devices
„„ Hygiene monitoring system, etc.
1000
-01
-20
-110
Specifications
Parameter
H13175U-01
Spectral response range
230 to 870
H13175U-20 H13175U-110
230 to 920
230 to 700
φ8
Effective photocathode area
Unit
nm
mm
Max. supply voltage
1,100
V
Voltage divider resistance
3.46
MΩ
Max. voltage divider current
Cathode luminous sensitivity (typ.)
0.32
200
mA
105
μA/lm
1
nA
2 x 106
Gain (typ.)*1
Dark current (typ)*
500
1
Rise time
1
10
0.57
ns
Cathode radiant sensitivity (mA/W)
Quantum efficiency (%)
100
10
1
*1 Supply voltage 1,000 V
Cathode radiant sensitivity
Quantum efficiency
0.1
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
Wavelength (nm)
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High Speed HPD (Hybrid Photo Detector) Assembly
H13223-40
New
Photodetector with high-speed response, high sensitivity,
and low afterpulsing
HPD is a unique photomultiplier tube that contains a semiconductor device in
the electron tube (vacuum tube). In a HPD, photoelectrons from the photo­
cathode are accelerated to directly impinge on the semiconductor device where
the photoelectrons are multiplied. This electron multiplication is efficient and
generates less noise. The H13223-40 HPD has connectors to allow safe and
easy connection to any length of cable. We also provide the C12929 power
supply specifically designed for the HPD, which outputs a high voltage and
reverse bias voltage necessary to operate a HPD. The high voltage and reverse
bias voltage can also be externally controlled by input of control voltage.
H13223-40
Features
„„ Fast time response
„„ Low afterpulsing
„„ High sensitivity
„„ Excellent time resolution
Applications
„„ Laser scanning microscope
„„ FCS (fluorescence correlation spectroscopy)
„„ LIDAR (light detection and ranging)
„„ TCSPC (time-correlated single photon counting)
Left: HPD assembly H13223-40, right: Power supply C12929
Specifications
Parameter
H13223-40
Unit
Spectral response
300 to 720
nm
Photocathode material
Effective photocathode area
GaAsP
-
φ3
mm
Quantum efficiency at 500 nm
45
%
T.T.S.*1
90
ps
Rise time
400
ps
Gain (typ.)
1.2 x 105
-
*1At the single photon state and the full illumination on photocathode, specified as FWHM (Full Width
at Half Maximum). These values include the jitter of the electronics of about 30 ps.
Specifications
Parameter
High voltage
Diode bias voltage
30
News 2016 Vol. 1
C12929
Unit
Max. output voltage
-8.5
kV
Max. output current
16
μA
Max. output voltage
±500
Vdc
Max. output current
500
μA
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ELECTRON TUBE PRODUCTS
Head-on Type Photomultiplier Tube/Assembly
R12421-300 and H12690-300
New
Enhanced green sensitivity at 500 to 700 nm
The R12421-300 is a 13 mm (1/2 inch) diameter head-on photomultiplier tube
with enhanced green sensitivity (quantum efficiency is 14 % at 550 nm while
that of the current product is 8 %). The H12690-300 is a photomultiplier tube
assembly incorporating the R12421-300, together with voltage divider circuit,
HA treatment and magnetic shield.
Features
„„ High quantum efficiency: 14 % at 550 nm
„„ Compact
„„ Low dark counts
„„ Good PHD and plateau characteristics
43
mm
Ø 13.5 mm
Left: R12421-300, right: H12690-300
Quantum efficiency
Applications
„„ Photon counting
• Hygiene monitoring
• Clinical testing
• Fluorescence/bioluminescence observation
„„ Scintillation counting
• Survey meters
45
R12421-300
Conventional type
(R12421)
40
35
Specifications
Parameter
Spectral response range
Photocathode type
Specification
300 to 700
Unit
nm
Extended green bialkali
-
14
%
φ10
mm
Quantum efficiency at 550 nm
Effective photocathode area
Gain (typ.)*1
Dark counts (typ.)*1
*1 Supply voltage 1,000 V, at 25 deg. C.
2 x 106
-
400
s-1
Quantum efficiency (%)
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
Wavelength (nm)
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ELECTRON TUBE PRODUCTS
Side-on Type Photomultiplier Tube
R13194
New
Solar-blind spectral response The R13194 is a 13 mm (1/2 inch) side-on photomultiplier tube which offers
around 5 times improved solar blindness, compared to a conventional product
(R10825). The anode radiant sensitivity ratio (121 nm / 300 nm) is increased
from 1,500 to 8,500, and so helps to enhance equipment performance.
Features
„„ Solar-blind spectral response
„„ High stability in VUV region
„„ Low dark current
„„ High VUV quantum efficiency
R13194
Spectral response
Spectral response
Applications
„„ Emission spectroscopic analysis
„„ Plasma emission measurement
100
R13194
Conventional type (R10825)
Specifications
Specification
115 to 195
Unit
nm
Cathode radiant sensitivity at 121 nm
25.5
mA/W
Anode radiant sensitivity at 121 nm*1
1.0 x 105
A/W
26
%
Quantum efficiency at 121 nm
Anode sensitivity ratio 121 nm / 300 nm*1
8,500
-
Anode dark current*1
0.05
nA
3.9 x 106
-
Gain (typ.)*1
*1 Supply voltage 1,000 V, at 25 deg. C.
Cathode radiant sensitivity (mA/W)
Parameter
Spectral response range
10
1
0.1
0.01
0.001
100
150
200
Wavelength (nm)
32
News 2016 Vol. 1
250
300
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ELECTRON TUBE PRODUCTS
Side-on Type Photomultiplier Tube
R13456
New
Extended near-infrared sensitivity
The R13456 is a 28 mm (1-1/8 inch) diameter side-on photomultiplier tube.
The limiting wavelength in the near infrared region is extended from 900 nm,
compared to our current product (R928), to 980nm and sensitivity at 900 nm
is 100 times higher than the R928. This makes the R13456 ideal for precision
photometry, where high sensitivity in the near-infrared region is required.
Features
„„ Wide spectral response
„„ High sensitivity at 900 nm (100 times higher than conventional type)
R13456
Applications
„„ Spectrophotometer (fluorescence, UV-VIS-NIR)
„„ Microscope
„„ Atomic absorption spectrophotometer
„„ NOx monitor
Specifications
Parameter
Spectral response range
Specification
185 to 980
Unit
nm
Cathode luminous sensitivity
280
μA/lm
Anode luminous sensitivity*1
2,800
A/lm
5
nA
7.3
mA/W
1
%
Anode dark current*1, 2
Cathode radiant sensitivity
at 900 nm
Spectral response
Quantum efficiency at 900 nm
R13456
10
1
20
R928
0.1
0.01
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
Wavelength (nm)
R13456
10
Cathode radiant sensitivity (mA/W)
Cathode radiant sensitivity (mA/W)
100
R928
1
*1 Supply voltage 1,000 V, at 25 deg. C.
*2 After 30 min storage in darkness
100
times
0.1
0.01
700
Extended
to 980 nm
800
900
1000
Wavelength (nm)
News 2016 Vol. 1
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Photomultiplier Tube Module
H13320 Series
New
Low power consumption, battery operation available
The H13320 series is a 13 mm (1/2 inch) side-on photomultiplier tube module
with a high-voltage power supply circuit and output cables. The current
con­sump­tion is reduced to about one-eighth that of the currently available
product (H9305), making the H13320 series ideal for portable instruments.
Features
„„ Low power consumption
„„ Battery operation available (+3 V)
Applications
„„ Portable medical devices
„„ Portable environmental measurement devices, etc.
H13320 series
Spectral response
1000
Specifications
Input voltage
Max. input current*1
Specification
3.7 x 13
Unit
mm
+3 to +5
V
2.7
mA
Max. output signal current
10
μA
Ripple noise*2 (p-p) (max.)
0.5
mV
Settling time*3
14
s
*1 Input voltage +5 V, control voltage +1.0 V, operated in darkness
*2 Control voltage = +1.0 V
*3The time required for the output to reach a stable level following a change in the control voltage
from +1.0 V to +0.5 V.
-02
-03
10
-05
-01
1
0.1
100
-04
200
300
400
500
600
Wavelength (nm)
34
News 2016 Vol. 1
-13
100
Cathode radiant sensitivity (mA/W)
Parameter
Effective photocathode area (X x Y)
700
800
900
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ELECTRON TUBE PRODUCTS
Photon Counting Head
H13467 Series
New
Low power consumption, excessive light detection output
60
The H13467 series is a square-shaped photon counting head that contains
a 25 mm (1 inch) diameter head-on photomultiplier tube, high-voltage power
supply circuit and photon counting circuit. The H13467 series also includes
a wide-band circuit to deliver high count rate performance. The high voltage
for the photomultiplier tube and the discriminator setting are preadjusted to
optimal levels, so photon counting measurement can start just by supplying
+5 V. The H13467 can be easily installed in equipment by screw, due to its
square-shaped case and compact overall length.
Features
„„ Low power consumption
„„ Excessive light detection output
mm
43 mm
33 mm
H13467
Count sensitivity
Applications
„„ Blood analyzer
106
-02
Specifications
-03
H13467-01
H13467-02
300 to 650
Effective photocathode area
Count linearity*1
Input voltage
Dark count (typ.)
H13467-03
300 to 850
φ22
mm
6 x 106
s-1
+5
15
Unit
nm
60
V
5000
S-1
Pulse-pair resolution
18
ns
Output pulse width
9
ns
+2.2
V
Output pulse height (typ.)*2
105
Count sensitivity (s-1. pW-1)
Parameter
Spectral response range
-01
104
*1 Random pulse, at 10 % count loss.
*2 Input voltage +5 V, load resistance 50Ω
103
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
Wavelength (nm)
News 2016 Vol. 1
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Wide Dynamic Range Photomultiplier Tube Unit
H13126, C12918 Series
New
Photomultiplier tube unit that can measure with wide
dynamic range up to 8 digits
This unit is capable of measuring light levels over a wide dynamic range of
up to 8 orders of magnitude, by simultaneously extracting a digital output
(photon counting) for detecting low level light and an analog output for
detecting higher light levels visible to the human eye. This unit is designed
to connect to a PC via a USB interface.
Features
„„ Measurement from single photon region to analog region
„„ Wide dynamic range measurement without changing photomultiplier gain
„„ USB interface for connection to PC for measurement and data
acquisition
Applications
„„ Blood analyzer
„„ Luminometer
„„ Fluorescence measurement device
„„ Semiconductor inspection system
„„ MTP reader
„„ LIDAR (light detection and ranging)
Spectral response range
300 to 650
nm
Photon counting dark count (typ.)*1
Below 100
s-1
Bandwidth (-3 dB)
DC to 50/DC to 500
kHz
Output voltage*2
0 to +10
V
C12918 series
1 μs/10 μs
Unit
-
*1 After 3 hours storage in darkness.
*2 Load resistance 1 kΩ.
Parameter
Counter gate time
Single photon area
Analog area
Wide dynamic range photomultiplier tube module
8 digits
range light intensity
Single photon area 8 digits
Analog arealight intensity
can be range
measured by 1 unit
canintensity
be measured by 1 unit
8 digits range light
can Photomultiplier
be measured tube
by 1(Photon
unit counting type)
Photomultiplier tube (Photon counting type)
Photomultiplier tube
(Photon between
countingnumber
type) of incident photon and irradiance and illuminance
Correlation
Correlation
between
when the light
is λ = number
555 nmof incident photon and irradiance and illuminance
when the light is λ = 555 nm
Correlation between number of incident photon and irradiance and illuminance
when the light is λ = 555 nm
News 2016 Vol. 1
Measurement example: afterglow characteristics of P43 phosphor
10000
10000
10000
1000
100
Capable of continuous measurement for 2 ms to 3 ms or more
Measures measurement
a wide range from
Capable of continuous
for 2 signals
ms to 3 ms or more
on oscilloscope
low from
level light
signals
Measures adown
wide to
range
signals
on oscilloscope
low level light signals
Capable of continuous measurement
for 2 ms to 3down
ms ortomore
Measures
a
wide
range
from
signals
1000
1000on oscilloscope down to low level light signals
Count/1
Count/1
msms
Wide
dynamic
photomultiplier
module
Room light
Full moon tube
0 mag
star range
Wide
dynamic
rangearea
photomultiplier
Single photon
Analogtube
area module
36
Unit
mm
Count/1 ms
uminance
)
H13126
φ22
Analog (Amplifier output)
Number of
100
102
104
106
108
1010
1012
Number
of
incident photon
100
102
104
106
108
1010
1012
2•
incident
photon
[pcs/(mm
s)]
0 2•
2
4
6
8
10
12
-18
-16
-14
-12
-10
-8
10 s)]
10
[pcs/(mm
10 10
10 10
10 10
10 10
10 10
10
Irradiance
10-18
10-16
10-14
10-12
10-10
10-8
Irradiance
(W/mm2)
-16
-14
-12
-10
-8
2 -18
10
10
10
10
10
(W/mm 10
)
10-10
10-8
10-6
10-4
10-2
100
102
Illuminance
10-10
10-8
10-6
10-4
10-2
100
102
Illuminance
(lx)
-10
-8
-6
-4
-2
0
2
(lx)10
10
10
10 0 mag star
10
10
Room light
Full 10
moon
Room light
Full moon
0 mag star
adiance
W/mm2)
Specifications
Parameter
Photocathode effective area
Light intensity
umber of
cident photon
cs/(mm2•s)]
Left: Wide dynamic range photomultiplier tube module H13126
Right: Data acquisition unit C12918 series
100
100
10
10
Analog
measurement
10
1
1
Time (1 ms/div.)
Time (1 ms/div.)
1
Time (1 ms/div.)
Single photon
counting
measurement
Analog
Analog
measurem
measurem
Single pho
Single
pho
counting
counting
measurem
measurem
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High Voltage Power Supply Module
C12766-12
New
Approved to UL 60601-1
-1,500 V/30 mA output
The C12766-12 provides a maximum output of -1500 V at 30 mA which is
the highest output current among our high voltage power supply modules.
The C12766-12 allows operation of multiple photomultiplier tubes with a
single unit, making it ideal for PET and high energy physics experi­ments.
The C12766-12 is our first high voltage power supply to be approved to
UL 60601-1 Medical Electrical Safety Standard.
Features
„„ Approved to UL 60601-1 Medical Electrical Safety Standard
„„ High efficiency and less heat generation
„„ High stability
C12766-12
Efficiency characteristics
100
Applications
„„ Photomultiplier tube operation for PET diagnostic system
„„ Photomultiplier tube operation for high energy physics experiments
90
80
Specifications
Parameter
Maximum output voltage
Specification
-1,500
Unit
V
Maximum output current
30
mA
Ripple/noise (p-p) (Typ.)*1, 2
75
mV
Line regulation (Typ.)*1, 2, 3
±0.01
%
±0.01
%
+24±1.2
V
Units protected against reversed power input,
reversed/excessive controlling voltage input,
continuous overloading/short circuit in output
-
Load regulation (Typ.)*1, 4
Input voltage
Protective functions
Efficiency (%)
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Relative output (%)
70
80
90
100
(45 W)
*1 at maximum output voltage
*2 at maximum output current
*3 against ±1.2 V input change
*4 against 0 % to 100 % load change
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SYSTEMS PRODUCTS
Optical NanoGauge Thickness Measurement System
C13027-02
New
10 nm to 100 µm thin film high speed measurement
The Optical NanoGauge Thickness measurement system is a noncontact film
thickness measurement system utilizing spectral interferometry. This new
model supports connections to a PLC and and can be easily installed into
production equipment.
Features
„„ Supports PLC connections
„„ Shortening of cycle time (max. 200 Hz)
„„ Capable of measuring 10 nm thin films
„„ Simultaneously measures thickness and color
„„ Downsized (footprint reduced by 30 % compared to C12562)
„„ Covers broad wavelength range (400 nm to 1,100 nm)
„„ Simplified measurement is added to the software
„„ Can measure both adverse side and reverse side of a film
„„ Precise measurement of fluctuating film
„„ Analyze optical constants (n, k)
Example:
In-line
measurement
Example: In-line measurement
settings for
film coating
system
C13027-02
settings for film coating system
Optical NanoGauge
Thickness measurement system
C13027/C12562
Optical MicroGauge
Thickness measurement system
C11011
Multipoint NanoGauge
Thickness measurement system
C11295
Cutting, Roll-up
Coating layer
Plastic film, Bonding layer, ITO, Wet film
Drying, Curing
Coating, Deposition (PVD/CVD)
Let-off
38
News 2016 Vol. 1
Measurement after
drying and curing
Film thickness, Coated layer thickness, Total thickness
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NanoZoomer S210 Digital Slide Scanner
C13239-01
New
A new NanoZoomer for whole slide imaging
The newly developed NanoZoomer S210 delivers high performance, and is
capable of handling large numbers of slides, at a lower cost. This was achieved
without sacrificing the high image quality and equipment reliability, which has
made our NanoZoomer series popular with many users around the world.
Features
„„ 210 slide capability
„„ Simple operation
„„ High performance
C13239-01
Applications
„„ Connecting with laboratory information system and electronic medical
records
„„ Consultation
„„ Slide conferences, CPC (clinical pathology conferences)
onnecting with laboratory information systems
C
Connecting
Connecting with
with laboratory
laboratory information
information system
system
and electronic medical records
Consultation
and
and electronic
electronic medical
medical records
records
Slide conferences, CPC
Slide
Slide conferences,
conferences, CPC
CPC
(clinical pathology conferences)
Consultation
Consultation
(clinical
(clinical pathology
pathology conferences)
conferences)
Major
Major hospitals
hospitals work
work together
together along
along with
with organ
organ specialists
specialists
to
to support
support accurate
accurate pathological
pathological diagnosis.
diagnosis.
NanoZoomer
NanoZoomer S210
S210
Same
Same image
image data
data can
can be
be shared
shared with
with many
many persons
persons
for
for smooth
smooth and
and easy
easy exchange
exchange of
of opinions.
opinions.
Image
Image database
database
laboratory
laboratory information
information
system
system
Hospital
Hospital LAN
LAN
Lung
Lung specialists
specialists
Mammary
Mammary gland
gland specialists
specialists
Pancreas
Pancreas specialists
specialists
Liver
Liver specialists
specialists
Electronic
Electronic medical
medical records
records
Stomach
Stomach specialists
specialists
Stores
Stores patient
patient medical
medical treatment
treatment
information
information along
along with
with images!
images!
Request
Request for
for consultation
consultation
News 2016 Vol. 1
39
SYSTEMS PRODUCTS
Discover the Breakthrough
Scientific CMOS camera with 82 % peak quantum
efficiency. Available NOW from Hamamatsu
Scientific breakthroughs rarely come from giant steps. Rather, it’s a
continuous progression of small steps and astute application of those
differences that enables advances. From its introduction the ORCA-Flash4.0
has challenged the status quo of imaging and has undergone a series of
useful enhancements. The most recent is perhaps the most exciting; a
notable increase in the ability to detect photons. If you have not yet
experienced the ORCA-Flash4.0 V2 sCMOS, now is the time.
What breakthrough will you make with your extra photons?
40
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SYSTEMS PRODUCTS
InGaAs Camera
C12741-03, C12741-11
New
High sensitivity in the near infrared region from 950 nm
to 1,700 nm
The C12741-03 and the C12741-11 are InGaAs cameras with high sensitivity
in the near infrared region. They can be used in a wide range of applications
including silicon wafer inspection, laser beam align­ment and evaluation of
solar cells.
Features
„„ High sensitivity in the near infrared region from 950 nm to 1,700 nm
640 × 512 pixels
C12741-03
C12741-03
„„ Simultaneous output both analog (EIA) and USB 3.0 ports
„„ Frame rate: 60 frames/s
C12741-11
„„ Low-dark current with -70 deg. C. peltier cooling requires (water-cooling)
„„ Air-cooling / water-cooling (interchangeable)
„„ Interface: Camera Link
„„ Frame rate: 7 frames/s
Applications
„„ Internal inspections of silicon wafers and devices
„„ Evaluation of solar cells
„„ Evaluation and analysis of optical communication devices
„„ EL/PL image acquisition
C12741-11
Spectral response
C12741-11
100
80
80
Quantum efficiency (%)
Quantum efficiency (%)
C12741-03
100
60
40
20
0
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
Wavelength (nm)
1500
1600
1700
1800
-70 deg. C.
-60 deg. C.
60
40
20
0
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300 1400 1500
1600
Wavelength (nm)
News 2016 Vol. 1
41
LASER PRODUCTS
NIRO -200NX DP
®
Quick and easy probe attachment with
soft and lightweight, disposable probes
Simply peel off the outer seal and the probes are ready for use.
Soft and light probe
Soft and lightweight probes for user friendly attachment.
Smaller size probes available, designed to attach to smaller areas and
compatible for simultaneous use with a monitor such as BIS.
Two types of probes available depending on the patients (adults and children).
S-type probe
L-type probe
Hamamatsu Photonics Deutschland GmbH
Arzberger Str.10, D-82211 Herrsching, Germany
Telefon: +49 (8152) 375-201, Telefax: +49 (8152) 375-272
42
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LASER PRODUCTS
Fiber Output Laser Diode
L13181-01
New
Fiber output laser diode with high environmental
durability
The L13181-01 is a fiber output laser diode with high optical output (10 W)
and high conversion efficiency (55 %) achieved by our unique device structure.
The L13181-01 is an ideal high-luminance light source in a wide range of
fields, including material processing, pumping of fiber lasers and solid-state
lasers, medical treatment and chemical analysis.
Difference from conventional product
Package design emphasizes environmental durability.
L13181-01
Features
„„ 915 nm emission wavelength
„„ High output: 10 W
„„ High conversion efficiency: 55 % or more
„„ 0.15 NA, 105 μm core optical fiber
„„ Fiber coupled
Applications
„„ Direct condensing processing
„„ Fiber laser and solid-state laser pumping
„„ Medical treatment
„„ Chemical analysis
Specifications
Parameter
Output power at fiber exit end
Symbol
Φef
Value
10 W
Notes
Operating current
Iop
11 A (typ.)
Operating voltage
Vop
<2 V
Emission wavelength
λc
915 nm ±20 nm
Guided wave longitudinal mode
-
Multimode
Core diameter
-
105 μm
MM-S105
NA
-
0.15
Equivalent to 125-15 A
Jacket diameter
-
Φ0.25 mm
Bare optical fiber
Contact Hamamatsu
for other wavelengths
News 2016 Vol. 1
43
New
Fiber output laser diode ideal for oxygen measurement
The L13421-01 is a semiconductor laser diode ideal for oxygen analysis. It
de­livers a stable oscillation wavelength and narrow linewidth via an optimized
distributed feedback structure (DFB). Fiber output makes optical branching and
lens coupling simple and easy. If any particular wavelength is required please feel
free to contact us. (Designable center wavelength range is: 759 nm to 763 nm)
Difference from conventional product
We succeeded in producing a highly reliable 760 nm laser diode which was
considered a very difficult task up to now.
L13421-01
Features
„„ 760 nm DFB pigtail
„„ Oscillation wavelength: 760.6 nm
„„ Wavelength linewidth: 13 MHz or less (typical value)
„„ Current dependence of wavelength shift: Approx. 0.004 nm/mA
(typical value)
„„ LD temperature dependence of wavelength shift: Approx. 0.05 nm/deg. C.
(typical value)
„„ Monitor PD/TEC inside
Applications
„„ Light source for oxygen monitor
„„ Medical instrument
Specifications
Parameter
Peak emission wavelength
Symbol
λp
Min.
759.6
Typ.
760.6
Optical output
Φe
3
Operating voltage
Vop
-
Max.
761.6
Unit
nm
7
-
mW
-
2
V
Emission mode
-
Single
-
Mode field diameter
-
4.5 to 5.5
µm
Conditions: Iop = 100 mA; Top(c) and Top(ld) = 25 deg. C.
44
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L13421-01
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LASER PRODUCTS
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LASER PRODUCTS
CW Laser Diode
L13421-04
New
High output power semiconductor laser ideal for oxygen
measurement
The L13421-04 is a semiconductor laser diode ideal for oxygen analysis. It de­
livers a stable oscillation wavelength and narrow linewidth by optimizing the
distributed feedback structure (DFB). If any particular wavelength is required
please feel free to contact us. (Designable center wavelength range is: 759 nm
to 763 nm)
Difference from conventional product
We succeeded in producing a highly reliable 760 nm laser diode which was
considered a highly difficult task up to now.
L13421-04
Features
„„ 760 nm DFB
„„ Oscillation wavelength: 760.6 nm
„„ Wavelength linewidth: 13 MHz or less (typical value)
„„ Current dependence of wavelength shift: Approx. 0.005 nm/mA
(typical value)
„„ LD temperature dependence of wavelength shift: Approx. 0.06 nm/deg. C.
(typical value)
Applications
„„ Light source for oxygen monitor
„„ Medical instrument
Specifications
Parameter
Operating current
Peak emission wavelength
Beam spread angle
Parallel
Vertical
Threshold current
Symbol
Condition
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
Iop
Φe = 20
mW
-
95
115
mA
λp
Φe = 20 mW
759.6
760.6
761.6
nm
6
9
12
θ⊥
Φe = 20 mW
FWHM
18
21
24
Ith
-
-
65
85
θ//
°
mA
Conditions: Top(c) = 25 deg. C.
News 2016 Vol. 1
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LASER PRODUCTS
CW Laser Diode
L13400, L13402
PRELIMINARY
Laser diode that delivers both high optical output
and high conversion efficiency
The L13400 and L13402 are single emitter laser diodes achieving both high
optical output power (12 W) and high conversion efficiency (L13400: 59 %,
L13402: 55 %) by means of our unique device structure. These laser diodes
use an F-mount package with a COS (Chip on submount) assembled on a
flat open heatsink. This ensures good thermal contact with the heatsink and
delivers high output power and high-reliability operation.
Difference from conventional product
These laser diodes offer the world’s highest optical output and conversion
efficiency levels.
Features
„„ 915 nm, 976 nm F-mount
„„ High output: 12 W
„„ High conversion efficiency:
59 % (L13400)
55 % (L13402)
Applications
„„ Direct condensing processing
„„ Fiber laser and solid-state laser pumping
„„ Medical treatment
„„ Chemical analysis
Specifications
Parameter
Symbol
Condition
Value
L13400
L13402
Unit
Threshold current
Ith
-
0.6
0.6
A
Operating current
Iop
12 W
12
12.3
A
Vf
12 W
1.7
1.75
V
10
10
25
25
Operating voltage
Beam spread angle Parallel
(FWHM)
Vertical
θ//
θ⊥
12 W
°
Peak wavelength
λp
12 W
915
976
nm
Emitter stripe width
W
-
90
90
μm
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News 2016 Vol. 1
L13400, L13402
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LASER PRODUCTS
New
Quantum Cascade Laser
An optimum mid-infrared laser diode for molecular
gas analysis Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs) are semiconductor lasers that offer peak
emission in the mid-IR range (4 µm to 10 µm). They have gained considerable
attention as a new light source for mid-IR applications such as molecular gas
analysis.
Difference from conventional product
Our lineup of QCLs now includes new products which emit light at long and
short wavelengths.
DFB-CW type
Features
„„ Mid-IR laser (4 μm to 10 μm)
„„ Compact, lightweight
Applications
„„ IR molecular spectroscopy
Specifications
Type No.
Wavelength
Wave number
Target gas
New L12004-2310H-C
4.33 μm
2,310 cm-1
CO2, CO2 isotope
L12004-2209H-C
4.53 μm
2,209 cm-1
N2O
L12004-2190H-C
4.57 μm
2,190 cm-1
N2O, CO
L12005-1900H-C
5.26 μm
1,900 cm-1
NO
L12006-1631H-C
6.13 μm
1,631 cm-1
NO2
New L12007-1392H-C
New L12007-1354H-C
7.18 μm
1,392 cm-1
SO3
7.39 μm
1,354 cm-1
L12007-1294H-C
7.73 μm
1,294 cm-1
DFB-Pulsed type
SO2
CH4/13CH4
12
Specifications
Type No.
Wavelength
Wave number
Target gas
L12014-2231T-C
4.48 μm
2,231 cm-1
N2O, CO, CO2
L12015-1901T-C
5.26 μm
1,901 cm-1
NO
L12016-1630T-C
6.13 μm
1,630 cm-1
N2O
L12017-1278T-C
7.82 μm
1,278 cm-1
CH4, N2O
New L12020-0993T-C
10.07 μm
993 cm-1
NH3
News 2016 Vol. 1
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LASER PRODUCTS
Fiber Output Laser Diode Bar Module
L13705-20-940DA
Works with cooling units not requiring deionized water,
making laser processing easy
The L13705-20-940DA is a compact, water-cooled laser diode bar module that
boasts a high power of 200 W. This module uses distilled water for cooling and
does not require deionized water. It can operate even under tough conditions
such as low water flow, low water pressure, cooling water temperature of
25 deg. C. and is therefore easy to handle and use.
Difference from conventional product
It does not require chillers using deionized water.
L13705-20-940DA
Features
„„ High cooling efficiency
„„ Compact high-reliability package
„„ Allows cooling with distilled water (needs no deionized water)
Applications
„„ Solid state laser pumping
„„ Annealing
„„ Laser direct processing, etc.
Specifications
Parameter
Value
Radiant flux
200 W (CW)
Laser class
General specifications Wavelength
Dimensions (W x H x D)
Weight
Applicable fiber core diameter
Other specifications
N. A
Coolant
48
News 2016 Vol. 1
Class 4
940 nm ± 20 nm
Approx. 120 mm x 64 mm x 210 mm
Approx. 3.7 kg
φ0.8 mm or φ0.6 mm
0.2 ± 0.02
Distilled water
New
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Pulsed Laser Diode Bar Module
L13713-25P940
New
Rear water cooling ensures high luminance and
simplifies installation
The L13713-25P940 laser diode bar module features a light weight, compact
size and easily mounts into equipment. Laser diodes are eco-friendly since they
deliver higher emission efficiency at lower energy, reducing running costs.
The L13713-25P940 can also be designed for fast axis collimation as an option
on request.
Difference from conventional product
Drastic boost in optical output from 100 W to 320 W per bar.
L13713-25P940
Features
„„ High optical power: 10 kW
„„ High stability
„„ Long life
„„ Light weight, compact
Applications
„„ Solid state laser pumping
„„ Fiber laser excitation
Specifications
(tw = 400 μs, fr*1 = 25 Hz, temperature of coolant: 20 deg. C., flow rate: 1.0 L/min)
Parameter
Symbol
Conditions
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Operating current
Iop
φ ep = 8.0 kW
-
310
330
A
Center wavelength
λc
φ ep = 8.0 kW
935
940
945
nm
Spectral radiation half
bandwidth
Δλ
FWHM, φ ep = 8.0 kW
-
5
8
nm
φ ep = 8.0 kW
-
V
Forward voltage
Vop
Beam spread Parallel
angle
Vertical
θ//
Lasing threshold current
Ith
θ⊥
1/e2, Ifp = 300 A*2
-
-
-
45
60
15
20
58
68
33
40
Unit
°
A
*1 Repetition frequency
*2Measured with one bar (tw = 1 ms, fr = 10 Hz, Top(c) = 25 deg. C.)
News 2016 Vol. 1
49
Global Exhibitions 2016
Europe
April 2016
Photonics Europe
April 5-6 2016, Bruxelles, Belgium
Photonex London Roadshow
April 11 2016, London, England
USA
April 2016
Advances & Breakthroughs in Calcium Signaling
April 7-9 2016, Honolulu, HI
BIOMEDevice
April 13-14 2016, Boston, MA
AACR
April 16-20 2016, New Orleans, LA
SPIE Defense & Commercial Sensing
April 19-21 2016, Baltimore, MD
ISA Symposium
April 24-28 2016, Galveston, TX
May 2016
The Vision Show
May 3-5 2016, Boston, MA
Radtech
May 16-18 2016, Chicago, IL
Pathology Informatics
May 23-26 2016, Pittsburgh, PA
June 2016
ASMS
June 5-9 2016, San Antonio, TX
CLEO
June 7-9 2016, San Jose, CA
CYTO
June 11-15 2016, Seattle, WA
July 2016
Semicon West
July 12-14 2016, San Francisco, CA
Digital Pathology Congress USA
July 14-15 2016, Philadelphia, PA
August 2016
ICHEP
Aug 7-10 2016, Chicago, IL
IMSC
Aug 20-26 2016, Toronto, ON
BSCB-BSDB Spring Meeting
April 11-12 2016, Coventry, England
Swiss Biotech Day
April 12 2016, Basel, Switzerland
Analytika
April 12-14 2016,Moscow, Russia
MINALOGIC
April 14 2016, Grenoble, France
MOST Forum
April 18-19 2016, Stuttgart, Germany
Affidabilità & Tecnologia 2016
April 20-21 2016, Torino, Italy
ENOVA
June 8-9 2016, Angers, France
Photonex Scotland Roadshow
June 8 2016, Edinburgh, Scotland
3rd FDSS Workshop
June 8 2016, Barcelona, Spain
12th FDSS Users Meeting
June 9 2016, Barcelona, Spain
29ème Congrès AFH
June 9-10 2016, Paris, France
WCNDT
June 13-17 2016, Munich, Germany
Connected Car & Mobility Expo
June 29-30 2016, Düsseldorf, Germany
July 2016
AKL
April 27-29 2016, Aachen, Germany
OPTIQUE
July 4-7 2016, Talence, France
24. Jahrestagung der ADH
April 29-May 1 2016,Hildesheim, Germany
11ème Congrès Européen de Neuropathologie
July 6-9 2016, Bordeaux, France
May 2016
E-MRS
May 2-6 2016, Lille, France
Diamond Light Source Monthly Supplier Exhibition
May 9 2016, Didcot, England
Sensor und Test
May 10-12 2016, Nuremberg, Germany
ICTON 2016
July 10-14 2016, Trento, Italy
Frontiers in BioImaging
July 14-15 2016, London, England
OSA
July 25-28 2016, Heidelberg, Germany
August 2016
Analytica
May 10-13 2016, Munich, Germany
European Microscopy Congress - EMC
Aug 28-Sept 2 2016,Lyon, France
DigitalPath Europe
May 18-19 2016, London, England
Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy 2016
Aug 31-Sept 3 2016,Sheffield, England
Vårmöte Patologi
May 18-19 2016, Karlstad, Sweden
Pathologie Kongress 2016
May 19-21 2016, Berlin, Germany
SPS IPC Drives Italia 2016
May 24-26 2016, Parma, Italy
13th European Congress on Digital Pathology
May 25-28 2016,Berlin, Germany
DRUPA
May 31-June 11 2016,Düsseldorf, Germany
June 2016
September 2016
RICH 2016
Sept 5-9 2016, Bed, Slovenia
Photon16
Sept 6-7 2016, Leeds, England
Sindex
Sept 6-8 2016, Bern, Switzerland
E16
Sept 6-8 2016, Odense, Denmark
ENOVA
Sept 14-15 2016, Paris, France
Photonics Event
June 1-2 2016, Veldhoven, Netherlands
MipTec
Sept 19-22 2016, Basel, Switzerland
Optatec
June 7-9 Juni 2016,Frankfurt, Germany
ESREF
Sept 19-22 2016, Halle (Saale), Germany
SGIA
Sept 14-16 2016, Las Vegas, NV
Fotonica 2016
June 6-8 2016, Roma, Italy
14th Congress ESTP
Sept 20-23 2016, Barcelona, Spain
CAP
Sept 25-28 2016, Las Vegas, NV
3D Print Hub
June 7-9 2016,Milan, Italy
28th Congress of the ESP
Sept 25-29 2016, Cologne, Germany
SPIE Optics & Photonics
Aug 28-Sept 1 2016, San Diego, CA
September 2016
50
News 2016 Vol. 1
Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.
Sales Offices
Japan:
HAMAMATSU PHOTONICS K.K.
325-6, Sunayama-cho, Naka-ku
Hamamatsu City, Shizuoka Pref. 430-8587, Japan
Telephone: (81)53 452 2141, Fax: (81)53 456 7889
China:
HAMAMATSU PHOTONICS (CHINA) Co., Ltd
1201 Tower B, Jiaming Center, 27 Dongsanhuan
Beilu, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100020, China
Telephone: (86)10 6586 6006, Fax: (86)10 6586 2866
E-mail: hpc@hamamatsu.com.cn
USA:
HAMAMATSU CORPORATION
Main Office:
360 Foothill Road
Bridgewater, NJ 08807, U.S.A.
Telephone: (1)908 231 0960, Fax: (1)908 231 1218
E-mail: usa@hamamatsu.com
California Office:
2875 Moorpark Avenue
San Jose, CA 95128, U.S.A.
Telephone: (1)408 261 2022, Fax: (1)408 261 2522
E-mail: usa@hamamatsu.com
United Kingdom, South Africa:
HAMAMATSU PHOTONICS UK LIMITED
Main Office:
2 Howard Court, 10 Tewin Road, Welwyn Garden City,
Hertfordshire, AL7 1BW, United Kingdom
Telephone: (44)1707 294888, Fax: (44)1707 325777
E-mail: info@hamamatsu.co.uk
South Africa Office:
PO Box 1112
Buccleuch 2066
Johannesburg, South Africa
Telephone/Fax: (27)11 8025505
France, Belgium, Switzerland, Spain, Portugal:
HAMAMATSU PHOTONICS FRANCE S.A.R.L.
Main Office:
19, Rue du Saule Trapu, Parc du Moulin de Massy,
91882 Massy Cedex, France
Telephone: (33)1 69 53 71 00, Fax: (33)1 69 53 71 10
E-mail: infos@hamamatsu.fr
Swiss Office:
Dornacherplatz 7
4500 Solothurn, Switzerland
Telephone: (41)32 625 60 60, Fax: (41)32 625 60 61
E-mail: swiss@hamamatsu.ch
Belgian Office:
Axisparc Technology,
7, Rue Andre Dumont
B-1435 Mont-Saint-Guibert, Belgium
Telephone: (32)10 45 63 34, Fax: (32)10 45 63 67
E-mail: info@hamamatsu.be
Spanish Office:
C. Argenters, 4 edif 2
Parque Tecnológico del Vallés
E-08290 Cerdanyola, (Barcelona) Spain
Telephone: (34)93 582 44 30, Fax: (34)93 582 44 31
E-mail: infospain@hamamatsu.es
Germany, Denmark, Netherlands, Poland:
HAMAMATSU PHOTONICS DEUTSCHLAND GmbH
Main Office:
Arzbergerstr. 10,
D-82211 Herrsching am Ammersee, Germany
Telephone: (49)8152 375 0, Fax: (49)8152 265 8
E-mail: info@hamamatsu.de
Danish Office:
Lautruphoj 1-3
DK-2750 Ballerup, Denmark
Telephone: (45)70 20 93 69, Fax: (45)44 20 99 10
E-mail: info@hamamatsu.dk
Netherlands Office:
Televisieweg 2
NL-1322 AC Almere, The Netherlands
Telephone: (31)36 5405384, Fax: (31)36 5244948
E-mail: info@hamamatsu.nl
Poland Office:
02-525 Warsaw,
8 St. A. Boboli Str., Poland
Telephone: (48)22 646 0016, Fax: (48)22 646 0018
E-mail: poland@hamamatsu.de
North Europe and CIS:
HAMAMATSU PHOTONICS NORDEN AB
Main Office:
Torshamnsgatan 35
SE-16440 Kista, Sweden
Telephone: (46)8 509 031 00, Fax: (46)8 509 031 01
E-mail: info@hamamatsu.se
Russian Office:
11, Chistoprudny Boulevard, Building 1,
RU-101000, Moscow, Russia
Telephone: (7)495 258 85 18, Fax: (7)495 258 85 19
E-mail: info@hamamatsu.ru
Italy:
HAMAMATSU PHOTONICS ITALIA S.R.L.
Main Office:
Strada della Moia, 1 int. 6
20020 Arese, (Milano), Italy
Telephone: (39)02 93581733, Fax: (39)02 93581741
E-mail: info@hamamatsu.it
Rome Office:
Viale Cesare Pavese, 435,
00144 Roma, Italy
Telephone: (39)06 50513454, Fax: (39)06 50513460
E-mail: inforoma@hamamatsu.it
Impressum
Hamamatsu Photonics News
Publisher and copyright:
HAMAMATSU PHOTONICS K.K.
325-6, Sunayama-cho, Naka-ku
Hamamatsu City
Shizuoka Pref. 430-8587, Japan
Telephone: (81)53 452 2141
Fax: (81)53 456 7889
http://www.hamamatsu.com
kikaku2@hq.hpk.co.jp
Editor and responsible for content:
Hiroaki Fukuoka
Graphics and realisation:
SINNIQ Technologiewerbung Ltd.
www.sinniq.com
Publishing frequency:
Bi-annual, Date of this issue
March 2016
Printing:
Mühlbauer Druck GmbH
Copyright:
Reproduction in part or whole only
allowed with our written permission.
All rights reserved.
Information in this catalogue is believed
to be reliable. However, no responsibility
is assumed for possible inaccuracies or
omissions. Specifications are subject to
change without notice. No patent rights
are granted to any of the circuits described
herein.
© 2016 Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.
News 2016 Vol. 1
51
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