AN-1026: High Speed Differential ADC Driver Design Considerations (Rev. A)

AN-1026
APPLICATION NOTE
One Technology Way • P.O. Box 9106 • Norwood, MA 02062-9106, U.S.A. • Tel: 781.329.4700 • Fax: 781.461.3113 • www.analog.com
High Speed Differential ADC Driver Design Considerations
by John Ardizzoni and Jonathan Pearson
INTRODUCTION
Most modern high performance analog-to-digital converters
(ADCs) use differential inputs to reject common-mode noise and
interference, increase dynamic range by a factor of 2, and improve
overall performance due to balanced signaling. Though ADCs
with differential inputs can accept single-ended input signals,
optimum ADC performance is achieved when the input signal
is differential. ADC drivers—circuits often specifically designed to
provide such signals—perform many important functions,
including amplitude scaling, single-ended to differential
conversion, buffering, common-mode offset adjustment, and
filtering. Since the introduction of the AD8138, differential ADC
drivers have become essential signal conditioning elements in data
acquisition systems.
RF1
VIN, dm
RG1
VA
RG2
VOUT, dm
VA
VOP +
RF2
VIN, dm = VIP − VIN
(1)
VIP + VIN
2
(2)
VIN, cm =
This common-mode definition is intuitive when applied to
balanced inputs, but it is also valid for single-ended inputs.
The output also has a differential mode and a common mode,
defined in Equation 3 and Equation 4.
VON –
VOCM
– VIN
The differential-mode input voltage (VIN, dm) and the commonmode input voltage (VIN, cm) are defined in Equation 1 and
Equation 2.
08263-001
+ VIP
For the discussions that follow, some definitions are in order.
If the input signal is balanced, VIP and VIN are nominally equal
in amplitude and opposite in phase with respect to a common
reference voltage. When the input is single-ended, one input is
at a fixed voltage, and the other varies with respect to it. In either
case, the input signal is defined as VIP − VIN.
VOUT, dm = VOP − VON
(3)
VOP + VON
2
(4)
VOUT, cm =
Figure 1. Differential Amplifier
A basic fully differential voltage feedback ADC driver is shown
in Figure 1. Two differences from a traditional op amp feedback
circuit can be seen. The differential ADC driver has an additional
output terminal (VON) and an additional input terminal (VOCM).
These terminals provide great flexibility when interfacing
signals to ADCs that have differential inputs.
Instead of a single-ended output, the differential ADC driver
produces a balanced differential output, with respect to VOCM,
between VOP and VON (P indicates positive and N indicates
negative). The VOCM input controls the output common-mode
voltage. As long as the inputs and outputs stay within their
specified limits, the output common-mode voltage must equal
the voltage applied to the VOCM input. Negative feedback and
high open-loop gain cause the voltages at the amplifier input
terminals, VA+ and VA–, to be essentially equal.
Note the difference between the actual output common-mode
voltage (VOUT, cm) and the VOCM input terminal, which establishes
the output common-mode level.
The analysis of the differential ADC drivers is considerably
more complex than that of traditional op amps. To simplify the
algebra, it is expedient to define two feedback factors, β1 and β2,
as given in Equation 5 and Equation 6.
Rev. A | Page 1 of 13
β1 =
RG1
RF1 + RG1
(5)
β2 =
RG 2
RF 2 + RG 2
(6)
AN-1026
Application Note
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction ...................................................................................... 1
Supply Voltage ....................................................................................9
Revision History ............................................................................... 2
Harmonic Distortion ..................................................................... 10
Terminating the Input to an ADC Driver ..................................... 3
Bandwidth and Slew Rate .............................................................. 11
Input Common-Mode Voltage Range (ICMVR) ......................... 5
Stability ............................................................................................ 11
Input and Output Coupling: AC or DC......................................... 6
PCB Layout ...................................................................................... 12
Output Swing .................................................................................... 7
Noise ................................................................................................... 7
REVISION HISTORY
11/15—Rev. 0 to Rev. A
Changes to Terminating the Input to an ADC Driver Section and
Input Common-Mode Voltage Range (ICMVR) Section ........... 5
Changes to Noise Section ................................................................ 9
Added Figure 22; Renumbered Sequentially .............................. 13
Changes to Figure 23 ...................................................................... 13
11/09—Revision 0: Initial Version
Rev. A | Page 2 of 13
Application Note
AN-1026
When β1 ≠ β2, the differential output voltage depends on VOCM,
which is an undesirable outcome because it produces an offset and
excess noise in the differential output. The gain bandwidth product
of the voltage-feedback architecture is constant. The gain in the
gain bandwidth product is the reciprocal of the averages of the
two feedback factors.
When β1 = β2 ≡ β, Equation 7 reduces to Equation 8.
VOUT , dm
VIN , dm



 RF  
1
= 

1

 RG   1 +
A(s)(β ) 

VIN , dm
=
RF
RG
(9)
Output balance, an important performance metric for differential
ADC drivers, has two components: amplitude balance and phase
balance. Amplitude balance is a measure of how closely the two
outputs are matched in amplitude; in an ideal amplifier, they are
exactly matched. Output phase balance is a measure of how close
the phase difference between the two outputs is to 180°. Any
imbalance in output amplitude or phase produces an undesirable
common-mode component in the output. The output balance
error (see Equation 10) is the log ratio of the output commonmode voltage produced by a differential input signal to the
output differential-mode voltage produced by the same input
signal, expressed in decibels.
 ∆VOUT , cm 

Output Balance Error = 20 log10 
 ∆VOUT , dm 
RF
RG
RIN, dm
The ideal closed-loop gain for a differential ADC driver with
matched feedback factors is seen in Equation 9.
VOUT , dm
The input resistance of the ADC driver, whether differential or
single-ended, must be greater than or equal to the desired
termination resistance so that a termination resistor, RT, can be
added in parallel with the amplifier input to achieve the required
resistance. All ADC drivers in the examples considered here are
designed to have balanced feedback ratios, as shown in Figure 2.
(8)
Equation 8 is a more familiar looking expression; the ideal closedloop gain becomes simply RF/RG when A(s) approaches ∞. The
gain bandwidth product is also more familiar looking, with the
noise gain equal to 1/β, just as with a traditional op amp.
AV =
ADC drivers are frequently used in systems that process high
speed signals. Devices separated by more than a small fraction
of a signal wavelength must be connected by electrical transmission
lines with controlled impedance to avoid losing signal integrity.
Optimum performance is achieved when a transmission line is
terminated at both ends in its characteristic impedance. The driver
is generally placed close to the ADC; therefore, controlled
impedance connections are not required between them. However,
the incoming signal connection to the ADC driver input is often
long enough to require a controlled impedance connection,
terminated in the proper resistance.
VOCM
RG
RF
Figure 2. Differential Amplifier Input Impedance
Because the voltage between the two amplifier inputs is driven
to a null by negative feedback, they are virtually connected, and
the differential input resistance, RIN, is simply 2 × RG. To match
the transmission line resistance (RL), place the RT resistor, as
calculated in Equation 11, across the differential input. Figure 3
shows typical resistances RF = RG = 200 Ω, desired RL, dm =
100 Ω, and RT = 133 Ω.
(10)
An internal common-mode feedback loop forces VOUT, cm to
equal the voltage applied to the VOCM input, producing excellent
output balance.
Rev. A | Page 3 of 13
RT =
1
1
1
−
RL RIN
(11)
200Ω
200Ω
RL, dm = 100Ω
RT
VOCM
200Ω
RT =
200Ω
1
= 133Ω
1
1
−
100Ω
400Ω
Figure 3. Matching a 100 Ω Line
08263-003
VOUT,dm


 2   VOCM (β1 − β2 ) + VIP (1 − β1 ) − VIN (1 − β2 ) 
=
 (7)

2

 β1 + β2  
1+
A( s )(β1 + β2 )


TERMINATING THE INPUT TO AN ADC DRIVER
08263-002
In most ADC driving applications, β1 = β2, but the general closedloop equation for VOUT, dm, in terms of VIP, VIN, VOCM, β1, and β2, is
useful to gain insight into how beta mismatch affects performance.
The equation for VOUT, dm, shown in Equation 7, includes the finite
frequency dependent, open-loop voltage gain of the amplifier, A(s).
AN-1026
Application Note
In Figure 5, a single-ended to differential gain of 1, a 50 Ω input
termination, and feedback and gain resistors with values in the
neighborhood of 200 Ω are required to keep noise low.
3.5V
267Ω
200Ω
200Ω
VON
–
VOUT, dm
+
VOP
2.5V
VOCM
2.5V
1.5V
200Ω
RG
500Ω
–2V
1.75V
1.25V
0.75V
RF
500Ω
Equation 12 provides the single-ended input resistance, 267 Ω.
Equation 13 indicates that the parallel resistance, RT, must be
61.5 Ω to bring the 267 Ω input resistance down to 50 Ω.
3.5V
2.5V
1.5V
Figure 4. Example of Single-Ended Input to ADC Driver
Although the input is single-ended, VIN, dm is equal to VIN. Because
the RF and RG resistors are equal and balanced, the gain is unity,
and the differential output, VOP − VON, is equal to the input, that
is, 4 V p-p. VOUT, cm is equal to VOCM = 2.5 V and, from the lower
feedback circuit, input voltages VA+ and VA− are equal to VOP/2.
Using Equation 3 and Equation 4, VOP = VOCM + VIN/2, an in-phase
swing of ±1 V about 2.5 V. VON = VOCM − VIN/2, an antiphase
swing of ±1 V about 2.5 V. Thus, VA+ and VA− swing ±0.5 V about
1.25 V. The ac component of the current that must be supplied by
VIN is (2 V – 0.5 V)/500 Ω = 3 mA; therefore, the resistance to
ground that must be matched, looking in from VIN, is 667 Ω.
The general formula for determining this single-ended input
resistance, when the feedback factors of each loop are matched,
is shown in Equation 12, where RIN, se is the single-ended input
resistance.
RIN , se




R
G

=
RF
1−



(
)
×
+
2
R
R
F 
G

RT =
(12)
This equation is a starting point for calculating the termination
resistance. However, it is important to note that amplifier gain
equations are based on the assumption of a zero impedance input
source. A significant source impedance that must be matched in
the presence of an imbalance caused by a single-ended input
inherently adds resistance only to the upper RG. To retain the
balance, this must be matched by adding resistance to the lower
RG, but this affects the gain.
1
= 61.5
1
1
−
50 Ω 267 Ω
(13)
Figure 6 shows the circuit with source and termination resistances.
The open circuit voltage of the source, with its 50 Ω source resistance,
is 2 V p-p. When the source is terminated in 50 Ω, the input voltage
is reduced to 1 V p-p, which is also the differential output voltage of
the unity-gain driver.
200Ω
50Ω
2V p-p
200Ω
RT
61.5Ω
2.5V
VON
–
VOUT, dm
+
VOP
VOCM
200Ω
08263-006
VOCM
200Ω
Figure 6. Single-Ended Circuit with Source and Termination Resistances
This circuit may initially appear to be complete, but an unmatched
resistance of 61.5 Ω in parallel with 50 Ω has been added to the
upper RG alone. This addition changes the gain and single-ended
input resistance and mismatches the feedback factors. For small
gains, the change in input resistance is small and neglected for the
moment, but the feedback factors must still be matched. The
simplest way to accomplish this is to add resistance to the lower RG.
Figure 7 shows a Thevenin equivalent circuit in which the previously
mentioned parallel combination acts as the source resistance.
RTH
27.6Ω
VTH
1.1V p-p
Figure 7. Thevenin Equivalent of Input Source
With this substitution, a 27.6 Ω resistor, RTS, is added to the
lower loop to match loop feedback factors, as shown in Figure 8.
Although it may be possible to determine a closed form solution to
the problem of terminating a single-ended signal, an iterative
method is generally used. The need for it is apparent in the
following example.
RTH
27.6Ω
VTH
1.1V p-p
RF
200Ω
RG
200Ω
2.5V
RTS
27.6Ω
VOCM
RG
200Ω
VON
–
VOUT, dm
+
VOP
RF
200Ω
Figure 8. Balanced Single-Ended Termination Circuit
Rev. A | Page 4 of 13
08263-008
2.5V
Figure 5. Single-Ended Input Impedance
VON
–
VOUT, dm
+
VOP
VIN
0V
200Ω
08263-007
RG
500Ω
08263-004
RF
500Ω
2V
08263-005
Terminating a single-ended input requires significantly more
effort. Figure 4 illustrates how an ADC driver operates with a
single-ended input and a differential output.
Application Note
AN-1026
Note that the Thevenin voltage of 1.1 V p-p is larger than the
properly terminated voltage of 1 V p-p, and the gain resistors
are each increased by 27.6 Ω, decreasing the closed-loop gain.
These opposing effects tend to cancel each other out for large
resistors (>1 kΩ) and small gains (1 or 2), but are not entirely
canceled out for small resistors or higher gains.
A single iteration of the method described here works well for
closed-loop gains of 1 or 2. For higher gains, the value of RTS
gets closer to the value of RG, and the difference between the
value of RIN, se calculated in Equation 18 and that calculated in
Equation 12 becomes greater. Several iterations are required for
these cases.
The circuit in Figure 8 is easily analyzed, and the differential
output voltage is calculated in Equation 14.
The available differential amplifier calculator tool, ADI Diff Amp
Calculator™, performs the previous calculations with an
intuitive user interface.
 200 Ω 
 = 0.97 V p - p
VOUT,dm = 1.1 V p - p
 227.6 Ω 


(14)
The differential output voltage is not quite at the desired level of
1 V p-p, but a final independent gain adjustment is available by
modifying the feedback resistance, as shown in Equation 15.
 Desired VOUT ,dm 
=
R F = 227.6 Ω 
 1. 1 V p - p 


 1. 0 V p - p 
 = 206.9 Ω
227.6 Ω 


 1.1 V p - p 
(15)
Figure 9 shows the completed circuit, implemented with
standard 1% resistor values.
RTS
28Ω
Vacm or V A ± = V IN ,cm + β(VOCM − V ICM )
VON
VOCM
2.5V
RG
200Ω
RF
205Ω
–
VOUT, dm
+
VOP
Figure 9. Complete Single-Ended Termination Circuit
Referring to Figure 9, the single-ended input resistance of the
driver, RIN, se, has changed due to changes in RF and RG. The
gain resistances of the driver are 200 Ω in the upper loop and
200 Ω + 28 Ω = 228 Ω in the lower loop. Calculation of RIN, se
with differing gain resistance values first requires two values of
beta to be calculated, as shown in Equation 16 and Equation 17.
β1 =
β2 =
200 Ω
RG
= 0.494
=
RF + RG 405 Ω
RG + RTS
RF + RG + RTS
=
228 Ω
433 Ω
= 0.527
(17)
RG (β1 + β2 )
β1 (β2 + 1 )
= 271 Ω
If a more exact overall gain is necessary, higher precision or
series trim resistors can be used.
(18)
(20)
Note that VA is always a scaled down version of the input signal, as
shown in Figure 4. The input common-mode voltage range
differs among amplifier types. Analog Devices, Inc., high speed
differential ADC drivers have two configurations of input stages:
centered and shifted. The centered ADC drivers have about 1 V of
headroom from each supply rail. The shifted input stages add two
transistors to allow the inputs to swing closer to the –VS rail.
Figure 10 shows a simplified input schematic of a typical
differential amplifier (Q2 and Q3).
A
–IN
(16)
The input resistance, RIN, se, is calculated as shown in Equation 18,
which differs little from the original calculated value of 267 Ω
and does not have a significant effect on the calculation of RT,
because RIN, se is in parallel with RT.
RIN ,se =
2 β1β2VOCM + VIP β2 (1 − β1 ) + VIN β1 (1 − β2 )
(19)
β1 + β2
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
+IN
08263-010
RG
200Ω
RT
61.9Ω
Vacm or VA ± =
08263-009
2V p-p
ICMVR specifies the range of voltage that can be applied to the
differential amplifier inputs for normal operation. The voltage
appearing at those inputs can be referred to as ICMV, Vacm, or VA±.
This specification is often misunderstood. The most frequent
difficulty is determining the actual voltage at the differential
amplifier inputs, especially with respect to the input voltage.
The amplifier input voltage (VA±) can be calculated when the
variables VIN, cm, β, and VOCM are known, using the general
Equation 19 for unequal βs or the simplified Equation 20 for
equal βs.
RF
205Ω
RIN, se
RS
50Ω
INPUT COMMON-MODE VOLTAGE RANGE (ICMVR)
Figure 10. Simplified Differential Amplifier with Shifted ICMVR
The shifted input architecture allows the differential amplifier to
process a bipolar input signal, even when the amplifier is powered
from a single supply, making it well suited for single-supply
applications with inputs at or below ground. The additional PNP
transistors (Q1 and Q4) at the input shift the input to the differential
pair up by one transistor, VBE. For example, with –0.3 V applied
at –IN, Point A (see Figure 10) is 0.7 V, allowing the differential
pair to operate properly. Without the PNPs (centered input stage),
–0.3 V at Point A reverse biases the NPN differential pair and
halts normal operation.
Rev. A | Page 5 of 13
AN-1026
Application Note
Table 1. High Speed ADC Driver Specifications
Supply Voltage (V)
Part No.
AD8132
AD8137
AD8138
AD8139
ADA4927-1/
ADA4927-2
ADA4932-1/
ADA4932-2
ADA4937-1/
ADA4937-2
ADA4938-1/
ADA4938-2
ADA4939-1/
ADA4939-2
ICMVR
VOCM
Noise
(nV)
8
8.25
5
2.25
1.4
±5 V1
−4.7 to +3
−4 to +4
−4.7 to +3.4
−4 to +4
−3.5 to +3.5
+5 V
0.3 to 3
1 to 4
0.3 to 3.2
1 to 4
1.3 to 3.7
+3.3 V1
0.3 to 1.3
1 to 2.3
N/A
N/A
N/A
+3 V1
0.3 to 1
1 to 2
N/A
N/A
N/A
±5 V1
±3.6
±4
±3.8
±3.8
±3.5
+5 V
1 to 3.7
1 to 4
1 to 3.8
1 to 3.8
1.5 to 3.5
+3.3 V1
N/A
1 to 2.3
N/A
N/A
N/A
+3 V1
0.3 to 1
1 to 2
N/A
N/A
N/A
Output
Swing
from
Rails (V)
±1
Rail to rail
±1.4
Rail to rail
±1.2
ISUPPLY
(mA)
12
3.2
20
25
20
1000
2800
3.6
−4.8 to +3.2
0.2 to 3.2
N/A
N/A
±3.8
1.2 to 3.2
N/A
N/A
±1
9
1900
6000
2.2
N/A
0.3 to 3
0.3 to 1.2
N/A
N/A
1.2 to 3.8
1.2 to 2.1
N/A
±0.9
40
1000
4700
2.6
−4.7 to +3.4
0.3 to 3.4
N/A
N/A
±3.7
1.3 to 3.7
N/A
N/A
±1.2
37
1400
6800
2.3
N/A
1.1 to 3.9
0.9 to 2.4
N/A
N/A
1.3 to 3.5
1.3 to 1.9
N/A
±0.8
37
N/A = not applicable.
Table 1 provides a quick reference to many specifications of
Analog Devices ADC drivers, including which drivers feature a
shifted ICMVR and which do not.
INPUT AND OUTPUT COUPLING: AC OR DC
The need for ac or dc coupling can have a significant impact on
the choice of a differential ADC driver. The considerations
differ between input and output coupling.
An ac-coupled input stage is illustrated in Figure 11.
RF
CIN
RG
CIN
RG
RF
08263-011
VOCM
Figure 11. AC-Coupled ADC Driver
For differential to differential applications with ac-coupled inputs,
the dc common-mode voltage appearing at the amplifier input
terminals is equal to the dc output common-mode voltage
because dc feedback current is blocked by the input capacitors.
Also, the feedback factors at dc are matched and exactly equal to
unity. VOCM, and consequently the dc input common mode, is very
often set near midsupply. An ADC driver with a centered input
common-mode range works well in these types of applications,
with the input common-mode voltage near the center of its
specified range.
AC-coupled, single-ended to differential applications are similar to
their differential-input counterparts but have common-mode
ripple, a scaled-down replica of the input signal, at the amplifier
input terminals. An ADC driver with a centered input commonmode range places the average input common-mode voltage
near the middle of its specified range, providing plenty of
margin for the ripple in most applications.
When input coupling is optional, it is worth noting that ADC
drivers with ac-coupled inputs dissipate less power than similar
drivers with dc-coupled inputs because no dc common-mode
current flows in either feedback loop.
AC coupling the ADC driver outputs is useful when the ADC
requires an input common-mode voltage that differs substantially
from that available at the output of the driver. The drivers have
maximum output swing when VOCM is set near midsupply; this
presents a problem when driving low voltage ADCs with very
low input common-mode voltage requirements. A simple solution
to this predicament is to ac couple the connection between the
driver output and the ADC input (see Figure 12), removing the
dc common-mode voltage of the ADC from the driver output
and allowing a common-mode level suitable for the ADC to be
applied on its side of the ac coupling. For example, the driver
can be running on a single 5 V supply with VOCM = 2.5 V and
the ADC can be running on a single 1.8 V supply with a required
input common-mode voltage of 0.9 V applied at the ADC CMV pin.
RF
COUT
RG
ROUT
ADC
CMV
VOCM
ROUT
RG
RF
COUT
TO
ADC
08263-012
1
ADC Driver
Slew
BW
Rate
(MHz) (V/µs)
350
1200
76
450
320
1150
410
800
2300
5000
Figure 12. DC-Coupled Inputs with AC-Coupled Outputs
Rev. A | Page 6 of 13
Application Note
AN-1026
Table 2 summarizes the most common ADC driver input
stage types used with various input coupling and power supply
combinations. However, these choices may not always be the
best; each system must be analyzed on a case by case basis.
Table 2. Coupling and Input Stage Options
Input
Coupling
Any
AC
DC
AC
DC
Input Signal
Any
Single-ended
Single-ended
Differential
Differential
Power
Supplies
Dual
Single
Single
Single
Single
Input Type
Either
Centered
Shifted
Centered
Centered
OUTPUT SWING
To maximize the dynamic range of an ADC, it must be driven
to its full input range. However, care is needed when driving the
ADC. If the ADC is driven too hard, the input may be damaged;
if it is not driven hard enough, resolution is lost. Driving the ADC
to its full input range does not mean that the amplifier output must
swing to its full range. A major benefit of differential outputs is that
each output must swing only half as much as a traditional singleended output. The driver outputs can stay away from the supply
rails, allowing decreased distortion. However, this is not the case for
single-ended drivers. As the output voltage of the driver approaches
the rail, the amplifier loses linearity and introduces distortion.
For applications where every millivolt of output voltage is
required, see Table 1 for ADC drivers that have rail-to-rail
outputs with typical headroom ranging from a few millivolts to
a few hundred millivolts, depending on the load.
Figure 13 shows harmonic distortion vs. VOCM at various
frequencies for the ADA4932-1, which is specified with a
typical output swing to within 1.2 V of each rail (headroom).
The output swing is the sum of VOCM and VPEAK of the signal (1 V).
Note that the distortion starts to accelerate above 2.8 V (3.8 VPEAK,
or 1.2 V below the 5 V rail). At the low end, distortion is still
low at 2.2 V (–1 VPEAK). The same type of behavior appears in
the discussions of bandwidth and slew rate.
VOUT = 2V p-p
–30
–40
HD2 @ 10MHz
HD3 @ 10MHz
HD2 @ 30MHz
HD3 @ 30MHz
–50
–60
–70
–80
–90
–100
–110
–120
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.8
3.0
3.2
3.4
VOCM (V)
08263-013
Systems running on dual supplies, with single-ended or differential
inputs and ac coupling or dc coupling, usually work well with either
type of input stage because of the increased headroom.
–20
HARMONIC DISTORTION (dBc)
Drivers with shifted input common-mode ranges generally work
best in dc-coupled systems operating on single supplies because
the output common-mode voltage is divided down through the
feedback loops, and its variable components can get close to
ground, which is the negative rail. With single-ended inputs,
the input common-mode voltage gets even closer to the
negative rail due to the input-related ripple.
Figure 13. Harmonic Distortion vs. VOCM at Various Frequencies for the
ADA4932-1 with a 5 V Supply
NOISE
ADC imperfections include quantization noise, electronic—or
random—noise, and harmonic distortion. Important in most
applications, noise is usually the most important performance
metric in broadband systems.
All ADCs inherently have quantization noise, which depends
on the number of bits (n); quantization noise can be decreased
by increasing the number of bits (n). Because even ideal converters
produce quantization noise, it is used as a benchmark against
which to compare random noise and harmonic distortion. The
output noise from the ADC driver is comparable to or lower
than the random noise and distortion of the ADC. Beginning
with a review of the characterization of ADC noise and distortion,
how to weigh ADC driver noise against the performance of the
ADC is shown.
Quantization noise occurs because the ADC quantizes analog
signals that have infinite resolution into a finite number of discrete
levels. An n-bit ADC has 2n binary levels. The difference between
one level and the next represents the finest difference that can
be resolved; it is referred to as a least significant bit (LSB), or q,
for the quantum level. One quantum level is therefore 1/2n of
the range of the converter. If a varying voltage is converted by a
perfect n-bit ADC, converted back to analog and subtracted from
the input of the ADC, the difference looks like noise. It has an
rms value of
RMS Quantization Noise =
q
1
=
12 2n 12
(21)
From this, the logarithmic (dB) formula for the signal-toquantizing-noise ratio of an n-bit ADC over its Nyquist
bandwidth can be derived (see Equation 22); it is the best
achievable SNR for an n-bit converter.
Signal-to-Quantization-Noise Ratio (dB) = 6.02n + 1.76 dB (22)
Rev. A | Page 7 of 13
AN-1026
Application Note
Random noise in ADCs, a combination of thermal, shot, and
flicker noise, is generally larger than the quantization noise.
Harmonic distortion, resulting from nonlinearities in the ADC,
produces unwanted signals in the output that are harmonically
related to the input signals. Total harmonic distortion plus noise
(THD + N) is an important ADC performance metric that
compares the electronic noise and harmonic distortion with an
analog input that is close to the full-scale input range of the ADC.
Electronic noise is integrated over a bandwidth that includes the
frequency of the last harmonic to be considered. In Equation 23,
the total THD includes the first five harmonic distortion
components, which are root sum squared along with the noise.
THD + Noise =
[v2 (rms)]2 + [v3 (rms)]2 + [v 4 (rms)]2 + [v5 (rms)]2 + [v6 (rms)]2 + vn2
[v1(rms)]2
If SINAD is substituted for the signal-to-quantizing-noise ratio
(see Equation 22), an effective number of bits (ENOB) that a
converter can have if its signal-to-quantizing-noise ratio is the
same as its SINAD (see Equation 25) can be defined.
SINAD(dB) = 6.02(ENOB) + 1.76 dB
(25)
ENOB can also be expressed in terms of SINAD, as shown in
Equation 26.
ENOB =
SINAD(dB) − 1.76 dB
(26)
6.02
ENOB can compare noise performance of an ADC driver with
that of the ADC to determine its suitability to drive that ADC. A
differential ADC noise model is shown in Figure 14.
VnRG1
RG1
VnRF1
RF1
inIN+
+
(23)
inIN–
VnIN
The input signal is v1, the first five harmonic distortion products
are v2 through v6, and the ADC electronic noise is vn.
β1 + β2
(
(
)
β1 + β2
2inIN − (1 − β2 ) RG1
vno, dm due to vnRG 2 =
vno, dm due to vnRF 2 =
) = 0 for β
2 inIN + 1 − β1 RG1
vno, dm due to vnRG1 =
vno, dm due to vnRF1 =
(24)
1
β1 + β2
vno, dm due to inIN + =
(2
β1 + β2
VnCM
VnRF2
The contributions to the total output noise density of each of
the eight sources are shown in Equation 27 for the general case
and when β1 = β2 ≡ β.
)(
)(
= (inIN + )(RF 2 ) for β1 = β2 = β
)=
4kTRG 2 1 − β2
β1 + β2
2 β1 4kTRF 1
β1 + β2
2 β1 4kTRF 2
β1 + β2
= β2 = β
= (inIN + )(RF1 ) for β1 = β2 = β
4kTRG1 1 − β1
β1 + β2
(2
RF2
vnIN
for β1 = β2 = β
β
2 vnCM β1 − β2
vno, dm due to vnCM =
vno, dm due to inIN − =
=
RG2
Figure 14. Noise Model of Differential ADC Driver


1
SINAD (dB) = 20 log10 

 THD + N 
2 vnIN
VnRG2
08263-014
VOCM
The reciprocal of THD + noise, the signal-to-noise-and-distortion
ratio (SINAD) is usually expressed in decibels (see Equation 24).
vno , dm due to vnIN =
Vno, dm
)=
R 
4kTRG1  F 1  for β1 = β2 = β
R 
 G1 
R 
4kTRG 2  F 2  for β1 = β2 = β
 RG 2 
= 4kTRF 1 for β1 = β2 = β
= 4kTRF 2 for β1 = β2 = β
Rev. A | Page 8 of 13
(27)
Application Note
AN-1026
Suitability of an ADC driver from a noise perspective can be
assessed by comparing the total calculated peak-to-peak output
noise with the ENOB of an ADC as shown in the following
example. Consider a differential driver with a gain of 2 for the
AD9445 ADC on a 5 V supply with a 2 V full-scale input; it
processes a direct coupled broadband signal occupying a 50 MHz
(−3 dB) bandwidth, limited with a single-pole filter. From the data
sheet listing of the ENOB specifications for various conditions,
ENOB = 12 bits for a Nyquist bandwidth of 50 MHz.
The ADA4939-1 is a high performance, broadband differential
ADC driver that can be direct coupled. The ADA4939-1 is a good
candidate to drive the AD9445 with respect to noise. The data
sheet recommends RF = 402 Ω and RG = 200 Ω for a differential
gain of approximately 2. A total output voltage noise density for
this configuration is 9.7 nV√Hz.
SUPPLY VOLTAGE
Considering supply voltage and current is a quick way to narrow
the choice of ADC drivers. Table 1 provides a compact reference
to ADC driver performance with respect to power supply. The
supply voltage influences bandwidth, signal swing, and ICMVR.
Weighing the specifications and reviewing the trade-offs are
important to differential amplifier selection.
Power-supply rejection (PSR) is another important specification.
The role of power supply pins as inputs to the amplifier is often
ignored. Any noise on the power supply lines or coupled into
them can potentially corrupt the output signal.
For example, consider the ADA4937-1 with 50 mV p-p at 60 MHz
of noise on the power line. Its PSR at 50 MHz is −70 dB, which
means that the noise on the power supply line reduces to
approximately 16 µV at the amplifier output. In a 16-bit system
with a 1 V full-scale input, 1 LSB is 15.3 µV; the noise from the
power supply line, therefore, swamps the LSB.
To improve this situation, add series SMT ferrite beads, L1 and
L2, and shunt bypass capacitors, C1 and C2 (see Figure 15).
V+
First, calculate the system noise bandwidth, BN, which is the
bandwidth of an equivalent rectangular low-pass filter that
outputs the same noise power as the actual filter that determines
the system bandwidth for a given constant input noise power
spectral density. For a one-pole filter, BN is equal to π/2 times
the 3 dB bandwidth, as shown in Equation 28.
π
BN =   50 MHz = 78.5 MHz
2
L1
U1
AD8138AR
3
8
1
L2
V–
vno, dm (rms) = (9.7 nV/√Hz)(√78.5 MHz) = 86 µV rms (29)
One LSB = 2 V/212 = 488 µV
(31)
4
+OUT
C2
10nF
Figure 15. Power Supply Bypassing
At 50 MHz, the ferrite bead has an impedance of 60 Ω and the
10 nF (0.01 µF) capacitor has an impedance of 0.32 Ω. The
attenuator formed by these two elements provides 45.5 dB of
attenuation (see Equation 32).
0.32 
Divider Attenuation = 20log 
 = −45.5 dB
 0.32 + 60 
(30)
Compare the peak-to-peak output noise of the driver with 1 LSB
voltage of the AD9445 LSB, based on an ENOB of 12 bits and
full-scale input range of 2 V, as calculated in Equation 31.
–OUT
6
Next, integrate the noise density over the square root of the system
bandwidth to obtain the output rms noise (see Equation 29).
vno, dm (p-p) ≈ 6(86 µV rms) = 516 µV p-p
5
2 V
OCM
(28)
The amplitude of the noise is presumed to have a Gaussian
distribution; therefore, using the common ±3 σ limits for the
peak-to-peak noise (noise voltage swings between these limits
about 99.7% of the time), the peak-to-peak output noise is
calculated as
C1
10nF
08263-015
The total output noise voltage density, vno, dm, is calculated by
computing the root sum square of these components. Entering
the equations into a spreadsheet is the best way to calculate the
total output noise voltage density. The ADI Diff Amp Calculator
can quickly calculates noise, gain, and other differential ADC
driver behaviors.
(32)
The divider attenuation combines with the PSR of –70 dB to
provide approximately 115 dB of rejection, which reduces the
noise to approximately 90 nV p-p, well below 1 LSB.
The peak-to-peak output noise from the driver is comparable to
the LSB of the ADC with respect to 12 bits of the ENOB; the
driver is therefore a good choice to consider in this application
from the standpoint of noise. The final determination must be
made by building and testing the driver and ADC combination.
Rev. A | Page 9 of 13
AN-1026
Application Note
HARMONIC DISTORTION
Low harmonic distortion in the frequency domain is important
in both narrow-band and broadband systems. Nonlinearities in
the drivers generate single tone harmonic distortion and multitone,
intermodulation distortion products at amplifier outputs.
The same approach used in the noise analysis example can be
applied to distortion analysis, comparing the harmonic distortion
of the ADA4939-1 with 1 LSB of the ENOB of 12 bits of the
AD9445 with a 2 V full-scale output. One ENOB LSB is 488 µV
in the noise analysis.
The distortion data in the specifications table of the ADA4939-1 is
given for a gain of 2, comparing second and third harmonics at
various frequencies. Table 3 shows the harmonic distortion data
for a gain of 2 and differential output swing of 2 V p-p.
Table 3. Second and Third Harmonic Distortion of the
ADA4939-1
Parameter
HD2 at 10 MHz
HD2 at 70 MHz
HD2 at 100 MHz
HD3 at 10 MHz
HD3 at 70 MHz
HD3 at 100 MHz
Harmonic Distortion (dBc)
−102
−83
−77
−101
−97
−91
The data shows that harmonic distortion increases with frequency
and that HD2 is worse than HD3 in the bandwidth of interest
(50 MHz). Harmonic distortion products are higher in frequency
than the frequency of interest, so their amplitude can be reduced
by system band limiting. If the system had a brick wall filter at
50 MHz, then only the frequencies higher than 25 MHz are of
concern because all harmonics of higher frequencies are eliminated
by the filter. Nevertheless, the system was evaluated up to 50 MHz
because any filtering that is present may not sufficiently suppress
the harmonics, and distortion products can alias back into the
signal bandwidth. Figure 16 shows the harmonic distortion vs.
frequency of the ADA4939-1 for various supply voltages with a
2 V p-p output.
–60
VOUT, dm = 2V p-p
HD2,
HD3,
HD2,
HD3,
–70
–75
VS (SPLIT
VS (SPLIT
VS (SPLIT
VS (SPLIT
SUPPLY) = ±2.5V
SUPPLY) = ±2.5V
SUPPLY) = ±1.65V
SUPPLY) = ±1.65V
–80
–85
HD2 ≈ –88dBc @ 50MHz
–90
 −88 
HD2 = (2 V p - p )10 20  ≈ 80 μV p - p


Because ADC drivers are negative feedback amplifiers, output
distortion depends on the amount of loop gain in the amplifier
circuit. The inherent open-loop distortion of a negative feedback
amplifier is reduced by a factor of 1/(1 + LG), where LG is the
available loop gain.
The input (error voltage) of the amplifier is multiplied by a large
forward voltage gain, A(s), then passes through the feedback
factor, β, to the input, where it adjusts the output to minimize the
error. Therefore, the loop gain of this type of amplifier is A(s) × β;
as the loop gain (A(s), β, or both) decreases, harmonic distortion
increases. Voltage feedback amplifiers, such as integrators, are
designed to have large A(s) at dc and low frequencies, and then
roll off as 1/f toward unity at a specified high frequency. As A(s)
rolls off, loop gain decreases and distortion increases. Therefore,
the harmonic distortion characteristic is the inverse of A(s).
Current feedback amplifiers use an error current as the feedback
signal. The error current is multiplied by a large forward
transresistance, T(s), which converts it to the output voltage,
then passes through the feedback factor, 1/RF, which converts
the output voltage to a feedback current that tends to minimize
the input error current. The loop gain of an ideal current feedback
amplifier is therefore T(s) × (1/RF) = T(s)/RF. Like A(s), T(s) has
a large dc value and rolls off with increasing frequency, reducing
loop gain and increasing the harmonic distortion.
Loop gain also depends directly upon the feedback factor, 1/RF.
The loop gain of an ideal current feedback amplifier does not
depend on a closed-loop voltage gain; therefore, harmonic
distortion performance does not degrade as the closed-loop
gain increases. In a real current feedback amplifier, loop gain
does have some dependence on the closed-loop gain but not
nearly to the extent that it does in a voltage feedback amplifier.
This dependency makes a current feedback amplifier, such as the
ADA4927-1, a better choice than a voltage feedback amplifier for
applications requiring high closed-loop gain and low distortion.
–95
–100
–105
–110
1
10
100
FREQUENCY (MHz)
(33)
This distortion product is only 80 µV p-p, or 16% of 1 ENOB
LSB. Thus, from a distortion standpoint, the ADA4939-1 is a
good choice to consider as a driver for the AD9445 ADC.
08263-016
HARMONIC DISTORTION (dBc)
–65
The HD2 at 50 MHz is approximately −88 dBc, relative to a
2 V p-p input signal. To compare the harmonic distortion level
to 1 ENOB LSB, this level must be converted to a voltage as shown
in Equation 33.
Figure 16. Harmonic Distortion vs. Frequency
Rev. A | Page 10 of 13
Application Note
AN-1026
Figure 17 shows how well distortion performance holds up as
the closed-loop gain increases for the ADA4927-1.
VOUT, dm = 2V p-p
VO = VP sin 2πft
–50
–70
dv
dt
–80
–90
–110
G=1
G = 10
G = 20
–120
1
10
100
FREQUENCY (MHz)
1k
Figure 17. Distortion vs. Frequency and Gain
BANDWIDTH AND SLEW RATE
Bandwidth and slew rate are especially important in ADC
driver applications. Typically, the small signal bandwidth is the
bandwidth of a device, whereas the slew rate measures the maximum
rate of change at the amplifier output for large signal swings.
Effective usable bandwidth (EUBW), an acronym analogous to
ENOB, describes bandwidth. Many ADC drivers and op amps
boast wide bandwidth specifications; however, not all of that
bandwidth is usable. For example, −3 dB bandwidth is a conventional
way to measure bandwidth, but it does not mean that all the
bandwidth is usable. The amplitude and phase errors of the
−3 dB bandwidth can be seen a decade earlier than the actual
break frequency. An excellent way to determine the usable
bandwidth is to consult the distortion plots on the data sheet.
Figure 18 shows that to maintain greater than −80 dBc for
second and third harmonics, the ADC driver cannot be used for
frequencies greater than 60 MHz. Because each application is
different, the system requirements are a guide to the appropriate
driver with sufficient bandwidth and adequate distortion
performance.
–50
HD2,
HD3,
HD2,
HD3,
–60
G
G
G
G
= 1,
= 1,
= 2,
= 2,
RF =
RF =
RF =
RF =
200Ω
200Ω
402Ω
402Ω
–70
–80
–90
–100
1
10
FREQUENCY (MHz)
100
08263-018
–110
–120
max
= 2πfVP
(35)
where:
dv/dt max is the slew rate.
VP is the peak voltage.
f is the full power bandwidth (FPBW). Solving for FPBW,
–100
–130
DISTORTION (dBc)
(34)
The derivative (rate of change) of Equation 34 at the zero crossing,
the maximum rate, is
–60
08263-017
SPURIOUS-FREE DYNAMIC RANGE (dBc)
–40
Slew rate (a large signal parameter) refers to the maximum rate of
change the amplifier output can track the input, without excessive
distortion. Consider the sine wave output at the slew rate.
Figure 18. Distortion Curves for ADA4937-1 Current Feedback ADC Driver
FPBW =
Slew Rate
2πVp
(36)
Therefore, when selecting an ADC driver, it is important to
consider the gain, bandwidth, and slew rate (FPBW) to
determine if the amplifier is adequate for the application.
STABILITY
Stability considerations for differential ADC drivers are the same as
for op amps. The key specification is phase margin. The phase
margin of a particular amplifier configuration can be determined
from the data sheets; however, in a real system, parasitic effects in the
printed circuit board (PCB) layout can reduce it significantly.
The stability of a negative voltage, feedback amplifier depends on
the magnitude and sign of its loop gain, A(s) × β. The differential
ADC driver is a bit more complicated than a typical op amp circuit
because it has two feedback factors. Loop gain is shown in the
denominators of Equation 7 and Equation 8. Equation 37 describes
the loop gain for the unmatched feedback factor case (β1 ≠ β2).
Loop Gain =
A(s)(β1 + β2 )
2
(37)
With unmatched feedback factors, the effective feedback factor
is simply the average of the two feedback factors. When they are
matched and defined as β, the loop gain simplifies to A(s) × β.
For a feedback amplifier to be stable, its loop gain must not be
allowed to equal −1 or its equivalent, an amplitude of +1 with
phase shift of −180°. For a voltage feedback amplifier, the point
where the magnitude of the loop gain equals 1 (that is, 0 dB) on
its open-loop gain frequency plot is where the magnitude of A(s)
equals the reciprocal of the feedback factor. For basic amplifier
applications, the feedback is purely resistive, introducing no
phase shifts around the feedback loop. With matched feedback
factors, the frequency independent reciprocal of the feedback
factor, 1 + RF/RG, is often referred to as the noise gain. If the
constant noise gain in decibels is plotted on the same graph as
the open-loop gain, A(s), the frequency where the two curves
intersect is where the loop gain is 1, or 0 dB. The difference
between the phase of A(s) at that frequency and −180° is defined
as the phase margin; for stable operation, it must be greater
than or equal to 45°.
Rev. A | Page 11 of 13
AN-1026
Application Note
Figure 19 illustrates the unity loop gain point and phase margin
for the ADA4932-2 with RF/RG = 1 (noise gain = 2).
The loop gain is 0 dB where the 300 Ω feedback resistance
horizontal line intersects the transimpedance magnitude curve.
At this frequency, the phase of T(s) is approximately −135°,
resulting in a phase margin of +45°. Phase margin and stability
increase as RF increases and decrease as RF decreases. Current
feedback amplifiers must use purely resistive feedback with
sufficient phase margin.
90
80
GAIN
60
1+
RF
=2
RG
45
(6dB)
PHASE
–45
6
0
–90
GAIN (dB)
20
–20
–135
PHASE
MARGIN ≈ 70°
–40
–180
–60
–225
–80
1k
10k
100k
1M
10M
100M
–270
10G
1G
FREQUENCY (Hz)
PCB LAYOUT
When a stable ADC driver is designed, it must be realized on a
PCB. Some phase margin is lost because of the parasitic elements
of the board, which must be kept to a minimum. Of particular
concern are load capacitance, feedback loop inductance, and
summing node capacitance. Each of these parasitic reactances adds
lagging phase shift to the feedback loops, thereby reducing phase
margin. A design may lose 20° or more of phase margin due to
poor PCB layout.
08263-019
LOOP
GAIN = 0dB
PHASE (Degrees)
0
40
Figure 19. ADA4932-2 Open-Loop Gain Magnitude and Phase vs. Frequency
With voltage feedback amplifiers, it is best to use the smallest
possible RF to minimize the phase shift due to the pole formed
by RF and the summing node capacitance. If large RF is required,
that capacitance can compensate with small capacitors, CF, across
each feedback resistor with values such that RF × CF equals RG
times the summing node capacitance.
Further examination of Figure 19 shows that the ADA4932-2
has approximately 50° of phase margin at a noise gain of 1 (100%
feedback in each loop). Although it is not practical to operate ADC
drivers at zero gain, this observation shows that the ADA4932-2
can operate stably at fractional differential gains (for example,
RF/RG = 0.25, noise gain = 1.25). This observation is not true for all
differential ADC drivers. Minimum stable gains can be seen in
all ADC driver data sheets.
PCB layout is necessarily one of the last steps in a design.
Unfortunately, it is also one of the most overlooked steps in a
design, even though high speed circuit performance is highly
dependent on layout. A high performance design can be
compromised, or even rendered useless, by a sloppy or poor
layout. Although all aspects of proper high speed PCB design
cannot be covered here, a few key topics are addressed.
Phase margin for current feedback ADC drivers can also be
determined from open-loop responses. Instead of forward gain,
A(s), current feedback amplifiers use forward transimpedance,
T(s), with an error current as the feedback signal. The loop gain
of a current feedback driver with matched feedback resistors is
T(s)/RF; therefore, the magnitude of the current feedback amplifier
loop gain is equal to 1 (that is, 0 dB) when T(s) = RF. This point
can be easily located on the open-loop transimpedance and phase
plot, in the same way as for the voltage feedback amplifier. Plotting
the ratio of a resistance to 1 kΩ allows resistances to be expressed
on a log plot. Figure 20 illustrates the unity loop gain point and
phase margin of the ADA4927-1 current feedback, differential
ADC driver with RF = 300 Ω.
1k
Parasitic elements rob high speed circuits of performance.
Parasitic capacitance is formed by component pads and traces
and ground or power planes. Long traces without ground planes
form parasitic inductances, which can lead to ringing in transient
responses and other unstable behaviors. Parasitic capacitance is
especially dangerous at the summing nodes of an amplifier
because it introduces a pole in the feedback response, causing
peaking and instability. One solution is to make sure that the
areas beneath the ADC driver mounting and feedback component
pads are clear of ground and power planes throughout all layers
of the board.
50
0
PHASE
–50
10
–100
1
–135
–150
0.3
–180
0.1
10
100
1k
10k 100k
1M
10M
FREQUENCY (Hz)
100M
1G
To minimize undesired parasitic reactances, keep all traces as
short as possible. Outer layer 50 Ω PCB traces on FR-4 contribute
roughly 2.8 pF per inch and 7 nH per inch. These parasitic
reactances increase by about 30% for inner layer 50 Ω traces.
Additionally, make sure that there is a ground plane under long
traces to minimize trace inductance. Keeping traces short and small
helps to minimize both parasitic capacitance and inductance and
maintains the integrity of the design.
PHASE
MARGIN ≈ 45°
–200
10G
08263-020
100
IMPEDANCE PHASE (Degrees)
IMPEDANCE MAGNITUDE (kΩ)
MAGNITUDE
Figure 20. ADA4927-1 Open-Loop Gain Magnitude and Phase vs. Frequency
Rev. A | Page 12 of 13
Application Note
AN-1026
Power supply bypassing is another key area of concern for layout.
Ensure that the power supply bypass capacitors, as well as the VOCM
bypass capacitor, are located as close to the amplifier pins as
possible. In addition, using multiple bypass capacitors on the
power supplies helps to ensure that a low impedance path is
provided for broadband noise. Figure 21 shows a typical differential
amplifier schematic with power supply bypassing and a low-pass
filter on the output. The low-pass filter limits the bandwidth and
noise entering the ADC. Ideally, the power supply bypassing
capacitor returns are close to the load returns, which helps reduce
circulating currents in the ground plane and improves ADC driver
performance (see Figure 22 and Figure 23).
R2
R4
R6
RT
U1
R7
R3
R5
08263-022
R1
Figure 22. Component Side
R4
+VS
C2
C2
C3
R6
C7
C6
R7
C7
TO
ADC
C1
C4
C5
R5
Figure 23. Circuit Side
VA
08263-021
–VS
ANALOG
CIRCUITS
Figure 21. ADC Driver with Power Supply Bypassing and Output Low-Pass Filter
Use of ground plane, and grounding in general, is a detailed and
complex subject and beyond the scope of this application note.
However, a few key points are as follows (see Figure 22 and
Figure 23):
•
•
C5
R3
08263-024
R1
C1
U1
Connect the analog and digital grounds together at one
point only to minimize the interaction of the analog and the
digital currents flowing in the ground plane, which
ultimately leads to noise in the system.
Terminate the analog power supply into the analog power
plane and the digital power supply into the digital power
plane.
For mixed-signal ICs, terminate the analog ground returns
into the analog ground plane and the digital ground returns
into the digital ground plane and tie the two planes
together using only one small connection to minimize the
mixing of digital and analog currents (see Figure 24.)
SYSTEM
STAR
GROUND
A
ANALOG
CIRCUITS
ANALOG SUPPLY
VD
VA
VD
MIXED
SIGNALS
AGND
DGND
A
D
A
D
DIGITAL
CIRCUITS
D
DIGITAL
CIRCUITS
DIGITAL SUPPLY
08263-023
VOCM
RT
•
C6
C4
R2
RS
C3
Figure 24. Mixed Signal Grounding
Refer to A Practical Guide to High-Speed Printed-Circuit-Board
Layout for a detailed discussion about high speed PCB layout.
The information in this application note is intended to help think
about the many considerations that must be taken into account
when designing with ADC drivers. Understanding differential
amplifiers and paying attention to the details of ADC driver design
at the outset of a project minimizes future problems, lowers risk,
and ensures a robust design.
©2009–2015 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved. Trademarks and
registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
AN08263-0-11/15(A)
Rev. A | Page 13 of 13
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