AN1558/D Characterization of Retrigger Time in the HC4538A Dual Precision Monostable Multivibrator http://onsemi.com Prepared by: Douglas M. Buzard, Rodolfo E. Soto APPLICATION NOTE Introduction The MC74HC4538A is a monostable multivibrator commonly used as a one–shot, or in applications that require a pulse width of reliable dimensions. The pulse width and the minimum retrigger time are usually well behaved over the suggested pulse–width range of 1µs to 1 second. However, some customers have found that in using shorter than recommended pulse widths the retrigger time did not behave as it had at longer pulse widths. ON Semiconductor has done an overall characterization of the minimum retrigger time in an investigation of this phenomenon. The retrigger time is applicable when the device is triggered a second time within the period of the output pulse. When this happens, the output pulse remains high for a period of τ + Trr. The earliest the part can be retriggered, or the minimum retrigger time, is the focus of this characterization. A trigger pulse on A or B inputs before this minimum retrigger time would be ignored. resistance, and the contact resistance. The interconnection resistance is heavily process dependent, but fortunately it is small overall and doesn’t vary significantly from lot to lot. The discharge time can be computed from: Tdischarge Ln 3 2 Ri Cx Typically the value of Ri would be near 300Ω. 2) Loop delay (Tdelay = constant) ranges from 20–60ns, and is strongly correlated to VCC. This is the time for the signal coming from the lower reference circuit to reset the flip–flop, and turn off M3. The amount of the undershoot voltage is a function of the loop delay, and for small values of capacitance the undershoot voltage is well below the lower reference voltage. 3) The time to charge RxCx from the undershoot voltage back to the lower reference voltage (Vref lower). This time is given by the RxCx transient equation: Tcharge + Rx @ @ ǒ) @@ Cx Ln 1 3 Vundershoot 2 VCC Ǔ (Equation 2) 1) Time to discharge RxCx from VCC to (Vref lower=1/3 VCC) Tdischarge. This discharge occurs quickly because external resistance, Rx, does not have any effect on the RC time constant. The resistance in the discharge path, as seen in Figure 2, is the on–resistance of M3, and the interconnect resistance. The interconnection resistance is dependent on the polysilicon sheet resistance, the metal sheet February, 2000 – Rev. 1 ǒ Ǔ@ @ (Equation 1) Analysis and Data When used in the retriggerable mode (Figure 1), the MC74HC4538A uses an external Rx & Cx to regulate the output pulse width, and the minimum retrigger time (Trr). The minimum retrigger time depends on: Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC, 1999 + where Vundershoot = (Vref lower) – Gnd. Hence the retrigger time is given by: Trr = Tdischarge + Tdelay + Tcharge (Equation 3) 1 Publication Order Number: AN1558/D AN1558/D CX CX RX RISING–EDGE TRIGGER VCC VCC A = GND Q Q A B RX B Q B = VCC FALLING–EDGE TRIGGER RESET = VCC Q RESET = VCC Figure 1. Retriggerable Monostable Circuitry LOGIC DETAIL (1/2 THE DEVICE) RxCx UPPER REFERENCE CIRCUIT – + Vref UPPER VCC VCC OUTPUT LATCH LOWER REFERENCE CIRCUIT M1 2 kΩ – + M2 Q Vref LOWER M3 Q TRIGGER CONTROL CIRCUIT A C Q TRIGGER CONTROL RESET CIRCUIT CB R B RESET POWER ON RESET RESET LATCH Figure 2. MC74HC4538A Logic Circuit Detail http://onsemi.com 2 AN1558/D QUIESCENT STATE TRIGGER CYCLE (A INPUT) TRIGGER CYCLE (B INPUT) RESET RETRIGGER trr TRIGGER INPUT A (PIN 4 OR 12) TRIGGER INPUT B (PIN 5 OR 11) TRIGGER-CONTROL CIRCUIT OUTPUT RX/CX INPUT (PIN 2 OR 14) UPPER REFERENCE CIRCUIT LOWER REFERENCE CIRCUIT RESET INPUT (PIN 3 OR 13) RESET LATCH Q OUTPUT (PIN 6 OR 10) τ τ τ + trr Figure 3. Timing Diagram Design and Applications The output pulse width of the HC4538A is determined by the external timing components, Rx and Cx, and can be represented linearly as shown in Figure 10. The array in Table 1 was generated to make a concise study of the behavior for the retrigger time for short pulse widths. A sample of 10 pieces from each of 7 non–consec– utive wafer lots were tested at each condition. The retrigger time for external capacitance that ranges from 3000pF < Cx < 4.7µF, Region 3 on the graphs, can be computed by making use of the following linear equation (Equation 4). Trr = 10z, where z + ƪ –1062.41 – (0.1236764 ƪ @ @ @ @ (3.5256 10 *16 (Log Cx) 2 (7.9452 10 *11 Rx 2 ) (1.8339 10 *4 Rx ) ) (1.13509292 Rx) ) (5.9621 @ VCC) Table 1. Test Matrix ) (5.1513 * (171.91718 10 *5 @ @ @ Cx/Rx 10pF 100pF 220pF 1000pF 2KΩ 4.5V 4.5V 4.5V 4.5V 10KΩ 3.0V 4.5V 3.0V 4.5V 3.0V 4.5V 3.0V 4.5V 100KΩ 3.0V 4.5V 3.0V 4.5V 3.0V 4.5V 3.0V 4.5V 1MΩ 3.0V 4.5V 3.0V 4.5V 3.0V 4.5V 3.0V 4.5V 10 *12 (Log Cx) Log Cx) @ @ @ @ ) @ƫ @ (Log Cx) 3 ) – (2.875 (Log Cx) Rx ) Rx 2 ) ) (0.02312176 ) (4.64784302 10 8 Equation 4. Retrigger Time for 4.7µF > Cx > 3000pF http://onsemi.com 3 10 –17 Cx ) Rx 3 ) ) (4.03306325 Log Rx) ) @ (Log Cx) 2 ) ) AN1558/D 1.0ms T rr (sec) 100µs 10µs 1.0µs 1MΩ 100kΩ 10KΩ 0.1µs 2KΩ Region 1 0.01µs 1.0pF 10pF 100pF Region 2 1000pF Region 3 0.01µF 0.1µF 1.0µF 10µF 100µF Cx (Farad) Figure 4. Retrigger Time versus Timing Capacitance at VCC = 4.5V 1.0ms T rr (sec) 100µs 10µs 1.0µs 1MΩ 100kΩ 10KΩ 0.1µs 1.0pF Region 2 Region 1 10pF 100pF 1000pF 0.01µF Cx (Farad) Region 3 0.1µF 1.0µF 10µF Figure 5. Retrigger Time versus Timing Capacitance at VCC = 3.0V It was determined from experiment and statistical analysis of the data that the retrigger time for small values of external capacitance within the range of 10pF < Cx < 1000pF, Region 1, can be characterized with the following linear equation (Equation 5). For values of 1000pF < Cx < 3000pF, the non–linear portion of the curves are converging. In this region, Region 2, the equation was represented by too few measurements to generate a reasonably accurate equation. Therefore, the equation in Region 2 will remain underived. A value may be approximated from the graphs in Figure 4 and Figure 5. http://onsemi.com 4 AN1558/D Trr = 10z, where z + ƪ –315.29624–(0.082881 ƪ @ @ (3.984 10 *7 (4.575 10 *10 (1.36599588 @ (Log Cx) 2 @ R x) (Log Cx) 3 ) ) (3.0657 * (1.124 10* Cx) * (1.423 10 * Rx 2 ) 10 8 @ @ ) @ @ @ * @ ƫ@ * @ @ VCC)–(0.3146338 5 10 *12 (Log Cx) (Log Cx) 5 10 –16 4.3277 Rx ) Rx 2 ) (94.092747 Rx 3 )– (9.467093 Log Cx) @ ) (Log Cx) 2 ) * Rx ) Equation 5. Retrigger Time for 10pF < Cx < 1000pF value of Cx increases for the same resistance, Trr increases as it takes longer to charge the larger capacitor. For values of Rx > 10kΩ, this increasing undershoot of Vreflower and the resultant increase in Tcharge negates any improvement in Trr. At small values of Cx, the circuit capacitance will also come into play. The size of the undershoot of Vreflower can vary as a function of normal process variance. This will also introduce an uncertainty into Trr for these smaller values. The curves and regression equations here were derived statistically and only represent the mean of the variance in 7 non–consecutive production lots. This difference in the non–zero value of Tcharge in Region 1 can also be seen in Figure 6 and Figure 7 as the slope of Trr becomes zero as the undershoot becomes zero. Also, note that in Figure 8 through Figure 11, this effect has no influence on the Output Pulse Width as the Pulse Width is controlled by RxCx and Vrefupper. Here, the same components of: Trr = Tdischarge + Tdelay + Tcharge (Equation 3) are still represented, but have become combined by the linear regression. The constant and VCC dependent term still derive from the loop delay, and serve to shift the components along the vertical axis. The major difference between this and the larger values of Cx is twofold. First, over all of Region 3 the undershoot is effectively 0 volts. This results in Tcharge not contributing to Trr and the predictable minimum Trr occurring in Region 2. Second, as we progress to smaller values of capacitance in Region 1, Cx is too small to support Vreflower as the charge is drained through M3. This is why the resistance of Rx now plays a role in Trr. This condition creates the undershoot of Vreflower and the time of Tcharge is then controlled by the current through Rx. This is also why as the τ = 10z, where z + ƪ –1.0059363–(7.6336 ƪ (0.8635535 @ Log Cx) 10 –3 @ VCC) * (9.3203 @ @ @ ) (0.87653815 10 *3 Log Rx Log Rx) ) Log Cx) ƫ Equation 6. Pulse Width Also, as we have stated above, as the value of Cx decreases in the non–linear region, the total capacitance becomes more dependent upon internal circuit capacitance. Since the internal circuit capacitance is process dependent, it can vary from lot to lot, and from manufacturing site to manufacturing site. It is for this reason that the device is not recommended to be used in this range, as doing so would potentially result in inconsistent performance over large production runs. The curves represented in this applications note were made using linear regression on a number of lots widely separated in time, but all from the same manufacturing site. As a result, the curves can only be regarded as statistical means, and may not represent the performance of any particular device the customer may encounter. Equation 6 is a linear regression equation for calculating the pulse width and is also made from the data means. From the logarithmic plots in Figure 8 through Figure 11, it can be seen that there is no cubic dependency similar to Trr, even at the small values of capacitance. The pulse width is completely controlled by the relationship between RxCx and Vrefupper. This predictability of the pulse width has tempted some customers into trying to use the part for very short pulse widths. Unfortunately it has also resulted in inconsistent performance for Trr. Summary While smaller pulse widths and Trr values can be achieved, selection of the external components must take into account the introduction of undershoot of Vreflower. http://onsemi.com 5 AN1558/D 1.0E–04 0.1µF T rr (sec) 1.0E–05 0.01µF 1.0E–06 1000pF 200pF 100pF 1.0E–07 10pF 1.0E–08 1.0E+03 1.0E+04 1.0E+05 1.0E+06 RESISTANCE (Ω) Figure 6. Retrigger Time vs Resistance at VCC = 4.5V 1.0E–03 T rr (sec) 1.0E–04 0.1µF 1.0E–05 1000pF 200pF 0.01µF 1.0E–06 100pF 10pF 1.0E–07 1.0E+04 1.0E+05 RESISTANCE (Ω) Figure 7. Retrigger Time vs Resistance at VCC = 3.0V http://onsemi.com 6 1.0E+06 AN1558/D 1.0E–02 PULSE WIDTH (sec) 1.0E–03 1.0E–04 1.0E–05 1.0E–06 1MΩ 100kΩ 10kΩ 2kΩ 1.0E–07 1.0E–11 1.0E–09 1.0E–10 1.0E–08 1.0E–07 Cx (Farads) Figure 8. Pulse Width vs Timing Capacitance at VCC = 4.5V 1.0E–02 1.0E–04 1.0E–05 1.0E–06 1MΩ 100kΩ 10kΩ 1.0E–07 1.0E–11 1.0E–09 1.0E–10 1.0E–08 Cx (Farads) Figure 9. Pulse Width vs Timing Capacitance at VCC = 3.0V 10s 1s VCC = 5 V, TA = 25°C 100ms OUTPUT PULSE WIDTH (τ ) PULSE WIDTH (sec) 1.0E–03 10ms 1ms 100µs 1 MΩ 10µs 100 kΩ 1µs 10 kΩ 1 kΩ 100ns 0.00001 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 CAPACITANCE (µF) 1 10 100 Figure 10. Output Pulse Width vs Timing Capacitance http://onsemi.com 7 1.0E–07 AN1558/D 1.0E–02 10pF PULSE WIDTH (sec) 1.0E–03 100pF 1.0E–04 200pF 1000pF 1.0E–05 0.01µF 0.1µF 1.0E–06 1.0E–07 1.0E+04 1.0E+05 1.0E+06 RESISTANCE (Ω) Figure 11. Pulse Width versus Resistance at VCC = 3.0V 1.0E–02 1.0E–03 PULSE WIDTH (sec) 10pF 1.0E–04 100pF 1.0E–05 200pF 1.0E–06 1000pF 0.01µF 1.0E–07 1.0E+03 0.1µF 1.0E+05 1.0E+04 RESISTANCE (Ω) Figure 12. Pulse Width versus Resistance at VCC = 4.5V http://onsemi.com 8 1.0E+06 AN1558/D Notes http://onsemi.com 9 AN1558/D Notes http://onsemi.com 10 AN1558/D Notes http://onsemi.com 11 AN1558/D ON Semiconductor and are trademarks of Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC (SCILLC). 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