1/3-Inch Wide-VGA CMOS Digital Image Sensor

MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Features
1/3-Inch Wide-VGA CMOS Digital Image Sensor
MT9V022 Datasheet, Rev. L
For the latest datasheet revision, please visit www.onsemi.com
Features
Table 1:
Key Performance Parameters
Parameter
• Array format: Wide-VGA, active 752H x 480V
(360,960 pixels)
• Global shutter photodiode pixels; simultaneous
integration and readout
• Monochrome or color: Near_IR enhanced
performance for use with non-visible NIR
illumination
• Readout modes: progressive or interlaced
• Shutter efficiency: >99%
• Simple two-wire serial interface
• Register Lock capability
• Window Size: User programmable to any smaller
format (QVGA, CIF, QCIF, etc.). Data rate can be
maintained independent of window size
• Binning: 2 x 2 and 4 x 4 of the full resolution
• ADC: On-chip, 10-bit column-parallel (option to
operate in 12-bit to 10-bit companding mode)
• Automatic Controls: Auto exposure control (AEC)
and auto gain control (AGC); variable regional and
variable weight AEC/AGC
• Support for four unique serial control register IDs to
control multiple imagers on the same bus
• Data output formats:
– Single sensor mode:
10-bit parallel/stand-alone
8-bit or 10-bit serial LVDS
– Stereo sensor mode:
Interspersed 8-bit serial LVDS
Optical format
Active imager size
Active pixels
Pixel size
Color filter array
Shutter type
Maximum data rate/
master clock
Full resolution
Frame rate
ADC resolution
Responsivity
Dynamic range
Supply voltage
Power consumption
Operating temperature
Packaging
Value
1/3-inch
4.51 mm (H) x 2.88 mm (V)
5.35 mm diagonal
752H x 480V
6.0 m x 6.0 m
Monochrome or color RGB Bayer
pattern
Global shutter
26.6 MPS/26.6 MHz
752 x 480
60 fps (at full resolution)
10-bit column-parallel
4.8 V/lux-sec (550nm)
>55 dB linear;
>80 dB100 dB in HDR mode
3.3 V +0.3 Vall supplies)
<320 mW at maximum data rate;
100 μW standby power
-40°C to +85°C
52-Ball IBGA, automotive-qualified;
wafer or die
Applications
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Automotive
Unattended surveillance
Stereo vision
Security
Smart vision
Automation
Video as input
Machine vision
MT9V022_DS Rev. L 6/15 EN
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©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC 2015,
MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Ordering Information
Ordering Information
Table 2:
Available Part Numbers
Part Number
Product Description
Orderable Product Attribute Description
MT9V022IA7ATC-DP
RGB, 0deg CRA, iBGA Package
Drypack, Protective Film
MT9V022IA7ATC-DR
RGB, 0deg CRA, iBGA Package
Drypack
MT9V022IA7ATM-DP
Mono, 0deg CRA, iBGA Package
Drypack, Protective Film
MT9V022IA7ATM-DR
Mono, 0deg CRA, iBGA Package
Drypack
MT9V022IA7ATM-TP
Mono, 0deg CRA, iBGA Package
Tape & Reel, Protective Film
MT9V022IA7ATM-TR
Mono, 0deg CRA, iBGA Package
Tape & Reel
See the ON Semiconductor Device Nomenclature document (TND310/D) for a full
description of the naming convention used for image sensors. For reference documentation, including information on evaluation kits, please visit our web site at
www.onsemi.com.
MT9V022_DS Rev. L 6/15 EN
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©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
Ordering Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
General Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Ball Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
Pixel Data Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
Color Device Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
Output Data Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
Serial Bus Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
Two-Wire Serial Interface Sample Read and Write Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Feature Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Electrical Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41
Package Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50
Appendix A – Serial Configurations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
Appendix B – Power-On Reset and Standby Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54
Revision History. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56
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©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
List of Figures
List of Figures
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Figure 50:
Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
52-Ball IBGA Package. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Typical Configuration (Connection)—Parallel Output Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Pixel Array Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
Pixel Color Pattern Detail (Top Right Corner) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
Spatial Illustration of Image Readout. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
Timing Example of Pixel Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Row Timing and FRAME_VALID/LINE_VALID Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Timing Diagram Showing a Write to R0x09 with the Value 0x0284 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Timing Diagram Showing a Read from R0x09; Returned Value 0x0284 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Timing Diagram Showing a Bytewise Write to R0x09 with the Value 0x0284 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
Timing Diagram Showing a Bytewise Read from R0x09; Returned Value 0x0284 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
Simultaneous Master Mode Synchronization Waveforms #1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Simultaneous Master Mode Synchronization Waveforms #2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Sequential Master Mode Synchronization Waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
Snapshot Mode Interface Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
Snapshot Mode Frame Synchronization Waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
Slave Mode Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
Signal Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
Latency When Changing Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
Sequence of Control Voltages at the HDR Gate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
Sequence of Voltages in a Piecewise Linear Pixel Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
12- to 10-Bit Companding Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
Latency of Analog Gain Change When AGC Is Disabled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
Tiled Sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
Black Level Calibration Flow Chart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Controllable and Observable AEC/AGC Registers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
Readout of Six Pixels in Normal and Column Flip Output Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
Readout of Six Rows in Normal and Row Flip Output Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
Readout of 8 Pixels in Normal and Row Bin Output Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
Readout of 8 Pixels in Normal and Column Bin Output Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
Spatial Illustration of Interlaced Image Readout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
Different LINE_VALID Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38
Serial Output Format for a 6x2 Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
Propagation Delays for PIXCLK and Data Out Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
Propagation Delays for FRAME_VALID and LINE_VALID Signals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
Serial Host Interface Start Condition Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46
Serial Host Interface Stop Condition Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46
Serial Host Interface Data Timing for Write . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46
Serial Host Interface Data Timing for Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46
Acknowledge Signal Timing After an 8-Bit WRITE to the Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
Acknowledge Signal Timing After an 8-Bit READ from the Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
Typical Quantum Efficiency—Color. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
Typical Quantum Efficiency—Monochrome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
52-Ball IBGA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50
Stand-Alone Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
Stereoscopic Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52
Two-Wire Serial Interface Configuration in Stereoscopic Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53
Power-up, Reset, Clock and Standby Sequence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54
STANDBY Restricted Location. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
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©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
List of Tables
List of Tables
Table 1:
Table 2:
Table 3:
Table 4:
Table 5:
Table 6:
Table 7:
Table 8:
Table 9:
Table 10:
Table 11:
Table 12:
Table 13:
Key Performance Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
Available Part Numbers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
Ball Descriptions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
Frame Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Frame Time—Long Integration Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Slave Address Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
LVDS Packet Format in Stand-Alone Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
LVDS Packet Format in Stereoscopy Mode (Stereoscopy Mode Bit Asserted) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
Reserved Words in the Pixel Data Stream . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
DC Electrical Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41
Absolute Maximum Ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
AC Electrical Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
Performance Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
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©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
General Description
General Description
The ON Semiconductor MT9V022 is a 1/3-inch wide-VGA format CMOS active-pixel
digital image sensor with global shutter and high dynamic range (HDR) operation. The
sensor has specifically been designed to support the demanding interior and exterior
automotive imaging needs, which makes this part ideal for a wide variety of imaging
applications in real-world environments.
This wide-VGA CMOS image sensor features ON Semiconductor’s breakthrough lownoise CMOS imaging technology that achieves CCD image quality (based on signal-tonoise ratio and low-light sensitivity) while maintaining the inherent size, cost, and integration advantages of CMOS.
The active imaging pixel array is 752H x 480V. It incorporates sophisticated camera functions on-chip—such as binning 2 x 2 and 4 x 4, to improve sensitivity when operating in
smaller resolutions—as well as windowing, column and row mirroring. It is programmable through a simple two-wire serial interface.
The MT9V022 can be operated in its default mode or be programmed for frame size,
exposure, gain setting, and other parameters. The default mode outputs a wide-VGAsize image at 60 frames per second (fps).
An on-chip analog-to-digital converter (ADC) provides 10 bits per pixel. A 12-bit resolution companded for 10 bits for small signals can be alternatively enabled, allowing more
accurate digitization for darker areas in the image.
In addition to a traditional, parallel logic output the MT9V022 also features a serial lowvoltage differential signaling (LVDS) output. The sensor can be operated in a stereocamera, and the sensor, designated as a stereo-master, is able to merge the data from
itself and the stereo-slave sensor into one serial LVDS stream.
The sensor is designed to operate in a wide temperature range (–40°C to +85°C).
Figure 1:
Block Diagram
Control Register
Serial
Register
I/O
Active-Pixel
Sensor (APS)
Array
752H x 480V
Timing and Control
Analog Processing
ADCs
Digital Processing
Parallel
Video
Data Out
Serial Video
LVDS Out
Slave Video LVDS In
(for stereo applications only)
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©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
General Description
Figure 2:
52-Ball IBGA Package
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
A
VDD
LVDS
SER_
SER_
DATAOUT DATAOUT
_P
_N
VDD
LVDS
SYSCLK
DOUT0
DOUT2
DOUT3
B
LVDS
GND
SHFT_
CLKOUT
_P
SHFT_
CLKOUT
_N
VDD
PIXCLK
DOUT1
DOUT4
VAAPIX
C
BYPASS
_CLKIN
_P
BYPASS
_CLKIN
_N
LVDS
GND
DGND
AGND
VAA
D
SER_
DATAIN
_P
SER_
DATAIN
_N
NC
NC
E
DOUT5
VDD
NC
NC
F
DOUT6
DOUT7
DGND
AGND
VAA
STANDBY
G
DOUT8
FRAME
_VALID
STLN_
OUT
SDATA
STFRM_
OUT
LED_
OUT
S_CTRL_
ADR0
RESET#
H
DOUT9
LINE_
VALID
EXPOSURE
SCLK
ERROR
OE
RSVD
S_CTRL
_ADR1
Top View
(Ball Down)
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©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Ball Descriptions
Ball Descriptions
Table 1:
Ball Descriptions
Only pins DOUT0 through DOUT9 may be tri-stated.
52-Ball IBGA
Numbers
Symbol
Type
Description
Note
H7
RSVD
Input
Connect to DGND.
D2
SER_DATAIN_N
Input
Serial data in for stereoscopy (differential negative). Tie to
1K pull-up (to 3.3V) in non-stereoscopy mode.
1
D1
SER_DATAIN_P
Input
Serial data in for stereoscopy (differential positive). Tie to
DGND in non-stereoscopy mode.
C2
BYPASS_CLKIN_N
Input
Input bypass shift-CLK (differential negative). Tie to 1K
pull-up (to 3.3V) in non-stereoscopy mode.
C1
BYPASS_CLKIN_P
Input
Input bypass shift-CLK (differential positive). Tie to DGND in
non-stereoscopy mode.
H3
EXPOSURE
Input
Rising edge starts exposure in slave mode.
H4
SCLK
Input
Two-wire serial interface clock. Connect to VDD with 1.5K
resistor even when no other two-wire serial interface
peripheral is attached.
H6
OE
Input
DOUT enable pad, active HIGH.
G7
S_CTRL_ADR0
Input
Two-wire serial interface slave address bit 3.
2
H8
S_CTRL_ADR1
Input
Two-wire serial interface slave address bit 5.
G8
RESET#
Input
Asynchronous reset. All registers assume defaults.
F8
STANDBY
Input
Shut down sensor operation for power saving.
A5
SYSCLK
Input
Master clock (26.6 MHz).
G4
SDATA
I/O
Two-wire serial interface data. Connect to VDD with 1.5K
resistor even when no other two-wire serial interface
peripheral is attached.
G3
STLN_OUT
I/O
Output in master mode—start line sync to drive slave chip
in-phase; input in slave mode.
G5
STFRM_OUT
I/O
Output in master mode—start frame sync to drive a slave
chip in-phase; input in slave mode.
H2
LINE_VALID
Output
G2
FRAME_VALID
Output
Asserted when DOUT data is valid.
E1
DOUT5
Output
Parallel pixel data output 5.
F1
DOUT6
Output
Parallel pixel data output 6.
F2
DOUT7
Output
Parallel pixel data output 7.
G1
DOUT8
Output
Parallel pixel data output 8
H1
DOUT9
Output
Parallel pixel data output 9.
H5
ERROR
Output
Error detected. Directly connected to STEREO ERROR FLAG.
G6
LED_OUT
Output
LED strobe output.
Asserted when DOUT data is valid.
B7
DOUT4
Output
Parallel pixel data output 4.
A8
DOUT3
Output
Parallel pixel data output 3.
A7
DOUT2
Output
Parallel pixel data output 2.
B6
DOUT1
Output
Parallel pixel data output 1.
A6
DOUT0
Output
Parallel pixel data output 0.
B5
PIXCLK
Output
Pixel clock out. DOUT is valid on rising edge of this clock.
MT9V022_DS Rev. L 6/15 EN
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©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Ball Descriptions
Table 1:
Ball Descriptions (continued)
Only pins DOUT0 through DOUT9 may be tri-stated.
52-Ball IBGA
Numbers
Symbol
Type
B3
SHFT_CLKOUT_N
Output
Description
Output shift CLK (differential negative).
B2
SHFT_CLKOUT_P
Output
Output shift CLK (differential positive).
A3
SER_DATAOUT_N
Output
Serial data out (differential negative).
A2
SER_DATAOUT_P
Output
Serial data out (differential positive).
B4, E2
VDD
Supply
Digital power 3.3V.
C8, F7
VAA
Supply
Analog power 3.3V.
B8
VAAPIX
Supply
Pixel power 3.3V.
A1, A4
VDDLVDS
Supply
Dedicated power for LVDS pads.
B1, C3
LVDSGND
Ground
Dedicated GND for LVDS pads.
C6, F3
DGND
Ground
Digital GND.
C7, F6
AGND
Ground
Analog GND.
E7, E8, D7, D8
NC
NC
No connect.
Notes:
Figure 3:
Note
3
1. Pin H7 (RSVD) must be tied to GND.
2. Output Enable (OE) tri-states signals DOUT0–DOUT9. No other signals are tri-stated with OE.
3. No connect. These pins must be left floating for proper operation.
Typical Configuration (Connection)—Parallel Output Mode
10KΩ
1.5KΩ
Master Clock
VDDLVDS
VDD
VAA
VAAPIX
VDD
VAA
VAAPIX
SYSCLK
OE
RESET#
EXPOSURE
STANDBY
S_CTRL_ADR0
S_CTRL_ADR1
SCLK
SDATA
STANDBY from
Controller or
Digital GND
Two-Wire
Serial Interface
RSVD
DGND LVDSGND
DOUT(9:0)
LINE_VALID
FRAME_VALID
PIXCLK
LED_OUT
ERROR
To Controller
To LED output
AGND
0.1μF
Note:
MT9V022_DS Rev. L 6/15 EN
LVDS signals are to be left floating.
9
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Pixel Data Format
Pixel Data Format
Pixel Array Structure
The MT9V022 pixel array is configured as 782 columns by 492 rows, shown in Figure 4.
The left 26 columns and the top eight rows of pixels are optically black and can be used
to monitor the black level. The black row data is used internally for the automatic black
level adjustment. However, the middle four black rows can also be read out by setting the
sensor to raw data output mode. There are 753 columns by 481 rows of optically active
pixels. The active area is surrounded with optically transparent dummy columns and
rows to improve image uniformity within the active area. One additional active column
and active row are used to allow horizontally and vertically mirrored readout to also start
on the same color pixel.
Figure 4:
Pixel Array Description
8 dark, 1 light dummy rows
(0,0)
26 dark, 1 light
dummy columns
2 dummy
columns
(782,492)
Figure 5:
2 dummy rows
Pixel Color Pattern Detail (Top Right Corner)
Column Resdout Direction
Row Readout Direction
MT9V022_DS Rev. L 6/15 EN
Pixel
(2,9)
G B G
B G
B G
B
R G R
G R
G R
G
G B G
B G
B G
B
R G R
G R
G R
G
G B G
B G
B G
B
R G R
G R
G R
G
10
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Color Device Limitations
Color Device Limitations
The color version of the MT9V022 does not support or offers reduced performance for
the following functionalities.
Pixel Binning
Pixel binning is done on immediate neighbor pixels only, no facility is provided to skip
pixels according to a Bayer pattern. Therefore, the result of binning combines pixels of
different colors. For more information, see “Pixel Binning” on page 34.
Interlaced Readout
Interlaced readout yields one field consisting only of red and green pixels and another
consisting only of blue and green pixels. This is due to the Bayer pattern of the CFA.
Automatic Black Level Calibration
When the color bit is set (R0x0F[2]=1), the sensor uses GREEN1 pixels black level correction value, which is applied to all colors. To use calibration value based on all dark pixels
offset values, the color bit should be cleared.
Other Limiting Factors
Black level correction and row-wise noise correction are applied uniformly to each color.
Automatic exposure and gain control calculations are made based on all three colors,
not just the green luma channel. High dynamic range does operate; however, ON Semiconductor strongly recommends limiting use to linear operation if good color fidelity is
required.
Output Data Format
The MT9V022 image data can be read out in a progressive scan or interlaced scan mode.
Valid image data is surrounded by horizontal and vertical blanking, as shown in Figure 6.
The amount of horizontal and vertical blanking is programmable through R0x05 and
R0x06, respectively. LINE_VALID is HIGH during the shaded region of the figure. See
“Output Data Timing” on page 13 for the description of FRAME_VALID timing.
MT9V022_DS Rev. L 6/15 EN
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©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Output Data Format
Figure 6:
Spatial Illustration of Image Readout
P0,0 P0,1 P0,2.....................................P0,n-1 P0,n
P1,0 P1,1 P1,2.....................................P1,n-1 P1,n
00 00 00 .................. 00 00 00
00 00 00 .................. 00 00 00
VALID IMAGE
HORIZONTAL
BLANKING
Pm-1,0 Pm-1,1.....................................Pm-1,n-1 Pm-1,n 00 00 00 .................. 00 00 00
Pm,0 Pm,1.....................................Pm,n-1 Pm,n
00 00 00 .................. 00 00 00
MT9V022_DS Rev. L 6/15 EN
00 00 00 ..................................... 00 00 00
00 00 00 ..................................... 00 00 00
00 00 00 .................. 00 00 00
00 00 00 .................. 00 00 00
VERTICAL BLANKING
VERTICAL/HORIZONTAL
BLANKING
00 00 00 ..................................... 00 00 00
00 00 00 ..................................... 00 00 00
00 00 00 .................. 00 00 00
00 00 00 .................. 00 00 00
12
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Output Data Format
Output Data Timing
The data output of the MT9V022 is synchronized with the PIXCLK output. When
LINE_VALID is HIGH, one 10-bit pixel datum is output every PIXCLK period.
Figure 7:
Timing Example of Pixel Data
...
LINE_VALID
...
PIXCLK
Blanking
P0
(9:0)
DOUT(9:0)
...
Valid Image Data
P1
(9:0)
P2
(9:0)
P3
(9:0)
P4
(9:0)
Blanking
...
Pn-1
(9:0)
Pn
(9:0)
The PIXCLK is a nominally inverted version of the master clock (SYSCLK). This allows
PIXCLK to be used as a clock to latch the data. However, when column bin 2 is enabled,
the PIXCLK is HIGH for one complete master clock master period and then LOW for one
complete master clock period; when column bin 4 is enabled, the PIXCLK is HIGH for
two complete master clock periods and then LOW for two complete master clock
periods. It is continuously enabled, even during the blanking period. Setting R0x74
bit[4] = 1 causes the MT9V022 to invert the polarity of the PIXCLK.
The parameters P1, A, Q, and P2 in Figure 8 are defined in Table 2.
Figure 8:
Row Timing and FRAME_VALID/LINE_VALID Signals
...
FRAME_VALID
...
LINE_VALID
...
Number of master clocks
Table 2:
P1
A
Q
A
Q
A
P2
Frame Time
Parameter
Name
Equation
Default Timing at 26.66 MHz
A
Active data time
R0x04
752 pixel clocks
= 752 master
= 28.20s
P1
Frame start blanking
R0x05 - 23
71 pixel clocks
= 71master
= 2.66s
P2
Frame end blanking
23 (fixed)
23 pixel clocks
= 23 master
= 0.86s
Q
Horizontal blanking
R0x05
94 pixel clocks
= 94 master
= 3.52s
MT9V022_DS Rev. L 6/15 EN
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©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Output Data Format
Table 2:
Frame Time (continued)
Parameter
Name
Equation
Default Timing at 26.66 MHz
A+Q
Row time
R0x04 + R0x05
846 pixel clocks
= 846 master
= 31.72s
V
Vertical blanking
(R0x06) x (A + Q) + 4
38,074 pixel clocks
= 38,074 master
= 1.43ms
Nrows x (A + Q)
Frame valid time
(R0x03) × (A + Q)
406,080 pixel clocks
= 406,080 master
= 15.23ms
F
Total frame time
V + (Nrows x (A + Q))
444,154 pixel clocks
= 444,154 master
= 16.66ms
Sensor timing is shown above in terms of pixel clock and master clock cycles (refer to
Figure 7 on page 13). The recommended master clock frequency is 26.66 MHz. The
vertical blanking and total frame time equations assume that the number of integration
rows (bits 11 through 0 of R0x0B) is less than the number of active rows plus blanking
rows minus overhead rows (R0x03 + R0x06 - 2). If this is not the case, the number of integration rows must be used instead to determine the frame time, as shown in Table 3. In
this example it is assumed that R0x0B is programmed with 523 rows. For Simultaneous
Mode, if the exposure time register (0x0B) exceeds the total readout time, then vertical
blanking is internally extended automatically to adjust for the additional integration
time required. This extended value is not written back to R0x06 (vertical blanking).
R0x06 can be used to adjust frame to frame readout time. This register does not effect
the exposure time but it may extend the readout time.
Table 3:
Frame Time—Long Integration Time
Parameter
Name
Equation
(Number of Master Clock Cycles)
Default Timing
at 26.66 MHz
V’
Vertical blanking (long
integration time)
(R0x0B + 2 - R0x03) × (A + Q) + 4
38,074 pixel clocks
= 38,074 master
= 1.43ms
F”
Total frame time (long
integration time)
(R0x0B + 2) × (A + Q) + 4
444,154 pixel clocks
= 444,154 master
= 16.66ms
Notes:
MT9V022_DS Rev. L 6/15 EN
1. The MT9V022 uses column parallel analog-digital converters, thus short row timing is not possible.
The minimum total row time is 660 columns (horizontal width + horizontal blanking). The minimum horizontal blanking is 43. When the window width is set below 617, horizontal blanking
must be increased. The frame rate will not increase for row times less than 660 columns.
14
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Serial Bus Description
Serial Bus Description
Registers are written to and read from the MT9V022 through the two-wire serial interface bus. The MT9V022 is a serial interface slave with four possible IDs (0x90, 0x98, 0xB0
and 0xB8) determined by the S_CTRL_ADR0 and S_CTRL_ADR1 input pins. Data is
transferred into the MT9V022 and out through the serial data (SDATA) line. The SDATA
line is pulled up to VDD off-chip by a 1.5K resistor. Either the slave or master device can
pull the SDATA line down—the serial interface protocol determines which device is
allowed to pull the SDATA line down at any given time. The registers are 16-bit wide, and
can be accessed through 16- or 8-bit two-wire serial interface sequences.
Protocol
The two-wire serial interface defines several different transmission codes, as follows:
• a start bit
• the slave device 8-bit address
• a(n) (no) acknowledge bit
• an 8-bit message
• a stop bit
Sequence
A typical read or write sequence begins by the master sending a start bit. After the start
bit, the master sends the slave device’s 8-bit address. The last bit of the address determines if the request is a read or a write, where a “0” indicates a write and a “1” indicates
a read. The slave device acknowledges its address by sending an acknowledge bit back to
the master.
If the request was a write, the master then transfers the 8-bit register address to which a
write should take place. The slave sends an acknowledge bit to indicate that the register
address has been received. The master then transfers the data eight bits at a time, with
the slave sending an acknowledge bit after each eight bits. The MT9V022 uses 16-bit data
for its internal registers, thus requiring two 8-bit transfers to write to one register. After
16 bits are transferred, the register address is automatically incremented, so that the next
16 bits are written to the next register address. The master stops writing by sending a
start or stop bit.
A typical read sequence is executed as follows. First the master sends the write mode
slave address and 8-bit register address, just as in the write request. The master then
sends a start bit and the read mode slave address. The master then clocks out the register
data eight bits at a time. The master sends an acknowledge bit after each 8-bit transfer.
The register address is auto-incremented after every 16 bits is transferred. The data
transfer is stopped when the master sends a no-acknowledge bit. The MT9V022 allows
for 8-bit data transfers through the two-wire serial interface by writing (or reading) the
most significant 8 bits to the register and then writing (or reading) the least significant 8
bits to R0xF0 (240).
Bus Idle State
The bus is idle when both the data and clock lines are HIGH. Control of the bus is initiated with a start bit, and the bus is released with a stop bit. Only the master can generate
the start and stop bits.
MT9V022_DS Rev. L 6/15 EN
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©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Serial Bus Description
Start Bit
The start bit is defined as a HIGH-to-LOW transition of the data line while the clock line
is HIGH.
Stop Bit
The stop bit is defined as a LOW-to-HIGH transition of the data line while the clock line
is HIGH.
Slave Address
The 8-bit address of a two-wire serial interface device consists of 7 bits of address and 1
bit of direction. A “0” in the LSB of the address indicates write mode, and a “1” indicates
read mode. As indicated above, the MT9V022 allows four possible slave addresses determined by the two input pins, S_CTRL_ADR0 and S_CTRL_ADR1.
Table 4:
Slave Address Modes
{S_CTRL_ADR1, S_CTRL_ADR0}
Slave Address
Write/Read Mode
00
0x90
0x91
0x98
0x99
0xB0
0xB1
0xB8
0xB9
Write
Read
Write
Read
Write
Read
Write
Read
01
10
11
Data Bit Transfer
One data bit is transferred during each clock pulse. The two-wire serial interface clock
pulse is provided by the master. The data must be stable during the HIGH period of the
serial clock—it can only change when the two-wire serial interface clock is LOW. Data is
transferred 8 bits at a time, followed by an acknowledge bit.
Acknowledge Bit
The master generates the acknowledge clock pulse. The transmitter (which is the master
when writing, or the slave when reading) releases the data line, and the receiver indicates an acknowledge bit by pulling the data line LOW during the acknowledge clock
pulse.
No-Acknowledge Bit
The no-acknowledge bit is generated when the data line is not pulled down by the
receiver during the acknowledge clock pulse. A no-acknowledge bit is used to terminate
a read sequence.
MT9V022_DS Rev. L 6/15 EN
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©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Two-Wire Serial Interface Sample Read and Write Sequences
Two-Wire Serial Interface Sample Read and Write Sequences
16-Bit Write Sequence
A typical write sequence for writing 16 bits to a register is shown in Figure 9. A start bit
given by the master, followed by the write address, starts the sequence. The image sensor
then gives an acknowledge bit and expects the register address to come first, followed by
the 16-bit data. After each 8-bit the image sensor gives an acknowledge bit. All 16 bits
must be written before the register is updated. After 16 bits are transferred, the register
address is automatically incremented, so that the next 16 bits are written to the next
register. The master stops writing by sending a start or stop bit.
Figure 9:
Timing Diagram Showing a Write to R0x09 with the Value 0x0284
SCLK
SDATA
R0x09
0xB8 ADDR
START
0000 0010
ACK
ACK
1000 0100
ACK
STOP
ACK
16-Bit Read Sequence
A typical read sequence is shown in Figure 10. First the master has to write the register
address, as in a write sequence. Then a start bit and the read address specifies that a read
is about to happen from the register. The master then clocks out the register data 8 bits
at a time. The master sends an acknowledge bit after each 8-bit transfer. The register
address is auto-incremented after every 16 bits is transferred. The data transfer is
stopped when the master sends a no-acknowledge bit.
Figure 10:
Timing Diagram Showing a Read from R0x09; Returned Value 0x0284
SCLK
SDATA
0xB8 ADDR
START
MT9V022_DS Rev. L 6/15 EN
R0x09
ACK
0xB9 ADDR
ACK
17
1000 0100
0000 0010
ACK
ACK
STOP
NACK
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Two-Wire Serial Interface Sample Read and Write Sequences
8-Bit Write Sequence
To be able to write 1 byte at a time to the register a special register address is added. The
8-bit write is done by first writing the upper 8 bits to the desired register and then writing
the lower 8 bits to the special register address (R0xF0). The register is not updated until
all 16 bits have been written. It is not possible to just update half of a register. In
Figure 11 on page 18, a typical sequence for 8-bit writing is shown. The second byte is
written to the special register (R0xF0).
Figure 11:
Timing Diagram Showing a Bytewise Write to R0x09 with the Value 0x0284
SCLK
SDATA
0xB8 ADDR
0000 0010
R0x09
0xB8 ADDR
1000 0100
R0xF0
STOP
START
ACK
START
ACK
ACK
ACK
ACK
ACK
8-Bit Read Sequence
To read one byte at a time the same special register address is used for the lower byte.
The upper 8 bits are read from the desired register. By following this with a read from the
special register (R0xF1) the lower 8 bits are accessed (Figure 12). The master sets the noacknowledge bits shown.
Figure 12:
Timing Diagram Showing a Bytewise Read from R0x09; Returned Value 0x0284
SCLK
SDATA
0xB8 ADDR
0xB9 ADDR
R0x09
0000 0010
START
START
ACK
ACK
NACK
ACK
SCLK
SDATA
0xB8 ADDR
1000 0100
0xB9 ADDR
R0xF0
STOP
START
START
MT9V022_DS Rev. L 6/15 EN
ACK
ACK
18
ACK
NACK
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Two-Wire Serial Interface Sample Read and Write Sequences
Register Lock
Included in the MT9V022 is a register lock (R0xFE) feature that can be used as a solution
to reduce the probability of an inadvertent noise-triggered two-wire serial interface
write to the sensor. All registers (or read mode register—register 13 only) can be locked;
it is important to prevent an inadvertent two-wire serial interface write to register 13 in
automotive applications since this register controls the image orientation and any
unintended flip to an image can cause serious results.
At power-up, the register lock defaults to a value of 0xBEEF, which implies that all
registers are unlocked and any two-wire serial interface writes to the register gets
committed.
Lock All Registers
If a unique pattern (0xDEAD) to R0xFE is programmed, any subsequent two-wire serial
interface writes to registers (except R0xFE) are NOT committed. Alternatively, if the user
writes a 0xBEEF to the register lock register, all registers are unlocked and any
subsequent two-wire serial interface writes to the register are committed.
Lock Read Mode Register Only (R0x0D)
If a unique pattern (0xDEAF) to R0xFE is programmed, any subsequent two-wire serial
interface writes to register 13 is NOT committed. Alternatively, if the user writes a
0xBEEF to register lock register, register 13 is unlocked and any subsequent two-wire
serial interface writes to this register is committed.
MT9V022_DS Rev. L 6/15 EN
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©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Feature Description
Feature Description
Operational Modes
The MT9V022 works in master, snapshot, or slave mode. In master mode the sensor
generates the readout timing. In snapshot mode it accepts an external trigger to start
integration, then generates the readout timing. In slave mode the sensor accepts both
external integration and readout controls. The integration time is programmed through
the two-wire serial interface during master or snapshot modes, or controlled via externally generated control signal during slave mode.
Master Mode
There are two possible operation methods for master mode: simultaneous and sequential. One of these operation modes must be selected via the two-wire serial interface.
Simultaneous Master Mode
In simultaneous master mode, the exposure period occurs during readout. The frame
synchronization waveforms are shown in Figure 13 and Figure 14. The exposure and
readout happen in parallel rather than sequential, making this the fastest mode of operation.
Figure 13:
Simultaneous Master Mode Synchronization Waveforms #1
Readout Time > Exposure Time
LED_OUT
Exposure Time
Vertical Blanking
FRAME_VALID
LINE_VALID
DOUT(9:0)
Figure 14:
xxx
xxx
xxx
Simultaneous Master Mode Synchronization Waveforms #2
Exposure Time > Readout Time
LED_OUT
Exposure Time
Vertical Blanking
FRAME_VALID
LINE_VALID
DOUT(9:0)
MT9V022_DS Rev. L 6/15 EN
xxx
xxx
20
xxx
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Feature Description
When exposure time is greater than the sum of vertical blank and window height, the
number of vertical blank rows is increased automatically to accommodate the exposure
time.
Sequential Master Mode
In sequential master mode the exposure period is followed by readout. The frame
synchronization waveforms for sequential master mode are shown in Figure 15. The
frame rate changes as the integration time changes.
Figure 15:
Sequential Master Mode Synchronization Waveforms
Exposure Time
LED_OUT
FRAME_VALID
LINE_VALID
DOUT(9:0)
xxx
xxx
xxx
Snapshot Mode
In snapshot mode the sensor accepts an input trigger signal which initiates exposure,
and is immediately followed by readout. Figure 16 shows the interface signals used in
snapshot mode. In snapshot mode, the start of the integration period is determined by
the externally applied EXPOSURE pulse that is input to the MT9V022. The integration
time is preprogrammed via the two-wire serial interface on R0x0B. After the frame's integration period is complete the readout process commences and the syncs and data are
output. Sensor in snapshot mode can capture a single image or a sequence of images.
The frame rate may only be controlled by changing the period of the user supplied
EXPOSURE pulse train. The frame synchronization waveforms for snapshot mode are
shown in Figure 17.
Figure 16:
Snapshot Mode Interface Signals
EXPOSURE
SYSCLK
PIXCLK
CONTROLLER
LINE_VALID
FRAME_VALID
MT9V022
DOUT(9:0)
MT9V022_DS Rev. L 6/15 EN
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©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Feature Description
Figure 17:
Snapshot Mode Frame Synchronization Waveforms
EXPOSURE
Exposure Time
LED_OUT
FRAME_VALID
LINE_VALID
DOUT(9:0)
xxx
xxx
xxx
Slave Mode
In slave mode, the exposure and readout are controlled using the EXPOSURE,
STFRM_OUT, and STLN_OUT pins. When the slave mode is enabled, STFRM_OUT and
STLN_OUT become input pins.
The start and end of integration are controlled by EXPOSURE and STFRM_OUT pulses,
respectively. While a STFRM_OUT pulse is used to stop integration, it is also used to
enable the readout process.
After integration is stopped, the user provides STLN_OUT pulses to trigger row readout.
A full row of data is read out with each STLN_OUT pulse. The user must provide enough
time between successive STLN_OUT pulses to allow the complete readout of one row.
It is also important to provide additional STLN_OUT pulses to allow the sensors to read
the vertical blanking rows. It is recommended that the user program the vertical blank
register (R0x06) with a value of 4, and achieve additional vertical blanking between
frames by delaying the application of the STFRM_OUT pulse.
The elapsed time between the rising edge of STLN_OUT and the first valid pixel data is
[horizontal blanking register (R0x05) + 4] clock cycles.
Figure 18:
Slave Mode Operation
1-row
time
Exposure
(input)
STFRM_OUT
1-row
time
2 master
clocks
(input)
LED_OUT
(output)
STLN_OUT
(input)
LINE_VALID
(output)
Integration Time
Vertical Blanking
(def = 45 lines)
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MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Feature Description
Signal Path
The MT9V022 signal path consists of a programmable gain, a programmable analog
offset, and a 10-bit ADC. See “Black Level Calibration” on page 30 for the programmable
offset operation description.
Figure 19:
Signal Path
Gain Selection
(R0x35 or
result of AGC)
Pixel Output
(reset minus signal)
Offset Correction
Voltage (R0x48 or
result of BLC)
VREF
(R0x2C)
10 (12) bit ADC
Σ
ADC Data
(9:0)
C1
C2
On-Chip Biases
ADC Voltage Reference
The ADC voltage reference is programmed through R0x2C, bits 2:0. The ADC reference
ranges from 1.0V to 2.1V. The default value is 1.4V. The increment size of the voltage
reference is 0.1V from 1.0V to 1.6V (R0x2C[2:0] values 0 to 6). At R0x2C[2:0] = 7, the reference voltage jumps to 2.1V.
The effect of the ADC calibration does not scale with VREF. Instead it is a fixed value relative to the output of the analog gain stage. At default, one LSB of calibration equals two
LSB in output data (1LSBOffset = 2mV, 1LSBADC = 1mV).
It is very important to preserve the correct values of the other bits in R0x2C. The default
register setting is 0x0004.
V_Step Voltage Reference
This voltage is used for pixel high dynamic range operations, programmable from R0x31
through R0x34.
Chip Version
Chip version registers R0x00 and R0xFF are read-only.
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MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Feature Description
Window Control
Registers R0x01 column start, R0x02 Row Start, R0x03 window height (row size), and
R0x04 Window Width (column size) control the size and starting coordinates of the
window.
The values programmed in the window height and width registers are the exact window
height and width out of the sensor. The window start value should never be set below
four.
To read out the dark rows set bit 6 of R0x0D. In addition, bit 7 of R0x0D can be used to
display the dark columns in the image.
Blanking Control
Horizontal blanking and vertical blanking registers R0x05 and R0x06 respectively control
the blanking time in a row (horizontal blanking) and between frames (vertical blanking).
• Horizontal blanking is specified in terms of pixel clocks.
• Vertical blanking is specified in terms of numbers of rows.
The actual imager timing can be calculated using Table 2 on page 13 and Table 3 on
page 14 which describe “Row Timing and FRAME_VALID/LINE_VALID signals.” The
minimum number of vertical blank rows is 4.
Pixel Integration Control
Total Integration
R0x0B Total Shutter Width (In Terms of Number of Rows)
This register (along with the window width and horizontal blanking registers) controls
the integration time for the pixels.
The actual total integration time, tINT, is:
tINT = (Number of rows of integration × row time) + Overhead, where:
The number of rows integration is equal to the result of automatic exposure control
(AEC) which may vary from frame to frame, or, if AEC is disabled, the value in R0x0B
Row time = (R0x04 + R0x05) master clock periods
Overhead = (R0x04 + R0x05 – 255) master clock periods
Typically, the value of R0x0B (total shutter width) is limited to the number of rows per
frame (which includes vertical blanking rows), such that the frame rate is not affected by
the integration time. If R0x0B is increased beyond the total number of rows per frame, it
is required to add additional blanking rows using R0x06 as needed. A second constraint
is that tINT must be adjusted to avoid banding in the image from light flicker. Under
60Hz flicker, this means frame time must be a multiple of 1/120 of a second. Under 50Hz
flicker, frame time must be a multiple of 1/100 of a second.
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MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Feature Description
Changes to Integration Time
With automatic exposure control disabled (R0xAF, bit 0 is cleared to LOW), and if the
total integration time (R0x0B) is changed via the two-wire serial interface while
FRAME_VALID is asserted for frame n, the first frame output using the new integration
time is frame (n + 2). Similarly, when automatic exposure control is enabled, any change
to the integration time for frame n first appears in frame (n + 2) output.
The sequence is as follows:
1. During frame n, the new integration time is held in the R0x0B live register.
2. At the start of frame (n + 1), the new integration time is transferred to the exposure
control module. Integration for each row of frame (n + 1) has been completed using
the old integration time. The earliest time that a row can start integrating using the
new integration time is immediately after that row has been read for frame (n + 1).
The actual time that rows start integrating using the new integration time is dependent on the new value of the integration time.
3. When frame (n + 1) is read out, it is integrated using the new integration time. If the
integration time is changed (R0x0B written) on successive frames, each value written
is applied to a single frame; the latency between writing a value and it affecting the
frame readout remains at two frames.
However, when automatic exposure control is disabled, if the integration time is
changed through the two-wire serial interface after the falling edge of FRAME_VALID
for frame n, the first frame output using the new integration time becomes frame
(n + 3).
Figure 20:
Latency When Changing Integration
FRAME_VALID
New Integration
Programmed
Int = 200 rows
Actual
Integration
Int = 300 rows
Int = 200 rows
Int = 300 rows
LED_OUT
Output image with
Int = 200 rows
Image Data
Output
image with
Int = 300
rows
Frame Start
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MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Feature Description
Exposure Indicator
The exposure indicator is controlled by:
• R0x1B LED_OUT Control
The MT9V022 provides an output pin, LED_OUT, to indicate when the exposure takes
place. When R0x1B bit 0 is clear, LED_OUT is HIGH during exposure. By using R0x1B, bit
1, the polarity of the LED_OUT pin can be inverted.
High Dynamic Range
High dynamic range is controlled by:
• R0x08 Shutter Width 1
• R0x09 Shutter Width 2
• R0x0A Shutter Width Control
• R0x31–R0x34 V_Step Voltages
In the MT9V022, high dynamic range (that is, R0x0F, bit 6 = 1) is achieved by controlling
the saturation level of the pixel (HDR or high dynamic range gate) during the exposure
period. The sequence of the control voltages at the HDR gate is shown in Figure 21. After
the pixels are reset, the step voltage, V_Step, which is applied to HDR gate, is setup at V1
for integration time t1 then to V2 for time t2, then V3 for time t3, and finally it is parked at
V4, which also serves as an antiblooming voltage for the photodetector. This sequence of
voltages leads to a piecewise linear pixel response, illustrated (in approximates) in
Figure 21 on page 26.
Figure 21:
Sequence of Control Voltages at the HDR Gate
Exposure
VAA (3.3V)
V1~1.4V
V3~1.0V
t1
HDR
Voltage
Figure 22:
V2~1.2V
V4~0.8V
t2
t3
Sequence of Voltages in a Piecewise Linear Pixel Response
dV3
Output
dV2
dV1
Light Intensity
1/t
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1/t
2
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MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Feature Description
The parameters of the step voltage V_Step which takes values V1, V2, and V3 directly
affect the position of the knee points in Figure 22.
Light intensities work approximately as a reciprocal of the partial exposure time. Typically, t1 is the longest exposure, t2 shorter, and so on. Thus the range of light intensities is
shortest for the first slope, providing the highest sensitivity.
The register settings for V_Step and partial exposures are:
V1 = R0x31, bits 4:0
V2 = R0x32, bits 4:0
V3 = R0x33, bits 4:0
V4 = R0x34, bits 4:0
t
INT = t1 + t2 + t3
There are two ways to specify the knee points timing, the first by manual setting (default)
and the second by automatic knee point adjustment.
When the auto adjust enabler is set to HIGH (LOW by default), the MT9V022 calculates
the knee points automatically using the following equations:
t
t
t1 =tINT - t2 - t3
(EQ 1)
2 = tINT x (½)R0x0A, bits 3:0
(EQ 2)
t
R0x0A, bits 7:4
3 = INT x (½)
(EQ 3)
As a default for auto exposure, t2 is 1/16 of tINT, t3 is 1/64 of tINT.
When the auto adjust enabler is disabled (default), t1, t2, and t3 may be programmed
through the two-wire serial interface:
t
1 = R0x08, bits 14:0
(EQ 4)
2 = (R0x09, bits 14:0) - (R0x08, bits 14:0)
(EQ 5)
t
t
t
t
t
3 = INT - 1 - 2
(EQ 6)
t
INT may be based on the manual setting of R0x0B or the result of the AEC. If the AEC is
enabled then the auto knee adjust must also be enabled.
Variable ADC Resolution
By default, ADC resolution of the sensor is 10-bit. Additionally, a companding scheme of
12-bit into 10-bit is enabled by the R0x1C (28). This mode allows higher ADC resolution
which means less quantization noise at low-light, and lower resolution at high light,
where good ADC quantization is not so critical because of the high level of the photon’s
shot noise.
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MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Feature Description
Figure 23:
12- to 10-Bit Companding Chart
10-bit
Codes
1,024
768
8 to 1 Companding (2,048
4 to 1 Companding (1,536
512
256
2 to 1 Companding (256
No companding (256
256 512 1,024
256)
384)
128)
12-bit
Codes
256)
2,048
4,096
Gain Settings
Changes to Gain Settings
When the digital gain settings (R0x80–R0x98) are changed, the gain is updated on the
next frame start. However, the latency for an analog gain change to take effect depends
on the automatic gain control.
If automatic gain control is enabled (R0xAF, bit 1 is set to HIGH), the gain changed for
frame n first appears in frame (n + 1); if the automatic gain control is disabled, the gain
changed for frame n first appears in frame (n + 2).
Both analog and digital gain change regardless of whether the integration time is also
changed simultaneously.
Figure 24:
Latency of Analog Gain Change When AGC Is Disabled
FRAME_VALID
New Gain
Programmed
Gain = 3.0X
Actual
Gain
Gain = 3.5X
Gain = 3.0X
Output image with
Gain = 3.0X
Image Data
Gain = 3.5X
Output
image with
Gain = 3.5X
Frame Start
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MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Feature Description
Analog Gain
Analog gain is controlled by:
• R0x35 Global Gain
The formula for gain setting is:
Gain = Bits[6:0] x 0.0625
(EQ 7)
The analog gain range supported in the MT9V022 is 1X–4X with a step size of
6.25 percent. To control gain manually with this register, the sensor must NOT be in AGC
mode. When adjusting the luminosity of an image, it is recommended to alter exposure
first and yield to gain increases only when the exposure value has reached a maximum
limit.
Analog gain = bits (6:0) x 0.0625 for values 16–31
Analog gain = bits (6:0)/2 x 0.125 for values 32–64
For values 16–31: each LSB increases analog gain 0.0625v/v. A value of 16 = 1X gain.
Range: 1X to 1.9375X.
For values 32–64: each 2 LSB increases analog gain 0.125v/v (that is, double the gain
increase for 2 LSB). Range: 2X to 4X. Odd values do not result in gain increases; the gain
increases by 0.125 for values 32, 34, 36, and so on.
Digital Gain
Digital gain is controlled by:
• R0x99–R0xA4 Tile Coordinates
• R0x80–R0x98 Tiled Digital Gain and Weight
In the MT9V022, the image may be divided into 25 tiles, as shown in Figure 25, through
the two-wire serial interface, and apply digital gain individually to each tile.
Figure 25:
Tiled Sample
X0/5 X1/5
X2/5
Y0/5
x0_y0 x1_y0
X3/5
X5/5
X5/5
x4_y0
Y1/5
x0_y1
x1_y1
x4_y1
x0_y2
x1_y2
x4_y2
x0_y3
x1_y3
x4_y3
x0_y4
x1_y4
x4_y4
Y2/5
Y3/5
Y4/5
Y5/5
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MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Feature Description
Registers 0x99–0x9E and 0x9F–0xA4 represent the coordinates X0/5-X5/5 and Y0/5-Y5/5 in
Figure 25, respectively.
Digital gains of registers 0x80–0x98 apply to their corresponding tiles. The MT9V022
supports a digital gain of 0.25-3.75X.
The formula for digital gain setting is:
Digital Gain = Bits[3:0] x 0.25
(EQ 8)
Black Level Calibration
Black level calibration is controlled by:
• R0x4C
• R0x42
• R0x46–R0x48
The MT9V022 has automatic black level calibration on-chip, and if enabled, its result
may be used in the offset correction shown in Figure 26.
Figure 26:
Black Level Calibration Flow Chart
Gain Selection
(R0x35 or
result of AGC)
Pixel Output
(reset minus signal)
Offset Correction
Voltage (R0x48 or
result of BLC)
VREF
(R0x2C)
10 (12) bit ADC
Σ
ADC Data
(9:0)
C1
C2
The automatic black level calibration measures the average value of pixels from 2 dark
rows (1 dark row if row bin 4 is enabled) of the chip. (The pixels are averaged as if they
were light-sensitive and passed through the appropriate gain.)
This row average is then digitally low-pass filtered over many frames (R0x47, bits 7:5) to
remove temporal noise and random instabilities associated with this measurement.
Then, the new filtered average is compared to a minimum acceptable level, low
threshold, and a maximum acceptable level, high threshold.
If the average is lower than the minimum acceptable level, the offset correction voltage
is increased by a programmable offset LSB in R0x4C. (Default step size is 2 LSB Offset = 1
ADC LSB at analog gain = 1X.)
If it is above the maximum level, the offset correction voltage is decreased by 2 LSB
(default).
To avoid oscillation of the black level from below to above, the region the thresholds
should be programmed so the difference is at least two times the offset DAC step size.
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MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Feature Description
In normal operation, the black level calibration value/offset correction value is calculated at the beginning of each frame and can be read through the two-wire serial interface from R0x48. This register is an 8-bit signed two’s complement value.
However, if R0x47, bit 0 is set to “1,” the calibration value in R0x48 may be manually set
to override the automatic black level calculation result. This feature can be used in
conjunction with the “show dark rows” feature (R0x0D, bit 6) if using an external black
level calibration circuit.
The offset correction voltage is generated according to the following formulas:
Offset Correction Voltage = (8-bit signed two’s complement calibration value,-127 to 127) × 0.5mV
(EQ 9)
ADC input voltage = (Pixel Output Voltage + Offset Correction Voltage) × Analog Gain
(EQ 10)
Row-wise Noise Correction
Row-wise noise correction is controlled by the following registers:
• R0x70 Row Noise Control
• R0x72 Row Noise Constant
• R0x73 Dark Column Start
When the row-wise noise cancellation algorithm is enabled, the average value of the
dark columns read out is used as a correction for the whole row. The row-wise correction
is in addition to the general black level correction applied to the whole sensor frame and
cannot be used to replace the latter. The dark average is subtracted from each pixel
belonging to the same row, and then a positive constant is added (R0x72, bits 7:0). This
constant should be set to the dark level targeted by the black level algorithm plus the
noise expected on the measurements of the averaged values from dark columns; it is
meant to prevent clipping from negative noise fluctuations.
Pixel value = ADC value - dark column average + row noise constant
(EQ 11)
On a per-row basis, the dark column average is calculated from a programmable
number of dark columns (pixels) values (R0x70, bits 3:0). The default is 10 dark columns.
Of these, the maximum and minimum values are removed and then the average is calculated. If R0x70, bits 3:0 are set to “0” (2 pixels), it is essentially equivalent to disabling the
dark average calculation since the average is equal to “0” after the maximum and
minimum values are removed.
R0x73 is used to indicate the starting column address of dark pixels which row-noise
correction algorithm uses for calculation. In the MT9V022, dark columns which may be
used are 759–776. R0x73 is used to select the starting column for the calculation.
One additional note in setting the row-noise correction register:
777 < (R0x73, bits 9:0) + number of dark pixels programmed in R0x70, bits 3:0 -1
(EQ 12)
This is to ensure the column pointer does not go beyond the limit the MT9V022 can
support.
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MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Feature Description
Automatic Gain Control and Automatic Exposure Control
The integrated AEC/AGC unit is responsible for ensuring that optimal auto settings of
exposure and (analog) gain are computed and updated every frame.
AEC and AGC can be individually enabled or disabled by R0xAF. When AEC is disabled
(R0xAF[0] = 0), the sensor uses the manual exposure value in R0x0B. When AGC is
disabled (R0xAF[1] = 0), the sensor uses the manual gain value in R0x35. See ON Semiconductor Technical Note TN-09-17, “MT9V022 AEC and AGC Functions,” for further
details.
Figure 27:
Controllable and Observable AEC/AGC Registers
EXP. LPF
(R0xA8)
MAX. EXPOSURE
(R0xBD)
MIN EXP.
DESIRED BIN
(desired luminance)
(R0xA5)
MANUAL EXP.
(R0x0B)
AEC
UNIT
CURRENT BIN
(current luminance)
(R0xBC)
1
EXP. SKIP
(R0xA6)
AEC
OUTPUT
1
HISTOGRAM
GENERATOR
UNIT
AGC
UNIT
MIN GAIN
To exposure
0 timing control
R0xBB
AGC OUTPUT
16
AEC ENABLE
(R0xAF[0])
MAX. GAIN
(R0x36)
1
To analog
gain control
0
R0xBA
GAIN LPF
(R0xAB)
GAIN SKIP
(R0xA9)
MANUAL GAIN AGC ENABLE
(R0x35)
(R0xAF[1])
The exposure is measured in row-time by reading R0xBB. The exposure range is
1 to 2047. The gain is measured in gain-units by reading R0xBA. The gain range is
16 to 63 (unity gain = 16 gain-units; multiply by 1/16 to get the true gain).
When AEC is enabled (R0xAF[0] = 1), the maximum auto exposure value is limited by
R0xBD; minimum auto exposure is fixed at 1 row.
When AGC is enabled (R0xAF[1] = 1), the maximum auto gain value is limited by R0x36;
minimum auto gain is fixed to 16 gain-units.
The exposure control measures current scene luminosity and desired output luminosity
by accumulating a histogram of pixel values while reading out a frame. The desired
exposure and gain are then calculated from this for subsequent frame.
Pixel Clock Speed
The pixel clock speed is same as the master clock (SYSCLK) at 26.66 MHz by default.
However, when column binning 2 or 4 (R0x0D, bit 2 or 3) is enabled, the pixel clock
speed is reduced by half and one-fourth of the master clock speed respectively. See
“Read Mode Options” on page 34 and “Column Binning” on page 35 for additional information.
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MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Feature Description
Hard Reset of Logic
The RC circuit for the MT9V022 uses a 10kresistor and a 0.1F capacitor. The rise time
for the RC circuit is 1s maximum.
Soft Reset of Logic
Soft reset of logic is controlled by:
• R0x0C Reset
Bit 0 is used to reset the digital logic of the sensor while preserving the existing two-wire
serial interface configuration. Furthermore, by asserting the soft reset, the sensor aborts
the current frame it is processing and starts a new frame. Bit 1 is a shadowed reset
control register bit to explicitly reset the automatic gain and exposure control feature.
These two bits are self-resetting bits and also return to “0” during two-wire serial interface reads.
STANDBY Control
The sensor goes into standby mode by setting STANDBY to HIGH. Once the sensor
detects that STANDBY is asserted, it completes the current frame before disabling the
digital logic, internal clocks, and analog power enable signal. To release the sensor out
from the standby mode, reset STANDBY back to LOW. The LVDS must be powered to
ensure that the device is in standby mode. See "Appendix B – Power-On
Reset and Standby Timing" on page 54 for more information on standby.
Monitor Mode Control
Monitor mode is controlled by:
• R0x0E Monitor Mode Enable
• R0xC0 Monitor Mode Image Capture Control
The sensor goes into monitor mode when R0x0E bit 0 is set to HIGH. In this mode, the
sensor first captures a programmable number of frames (R0xC0), then goes into a sleep
period for five minutes. The cycle of sleeping for five minutes and waking up to capture a
number of frames continues until R0x0E bit 0 is cleared to return to normal operation.
In some applications when monitor mode is enabled, the purpose of capturing frames is
to calibrate the gain and exposure of the scene using automatic gain and exposure
control feature. This feature typically takes less than 10 frames to settle. In case a larger
number of frames is needed, the value of R0xC0 may be increased to capture more
frames.
During the sleep period, none of the analog circuitry and a very small fraction of digital
logic (including a five-minute timer) is powered. The master clock (SYSCLK) is therefore
always required.
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MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Feature Description
Read Mode Options
(Also see “Output Data Format” on page 11 and “Output Data Timing” on page 13.)
Column Flip
By setting bit 5 of R0x0D the readout order of the columns is reversed, as shown in
Figure 28 on page 34.
Row Flip
By setting bit 4 of R0x0D the readout order of the rows is reversed, as shown in Figure 29
on page 34.
Figure 28:
Readout of Six Pixels in Normal and Column Flip Output Mode
LINE_VALID
Normal readout
DOUT(9:0)
Reverse readout
DOUT(9:0)
Figure 29:
P4,1
(9:0)
P4,2
(9:0)
P4,3
(9:0)
P4,4
(9:0)
P4,5
(9:0)
P4,6
(9:0)
P4,n
(9:0)
P4,n-1
(9:0)
P4,n-2
(9:0)
P4,n-3
(9:0)
P4,n-4
(9:0)
P4,n-5
(9:0)
Readout of Six Rows in Normal and Row Flip Output Mode
LINE_VALID
Normal readout
DOUT(9:0)
Reverse readout
DOUT(9:0)
Row4
(9:0)
Row5
(9:0)
Row6
(9:0)
Row7
(9:0)
Row8
7(9:0)
Row9
(9:0)
Row484
(9:0)
Row483
(9:0)
Row482
(9:0)
Row481
(9:0)
Row480
7(9:0)
Row479
(9:0)
Pixel Binning
In addition to windowing mode in which smaller resolution (CIF, QCIF) is obtained by
selecting small window from the sensor array, the MT9V022 also provides the ability to
show the entire image captured by pixel array with smaller resolution by pixel binning.
Pixel binning is based on combining signals from adjacent pixels by averaging. There are
two options: binning 2 and binning 4. When binning 2 is on, 4 pixel signals from 2 adjacent rows and columns are combined. In binning 4 mode, 16 pixels are combined from 4
adjacent rows and columns. The image mode may work in conjunction with image flip.
The binning operation increases SNR but decreases resolution.
Enabling row bin2 and row bin4 improves frame rate by 2x and 4x respectively. The
feature of column binning does not increase the frame rate in less resolution modes.
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MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Feature Description
Row Binning
By setting bit 0 or 1 of R0x0D, only half or one-fourth of the row set is read out, as shown
in figure below. The number of rows read out is half or one-fourth of what is set in R0x03.
Column Binning
In setting bit 2 or 3 of R0x0D, the pixel data rate is slowed down by a factor of either two
or four, respectively. This is due to the overhead time in the digital pixel data processing
chain. As a result, the pixel clock speed is also reduced accordingly.
Figure 30:
Readout of 8 Pixels in Normal and Row Bin Output Mode
LINE_VALID
Normal readout
DOUT(9:0)
Row4
(9:0)
Row5
(9:0)
Row6
(9:0)
Row7
(9:0)
Row4
(9:0)
Row6
(9:0)
Row8
(9:0)
Row10
(9:0)
Row4
(9:0)
Row8
(9:0)
Row8
(9:0)
Row9
(9:0)
Row10 Row11
(9:0)
(9:0)
LINE_VALID
Row Bin 2 readout
DOUT(9:0)
LINE_VALID
Row Bin 4 readout
DOUT(9:0)
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MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Feature Description
Figure 31:
Readout of 8 Pixels in Normal and Column Bin Output Mode
LINE_VALID
Normal readout
DOUT(9:0)
D1
(9:0)
D2
(9:0)
D3
(9:0)
D4
(9:0)
D5
(9:0)
D6
(9:0)
D7
(9:0)
D8
(9:0)
PIXCLK
LINE_VALID
Column Bin 2 readout
DOUT(9:0)
D12
(9:0)
D34
(9:0)
D56
(9:0)
D78
(9:0)
PIXCLK
LINE_VALID
Column Bin 4 readout
d1234
(9:0)
DOUT(9:0)
d5678
(9:0)
PIXCLK
Interlaced Readout
The MT9V022 has two interlaced readout options. By setting R0x07[2:0] = 1, all the evennumbered rows are read out first, followed by a number of programmable field blanking
(R0xBF, bits 7:0), and then the odd-numbered rows and finally vertical blanking
(minimum is 4 blanking rows). By setting R0x07[2:0] = 2, only one field is read out;
consequently, the number of rows read out is half what is set in R0x03. The row start
address (R0x02) determines which field gets read out; if the row start address is even, the
even field is read out; if row start address is odd, the odd field is read out.
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MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Feature Description
Figure 32:
Spatial Illustration of Interlaced Image Readout
P4,1 P4,2 P4,3.....................................P4,n-1 P4,n
P6,0 P6,1 P6,2.....................................P6,n-1 P6,n
00 00 00 .................. 00 00 00
00 00 00 .................. 00 00 00
VALID IMAGE - Even Field
Pm-2,0 Pm-2,2.....................................Pm-2,n-2 Pm-2,n
Pm,2 Pm,2.....................................Pm,n-1 Pm,n
00 00 00 ..................................... 00 00 00
00 00 00 ..................................... 00 00 00
HORIZONTAL
BLANKING
FIELD BLANKING
P5,1 P5,2 P5,3.....................................P5,n-1 P5,n
P7,0 P7,1 P7,2.....................................P7,n-1 P7,n
00 00 00 .................. 00 00 00
00 00 00 .................. 00 00 00
VALID IMAGE - Odd Field
00 00 00 .................. 00 00 00
00 00 00 .................. 00 00 00
Pm-3,1 Pm-3,2.....................................Pm-3,n-1 Pm-3,n
Pm,1 Pm,1.....................................Pm,n-1 Pm,n
VERTICAL BLANKING
00 00 00 ............................................................................................. 00 00 00
00 00 00 ............................................................................................. 00 00 00
When interlaced mode is enabled, the total number of blanking rows are determined by
both field blanking register (R0xBF) and vertical blanking register (R0x06). The followings are their equations.
Field Blanking = R0xBF, bits 7:0
(EQ 13)
Vertical Blanking = R0x06, bits 8:0 -R0xBF, bits 7:0
(EQ 14)
with
minimum vertical blanking requirement = 4
(EQ 15)
Similar to progressive scan, FRAME_VALID is logic LOW during the valid image row only.
Binning should not be used in conjunction with interlaced mode.
MT9V022_DS Rev. L 6/15 EN
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MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Feature Description
LINE_VALID
By setting bit 2 and 3 of R0x74 the LINE_VALID signal can get three different output
formats. The formats for reading out four rows and two vertical blanking rows are shown
in Figure 33. In the last format, the LINE_VALID signal is the XOR between the continuous LINE_VALID signal and the FRAME_VALID signal.
Figure 33:
Different LINE_VALID Formats
Default
FRAME_VALID
LINE_VALID
Continuously
FRAME_VALID
LINE_VALID
XOR
FRAME_VALID
LINE_VALID
LVDS Serial (Stand-Alone/Stereo) Output
The LVDS interface allows for the streaming of sensor data serially to a standard off-theshelf deserializer up to five meters away from the sensor. The pixels (and controls) are
packeted—12-bit packets for stand-alone mode and 18-bit packets for stereoscopy
mode. All serial signalling (CLK and data) is LVDS. The LVDS serial output could either
be data from a single sensor (stand-alone) or stream-merged data from two sensors (self
and its stereoscopic slave pair). The appendices describe in detail the topologies for
both stand-alone and stereoscopic modes.
There are two standard deserializers that can be used. One for a stand-alone sensor
stream and the other from a stereoscopic stream. The deserializer attached to a standalone sensor is able to reproduce the standard parallel output (8-bit pixel data,
LINE_VALID, FRAME_VALID and PIXCLK). The deserializer attached to a stereoscopic
sensor is able to reproduce 8-bit pixel data from each sensor (with embedded
LINE_VALID and FRAME_VALID) and pixel-clk. An additional (simple) piece of logic is
required to extract LINE_VALID and FRAME_VALID from the 8-bit pixel data. Irrespective of the mode (stereoscopy/stand-alone), LINE_VALID and FRAME_VALID are always
embedded in the pixel data.
In stereoscopic mode, the two sensors run in lock-step, implying all state machines are
in the same state at any given time. This is ensured by the sensor-pair getting their sysclks and sys-resets in the same instance. Configuration writes through the two-wire
serial interface are done in such a way that both sensors can get their configuration
updates at once. The inter-sensor serial link is designed in such a way that once the slave
PLL locks and the data-dly, shft-clk-dly and stream-latency-sel are configured, the
master sensor streams good stereo content irrespective of any variation voltage and/or
temperature as long as it is within specification. The configuration values of data-dly,
shft-clk-dly and stream-latency-sel are either predetermined from the board-layout or
can be empirically determined by reading back the stereo-error flag. This flag gets
asserted when the two sensor streams are not in sync when merged. The combo_reg is
used for out-of-sync diagnosis.
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MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Feature Description
Figure 34:
Serial Output Format for a 6x2 Frame
Internal
PIXCLK
Internal
Parallel
Data
P41
P42
P43
P44
P45
P46
P51
P52
P53
P54
P55
P56
Internal
Line_Valid
Internal
Frame_Valid
External
Serial
Data Out
Notes:
1023
0
1023
1
P41
P42
P43 P44
P45
P46
2
1
P51
P52
P53
P54
P55 P56
3
1. External pixel values of 0, 1, 2, 3, are reserved (they only convey control information). Any raw pixel
of value 0, 1, 2 and 3 will be substituted with 4.
2. The external pixel sequence 1023, 0 1023 is a reserved sequence (conveys control information). Any
raw pixel sequence of 1023, 0, 1023 will be substituted with 1023, 4, 1023.
LVDS Output Format
In stand-alone mode, the packet size is 12 bits (2 frame bits and 10 payload bits); 10-bit
pixels or 8-bit pixels can be selected. In 8-bit pixel mode (R0xB6[0] = 0), the packet
consists of a start bit, 8-bit pixel data (with sync codes), the line valid bit, the frame valid
bit and the stop bit. For 10-bit pixel mode (R0xB6[0] = 1), the packet consists of a start
bit, 10-bit pixel data, and the stop bit.
Table 5:
LVDS Packet Format in Stand-Alone Mode
(Stereoscopy Mode Bit De-Asserted)
12-Bit Packet
use_10-bit_pixels Bit DeAsserted
(8-Bit Mode)
use_10-bit_pixels Bit Asserted
(10-Bit Mode)
Bit[0]
Bit[1]
Bit2]
Bit[3]
Bit4]
Bit[5]
Bit[6]
Bit[7]
Bit[8]
Bit[9]
Bit[10]
Bit[11]
1'b1 (Start bit)
PixelData[2]
PixelData[3]
PixelData[4]
PixelData[5]
PixelData[6]
PixelData[7]
PixelData[8]
PixelData[9]
Line_Valid
Frame_Valid
1'b0 (Stop bit)
1'b1 (Start bit)
PixelData[0]
PixelData[1]
PixelData[2]
PixelData[3]
PixelData[4]
PixelData[5]
PixelData[6]
PixelData[7]
PixelData[8]
PixelData[9]
1'b0 (Stop bit)
In stereoscopic mode (see Figure 47 on page 52), the packet size is 18 bits (2 frame bits
and 16 payload bits). The packet consists of a start bit, the master pixel byte (with sync
codes), the slave byte (with sync codes), and the stop bit.)
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MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Feature Description
Table 6:
LVDS Packet Format in Stereoscopy Mode (Stereoscopy Mode Bit Asserted)
18-bit Packet
Function
Bit[0]
Bit[1]
Bit[2]
Bit[3]
Bit[4]
Bit[5]
Bit[6]
Bit[7]
Bit[8]
Bit[9]
Bit[10]
Bit[11]
Bit[12]
Bit[13]
Bit[14]
Bit[15]
Bit[16]
Bit[17]
1'b1 (Start bit)
MasterSensorPixelData[2]
MasterSensorPixelData[3]
MasterSensorPixelData[4]
MasterSensorPixelData[5]
MasterSensorPixelData[6]
MasterSensorPixelData[7]
MasterSensorPixelData[8]
MasterSensorPixelData[9]
SlaveSensorPixelData[2]
SlaveSensorPixelData[3]
SlaveSensorPixelData[4]
SlaveSensorPixelData[5]
SlaveSensorPixelData[6]
SlaveSensorPixelData[7]
SlaveSensorPixelData[8]
SlaveSensorPixelData[9]
1'b0 (Stop bit)
Control signals LINE_VALID and FRAME_VALID can be reconstructed from their respective preceding and succeeding flags that are always embedded within the pixel data in
the form of reserved words.
Table 7:
Reserved Words in the Pixel Data Stream
Pixel Data Reserved Word
Flag
0
1
2
3
Precedes frame valid assertion
Precedes line valid assertion
Succeeds line valid de-assertion
Succeeds frame valid de-assertion
When LVDS mode is enabled along with column binning (bin 2 or bin 4, R0x0D[3:2], the
packet size remains the same but the serial pixel data stream repeats itself depending on
whether 2X or 4X binning is set:
• For bin 2, LVDS outputs double the expected data (pixel 0,0 is output twice in
sequence, followed by pixel 0,1 twice, . . .).
• For bin 4, LVDS outputs 4 times the expected data (pixel 0,0 is output 4 times in
sequence followed by pixel 0,1 times 4, . . .).
The receiving hardware will need to undersample the output stream getting data either
every 2 clocks (bin 2) or every 4 (bin 4) clocks.
If the sensor provides a pixel whose value is 0,1, 2, or 3 (that is, the same as a reserved
word) then the outgoing serial pixel value is switched to 4.
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MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Electrical Specifications
Electrical Specifications
Table 8:
DC Electrical Characteristics
VPWR = 3.3V ±0.3V; TA = Ambient = 25°C
Symbol
Definition
Condition
Minimum
Typical
Maximum
Unit
VIH
Input high voltage
VPWR - 0.5
–
VPWR + 0.3
V
VIL
Input low voltage
–0.3
–
0.8
V
IIN
Input leakage current
No pull-up resistor;
VIN = VPWR or VGND
–15.0
–
15.0
A
VOH
Output high voltage
IOH = –4.0mA
VPWR -0.7
–
–
V
–
–
0.3
V
–9.0
–
–
mA
VOL
Output low voltage
IOL = 4.0mA
IOH
Output high current
VOH = VDD - 0.7
IOL
Output low current
VOL = 0.7
VAA
Analog power supply
Default settings
IPWRA
Analog supply current
VDD
Digital power supply
–
–
9.0
mA
3.0
3.3
3.6
V
Default settings
–
35.0
60.0
mA
Default settings
3.0
3.3
3.6
V
IPWRD
Digital supply current
Default settings, CLOAD = 10pF
–
35.0
60
mA
VAAPIX
Pixel array power supply
Default settings
3.0
3.3
3.6
V
IPIX
Pixel supply current
Default settings
0.5
1.4
3.0
mA
VLVDS
LVDS power supply
Default settings
3.0
3.3
3.6
V
ILVDS
LVDS supply current
Default settings
11.0
13.0
15.0
mA
2
3
4
A
1
2
4
A
–
1.05
–
mA
250
–
400
mV
–
–
50
mV
1.0
1.2
1.4
mV
–
–
35
mV
10
12
mA
1
10
A
IPWRA
Standby
Analog standby supply current
STDBY = VDD
IPWRD
Standby
Clock Off
Digital standby supply current
with clock off
STDBY = VDD, CLKIN = 0 MHz
IPWRD
Standby
Clock On
Digital standby supply current
with clock on
STDBY= VDD, CLKIN = 27 MHz
LVDS Driver DC Specifications
|VOD|
Output differential voltage
|DVOD|
Change in VOD between
complementary output states
VOS
Output offset voltage
DVOS
Change in VOS between
complementary output states
IOS
Output current when driver
shorted to ground
IOZ
Output current when driver is tristate
RLOAD = 100
  1%
LVDS Receiver DC Specifications
VIDTH+
Input differential
Iin
Input current
MT9V022_DS Rev. L 6/15 EN
| VGPD| < 925mV
41
–100
–
100
mV
–
–
20
A
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Electrical Specifications
Table 9:
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Caution
Stresses greater than those listed may cause permanent damage to the device.
Symbol
Parameter
VSUPPLY
Power supply voltage (all supplies)
ISUPPLY
Minimum
Maximum
Unit
–0.3
4.5
V
Total power supply current
–
200
mA
IGND
Total ground current
–
200
mA
VIN
DC input voltage
–0.3
VDD + 0.3
V
VOUT
DC output voltage
–0.3
VDD + 0.3
V
TSTG1
Storage temperature
–40
+125
°C
Notes:
Table 10:
1. This is a stress rating only, and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions
above those indicated in the operational sections of this specification is not implied.
Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect
reliability.
AC Electrical Characteristics
VPWR = 3.3V ±0.3V; TA = Ambient = 25°C; Output Load = 10pF
Symbol
SYSCLK
Definition
Condition
Input clock frequency
Note 1
Clock duty cycle
Minimum
Typical
Maximum
Unit
13.0
26.6
27.0
MHz
45.0
50.0
55.0
%
tR
Input clock rise time
1
2
5
ns
tF
Input clock fall time
1
2
5
ns
tPLHP
SYSCLK to PIXCLK propagation delay
CLOAD = 10pF
3
7
11
ns
tPD
PIXCLK to valid DOUT(9:0) propagation delay
CLOAD = 10pF
–2
0
2
ns
tSD
Data setup time
14
16
–
ns
tHD
Data hold time
14
16
–
tPFLR
PIXCLK to LINE_VALID propagation delay
CLOAD = 10pF
–2
0
2
ns
tPFLF
PIXCLK to FRAME_VALID propagation delay
CLOAD = 10pF
–2
0
2
ns
Notes:
1. The frequency range specified applies only to the parallel output mode of operation.
Propagation Delays for PIXCLK and Data Out Signals
The pixel clock is inverted and delayed relative to the master clock. The relative delay
from the master clock (SYSCLK) rising edge to both the pixel clock (PIXCLK) falling edge
and the data output transition is typically 7ns. Note that the falling edge of the pixel
clock occurs at approximately the same time as the data output transitions. See Table 10
for data setup and hold times.
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MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Electrical Specifications
Propagation Delays for FRAME_VALID and LINE_VALID Signals
The LINE_VALID and FRAME_VALID signals change on the same rising master clock
edge as the data output. The LINE_VALID goes HIGH on the same rising master clock
edge as the output of the first valid pixel's data and returns LOW on the same master
clock rising edge as the end of the output of the last valid pixel's data.
As shown in the “Output Data Timing” on page 13, FRAME_VALID goes HIGH 143 pixel
clocks before the first LINE_VALID goes HIGH. It returns LOW 23 pixel clocks after the
last LINE_VALID goes LOW.
Figure 35:
Propagation Delays for PIXCLK and Data Out Signals
tF
tR
SYSCLK
tPLHP
PIXCLK
tPD
tHD
tSD
DOUT(9:0)
Figure 36:
Propagation Delays for FRAME_VALID and LINE_VALID Signals
t
PFLR
MT9V022_DS Rev. L 6/15 EN
t
PFLF
PIXCLK
PIXCLK
FRAME_VALID
LINE_VALID
FRAME_VALID
LINE_VALID
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MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Electrical Specifications
Performance Specifications
Table 11 summarizes the specification for each performance parameter.
Table 11:
Performance Specifications
Unit
Minimum
Typical
Maximum
Test Number
Sensitivity
Parameter
LSB
400
572
745
1
DSNU
LSB
N/A
2.3
7.0
2
PRNU
%
N/A
1.3
4.0
3
Dynamic Range
dB
52.0
54.4
N/A
4
SNR
dB
33.0
37.3
N/A
5
Notes:
1. All specifications address operation is at TA = 25°C (±3°C) and supply voltage = 3.3V. Image sensor
was tested without a lens. Multiple images were captured and analyzed.
Setup: VDD = VAA = VAAPIX = LVDSVDD = 3.3V. Testing was done with default frame timing and
default register settings, with the exception of AEC/AGC, row noise correction, and auto black level,
which were disabled.
Performance definitions are detailed in the following sections.
Test 1: Sensitivity
A flat-field light source (90 lux, color temperature 4400K, broadband, w/ IR cut filter) is
used as an illumination source. Signals are measured in LSB on the sensor output. A
series of four frames are captured and averaged to obtain a scalar sensitivity output
code.
Test 2: Dark Signal Non-Uniformity (DSNU)
The image sensor is held in the dark. Analog gain is changed to the maximum setting of
4X. Signals are measured in LSB on the sensor output. A series of four frames are
captured and averaged (pixel-by-pixel) into one average frame. DSNU is calculated as
the standard deviation of this average frame.
Test 3: Photo Response Non-Uniformity (PRNU)
A flat-field light source (90 lux, color temperature 4400K, broadband, with IR cut filter) is
used as an illumination source. Signals are measured in LSB on the sensor output. Two
series of four frames are captured and averaged (pixel-by-pixel) into one average frame,
one series is captured under illuminated conditions, and one is captured in the dark.
PRNU is expressed as a percentage relating the standard deviation of the average frames
difference (illuminated frame - dark frame) to the average illumination level:
Np
1
------   S illumination  i  – S dark  i   2
Np
i=1
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------PRNU = 100 
N
(EQ 16)
p
1----S
i
N p  illumination
i=1
where Sillumination(i) is the signal measured for the i-th pixel from the average illuminated frame, Sdark(i) is the signal measured for the i-th pixel from the average dark
frame, and Np is the total number of pixels contained in the array.
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MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Electrical Specifications
Test 4: Dynamic Range
A temporal noise measurement is made with the image sensor in the dark and analog
gain changed to the maximum setting of 4X. Signals are measured in LSB on the sensor
output. Two consecutive dark frames are captured. Temporal noise is calculated as the
average pixel value of the difference frame:
Np
  S1i – S2i 
i =
2
i-----------------------------------=1
(EQ 17)
2  Np
Where S1i is the signal measured for the i-th pixel from the first frame, S2i is the signal
measured for the i-th pixel from the second frame, and Np is the total number of pixels contained in the array.
The dynamic range is calculated according to the following formula:
4  1022
DynamicRange = 20  log --------------------t
(EQ 18)
Where t is the temporal noise measured in the dark at 4X gain.
Test 5: Signal-to-Noise Ratio
A flat-field light source (90 lux, color temperature 4400K, broadband, with IR cut filter) is
used as an illumination source. Signals are measured in LSB on the sensor output. Two
consecutive illuminated frames are captured. Temporal noise is calculated as the
average pixel value of the difference frame (according to the formula shown in Test 4).
The signal-to-noise ratio is calculated as the ratio of the average signal level to the
temporal noise according to the following formula:
  Np



 N 
S
   1i p
i = 1 

Signal – to – Noise – Ratio = 20  log -------------------------------------t
(EQ 19)
Where t is the temporal noise measured from the illuminated frames, S1i is the signal
measured for the i-th pixel from the first frame, and Np is the total number of pixels
contained in the array.
MT9V022_DS Rev. L 6/15 EN
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MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Electrical Specifications
Two-Wire Serial Bus Timing
The two-wire serial bus operation requires certain minimum master clock cycles
between transitions. These are specified in the following diagrams in master clock
cycles.
Figure 37:
Serial Host Interface Start Condition Timing
4
4
SCLK
SDATA
Figure 38:
Serial Host Interface Stop Condition Timing
4
4
SCLK
SDATA
Notes:
Figure 39:
1. All timing are in units of master clock cycle.
Serial Host Interface Data Timing for Write
4
4
SCLK
SDATA
Notes:
Figure 40:
1. SDATA is driven by an off-chip transmitter.
Serial Host Interface Data Timing for Read
5
SCLK
SDATA
Notes:
MT9V022_DS Rev. L 6/15 EN
1. SDATA is pulled LOW by the sensor, or allowed to be pulled HIGH by a pull-up resistor off-chip.
46
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MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Electrical Specifications
Figure 41:
Acknowledge Signal Timing After an 8-Bit WRITE to the Sensor
3
6
SCLK
Sensor pulls down
SDATA pin
SDATA
Figure 42:
Acknowledge Signal Timing After an 8-Bit READ from the Sensor
6
7
SCLK
SDATA
Note:
Sensor tri-states SDATA pin
(turns off pull down)
After a READ, the master receiver must pull down SDATA to acknowledge receipt of data bits. When
read sequence is complete, the master must generate a “No Acknowledge” by leaving SDATA to
float HIGH. On the following cycle, a start or stop bit may be used.
Temperature Reference
The MT9V022 contains a temperature reference circuit that can be used to measure relative temperatures. Contact your ON Semiconductor field applications engineer (FAE) for
more information on using this circuit.
MT9V022_DS Rev. L 6/15 EN
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MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Electrical Specifications
Figure 43:
Typical Quantum Efficiency—Color
Blue
Green (B)
Green (R)
Red
40
35
Quantum E ffic ienc y (%)
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
350
450
550
650
750
850
950
1050
Wavelength (nm)
MT9V022_DS Rev. L 6/15 EN
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©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Electrical Specifications
Figure 44:
Typical Quantum Efficiency—Monochrome
60
Quantum E ffic ienc y (%)
50
40
30
20
10
0
350
450
550
650
750
850
950
1050
Wavelength (nm)
MT9V022_DS Rev. L 6/15 EN
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©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Package Dimensions
Package Dimensions
Figure 45:
52-Ball IBGA
0.90
(for reference only)
D
Seating
plane
A
0.10 A
0.40
(for reference only)
0.375 ±0.050
0.525 ±0.050
0.125 (for reference only)
52X Ø0.55
Dimensions apply
to solder balls post
reflow. The prereflow ball is Ø0.50
on a Ø0.4 NSMD
ball pad.
7.00
Fuses
Ball A1
1.00 TYP
5.50
Ball A1 ID
Ball A8
1.849
First
clear
pixel
CL
1.999
3.50
7.00
CL
9.000 ±0.075
4.90
2.88 CTR
CL
Ø0.15 A C B
1.00 TYP
9.000 ±0.075
B
4.512 CTR
C
Ø0.15 A B C
Solder ball material: 96.5% Sn, 3% Ag, 0.5% Cu
Substrate material: plastic laminate
Encapsulant: epoxy
Notes:
MT9V022_DS Rev. L 6/15 EN
Optical
center
Optical
area
CL
Maximum rotation of optical area relative to package edges: 1º
Maximum tilt of optical area relative to package edge D : 50 microns.
Maximum tilt of optical area relative to top of cover glass: 50 microns.
Lid material: borosilicate glass 0.40 thickness
Image sensor die
1. All dimensions in millimeters.
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MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Appendix A – Serial Configurations
Appendix A – Serial Configurations
With the LVDS serial video output, the deserializer can be up to 8 meters from the
sensor. The serial link can save on the cabling cost of 14 wires (DOUT[9:0], LINE_VALID,
FRAME_VALID, PIXCLK, GND). Instead, just 3 wires (2 serial LVDS, 1 GND) are sufficient
to carry the video signal.
Configuration of Sensor for Stand-Alone Serial Output with Internal PLL
In this configuration, the internal PLL generates the shift-clk (x12). The LVDS pins SER_DATAOUT_P and SER_DATAOUT_N must be connected to a deserializer (clocked at
approximately the same system clock frequency).
Figure 46 shows how a standard off-the-shelf deserializer (National Semiconductor
DS92LV1212A) can be used to retrieve the standard parallel video signals of DOUT(9:0),
LINE_VALID and FRAME_VALID.
Figure 46:
Stand-Alone Topology
CLK
26.6 MHz
Osc.
LVDS
SER_DATAIN
Sensor
LVDS
BYPASS_CLKIN
LVDS
SER_DATAOUT
LVDS
SHIFT_CLKOUT
DS92LV1212A
8
PIXEL
8 meters (maximum)
26.6 MHz
Osc.
2
LINE_VALID
FRAME_VALID
8-bit configuration shown
Typical configuration of the sensor:
1. Power-up sensor.
2. Enable LVDS driver (set R0xB3[4]= 0).
3. De-assert LVDS power-down (set R0xB1[1] = 0.
4. Issue a soft reset (set R0x0C[0] = 1 followed by R0x0C[0] = 0.
If necessary:
5. Force sync patterns for the deserializer to lock (set R0xB5[0] = 1).
6. Stop applying sync patterns (set R0xB5[0] = 0).
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MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Appendix A – Serial Configurations
Configuration of Sensor for Stereoscopic Serial Output with Internal PLL
In this configuration the internal PLL generates the shift-clk (x18) in phase with the
system-clock. The LVDS pins SER_DATAOUT_P and SER_DATAOUT_N must be
connected to a deserializer (clocked at approximately the same system clock frequency).
Figure 47 shows how a standard off-the-shelf deserializer can be used to retrieve back
DOUT(9:2) for both the master and slave sensors. Additional logic is required to extract
out LINE_VALID and FRAME_VALID embedded within the pixel data stream.
Figure 47:
Stereoscopic Topology
SLAVE
MASTER
26.6 MHz
Osc.
LVDS
SER_DATAIN
LVDS
SER_DATAIN
SENSOR
SENSOR
SENSOR
LVDS
BYPASS_CLKIN
LVDS
BYPASS_CLKIN
X 1 8/X 1 2 PL L
LVDS
SER_DATAOUT
LVDS
SHIFT_CLKOUT
LVDS
SER_DATAOUT
LVDS
SHIFT_CLKOUT
5 meters (maximum)
1. PLL in non-bypass mode
2. PLL in x 18 mode (stereoscopy)
1. PLL in bypass mode
DS92LV16
8
PIXEL
FROM
SLAVE
26.6 MHz
Osc.
8
PIXEL
FROM
MASTER
LV and FV are embedded in the data stream
Typical configuration of the master and slave sensors:
1. Power up the sensors.
2. Broadcast WRITE to de-assert LVDS power-down (set R0xB1[1] = 0).
3. Individual WRITE to master sensor putting its internal PLL into bypass mode (set
R0xB1[0] = 1).
4. Broadcast WRITE to both sensors to set the stereoscopy bit (set R0x07[5] = 1).
5. Make sure all resolution, vertical blanking, horizontal blanking, window size, and
AEC/AGC configurations are done through broadcast WRITE to maintain lockstep.
6. Broadcast WRITE to enable LVDS driver (set R0xB3[4] = 0).
7. Broadcast WRITE to enable LVDS receiver (set R0xB2[4] = 0).
8. Individual WRITE to master sensor, putting its internal PLL into bypass mode (set
R0xB1[0] = 1).
9. Individual WRITE to slave sensor, enabling its internal PLL (set R0xB1[0] = 0).
10. Individual WRITE to slave sensor, setting it as a stereo slave (set R0x07[6] = 1).
11. Individual WRITEs to master sensor to minimize the inter-sensor skew (set
R0xB2[2:0], R0xB3[2:0], and R0xB4[1:0] appropriately). Use R0xB7 and R0xB8 to get
lockstep feedback from stereo_error_flag.
12. Broadcast WRITE to issue a soft reset (set R0x0C[0] = 1 followed by R0x0C[0] = 0).
Note:
MT9V022_DS Rev. L 6/15 EN
The stereo_error_flag is set if a mismatch has occurred at a reserved byte (slave and
master sensor’s codes at this reserved byte must match). If the flag is set, steps 11 and
12 are repeated until the stereo_error_flag remains cleared.
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MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Appendix A – Serial Configurations
Broadcast and Individual Writes for Stereoscopic Topology
In stereoscopic mode, the two sensors are required to run in lockstep. This implies that
control logic in each sensor is in exactly the same state as its pair on every clock. To
ensure this, all inputs that affect control logic must be identical and arrive at the same
time at each sensor.
These inputs include:
• system clock
• system reset
• two-wire serial interface clk - SCL
• two-wire serial interface data - SDA
Figure 48:
Two-Wire Serial Interface Configuration in Stereoscopic Mode
L
26.6 MHz
Osc.
L
L
S_CTRL_ADR[0]
CLK
S_CTRL_ADR[0]
MASTER
SENSOR
SLAVE
SENSOR
CLK
SCL
HOST
CLK
SDA
SCL
SDA
SCL
SDA
Host launches SCL and SDA on positive
edge of SYSCLK.
All system clock lengths (L) must be equal.
SCL and SDA lengths to each sensor (from the host) must also be equal.
The setup in Figure 48 shows how the two sensors can maintain lockstep when their
configuration registers are written through the two-wire serial interface. A WRITE to
configuration registers would either be broadcast (simultaneous WRITES to both
sensors) or individual (WRITE to just one sensor at a time). READs from configuration
registers would be individual (READs from just one sensor at a time).
One of the two serial interface slave address bits of the sensor is hardwired. The other is
controlled by the host. This allows the host to perform either a broadcast or a one-toone access.
Broadcast WRITES are performed by setting the same S_CTRL_ADR input bit for both
slave and master sensor. Individual WRITES are performed by setting opposite
S_CTRL_ADR input bit for both slave and master sensor. Similarly, individual READs are
performed by setting opposite S_CTRL_ADR input bit for both slave and master sensor.
MT9V022_DS Rev. L 6/15 EN
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MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Appendix B – Power-On Reset and Standby Timing
Appendix B – Power-On Reset and Standby Timing
Reset, Clocks, and Standby
There are no constraints concerning the order in which the various power supplies are
applied; however, the MT9V022 requires reset in order operate properly at power-up.
Refer to Figure 49 for the power-up, reset, and standby sequences.
Figure 49:
Power-up, Reset, Clock and Standby Sequence
Power
up
Active
non-Low-Power
Low-Power
non-Low-Power
Pre-Standby
Wake
up
Standby
Active
Power
down
VDD, VDDLVDS,
VAA, VAAPIX
MIN 20 SYSCLK cycles
RESET #
Note 3
STANDBY
MIN 10 SYSCLK cycles
SYSCLK
MIN 10 SYSCLK cycles
MIN 10 SYSCLK cycles
SCLK, SDATA
Does not
respond to
serial
interface
when
STANDBY = 1
Two-Wire Serial I/F
DOUT[9:0]
Driven = 0
DOUT[9:0]
DATA OUTPUT
Notes:
MT9V022_DS Rev. L 6/15 EN
1. All output signals are defined during initial power-up with RESET# held LOW without SYSCLK being
active. To properly reset the rest of the sensor, during initial power-up, assert RESET# (set to LOW
state) for at least 750ns after all power supplies have stabilized and SYSCLK is active (being
clocked). Driving RESET# to LOW state does not put the part in a low power state.
2. Before using two-wire serial interface, wait for 10 SYSCLK rising edges after RESET# is de-asserted.
3. Once the sensor detects that STANDBY has been asserted, it completes the current frame readout
before entering standby mode. The user must supply enough SYSCLKs to allow a complete frame
readout. See Table 2, “Frame Time,” on page 13 for more information.
4. In standby, all video data and synchronization output signals are High-Z.
5. In standby, the two-wire serial interface is not active.
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MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Appendix B – Power-On Reset and Standby Timing
Standby Assertion Restrictions
STANDBY cannot be asserted at any time. If STANDBY is asserted during a specific
window within the vertical blanking period, the MT9V022 may enter a permanent
standby state. This window (that is, dead zone) occurs prior to the beginning of the new
frame readout. The permanent standby state is identified by the absence of the
FRAME_VALID signal on frame readouts. Issuing a hardware reset (RESET# set to LOW
state) will return the image sensor to default startup conditions.
This dead zone can be avoided by:
1. Asserting STANDBY during the valid frame readout time (FRAME_VALID is HIGH)
and maintaining STANDBY assertion for a minimum of one frame period.
2. Asserting STANDBY at the end of valid frame readout (falling edge of FRAME_VALID)
and maintaining STANDBY assertion for a minimum of [5 + R0x06] row-times.
When STANDBY is asserted during the vertical blanking period (FRAME_VALID is LOW),
the STANDBY signal must not change state between [Vertical Blanking Register (R0x06) 5] row-times and [Vertical Blanking Register + 5] row-times after the falling edge of
FRAME_VALID.
Figure 50:
STANDBY Restricted Location
Dead Zone
10 row-times
5 row-times
5 row-times
FRAME _ VALID
Vertical Blanking Period
(R0x06) row-times
MT9V022_DS Rev. L 6/15 EN
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MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Revision History
Revision History
Rev. L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6/10/15
• Updated “Ordering Information” on page 2
Rev. K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4/16/15
• Updated “Ordering Information” on page 2
Rev. J. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3/30/15
• Converted to ON Semiconductor template
• Updated trademarks
Rev. H . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6/10
• Updated to non-confidential
Rev. G . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5/10
• Updated to Aptina template
Rev. F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12/06
• Changed description text in Table 1 on page 8, row H5, to "Error detected. Directly
connected to STEREO ERROR FLAG."
• Changed text in “Automatic Black Level Calibration” on page 11
• Changed “writing (or reading) the least significant 8 bits to R0x80 (128)” on page 15 to
“writing (or reading) the least significant 8 bits to R0xF0 (240)”
• Changed “the special register address (R0xF1)” on page 18 to “the special register
address (R0xF0)”
• Changed wording in Table 7 on page 15 row 0x00, on page 23 row 0xFF, and in Table 8
on page 19 row 0x00/0xFF from “Rev1,” etc. to “Iter1”, etc.
• Updated legal values for R0x08, R0x09, R0x0B in Table 8 on page 19
• Updated Figure 24: “Latency of Analog Gain Change When AGC Is Disabled,” on
page 28
• Changed signal name in Table 9 on page 42 in Maximum column, Vin and Vout rows,
from VddQ to Vdd
• Moved “Propagation Delays for PIXCLK and Data Out Signals” up to follow Table 10
on page 42
• Added section on “Performance Specifications” on page 44
• Updated Figure 45 “52-Ball IBGA” on page 50
• Updated Figure 46: “Stand-Alone Topology,” on page 51
Rev. E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5/06
• Added "Automatic Black Level Calibration" on page 11
• Updated Table 8, “Register Descriptions,” on page 19 (R0x73[9:0])
• Updated "Automatic Gain Control and Automatic Exposure Control" on page 32
• Updated "Row-wise Noise Correction" on page 31
• Updated Table 10, “AC Electrical Characteristics,” on page 42
• Updated "Appendix A – Serial Configurations" on page 51
• Updated "Configuration of Sensor for Stand-Alone Serial Output with Internal PLL"
on page 51
• Updated Figure 46, Stand-Alone Topology, on page 51
• Updated "Configuration of Sensor for Stereoscopic Serial Output with Internal PLL"
on page 52
MT9V022_DS Rev. L 6/15 EN
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MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Revision History
• Updated Figure 47, Stereoscopic Topology, on page 52
Rev. D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12/05
• Added lead-free part numbers, page 1
• Added three notes to Table 1, “Ball Descriptions,” on page 8
• Updated Figure 3, Typical Configuration (Connection)—Parallel Output Mode, on
page 9
• Updated Table 7, “Default Register Descriptions,” on page 15. Updated Registers 0x00,
0x0D, 0xF0, 0xF1 and 0xFF. Updated Registers 0x10, 0x15, 0x20 and 0xC2 with Rev 3
default values.
• Updated Table 8, “Register Descriptions,” on page 19
0x00, 0xFF – Chip Version: added Rev 1, 2, and 3 values
0x06 – Vertical Blank: minimum number is 4
0x07 – Chip Control bit 5 - PLL generates 480 MHz clock
0x0D – Added reserve bits [9:8]
0x35 – Added calculation for lower and upper register ranges
0xF0 – Bytewise Address register corrected
• Added "Simultaneous Master Mode" on page 20
• Added "Sequential Master Mode" on page 21
• Updated "Snapshot Mode" on page 21
• Updated "Slave Mode" on page 22
• Updated "Pixel Clock Speed" on page 32
• Added "Hard Reset of Logic" on page 33
• Updated Table 8, “DC Electrical Characteristics,” on page 41
• Added Table 9, “Absolute Maximum Ratings,” on page 42
• Updated Figure 35, Propagation Delays for PIXCLK and Data Out Signals, on page 43
• Updated "Appendix A – Serial Configurations" on page 51
• Updated Figure 46, Stand-Alone Topology, on page 51
• Updated Figure 47, Stereoscopic Topology, on page 52
• Added "Appendix B – Power-On Reset and Standby Timing" on page 54
Rev. C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9/05
• Several text changes
• Corrected steps in “Configuration of Sensor for Stereoscopic Serial Output with
Internal PLL” on page 52
Rev. B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6/05
• Updated part number and header on each page
• Updated Table 1, “Key Performance Parameters,” on page 1 (Power Consumption).
• Updated Figure 1, Block Diagram, on page 6; Update “General Description” on page 6
• Updated Table 1, “Ball Descriptions,” on page 8
• Updated Table 7, “Default Register Descriptions,” on page 15 (0xBE - Reserved)
• Updated Table 8, “Register Descriptions,” on page 19 (R0x7F, R0x07[1:0], R0xB2[4],
0xB3[4], 0xBA, remove 0xBE)
• Updated “Pixel Integration Control” on page 24
• Updated Table 8, “DC Electrical Characteristics,” on page 41
• Updated Table 10, “AC Electrical Characteristics,” on page 42
• Replaced “Thermometer” section and figure with section titled “Temperature Reference” on page 47
• Added Figure 45, 52-Ball IBGA, on page 50
MT9V022_DS Rev. L 6/15 EN
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MT9V022: 1/3-Inch Wide-VGA Digital Image Sensor
Revision History
Rev. A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2/05
• Initial release
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MT9V022_DS Rev. L 6/15 EN
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