1/4-Inch System-On-A-Chip (SOC) VGA NTSC and PAL CMOS Digital Image Sensor

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MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Features
1/4-Inch System-On-A-Chip (SOC) VGA
NTSC and PAL CMOS Digital Image Sensor
MT9V125 Datasheet, Rev. W
For the latest datasheet revision, please visit www.onsemi.com
Features
Table 1:
• System-on-a-chip (SOC)—completely integrated
camera system
• NTSC and PAL (true two field) analog composite
video output
• Low power, interlaced scan CMOS image sensor
• ITU-R BT.656 parallel output (8-bit, interlaced)
• Serial LVDS data output
• Supports use of external devices for addition of
custom overlay graphics
• Superior low-light performance
• On-chip image flow processor (IFP) performs
sophisticated processing
• Color recovery and correction, sharpening, gamma,
lens shading correction, and on-the-fly defect
correction
• Automatic Features:
Auto exposure (AE), auto white balance (AWB), auto
black reference (ABR), auto flicker avoidance, auto
color saturation, and auto defect identification and
correction
• Simple two-wire serial programming interface
Applications
• Automotive
– Rear view camera
– Side mirror replacement
– Blind spot view
– Occupant monitoring
• Security cameras
• Consumer video products
Key Performance Parameters
Parameter
Typical Value
Optical format
1/4-inch (4:3)
Active imager size
3.63 mm (H) x 2.78 mm (V)
4.57 mm diagonal
Active pixels
640H x 480V
NTSC output
720H x 486V
PAL output
720H x 576V
Pixel size
5.6 m x 5.6 m
Color filter array
RGB paired Bayer pattern
Shutter type
Electronic rolling shutter
(ERS)
Maximum data rate/
master clock
13.5 Mp/s
27 MHz
Frame rate (VGA 640H x 480V)
30 fps at 27 MHz (NTSC)
25 fps at 27 MHz (PAL)
Integration time
16 μs–33 ms (NTSC)
16 μs–40 ms (PAL)
ADC resolution
10-bit, on-chip
Responsivity
5 V/lux-sec (550nm)
Pixel dynamic range
70 dB
SNRMAX
39 dB
Supply voltage
Power
consumption1
I/O digital
2.5–3.1 V
(2.8 V nominal)
Core digital
2.5–3.1 V
(2.8 V nominal)
Analog
2.5–3.1 V
(2.8 V nominal)
Operating
320 mW
Standby
0.56 mW
Data Sheet Applicable To
Operating temperature
–40°C to +85°C (functional
to +105°C)
Silicon Revision: Rev4
Package
52-Ball iBGA
Notes: 1. Measured at 2.8 V, 30 fps, 25°C
MT9V125_DS Rev.. W 6/15 EN
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©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC 2015,
MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Ordering Information
Ordering Information
Table 2:
Available Part Numbers
Part Number
Product Description
Orderable Product Attribute Description
MT9V125IA7XTC-DP
Color, 0deg CRA, iBGA Package
Drypack, Protective Film
MT9V125IA7XTC-DR
Color, 0deg CRA, iBGA Package
Drypack
MT9V125IA7XTC-TP
Color, 0deg CRA, iBGA Package
Tape & Reel, Protective Film
MT9V125IA7XTC-TR
Color, 0deg CRA, iBGA Package
Tape & Reel
See the ON Semiconductor Device Nomenclature document (TND310/D) for a full
description of the naming convention used for image sensors. For reference documentation, including information on evaluation kits, please visit our web site at
www.onsemi.com.
MT9V125_DS Rev.. W 6/15 EN
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©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
Ordering Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
General Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Functional Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Typical Connections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
Ball Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Detailed Architecture Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
Sensor Core Modes and Timing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
Modes and Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
Electrical Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52
Package and Die Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56
Appendix A: Serial Bus Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
Appendix B–Sensor Core Characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
Revision History. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
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©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
List of Figures
List of Figures
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Functional Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Typical Usage Configuration with Overlay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Typical Configuration Without Use of Overlay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
52-Ball iBGA Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Sensor Core Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
Pixel Array Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
Image Capture Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
Pixel Color Pattern Detail (top right corner) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Spatial Illustration of Image Readout. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
IFP Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
AWB Measurement Window (Maximum) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
AWB Adjusted Window Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
MT9V125 in Analog Composite Video Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
MT9V125 in Sensor Stand-Alone Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
MT9V125 in Overlay Output Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
Six Pixels in Normal and Column Mirror Readout Modes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
Six Rows in Normal and Row Mirror Readout Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
LINE_VALID Formats. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Integration Window of Each Sensor Row for NTSC Mode (Interlaced Readout) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
Single-Ended Termination—SMPTE Compliant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
Single-Ended Termination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
Differential Connection—SMPTE-Compliant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
Differential Connection—Grounded Terminations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
Differential Connection—Floating Termination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
LVDS Serial Output Data Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
CCIR656 8-Bit Parallel Interface Format for 525/60 (625/50) Video Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
Typical CCIR656 Vertical Blanking Intervals for 525/60 Video System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41
Typical CCIR656 Vertical Blanking Intervals for 625/50 Video System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
Parallel Input Data Timing Waveform Using DIN_CLK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
Parallel Input Data Timing Waveform Using the EXTCLK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
Primary Clock Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
Typical I/O Equivalent Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
LVDS and NTSC Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50
Digital Output I/O Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
52-Ball iBGA Package Outline Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56
WRITE Timing to R0x009—Value 0x0284 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59
READ Timing From R0x009; Returned Value 0x0284 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59
WRITE Timing to R0x009—Value 0x0284 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60
READ Timing From R0x009; Returned Value 0x0284 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60
Serial Host Clock Period and Duty Cycle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
Serial Host Interface Start Condition Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
Serial Host Interface Stop Condition Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
Serial Host Interface Data Timing for Write . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
Serial Host Interface Data Timing for Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
Acknowledge Signal Timing after an 8-bit Write to the Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
Acknowledge Signal Timing after an 8-bit Read from the Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
Typical Signal to Noise Ratio as a function of Exposure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65
Typical Spectral Characteristic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66
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©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
List of Tables
List of Tables
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Table 27:
Key Performance Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
Available Part Numbers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
Ball Descriptions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Readout Mode Register Settings – DOUT Not Qualified . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
MT9V125 Readout Modes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Readout Mode Register Settings – DOUT Qualified . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
Register Address Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
Blanking Minimum Values (in sensor stand-alone mode) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
LVDS Packet Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38
Serial Output Data Timing Values (for EXTCLK = 27 MHz). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
Field, Vertical Blanking, EAV, and SAV States. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
Field, Vertical Blanking, EAV, and SAV States. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
Parallel Input Data Timing Values Using DIN_CLK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
Parallel Input Data Timing Values Using EXTCLK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
STANDBY Effect on the Output State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46
Signal State During Standby. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
Output Data Ordering in DOUT RGB Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
Output Data Ordering in Sensor Stand-Alone Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
Data Ordering in LVDS Serial Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
Digital Output I/O Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
Electrical Characteristics and Operating Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52
Video DAC Electrical Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53
Digital I/O Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54
Power Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54
NTSC Signal Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
Two-Wire Interface ID Address Switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
MT9V125 Rev4 Imager Sensor Core Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
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©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
General Description
General Description
The ON Semiconductor MT9V125 is a VGA-format, single-chip camera CMOS activepixel digital image sensor. It captures high-quality color images at VGA resolution and
outputs NTSC or PAL interlaced composite video.
This VGA CMOS image sensor features ON Semiconductor’s breakthrough technology—
a low-noise CMOS imaging technology that achieves CCD image quality (based on
signal-to-noise ratio and low-light sensitivity) while maintaining the inherent size, cost,
low-power, and integration advantages of CMOS.
The sensor is a complete camera-on-a-chip solution. It incorporates sophisticated
camera functions on-chip and is programmable through a simple two-wire serial interface.
The MT9V125 performs sophisticated processing functions including color recovery,
color correction, sharpening, programmable gamma correction, auto black reference
clamping, auto exposure, automatic 50/60Hz flicker avoidance, lens shading correction,
auto white balance (AWB), and on-the-fly defect identification and correction.
The MT9V125 outputs interlaced-scan images at 30 or 25 fps, supporting both NTSC and
PAL video formats.
The image data can be output on any one of three output ports:
• Composite analog video (support for both single-ended and differential-ended)
• Low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS)
• Parallel 8-bit digital
Functional Overview
The MT9V125 is a fully-automatic, single-chip camera, requiring only a single power
supply, lens, and clock source for basic operation. Output video is streamed through the
chosen output port. The MT9V125 internal registers are configured using a two-wire
serial interface.
The device can be put into a low-power sleep mode by asserting STANDBY and shutting
down the clock. Output signals can be tri-stated. Both tri-stating output signals and
entry into standby mode can be achieved through two-wire serial interface register
writes.
The MT9V125 requires an input clock of 27 MHz to support correct NTSC or PAL timing.
Internal Architecture
Internally, the MT9V125 consists of a sensor core and an image flow processor (IFP). The
sensor core captures raw images that are then input into the IFP. The IFP is divided in
two sections: the color pipe and the camera controller. The color pipe section processes
the incoming stream to create interpolated, color-corrected output, and the camera
controller section controls the sensor core to maintain the desired exposure and color
balance.
The IFP scales the image and an integrated video encoder generates either NTSC or PAL
analog composite output. The MT9V125 supports three different output ports: analog
composite video out, LVDS serial out, and parallel data out.
MT9V125_DS Rev.. W 6/15 EN
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©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Functional Overview
Figure 1 shows the major functional blocks of the MT9V125. Figure 2 demonstrates an
MT9V125 usage scenario. A DSP takes the MT9V125’s image output, overlays text, and
feeds the resulting image back to the MT9V125 to be output as NTSC or PAL.
Figure 1:
Functional Block Diagram
Sensor Core
SCLK
SDATA
640H x 480V
1/4-inch optical format
True interlaced readout
Auto black compensation
Programmable analog gain
Programmable exposure
10-bit ADC
EXTCLK
STANDBY
SRAM
Line Buffers
Pixel Data
LVDS Formatter
and Driver
Control Bus
Control Bus
Sensor control
(gains, shutter, etc.)
8
NTSC and PAL
Encoder
and DAC
DIN[7:0]
LVDS_OUT_POS
LVDS_OUT_NEG
DAC_OUT_POS
DAC_OUT_NEG
DIN_CLK
Image Flow Processor
Camera Control
Auto exposure
Auto white balance
Flicker detect/avoid
VDD / DGND
VAA / AGND
VAAPIX
Figure 2:
Control Bus
Image Data
Image Flow Processor
Colorpipe
DOUT[7:0]
Lens shading correction
Color interpolation
Defect correction
Color correction
Horizontal interpolator
Gamma correction
Color conversion + formatting
PIXCLK
FRAME_VALID
LINE_VALID
Typical Usage Configuration with Overlay
NTSC or PAL Composite Analog Output with Overlay
DIN_CLK
DIN[7:0]
PIXCLK
MT9V125
DOUT[7:0]
Parallel
Digital
(CCIR 656)
27 MHz
Oscillator
Notes:
MT9V125_DS Rev.. W 6/15 EN
DSP
Parallel
Digital
Signal With
Overlay
(CCIR 656)
1. The DSP shown is an external device; it is not part of the MT9V125.
7
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Typical Connections
Typical Connections
Figure 3 shows a detailed MT9V125 device configuration. For low-noise operation, the
MT9V125 requires separate analog and digital power supplies. Incoming digital and
analog ground conductors can be tied together next to the die.
Power supply voltages VAA (the primary analog voltage) and VAAPIX (the main voltage to
the pixel array) should be decoupled from ground with an LC filter. The MT9V125
requires a single external voltage supply level.
Typical Configuration Without Use of Overlay
VDD
1.5kΩ2
VDDPLL VAA VAAPIX5
Power Power Power
VDDDAC VDDPLL VAA
SADDR
DAC_REF
2.8kΩ
STANDBY1
Master Clock
EXTCLK
Two-Wire
Serial Interface
SDATA
SCLK
LVDS_POS
LVDS_NEG
LVDS_ENABLE3
1kΩ
DIN_CLK
DIN[7:0]
HORIZ_FLIP
NTSC_PAL_SELECT
DOUT[7:0]
DOUT_LSB[1:0]
0.1µF
RESET_BAR DGND
AGND
DGND
AGND
VAAPIX
1µF
0.1µF
2
VAA
1µF
AGND
DGND
8
PIXCLK
LINE_VALID
FRAME_VALID
PEDESTAL
RSVD
VDD
MT9V125_DS Rev.. W 6/15 EN
75Ω Terminated Receiver
DAC_POS
DAC_NEG
STANDBY from
Controller
or Digital GND
Notes:
Low Pass Filter6
VAAPIX
75Ω
1.5kΩ2
VDD VDDDAC
Power Power
75Ω
Figure 3:
0.1µF
1µF
AGND
1. MT9V125 STANDBY can be connected directly to the customer’s ASIC controller or to DGND, depending on the controller’s capability.
2. A 1.5K resistor value is recommended, but may be greater for slower two-wire speed (for example, 100 KB/sec).
3. LVDS_ENABLE must be tied HIGH if LVDS is to be used.
4. Pull down DAC_REF with a 2.8K resistor for 1.0V peak-to-peak video output.
5. VAA and VAAPIX must be tied to the same potential for proper operation.
6. Low pass filter (3dB attenuation at 4.2 MHz).
8
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Ball Assignments
Ball Assignments
Figure 4 shows the location of the balls and their corresponding signals on the MT9V125.
The 12 balls in the middle of the package are unconnected.
Figure 4:
52-Ball iBGA Assignment
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
A
VDD
DIN7
DOUT4
DOUT2
DOUT0
LINE_
VALID
VDDPLL
VDD
B
DIN6
DIN5
DOUT5
DOUT3
DOUT1
PIXCLK
FRAME_
VALID
LVDS
_POS
C
DIN4
DIN3
DGND
DGND
DOUT
_LSB0
LVDS
_NEG
D
DIN0
DIN2
DOUT
_LSB1
DGND
E
DIN
_CLK
DIN1
DOUT6
VDD
F
EXT
CLK
STANDBY
DGND
AGND
DOUT7
DAC
_POS
G
RESET
_BAR
SCLK
SADDR
RSVD
HORIZ
_FLIP
VAAPIX
DAC
_NEG
VDD
H
VDD
SDATA
NTSC
_PAL_
SELECT
LVDS_
ENABLE
PEDESTAL
VAA
DGND
DAC
_REF
8
DAC
Top View
(Ball Down)
Table 3:
Ball Descriptions
Ball
Assignment
Name
Type
Description
F1
EXTCLK
Input
Master clock in sensor.
G1
RESET_BAR
Input
Active LOW: asynchronous reset.
G3
SADDR
Input
Two-wire serial interface device ID selection 1:0xBA, 0:0x90.
G4
RSVD
Input
Must be attached to DGND. G4
G2
SCLK
Input
Two-wire serial interface clock.
F2
STANDBY
Input
Multifunctional signal to control device addressing, power-down, and
state functions (covering output enable function).
G5
HORIZ_FLIP
Input
If “0” at reset: Default horizontal setting.
If “1” at reset: Flips the image readout format in the horizontal direction.
H3
NTSC_PAL_SELECT
Input
If “0” at reset: Default NTSC mode.
If “1” at reset: Default PAL mode.
H5
PEDESTAL
Input
If “0” at reset: Does not add pedestal to composite video output.
If “1” at reset: Adds pedestal to composite video output.
Valid for NTSC only, pull LOW for PAL operation.
MT9V125_DS Rev.. W 6/15 EN
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©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Ball Assignments
Table 3:
Ball Descriptions (continued)
Ball
Assignment
Name
Type
Description
H4
LVDS_ENABLE
Input
Active HIGH: Enables the LVDS output port. Must be HIGH if LVDS is to be
used.
A2,B1,B2,C1,
C2,D2,E2,D1
E1
DIN[7:0]
Input
DIN_CLK
Input
H2
SDATA
Input/Output
F7,E7,B3,A3,
B4,A4,B5,A5
DOUT[7:0]
Output
Pixel data output DOUT7 (most significant bit [MSB]), DOUT0 (least
significant bit [LSB]). Data output [9:2] in sensor stand-alone mode
C7
DOUT_LSB0
Output
Sensor stand-alone mode output 0—typically left unconnected for normal
SOC operation.
D7
DOUT_LSB1
Output
Sensor stand-alone mode output 1—typically left unconnected for normal
SOC operation.
B7
FRAME_VALID
Output
Active HIGH: FRAME_VALID (FV); indicates active frame.
A6
LINE_VALID
Output
Active HIGH: LINE_VALID (LV); indicates active pixel.
B6
PIXCLK
Output
Pixel clock output.
F8
DAC_POS
Output
Positive video DAC output in differential mode.
Video DAC output in single-ended mode.
G7
DAC_NEG
Output
Negative video DAC output in differential mode. Tie to GND in singleended mode
H8
DAC_REF
Output
External reference resistor for video DAC.
B8
LVDS_POS
Output
LVDS positive output.
C8
LVDS_NEG
Output
LVDS negative output.
F6
AGND
Supply
Analog ground.
C3,C6,D8,F3,H7
DGND
Supply
Digital ground.
External data input port selectable at video encoder input.
DIN capture clock. (This clock must be synchronous to EXTCLK.)
Two-wire serial interface data I/O.
H6
VAA
Supply
Analog power: 2.5–3.1V (2.8V nominal).
G6
VAAPIX
Supply
Pixel array analog power supply: 2.5–3.1V (2.8V nominal).
A1,A8,E8,H1
VDD
Supply
Digital power: 2.5–3.1V (2.8V nominal).
G8
VDDDAC
Supply
DAC power: 2.5–3.1V (2.8V nominal).
A7
VDDPLL
Supply
LVDS PLL power: 2.5–3.1V (2.8V nominal).
Notes:
MT9V125_DS Rev.. W 6/15 EN
1. ALL power pins (VDD/VDDDAC/VDDPLL/VAA/VAAPIX) must be connected to 2.8V
(nominal). Power pins cannot be floated.
2. ALL ground pins (AGND/DGND) must be connected to ground. Ground pins cannot be floated.
3. Inputs are not tolerant to signal voltages above 3.1V.
4. All unused inputs must be tied to GND or VDD.
5. VAA and VAAPIX must be tied to the same potential for proper operation.
10
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Detailed Architecture Overview
Detailed Architecture Overview
Sensor Core
The sensor consists of a pixel array of 695 x 512, an analog readout chain, a 10-bit ADC
with programmable gain and black offset, and timing and control as illustrated in
Figure 5.
Figure 5:
Sensor Core Block Diagram
Active Pixel
Sensor (APS)
Array
Control Register
Communication
Bus
to IFP
Timing and Control
Clock
Sync
Signals
ADC
Analog Processing
10-Bit Data
to IFP
Pixel Array Structure
The sensor core pixel array is configured as 695 columns by 512 rows, as shown in
Figure 6. The first 42 columns and the first 13 rows of pixels are optically black, and can
be used to monitor the black level. The last four columns and the last row of pixels are
also optically black.
Figure 6:
Pixel Array Description
Pixel logical address = (0, 0)
13 black rows
42 black columns
Active paired Bayer pixel array
640 x 480
no horizontal/vertical flip
4 active border columns
4 black columns
4+1 active border columns
8 active border rows
8 + 2 active border rows
1 black row
Pixel logical address = (694, 511)
MT9V125_DS Rev.. W 6/15 EN
(not to scale)
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©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Detailed Architecture Overview
The black row data are used internally for the automatic black level adjustment.
However, these black rows can also be read out by setting the sensor to raw data output
mode.
There are 649 columns by 498 rows of optically-active pixels that include a pixel
boundary around the VGA (640 x 480) image to avoid boundary effects during color
interpolation and correction.
The one additional active column and two additional active rows are used to enable
horizontally and vertically mirrored readout to start on the same color pixel.
Figure 7 illustrates the process of capturing the image. The original scene is flipped and
mirrored by the sensor optics. Sensor readout starts at the lower right corner. The image
is presented in true orientation by the output display.
Figure 7:
Image Capture Example
SCENE
(Front view)
fI
so
es
oc
Pr
e
ag
m
g
in
er
th
Ga
OPTICS
d
an
Im
IMAGE SENSOR
e
IMAGE CAPTURE
ag
(Rear view)
isp
D
Row by Row
y
la
Start Rasterization
Start Readout
IMAGE RENDERING
DISPLAY
(Front view)
MT9V125_DS Rev.. W 6/15 EN
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©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Detailed Architecture Overview
The sensor core uses a paired RGB Bayer color pattern, as shown in Figure 8. Row pairs
consist of the following: rows 0, 1, rows 2, 3, rows 4, 5, and so on. The even-numbered
row pairs (0/1, 4/5, and so on) in the active array contain green and red pixels. The oddnumbered row pairs (2/3, 6/7, and so on) contain blue and green pixels. The oddnumbered columns contain green and blue pixels; even-numbered columns contain red
and green pixels.
Figure 8:
Pixel Color Pattern Detail (top right corner)
Column Readout Direction
..
.
Row
Readout
Direction
...
Black Pixels
G R G
R G R G
G R G
R G R G
B G B
G B G B
B G B
G B G B
G R G
R G R G
G R G
R G R G
First Active
Border
Pixel
(42, 15)
Output Data Format
The sensor core image data are read out in an interlaced scan order. Progressive
readout—which is not supported by the color pipe—is an option, but is only intended
for raw data output. Valid image data are surrounded by horizontal and vertical
blanking, shown in Figure 9 on page 14.
For NTSC output, the horizontal size is stretched from 640 to 720 pixels. The vertical size
is 243 pixels per field; 240 image pixels and 3 dark pixels that are located at the bottom of
the image field.
For PAL output, the horizontal size is also stretched from 640 to 720 pixels. The vertical
size is 288 pixels per field; 240 image pixels with 24 dark pixels at the top of the image
and 24 dark pixels at the bottom of the image field.
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MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Detailed Architecture Overview
Figure 9:
Spatial Illustration of Image Readout
P0,0 P0,1 P0,2.....................................P0,n-1 P0,n
P2,0 P2,1 P2,2.....................................P2,n-1 P2,n
00 00 00 .................. 00 00 00
00 00 00 .................. 00 00 00
Valid Image Odd Field
Horizontal
Blanking
Pm-2,0 Pm-2,1.....................................Pm-2,n-1 Pm-2,n 00 00 00 .................. 00 00 00
Pm,0 Pm,1.....................................Pm,n-1 Pm,n
00 00 00 .................. 00 00 00
00 00 00 ..................................... 00 00 00
00 00 00 ..................................... 00 00 00
00 00 00 .................. 00 00 00
00 00 00 .................. 00 00 00
Vertical Even Blanking
Vertical/Horizontal
Blanking
00 00 00 ..................................... 00 00 00
00 00 00 ..................................... 00 00 00
00 00 00 .................. 00 00 00
00 00 00 .................. 00 00 00
P1,0 P1,1 P1,2.....................................P1,n-1 P1,n
P3,0 P3,1 P3,2.....................................P3,n-1 P3,n
00 00 00 .................. 00 00 00
00 00 00 .................. 00 00 00
Valid Image Even Field
Horizontal
Blanking
Pm-1,0 Pm-1,1.....................................Pm-1,n-1 Pm-1,n 00 00 00 .................. 00 00 00
Pm+1,0 Pm+1,1..................................Pm+1,n-1 Pm+1,n 00 00 00 .................. 00 00 00
MT9V125_DS Rev.. W 6/15 EN
00 00 00 ..................................... 00 00 00
00 00 00 ..................................... 00 00 00
00 00 00 .................. 00 00 00
00 00 00 .................. 00 00 00
Vertical Odd Blanking
Vertical/Horizontal
Blanking
00 00 00 ..................................... 00 00 00
00 00 00 ..................................... 00 00 00
00 00 00 .................. 00 00 00
00 00 00 .................. 00 00 00
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©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Detailed Architecture Overview
Image Flow Processor (IFP)
The MT9V125 IFP consists of a color processing pipeline as well as a measurement and
control logic block (the camera controller)—see Figure 10 on page 16. The stream of raw
data from the sensor enters the pipeline and undergoes several transformations. Image
stream processing starts with conditioning the black level and applying a digital gain.
The lens shading block compensates for signal loss caused by the lens.
Next, the data is interpolated to recover missing color components for each pixel. The
resulting interpolated RGB data passes through the current color correction matrix
(CCM), gamma, and saturation corrections, and is formatted for final output.
The measurement and control logic continuously accumulate image brightness and
color statistics. Based on these measurements, the IFP calculates updated values for
exposure time and sensor analog gains that are sent to the sensor core via the control
bus.
Black Level Conditioning
The sensor core black level calibration works to maintain black pixel values at a constant
level, independent of analog gain, reference current, voltage settings, and temperature
conditions. If this black level is above zero, it must be reduced before color processing
can begin. The black level subtraction block in the IFP re-maps the black level of the
sensor to zero prior to lens shading correction. Following lens shading correction, the
black level addition block provides capability for another black level adjustment.
However, for good contrast, this level should be set to zero.
Digital Gain
Controlled by auto exposure logic, the input digital gain stage amplifies the raw image in
low-light conditions (range: x1–x8).
Test Pattern
A built-in test pattern generator produces a test image stream that can be multiplexed
with the gain stage. The test pattern can be selected through register settings (see R72:1).
There is another set of test patterns at the end of the color pipe that can be selected
through register R155:1[5:4]. (See “Register Notation” on page 4 of the register reference.)
MT9V125_DS Rev.. W 6/15 EN
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MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Detailed Architecture Overview
Figure 10:
IFP Block Diagram
Two-Wire
Serial Interface
VGA Pixel Sensor
including
Sensor Control Logic
Control
Registers
Black Level Conditioning;
Digital Gain;
Test Pattern at Beginning of IFP;
Lens Correction
Sensor Core
Colorpipe
Flicker
Detection
SRAM
Line Buffers
Defect
Correction
Register
Kernel
Interpolate
+ Aperture Correct
Control
Registers
Control
Registers
RGB to YCrCb
AWB
Horizontal
Interpolator
AE
Raw Bayer
Bypass
RGB RYB
+ Color Correction
+ R/B Gain for AWB
Y Gamma Correct
+ Color Sat Ctl
+ YCrCb
RGB
Test Pattern at End of IFP;
Camera Interface
Camera Control
DOUT[7:0]
MT9V125_DS Rev.. W 6/15 EN
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PIXCLK, FRAME_VALID, LINE_VALID
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Detailed Architecture Overview
Notes:
1. NTSC encoder/DAC not shown
Lens Shading Correction (LC)
Inexpensive lenses tend to attenuate image intensity near the edges of pixel arrays.
Other factors also cause signal and coloration differences across the image. The net
result of all these factors is known as lens shading. Lens shading correction (LC)
compensates for these differences.
Typically, the profile of lens shading-induced anomalies across the frame is different for
each color component. Therefore, LC is independently calibrated for the color channels.
Interpolation and Aperture Correction
A demosaic engine converts the single-color-per-pixel Bayer data from the sensor into
RGB (10-bit per color channel). The demosaic algorithm analyzes neighboring pixels to
generate a best guess for the missing color components. Edge sharpness is preserved as
much as possible.
Aperture correction sharpens the image by an adjustable amount. To avoid amplifying
noise, sharpening can be programmed to phase out as light levels drop.
Defect Correction
This device supports 2D defect correction. In 2D defect detection and correction, pixels
with values different from their neighbors by greater than a defined threshold are
considered defects unless near the image boundary. The approach is termed 2D, as
pixels on neighboring lines as well as neighboring pixels on the same line are considered
in both detection and correction.
In Figure 10 on page 16, the register kernel gathers same color pixels and send the information to the 2D defect correction engine.
Color Correction
To obtain good color rendition and saturation, it is necessary to compensate for the
differences between the spectral characteristics of the imager color filter array and the
spectral response of the human eye. This compensation, also known as color separation,
is achieved through linear transformation of the image with a 3 x 3 element color correction matrix. The optimal values for the color correction coefficients depend on the
spectra of the incident illumination and can be programmed by the user.
Color Saturation Control
For noise reduction, both color saturation and sharpness enhancement can be set by the
user or adjusted automatically by tracking the magnitude of the gains used by the auto
exposure algorithm.
Automatic White Balance (AWB)
The MT9V125 has a built-in AWB algorithm designed to compensate for the effects of
changing scene illumination on the color rendition quality. This sophisticated algorithm
consists of three major submodules:
• A measurement engine (ME) performing statistical analysis of the image
• A module selecting the optimal color correction matrix
• A module selecting the analog color channel gains in the sensor core
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MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Detailed Architecture Overview
While the default algorithm settings are adequate in most situations, the user can reprogram base color correction matrices and limit color channel gains. The AWB does not
attempt to locate the brightest or grayest elements in the image; it performs in-depth
image analysis to differentiate between changes in predominant spectra of illumination
and changes in predominant scene colors. Factory defaults are suitable for most applications; however, a wide range of algorithm parameters can be overwritten by the user
through the serial interface.
AWB Measurment Window
Register R0x22D specifies the boundaries of the window used by the WB measurement
engine. It describes the size of the window within the image. Horizontally, the image
value varies from 0 to 9 (64 pixels per unit). Vertically, the image value varies from 0 to 6
(32 lines per unit on a per field basis). See Figure 12 for an example of adjusting the AWB
window size (R0x22D = 0x5281).
The values in R0x22D are the desired boundaries, in units of square blocks of pixels
vertically and horizontally. The size of the block is determined by the resolution of the
image seen by the WB measurement engine. For NTSC/PAL the size of the block is fixed
at 64 x 32 pixels.
Figure 11:
AWB Measurement Window (Maximum)
Figure 12:
AWB Adjusted Window Size
Top to bottom
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Left to Right
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MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Detailed Architecture Overview
Auto Exposure
The auto exposure algorithm performs automatic adjustments to image brightness by
controlling exposure time and analog gains in the sensor core, as well as digital gain
applied to the image. The algorithm relies on the auto exposure measurement engine
that tracks speed and amplitude changes in the overall luminance of selected windows
in the image.
Backlight compensation is achieved by weighting the luminance in the center of the
image higher than the luminance on the periphery. Other algorithm features include:
fast-fluctuating illumination rejection (time-averaging), response-speed control, and
controlled sensitivity to small changes.
While the default settings are adequate in most situations, the user can program target
brightness, measurement window, and other parameters, as described above. The auto
exposure algorithm enables compensation for a broad range of illumination intensities.
Automatic Flicker Detection
Flicker occurs when integration time is not an integer multiple of the period of the light
intensity. The automatic flicker detection block does not compensate for the flicker; it
reduces flicker occurrence by detecting flicker frequency and adjusting the integration
time. For integration times shorter than the light intensity period (10ms for 50Hz environments and 8.33ms for 60Hz environments), flicker is unavoidable.
Gamma Correction
To achieve more life-like quality in an image, the IFP includes gamma correction and
color saturation control. Gamma correction operates on the luminance component of
the image and enables compensation for nonlinear dependence of the display device
output versus the driving signal (for example, monitor brightness versus CRT voltage).
In addition, gamma correction provides range compression, converting 10-bit luminance input to 8-bit output. Pre-gamma image processing generates 10-bit luminance
values ranging from 0 to 896. Piecewise linear gamma correction utilized in this imager
has 10 linear intervals, with end points corresponding to the following input values:
Xi=0…10 = {0,16,32,64,128,256,384,512,640,768,896}
For each input value Xi, the user can program the corresponding output value Yi. Yi
values must be monotonically increasing.
NTSC and PAL Encoder Formats Supported
The MT9V125 has an on-chip video encoder to format the data stream for composite
video output in the supported NTSC or PAL formats. The encoder expects CCIR-656
interlaced NTSC or PAL data stream input. By default, the input is taken from the
on-chip image stream. Input can also be taken from the external 8-bit DIN[7:0] port for
external image processing used with the on-chip video encoder and composite output.
MT9V125 Readout Modes
NTSC and PAL are two of the target output formats for the MT9V125. Table 4 on page 20
identifies registers used to set NTSC or PAL modes.
MT9V125_DS Rev.. W 6/15 EN
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MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Detailed Architecture Overview
Table 4:
Readout Mode Register Settings – DOUT Not Qualified
When DOUT is not qualified with FV and LV
Readout Format/
Output Format/
Output Port1
Interlaced/
CCIR656/
DOUT[7:0] &
LVDS
Interlaced/
CCIR656/
DOUT[7:0] &
LVDS
Enable
RGB6
RGB
Output
Format7
Output Odd
Field
Resolution
Output Even
Field
Resolution
Readout
Format/
Output
Frame
Resolution
NTSC or
PAL2
Hold FV
HIGH3
Output
Select
MUX4
Sensor
StandAlone
Mode5
0: NTSC
0
0
0
0
0
720 x 244
720 x 243
720 x 487
1: PAL
0
0
0
0
0
720 x 288
720 x 288
720 x 576
Notes:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
See “R the Register Reference for a description of the register notation.
R21:1[0]
R19:1[7]
R19:1[1:0]
R155:1[12]
R155:1[8]
R155:1[7:6]
Table 5 identifies the readout format, output format, and output ports supported by the
MT9V125. This table gives output formats supported by the MT9V125. The “DevWare
Video Output Mode” column identifies the name used by the ON Semiconductor
DevWare demonstration program to execute the readout mode. MT9V125 registers that
enable these modes are specified in Table 6 on page 21.
Table 5:
MT9V125 Readout Modes
Readout Format–Output Format
Interlaced–CCIR656
Parallel DOUT
Composite Analog
Out
LVDS
Devware Video Output Mode
Supported
Supported
Supported
Interlaced/CCIR656
Interlaced–RGB
Supported
Not supported
Not supported
Interlaced/RGB
Interlaced–Raw Bayer
Supported
Not supported
Not supported
Interlaced/Raw Bayer
Progressive–Raw Paired Bayer
Supported
Not supported
Not supported
Progressive/Raw Paired Bayer
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MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Detailed Architecture Overview
Table 6:
Readout Mode Register Settings – DOUT Qualified
When DOUT is qualified with FV and LV
Readout
Format/
Output
Format/
Output Port1
NTSC or
PAL2
Hold
FV
High3
Output
Select
MUX4
Sensor
Standalone
Mode5
Enable
RGB6
Interlaced/
CCIR656/
DOUT[7:0] &
LVDS
0: NTSC
1
0
0
1: PAL
1
0
Interlaced/
RGB/
DOUT[7:0]
x8
x
Interlaced/
Raw Bayer/
DOUT[9:0]
x
Progressive/
Raw PAIRED
Bayer/
DOUT[9:0]
x
Notes:
RGB Output
Format7
Output
Odd Field
Reso-lution
Output
Even Field
Reso-lution
Output
Frame
Resolution
0
0
720 x 243
720 x 243
720 x 486
0
0
0
720 x 288
720 x 288
720 x 576
2
0
0
0: RGB 565
1: RGB 555
2: RGB 444x
3: RGB x444
720 x 240
720 x 240
720 x 480
x
2
1
0
0
648 x 248
648 x 248
648 x 596
x
2
1
0
0
n/a
n/a
648 x 488
1. See “Register Notation” on page 4 of the register reference for a description of the register notation.
2. R19:1[7]
3. R21:1[1:0]
4. R19:1[1:0]
5. R155:1[12]
6. R155:1[8]
7. R155:1[7:6]
8. x = Don’t Care
Readout Formats
Interlaced
The default output format, interlaced format, is required for NTSC or PAL output.
Progressive
Progressive format is used for raw Bayer output.
Output Formats
ITU-R BT.656 and RGB Output
The MT9V125 can output processed video as a standard ITU-R BT.656 (CCIR656) stream,
an RGB stream, or as unprocessed Bayer data. The ITU-R BT.656 stream contains YCbCr
4:2:2 data with fixed embedded synchronization codes. This output is typically suitable
for subsequent display by standard video equipment or JPEG/MPEG compression. RGB
functionality provides support for LCD devices.
The MT9V125 can be configured to output 16-bit RGB (565RGB), 15-bit RGB (555RGB),
and two types of 12-bit RGB (444RGB). Refer to Table 17 on page 48 and Table 18 on
page 48 for details.
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MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Detailed Architecture Overview
Bayer Output
Unprocessed paired Bayer data are generated when bypassing the IFP completely—that
is, by simply outputting the sensor-paired Bayer stream as usual, using FV, LV, and
PIXCLK to time the data. This mode is called sensor stand-alone mode.
Output Ports
Composite Video Output
The composite video output DAC is external-resistor-programmable and supports both
single-ended and differential output. The DAC is driven by the on-chip video encoder
output.
Serial Data Output
The processed image data stream can be output to the LVDS output port.
Parallel Output
Parallel output uses either 8-bit or 10-bit output. Eight-bit output is used for ITU-R
BT.656 and RGB output. Ten-bit output is used for raw Bayer output.
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MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Detailed Architecture Overview
Three Common Data Configurations
Figure 13, Figure 14 on page 24, and Figure 15 on page 25 demonstrate common configuration methods for the MT9V125. Figure 13 shows the most common usage mode.
The processed data from the sensor is output in analog composite video (NTSC or PAL)
and CCIR 656 format through the analog and parallel data output ports, respectively.
Figure 13:
MT9V125 in Analog Composite Video Mode
R 155:1[12] = 0
IFP
Sensor
0
1
Data Flow
Path
R 20:1[15:14] = 0
DAC TEST DATA
Analog
composite video
(without overlay)
R 19:1[2] = 0
Encoder
Preprocessor
0
1
1
TV
Encoder
0
Internal
DAC
R19:1[1:0] = 0
2
Async
FIFO
0
LVDS
MT9V125_DS Rev.. W 6/15 EN
CCIR 656 output
DOUT[7:0], FV, LV
(without overlay)
23
LVDS _POS /
LVDS _NEG
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MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Detailed Architecture Overview
Figure 14 shows the MT9V125 in sensor stand-alone mode. Raw Bayer data from the
sensor bypasses the IFP to be output directly. Only parallel output is available for this
mode.
Figure 14:
MT9V125 in Sensor Stand-Alone Mode
R 155:1[12] = 0
IFP
Sensor
0
1
Data Flow
Path
R 20:1[15:14] = 0
DAC TEST DATA
R 19:1[2] = 0
Encoder
Preprocessor
0
1
1
TV
Encoder
0
Internal
DAC
n/a
R 19:1[1:0] = 0
Sensor raw
output
2
Async
FIFO
0
LVDS
n/a
Figure 15 on page 25 shows the MT9V125 in overlay output mode that allows the
MT9V125 to be configured with an external DSP for text or image overlay.
Processed sensor data in CCIR 656 format is output as parallel data (DOUT[7-0]). This
data is input to a user-supplied DSP that overlays text or graphics on the processed
sensor image. DSP outputs CCIR 656 image with overlay which is input through the DIN
port to be multiplexed at the encoder. This encoded data is output as analog composite
video (NTSC or PAL).
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MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Detailed Architecture Overview
Figure 15:
MT9V125 in Overlay Output Mode
MT9V125
R 155:1[12] = 0
Sensor
IFP
0
1
Data Flow
Path
R 20:1[15:14] = 0
DAC TEST DATA
ANALOG
COMPOSITE VIDEO
(with overlay)
R 19:1[2] = 0
Encoder
Preprocessor
0
1
1
TV
Encoder
0
Internal
DAC
R 19:1[1:0] = 0
CCIR-656 INPUT
DIN[7:0]
(with overlay)
2
Async
FIFO
CCIR-656 OUTPUT
DOUT[7:0], LV, FV
(without overlay)
0
LVDS_POS/
LVDS_NEG
LVDS
DSP
(adds overlay
separate function
off chip)
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MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Sensor Core Modes and Timing
Sensor Core Modes and Timing
This section provides an overview of usage modes for the MT9V125 sensor core. An overview of typical usage modes for the complete MT9V125 is provided in
“Modes and Timing” on page 33.
Readout Format
The sensor core supports two basic readout formats: interlaced and progressive. The
interlaced format supports both NTSC and PAL timing. Progressive readout is intended
for sensor stand-alone mode only (this is due to the paired Bayer pattern CFA).
Window Control
The window size and position need to be at the default settings for correct NTSC or PAL
format support.
Window Start
The row and column start address of the displayed image can be set by R1:0 (row start)
and R2:0 (column start).
Window Size
The default sensor resolution is 640 columns and 480 rows (VGA). For NTSC and PAL,
this is expanded by the horizontal interpolator module to 720 columns. For proper NTSC
or PAL operation, use only the default window size.
Pixel Border
When R32:0, Bits[9:8] are both set, a 4-pixel border will be added around the specified
image. When enabled, the row and column widths will be 8 pixels larger than the values
programmed in the row and column registers. If the border is enabled but not shown in
the image (R32:0[9:8] = 01), the horizontal blanking and vertical blanking values will be 8
pixels larger than the values programmed into the blanking registers. For proper NTSC
or PAL operation, use only default values in the above mentioned registers.
The border is read in an interlaced pattern when in interlaced readout mode. Each field
has its own interlaced border on top and bottom of the active array.
Sensor Core Readout Modes
Column Mirror Image
At reset, the HORIZ_FLIP input pin is latched into R30:1[1]. This bit is XORed with
register R21:1[1]. The result determines if horizontal flip is enabled (result = 1) or
disabled (result = 0). Figure 16 on page 27 illustrates the readout order of the columns
when they are reversed. The starting color is preserved when mirroring the columns.
Row Mirror Image
By setting R32:0[0] = 1, the readout order of the rows will be reversed, as shown in
Figure 17 on page 27. The starting color is preserved when mirroring the rows.
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MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Sensor Core Modes and Timing
Figure 16:
Six Pixels in Normal and Column Mirror Readout Modes
LINE_VALID
Figure 17:
Normal Readout
DOUT[9:0]
G0[9:0]
R0[9:0]
G1[9:0]
R1[9:0]
G2[9:0]
R2[9:0]
Reverse Readout
DOUT[9:0]
G3[9:0]
R2[9:0]
G2[9:0]
R1[9:0]
G1[9:0]
R0[9:0]
Six Rows in Normal and Row Mirror Readout Modes
FRAME_VALID
Normal Readout
DOUT[9:0]
Row0[9:0] Row2[9:0] Row4[9:0] Row6[9:0] Row8[9:0] Row10[9:0]
Reverse Readout
DOUT[9:0]
Row12[9:0] Row10[9:0] Row8[9:0] Row6[9:0] Row4[9:0] Row2[9:0]
Frame Rate Control
Operating Mode
Actual frame rates can be tuned by adjusting various sensor parameters. The sensor
registers are in address page 0, some of which are shown in Table 7 on page 28.
Typical settings and parameters for NTSC and PAL modes are shown in Table 8 on
page 23.
For a given window size, the blanking registers (R0x005, R0x006, R0x011) can be used to
set a particular frame rate.
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MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Sensor Core Modes and Timing
Table 7:
Register Address Functions
Register
Function
R0x004
Column width, typically 640 in the MT9V125
R0x003
Row width, typically 480 in the MT9V125
R0x005
Horizontal blanking, default is 210 (units of sensor pixel clocks)
R0x006, R0x011
Vertical blanking (odd/even), default is 14 (odd), 15 (even)
(rows including black rows)
The sensor timing (Table 8 on page 28) is shown in terms of pixel clock and master clock
cycles. The required master clock frequency is 27 MHz. The vertical blanking and total
frame time equations assume that the number of integration rows (R0x009) is less than
the number of active rows, plus blanking rows. If this is not the case, the number of integration rows must be used instead to determine the frame time.
In the MT9V125, the sensor core adds four border pixels all the way around the image,
taking the active image size to 648 x 488. This is achieved through the default of oversize
and show border bits set.
NTSC mode has 525 rows per frame; PAL mode has 625 rows per frame as enumerated
below (all values in rows):
OddFieldActive + OddFieldVerticalBlanking + EvenFieldActive + EvenFieldVerticalBlanking = RowsPerFrame
(EQ 1)
NTSC:
(4 + 240 + 4) + 14 + (4 + 240 + 4) + 15 = 525
(EQ 2)
PAL:
(4 + 240 + 4) + 64 + (4 + 240 + 4) + 65 = 625
(EQ 3)
Blanking Calculations
When calculating blanking, minimum values for horizontal blanking and vertical
blanking must be taken into account. Table 8 shows minimum values for each register.
This is valid for non NTSC or PAL modes only.
Table 8:
Blanking Minimum Values (in sensor stand-alone mode)
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Parameter
Minimum
Horizontal blanking
132 (sensor pixel clocks)
Vertical blanking
6 + # of dark rows
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MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Sensor Core Modes and Timing
Minimum Horizontal Blanking (in sensor stand-alone mode)
The minimum horizontal blanking value is constrained by the time used for sampling a
row of pixels and the overhead in the row readout. This can be expressed in an equation
as:
HBLANK(min) = (startup overhead + sampling time + extra cb time + dark col time 
(EQ 4)
=  31 + done_sample/2 + 16 + (22  read_dark_cols  
(EQ 5)
= (47 + done_sample/2 + (22  read_dark_cols  
(EQ 6)
where:
done_sample = R0x07E (rounded up to nearest even number)
(EQ 7)
read_dark_cols = R0x22:0, (bit[8])
(EQ 8)
with default settings:
HBLANK(MIN) = (47 + 152/2 + 22) = 145 PIXCLK periods
To get an aggressive minimum value for the horizontal blanking, the larger of
R0x079[15:8] and R0x076[15:8] can be substituted for the R0x07E value in the above
equation. With default settings, this gives a minimum HBLANK time of 127.
Valid Data Signals Options
LINE_VALID Signal
By setting bits[15:14] of R32:0, the LV signal is programmed for three different output
formats. The formats shown below illustrate reading out four rows and two vertical
blanking rows (Figure 18 on page 30).
The default line valid format is shown first; continuous line valid is shown second. In the
last format, the LV signal is exclusive ORed (XOR) between the continuous LV signal and
the FV signal.
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MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Sensor Core Modes and Timing
Figure 18:
LINE_VALID Formats
Default
FRAME_VALID
LINE_VALID
Continuous
FRAME_VALID
LINE_VALID
FRAME_VALID
FRAME_VALID XOR LINE_VALID
ntegration Time
Integration time is controlled by R0x009 (shutter width, in multiples of the row time) and
R0x00C (shutter delay, in PIXCLK_PERIOD/2). R0x00C is used to control sub-row integration times and will only have a visible effect for small values of R0x009. The total integration time, tINT, is shown in the equations below (PIXCLK_PERIOD is in terms of
master clock periods):
t
INT = R0x009  Row Time – Integration Overhead – Shutter Delay
(EQ 9)
where:
Row Time = (R0x004 + HBLANK_REG + 8(when border is set))  PIXCLK_PERIOD
(EQ 10)
Integration Overhead = 182 master clock periods
(EQ 11)
Shutter Delay = R0x00C/2  PIXCLK_PERIOD
(EQ 12)
with default settings for NTSC:
t
INT =  470  858  2  – 182 – 0 = 806,388 master clock periods
(EQ 13)
with default settings for PAL:
t
INT =  470  864  2  – 182 – 0 = 811,978 master clock periods
(EQ 14)
In this equation, the integration overhead corresponds to the delay between the row
reset sequence and the row sample (read) sequence.
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MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Sensor Core Modes and Timing
The integration overhead shown is valid only for the default PIXCLK_PERIOD and
default sample (R0x07E) and reset (R0x087) values.
Typically, the value of the shutter width register (R0x009) is limited to the number of
rows per frame (which includes vertical blanking rows), such that the frame rate is not
affected by the integration time.
If R0x009 is increased beyond the total number of rows per frame (525 for NTSC, 625 for
PAL), the sensor will add additional blanking rows as needed and violate the frame time
requirement of NTSC and PAL. However, the effective value of R0x009 is always limited
by the settings in R0x013 and R0x014.
A second constraint is that tINT must be adjusted to avoid banding in the image caused
by light flicker. This means that tINT must be a multiple of 1/120 of a second under 60Hz
flicker, and a multiple of 1/100 of a second under 50Hz flicker.
Maximum Shutter Delay
The shutter delay can be used to reduce the integration time. A programmed value of N
reduces the integration time by N master clock periods. The maximum shutter delay is
set by the row time and the sample time, as shown in the equations below:
max shutter delay = Row Time – Shutter Overhead
(EQ 15)
where:
Row Time = (R0x004 + HBLANK_REG)  PIXCLK_PERIOD
(EQ 16)
Shutter Overhead (NTSC) = 356 master clock periods
(EQ 17)
Shutter Overhead (PAL) = 368 master clock periods
(EQ 18)
with default settings:
NTSC max shutter delay = (858  2) – 356 = 1360 master clock periods
(EQ 19)
PAL max shutter delay = (864  2) – 368 = 1360 master clock periods
(EQ 20)
If the value in this register exceeds the maximum value given by this equation, the sensor
may not generate an image. Again, the overhead time shown in this equation is only
valid for the default PIXCLK_PERIOD, and the default sample (R0x7E:0) and reset
(R0x87:0) valuesFigure 19 on page 32, illustrates the integration time for each sensor row
versus the shutter width. Odd rows are integrated first followed by even rows.
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MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Sensor Core Modes and Timing
Figure 19:
Integration Window of Each Sensor Row for NTSC Mode (Interlaced Readout)
Integration window of each row when shutter width R0x009[15:0] = 525
Shutter delay R0x00C[15:0] = 0
1
Time shift per row
30 x 525
0/60
1/60
2/60
5/60
4/60
3/60
6/60
t (seconds)
Row1 (First Active Row)
Row3
..
.
Odd Rows
Row5
Odd Field Vertical Blanking
Row495
Row2
..
.
Even Field Vertical Blanking
Even Rows
Row496
Integration Window of Each Row When Shutter Width R0x009[15:0] = 1
Shutter Delay R0x00C[15:0] = 0
0/60
1/60
2/60
4/60
3/60
5/60
6/60
t (seconds)
Row 1
Row 3
Row 5
.. Odd Rows
.
Row 495
Row 2
1
30 x 525
..
.
Even Rows
Row 496
Note: Drawings not to scale
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MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Modes and Timing
Modes and Timing
This section provides an overview of the typical usage modes and related timing information for the MT9V125.
Composite Video Output
The analog composite video output is enabled by default and is the main usage mode for
the MT9V125.
The external pin NTSC_PAL_SELECT can be used to configure the device for default
NTSC or PAL operation. This and other video configuration settings are available as
register settings accessible through the serial interface. For proper NTSC and PAL operation, use only default register values.
NTSC
Both differential and single-ended connections of the full NTSC format are supported.
The differential connection that uses two output lines is used for low noise or long
distance applications. The single-ended connection is used for PCB tracks and screened
cable where noise is not a concern. The NTSC format has three black lines at the bottom
of each image for padding (which most LCDs do not display).
PAL
The PAL format is supported with 480 active image rows only. Black bars are padded on
top and bottom of the image for PAL format support. The PAL format has 24 black lines
at the top and bottom of each image for padding.
NTSC or PAL with External Image Processing
The on-chip video encoder and DAC can be used with external data stream input
(DIN[7:0] port). Correct NTSC or PAL formatted CCIR656 data is required for correct
composite video output.
This mode can typically be used together with data output on the parallel DOUT[7:0]
port—for example, for external overlay solutions.
Single-Ended and Differential Composite Output
The composite output can be operated in a single-ended or differential mode by simply
changing the external resistor configuration. For single-ended termination, two schematics are presented. The first is SMPTE-compliant; the second is a low-cost alternative.
For differential mode termination, the first differential schematic; Figure 22 on page 36,
is SMPTE-compliant. The other two are lost-cost alternatives.
See Figure 20 on page 34 through Figure 24 on page 37 for termination schematics.
Note:
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The differential schematics have not been tested.
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MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Modes and Timing
Figure 20: Single-Ended Termination—SMPTE Compliant
VDD
L0
L1
L2
L = 574 nH
L = 1.86μH
L = 574 nH
C0
C = 740pF
L = 2.7μH
R = 15 Ω
75 Ω
Single-end
C1
C = 267 pF
MT9V125_DS Rev.. W 6/15 EN
75Ω Terminat
C = 267 pF
R =7 5Ω
R =75 Ω
L3
C2
R3
R0
Single-Ended
Single-ended
e.g. PCB Track
e .g. 75 Ω COAX
R2
i = IPLUS
Chip
Boundary 75 Ω
Typical Values for LC
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MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Modes and Timing
Figure 21: Single-Ended Termination
VDD
i = IPLUS
Chip
Boundary
75 Ω
Single-Ended
L0
R0 = 75 Ω
L = 680 nH
L1
L2
L = 2.2μH
L = 680 nH
C0
C1
C = 220 pF
C = 220 pF
Single-ended
e.g. PCB Track
e .g. 75 Ω COAX
75Ω Terminated
75 Ω
Single-ended
R 1=7 5Ω
S
Typical Values for LC
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MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Modes and Timing
Figure 22: Differential Connection—SMPTE-Compliant
Butterworth filter @ 12.825 MHz - 3dB
(differrential)
Resonant lift
(differrential)
INYUKp
L1
R10
OUTYUKp
L = 383 nH
R = 12.5
io
IDC
2/37.5
R3
R = 37.5
C0
C = 965pF
R4
R = 5.75
L0
L = 2.07μH
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L4
R11
INYUKn
L3
L2
L = 383nH
R = 12.5
L = 1.24μH
L = 383 nH
C1
C2
C = 200pF
C = 200pF
L5
L6
L = 1.24μH
L = 383nH
R2
R=
OUTYUK
R1
R = 37.5
R0
R = 5.75
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VDD
i = IMINUS
i = IPLUS
Differential to Single - Ended Conversion
Chip
Boundary
75 Ω
Differential
L0
L2
L1
L = 680nH
L = 2.2μH
5V
75 Ω
Differential
Long 75 Ω
Twisted Pair
L = 680nH
C = 220pF
C = 220pF
VOUT
REF
FB
R3 = 37.5Ω
R2 = 37.5Ω
R1 = 37.5Ω
R0 = 37.5Ω
C1
R6 = 75Ω
AMP
VREF
C0
75 Ω Terminated Receiver
+
-
R7 = 75Ω
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Figure 23: Differential Connection—Grounded Terminations
R5
R4
Typical Values for LC
C2
Figure 24: Differential Connection—Floating Termination
VDD
i = IMINUS
i = IPLUS
Differential to Single - Ended Conversion
75 Ω
Differential
L0
L1
L = 680nH
L2
L = 2.2μH
L = 680nH
Long 75 Ω
Twisted Pair
75 Ω
Differential
5V
+
-
R2 = 75Ω
R1 = 37.5Ω
REF
FB
C1
C = 220pF
VOUT
C = 220pF
R5
R4
Typical Values for LC
C2
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MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Modes and Timing
R0 = 37.5Ω
R6 = 75Ω
AMP
VREF
C0
75 Ω Terminated Receiver
R7 = 75Ω
37
Chip
Boundary
MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Modes and Timing
Serial (LVDS) Output
The serial high-speed output port supports the interlaced CCIR-656 data format.
The LVDS port is disabled by default, but can be enabled by the external pin LVDS_ENABLE. This pin must be asserted for LVDS to function. LVDS can be disabled through
R29:1[13]. LVDS is also disabled when STANDBY is asserted.
The output LVDS format is the standard 12-bit package with 10-bit payload format
supported by off-the-shelf deserializers, including National (DS92LV1212A), Maxim
(MAX9205), and TI (SN65LV1212). An on-chip x12 PLL is included for high-speed LVDS
clock generation. LVDS output clock speed is 324 MHz for CCIR support. Table 9
describes the LVDS packet format; Figure 25 on page 39 shows the LVDS data format.
Table 9:
LVDS Packet Format
MT9V125_DS Rev.. W 6/15 EN
12-Bit Packet
CCIR-656
Bit[0]
Bit[1]
Bit[2]
Bit[3]
Bit[4]
Bit[5]
Bit[6]
Bit[7]
Bit[8]
Bit[9]
Bit[10]
Bit[11]
1 (START bit)
PixelData[0]
PixelData[1]
PixelData[2]
PixelData[3]
PixelData[4]
PixelData[5]
PixelData[6]
PixelData[7]
LV
FV
0 (STOP bit)
38
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Modes and Timing
Figure 25:
LVDS Serial Output Data Format
Internal
Shift Clock
LVDS Serial Out
START
(1)
t
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
LV
FV
STOP
(0))
DW
Notes:
Table 10:
D0
1. Each LVDS packet contains 12 bits. It starts with a “1” (START bit) and ends with a “0” (STOP bit).
2. The 8-bit CCIR656-compliant video data byte is shifted out with the LSB bit out first, following the
START bit.
3. The LV and the FV bits are sent out following the video data byte.
4. A 12x PLL generates the internal shift clock from EXTCLK input. The 8-bit DOUT[7:0] is concatenated
with LV and FV outputs and shifted out through the differential LVDS_POS/LVDS_NEG outputs.
5. Refer to Table 10 for LVDS data timing.
Serial Output Data Timing Values (for EXTCLK = 27 MHz)
Name
t
DW
MT9V125_DS Rev.. W 6/15 EN
Min
Typ
Max
Units
2.5
2.7
3.08
ns
39
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Modes and Timing
Parallel Output (DOUT)
Interlaced
The DOUT[7:0] port supports outputting the interlaced data stream in a variety of
formats, as described in more detail in “ITU-R BT.656 and RGB Output” on page 21.
Figure 26 shows the data that is output on the parallel port for CCIR656. Both NTSC and
PAL formats are displayed. The blue values in Figure 26 represent NTSC (525/60). The
red values represent PAL (625/50).
Figure 26:
CCIR656 8-Bit Parallel Interface Format for 525/60 (625/50) Video Systems
Start of digital line
Start of digital active line
EAV CODE
F
F
0
0
0
0
X
Y
4
4
BLANKING
8
0
1
0
8
0
SAV CODE
1
0
8
0
1
0
F
F
0
0
268
280
0
0
CO -SITED _
CO -SITED _
X
Y
C
B
Y
C
R
4
4
Next line
Y
C
B
Y
C
R
Y
C
R
Y
F
F
Digital
video
stream
1440
1440
1716
1728
Figure 27 shows detailed vertical blanking information for NTSC timing. See Table 11 on
page 42 for data on field, vertical blanking, EAV, and SAV states.
Figure 27:
Typical CCIR656 Vertical Blanking Intervals for 525/60 Video System
Line 1 (V = 1)
Line 4
Blanking
Field 1
(F = 0)
Odd
Line 20 (V = 0)
Field 1 Active Video
Line 264 (V = 1)
Line 266
Blanking
Field 2
(F = 1)
Even
Line 283 (V = 0)
Field 2 Active Video
Line 525 (V = 0)
Line 3
H=1
EAV
MT9V125_DS Rev.. W 6/15 EN
H=0
SAV
40
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Modes and Timing
Table 11:
Field, Vertical Blanking, EAV, and SAV States
Line Number
F
V
H
(EAV)
H
(SAV)
1–3
4–9
20–263
264–265
266–282
283–525
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
Figure 28 shows detailed vertical blanking information for PAL timing. See Table 12 for
data on field, vertical blanking, EAV, and SAV states.
Figure 28:
Typical CCIR656 Vertical Blanking Intervals for 625/50 Video System
Line 1 (V = 1)
Blanking
Line 23 (V = 0)
Field 1
(F = 0)
Odd
Field 1 Active Video
Line 311 (V = 1)
Blanking
Line 336 (V = 0)
Field 2
(F = 1)
Even
Field 2 Active Video
Line 624 (V = 1)
Blanking
Line 625 (V = 1)
H =1
EAV
Table 12:
H= 0
SAV
Field, Vertical Blanking, EAV, and SAV States
MT9V125_DS Rev.. W 6/15 EN
Line Number
F
V
H
(EAV)
H
(SAV)
1–22
23–310
311–312
313–335
336–623
624–625
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
41
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Modes and Timing
Progressive
The DOUT[7:0] port also supports progressive, raw data output. The on-chip color
processor does not support reading out the pixel array progressively, but the raw pixel
data can be made available in sensor stand-alone mode.
Parallel Input (DIN)
The data-in port allows external CCIR656 data to be multiplexed into the NTSC or PAL
output data. Figure 29 shows the timing of the data-in (DIN[7:0]) signals. Table 13
describes timing values for the parallel input waveform. Both mode 0 and mode 1 waveforms are supported by the MT9V125.
Figure 29:
Parallel Input Data Timing Waveform Using DIN_CLK
t
s
DIN[7:0]
t
h
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D3
D4
D5
DIN _ CLK
t
DIN _CLK
t
s
DIN[7:0]
MODE 0
t
h
D0
D1
D2
DIN _ CLK
t
DIN _CLK
Table 13:
MODE 1
Parallel Input Data Timing Values Using DIN_CLK
Name
Min
Typical
Max
Function
DIN_CLK
ts
th
36.975
7
8
–
–
–
–
–
–
DIN_CLK Period
DIN Setup Time
DIN Hold Time
t
Notes:
MT9V125_DS Rev.. W 6/15 EN
1. If R19:1[4] = 1, then DIN_CLK is used to sample data on DIN bus.
2. Setup and hold time is measured with respect to the rising or falling edge of DIN_CLK which can be
programmed by R19:1[3].
42
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Modes and Timing
Figure 30:
Parallel Input Data Timing Waveform Using the EXTCLK
t
s
DIN[7:0]
t
h
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D3
D4
D5
EXTCLK
t
EXTCLK
t
s
DIN[7:0]
D0
MODE 0
t
h
D1
D2
EXTCLK
t
EXTCLK
Table 14:
MODE 1
Parallel Input Data Timing Values Using EXTCLK
Name
Min
Typical
Max
Function
tEXTCLK
36.975
3
14.5
–
–
–
–
–
–
DIN_CLK Period
DIN Setup Time
DIN Hold Time
ts
th
Notes:
1. If R19:1[4] = 0 then the EXTCLK is used to sample the data on DIN bus.
2. Setup and hold time is measured with respect to the rising or falling edge of EXTCLK which can be
programmed by R19:1[3].
Interlaced Modes
True Interlaced
By default, the MT9V125 reads out the image array in a true interlaced fashion where
each field maps to the odd and even rows respectively. The color pipe is supplied by a
regular Bayer pattern data stream due to the “paired Bayer” CFA filters used with the
pixel array, as described in “Pixel Array Structure” on page 11.
Mirroring
The MT9V125 supports both horizontal and vertical flips, regardless of the output
format. Horizontal flip, column sequencing reversed, can be enabled by an external pin
(HORIZ_FLIP) or a register setting (R21:1[1]). Vertical flip can be controlled through a
register setting (R32:0[0]).
MT9V125_DS Rev.. W 6/15 EN
43
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Modes and Timing
Reset, Clocks, and Standby
Reset
Power-up reset is asserted/de-asserted with the RESET_BAR pin, which is active LOW. In
the reset state, all control registers are set to default values.
Soft reset is asserted/de-asserted by the two-wire serial interface program. In soft-reset
mode, the two-wire serial interface and the register bus are still running. All control
registers are reset using default values. See R13:0.
Clocks
The MT9V125 has three primary clocks:
1. A master clock coming from the EXTCLK signal.
2. A pixel clock using a clock-gated operation running at half frequency of the master
clock in sensor stand-alone mode and the same frequency as EXTCLK in SOC mode.
3. DIN_CLK that is associated with the parallel DIN port.
All device clocks are turned off in power-down mode. When the MT9V125 operates in
sensor stand-alone mode, the image flow pipeline clocks can be shut off to conserve
power. See R13:0.
The sensor core is a master in the system. The sensor core frame rate defines the overall
image flow pipeline frame rate. Horizontal blanking and vertical blanking are influenced
by the sensor configuration, and are also a function of certain image flow pipeline functions. The relationship of the primary clocks is depicted in Figure 31 on page 45.
The image flow pipeline typically generates up to 16 bits per pixel—for example, YCbCr
or 565RGB—but has only an 8-bit port through which to communicate this pixel data.
To generate NTSC or PAL format images, the sensor core requires a 27 MHz clock.
Figure 31:
Primary Clock Relationships
EXTCLK
Sensor
Master Clock
Sensor Core
Sensor
Pixel Clock
10 bits/pixel
1 pixel/clock
Colorpipe
16 bits/pixel
1 pixel/clock
Output Interface
16 bits/pixel (TYP)
0.5 pixel/clock
MT9V125_DS Rev.. W 6/15 EN
44
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Modes and Timing
Standby Pin
STANDBY is a multipurpose signal that controls three functions: low-power standby, the
two-wire serial interface device address, and output signal state functions. Table 15
shows how STANDBY affects the output signal state.
Two-wire serial interface address is based on the SADDR pin XORed with the R13:0[10];
the R13:0[10] default is “0.” See Table 26 on page 57 for details. The R13:0[10] is not writable when STANDBY is asserted (“1”).
Hard standby is asserted or de-asserted on STANDBY, as described in “Power-Saving
Modes” on page 47.
Table 15:
STANDBY Effect on the Output State
MT9V125_DS Rev.. W 6/15 EN
STANDBY Output
Enable
R13:0[6]
Output Disable R13:0[4]
STANDBY
Output State
0
0
1
x
0
0
0
1
0
1
x
x
Driven
High-Z
Driven
High-Z
45
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Modes and Timing
Power-Saving Modes
The sensor can be put into the low-power standby state by either of the following mechanisms:
• Asserting STANDBY (provided that R13:0[7] = 0)
• Setting R13:0[3:2] = 01 by performing a register write through the serial register interface (R13:0[2]: analog standby = 1, R13:0[3]: chip enable = 0)
The two methods are equivalent and have the same effect:
• The source of standby is synchronized and latched. Once latched, the full standby
sequence is completed even if the source of standby is removed.
• The readout of the current row is completed.
• Internal clocks are gated off.
• The analog signal chain and associated current and voltage sources are placed in a
low-power state.
The standby state is maintained for as long as the standby source remains asserted. The
state of the signal interface while in standby state is shown in Table 16.
Table 16:
Signal State During Standby
Signal
State
FV
LV
PIXCLK
DOUT[7:0], DOUT_LSB[1:0]
0
0
1
0
While in standby, the state of the internal registers is maintained. The sensor continues
to respond to accesses through its serial register interface when STANDBY is asserted
through a register write, as described above. The serial register interface does not
respond when standby mode is entered by asserting the external STANDBY pin.
An even lower-power standby state can be achieved by stopping the input clock
(EXTCLK) while in standby. If the input clock is stopped, the sensor will not respond to
accesses through its two-wire serial register interface.
Exit from standby must be through the same mechanism as entry to standby. When the
standby source is negated:
1. The internal clocks are restarted.
2. The analog circuitry is restored to its normal operating state.
3. The timing and control circuitry performs a restart, equivalent to writing
R13:0[1] = 1.
After this sequence has completed, normal operation is resumed. If the input clock has
been stopped during standby it must be restarted before leaving standby.
Floating Inputs
The following MT9V125 pins cannot be floated:
• DIN[7:0] (tie to GND if not used)
• DIN_CLK (tie to GND if not used)
• PEDESTAL—Valid for NTSC only, this pin should be pulled LOW for PAL
• LVDS ENABLE—This pin must always be pulled HIGH if LVDS is used
• SDATA—This pin is bidirectional and should not be floated
MT9V125_DS Rev.. W 6/15 EN
46
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Modes and Timing
Output Data Ordering
Table 17:
Output Data Ordering in DOUT RGB Mode
Mode
(Swap Disabled)
565RGB
555RGB
444xRGB
x444RGB
Notes:
Table 18:
Byte
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
First
Second
First
Second
First
Second
First
Second
R7
G4
0
G5
R7
B7
0
G7
R6
G3
R7
G4
R6
B6
0
G6
R5
G2
R6
G3
R5
B5
0
G5
R4
B7
R5
B7
R4
B4
0
G4
R3
B6
R4
B6
G7
0
R7
B7
G7
B5
R3
B5
G6
0
R6
B6
G6
B4
G7
B4
G5
0
R5
B5
G5
B3
G6
B3
G4
0
R4
B4
1. PIXCLK is 27 MHz when EXTCLK is 27 MHz.
Output Data Ordering in Sensor Stand-Alone Mode
Mode
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
DOUT_LSB1
DOUT_LSB0
10-bit Output
B9
B8
B7
B6
B5
B4
B3
B2
B1
B0
Notes:
Table 19:
1. PIXCLK is 13.5 MHz when EXTCLK is 27 MHz.
Data Ordering in LVDS Serial Mode
Mode
Package[0]
Package[8:1]
Package[9]
Package[10]
Package[11]
Default
Start bit “1’
DOUT[7:0]
LINE_VALID
FRAME_VALID
Stop bit “0”
Notes:
MT9V125_DS Rev.. W 6/15 EN
1. Data output rate is 324 Mb/s when EXTCLK is 27 MHz.
47
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Modes and Timing
I/O Circuitry
Figure 32 and Figure 33 on page 50 illustrate typical circuitry used for each input, output
or I/O pad.
Figure 32:
Typical I/O Equivalent Circuits
VDD
DIN[7:0]
DIN_CLK
SCLK
LVDS_ENABLE
STANDBY
PEDESTAL
NTSC_PAL_SELECT
HORIZ_FLIP
Input Pad
Pad
Receiver
VDD
GND
Output Pad
FRAME_VALID
LINE_VALID
DOUT_LSB[1:0]
DOUT[7:0]
PIXCLK
Tri
State
Driver
Pad
VDD
GND
VDD
Receiver
I/O Pad
GND
SDATA
Pad
VDD
GND
Tri
State
Driver
GND
GND
Notes:
MT9V125_DS Rev.. W 6/15 EN
1. All I/O circuitry shown above is for reference only. The actual implementation may be
different.
48
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Modes and Timing
Figure 33:
LVDS and NTSC Blocks
LVDS Output Block
VDD_PLL
Out +
Pad
LVDS_POS
Pad
LVDS_NEG
ESD
ESD
Out
GND
NTSC Block
VDD_DAC
DAC_REF
Pad
ESD
Pad
DAC_POS
Pad
DAC_NEG
ESD
Resistor
2.8kΩ
ESD
GND
Notes:
MT9V125_DS Rev.. W 6/15 EN
1. All I/O circuitry shown above is for reference only. The actual implementation may be
different.
49
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Modes and Timing
I/O Timing
Digital Output
By default, the MT9V125 launches pixel data, FV, and LV synchronously with the falling
edge of PIXCLK. The expectation is that the user captures data, FV, and LV using the
rising edge of PIXCLK. The timing diagram is shown in Figure 34.
As an option, the polarity of the PIXCLK can be inverted from the default. This is
achieved by programming R155:1[9] to “0.”
Figure 34:
Digital Output I/O Timing
textclk_high
textclk_low
EXTCLK
Input
tpixclk_high
tpixclk_low
tpixclk_period
PIXCLK
Output
textclkr_dout
tdout_su
textclkr_fvlv
tfvlv_su
tdout_ho
DOUT[7:0]
Output
Output
textclk_period
tfvlv_ho
FRAME_VALID
LINE_VALID
UNDEFINED
Table 20:
Digital Output I/O Timing
TA = Ambient = 25°C; VDD = 2.5–3.1V
Signal
EXTCLK
Parameter
Min
Typ
Max
textclk_high
17
–
20
ns
t
17
–
20
ns
–
37.0
–
extclk_low
textclk_period
f
extclk
PIXCLK1
Conditions
max +/- 100 ppm
pixclk_low
14
–
22
ns
tpixclk_high
14
–
22
ns
t
36.7
37
37.4
ns
t
8
14
18
ns
pixclk_period
tdout_su
14
18.5
23
ns
t
14
18.5
23
ns
dout_ho
textclkr_fvlv
FV/LV
8
14
18
ns
tfvlv_su
14
18.5
23
ns
t
14
18.5
23
ns
fvlv_ho
Notes:
MT9V125_DS Rev.. W 6/15 EN
ns
MHz
t
extclkr_dout
DATA[7:0]
27
Unit
1. PIXCLK may be inverted by programming register R155:1[9] = 0.
50
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Electrical Specifications
Electrical Specifications
Table 21:
Electrical Characteristics and Operating Conditions
TA = Ambient = 25°C; All supplies at 2.8V
Parameter1
Condition
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
I/O and core digital voltage (VDD)
–
2.5
2.8
3.1
V
LVDS PLL voltage (VDDPLL
–
2.5
2.8
3.1
V
Video DAC voltage (VDDDAC)
–
2.5
2.8
3.1
V
Analog voltage (VAA)
–
2.5
2.8
3.1
V
–
2.5
2.8
3.1
V
10
A
Pixel supply voltage (VAAPIX)
STANDBY, EXTCLK:
HIGH or LOW
–
–40
+85
°C
Functional operating temperature
–
–40
+105
°C
Storage temperature
–
–40
+125
°C
Leakage current
Imager operating temperature
Notes:
MT9V125_DS Rev.. W 6/15 EN
1. VDD, VAA, and VAAPIX must all be at the same potential to avoid excessive current draw. Care must
be taken to avoid excessive noise injection in the analog supplies if all three supplies are tied
together.
51
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Electrical Specifications
Table 22:
Video DAC Electrical Characteristics
TA = Ambient = 25°C; All supplies at 2.8V
Parameter
Condition
Resolution
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
–
10
–
bits
DNL
Single-ended mode
–
0.8
1.1
bits
INL
Single-ended mode
–
5.7
8.1
bits
Single-ended mode, output pad (DAC_POS)
–
75
–

Single-ended mode, unused output (DAC_NEG)
–
0
–

Output local load
Output voltage
Single-ended mode, code 000h
–
0.02
–
V
Single-ended mode, code 3FFh
–
1.42
–
V
Single-ended mode, code 000h
–
0.6
–
mA
Single-ended mode, code 3FFh
–
37.9
–
mA
DNL
Differential mode
–
0.7
1
bits
INL
Differential mode
–
1.4
3
bits
Output local load
Differential mode per pad
(DAC_POS and DAC_NEG)
–
37.5
–

Differential mode, code 000h, pad dacp
–
0.37
–
V
Differential mode, code 000h, pad dacn
–
1.07
–
V
Output current
Output voltage
Output voltage
Differential mode, code 3FFh, pad dacp
–
1.07
–
V
Differential mode, code 3FFH, pad dacn
–
0.37
–
V
Differential mode, code 000h, pad dacp
–
0.6
–
mA
Differential mode, code 000h, pad dacn
–
37.9
–
mA
Differential mode, code 3FFh, pad dacp
–
37.9
–
mA
Differential mode, code 3FFH, pad dacn
–
0.6
–
mA
–
0.72
–
V
55
mA
Differential output,
mid level
Differential mode
Supply current
Estimate
–
–
DAC_REF1
DAC Reference
–
1.15 +/–0.2
Notes:
MT9V125_DS Rev.. W 6/15 EN
V
1. RDAC_REF = 2.8k
52
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Electrical Specifications
Table 23:
Digital I/O Parameters
TA = Ambient = 25°C; All supplies at 2.8V
Signal
Parameter
Definitions
All
Outputs
Condition
Load capacitance
2.8V, 30pF load
2.8V, 5pF load
Output signal slew
All
Inputs
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
1
–
30
pF
–
–
2.5
0.72
1.25
2.8
–
–
3.1
V/ns
V/ns
V
VOH
Output high voltage
VOL
Output low voltage
IOH
Output high current
VDD = 2.8V, VOH = 2.4V
IOL
Output low current
VDD = 2.8V, VOL = 0.4V
15.9
VDD = 2.8V
1.48
VDD = 2.8V
–
–
VIH
Input high voltage
Input low voltage
VIL
IIN
Signal CAP
–0.3
–
0.3
V
16
–
26.5
mA
–
21.3
mA
–
VDD + 0.
3
1.43
V
V
Input leakage current
–2
–
2
A
Input signal capacitance
–
3.5
–
pF
Power Consumption
Table 24:
Power Consumption
TA = Ambient = 25°C; All supplies at 2.8V
Mode
Sensor
(mW)
Image-Flow Proc
(mW)
I/Os
(mW)1
DAC
(mW)
LVDS (mW)
Total
(mW)
60
100
10
150
80
400
Active mode 2
Standby
0.56
Notes:
MT9V125_DS Rev.. W 6/15 EN
1. 10pF nominal.
2. (NTSC or PAL) and LVDS should not be operated at the same time.
53
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Electrical Specifications
NTSC Signal Parameters
Table 25:
NTSC Signal Parameters
TA = Ambient = 25°C; All supplies at 2.8V
Parameter
Conditions
Min
Typ
Max
Units
Line Frequency
15730
15735
15740
Hz
Field Frequency
59.00
59.94
60.00
Hz
Notes
Sync Rise Time
120
164
170
ns
Sync Fall Time
120
167
170
ns
Sync Width
4.60
4.74
4.80
s
Sync Level
37
39.9
43
IRE
2, 4
2, 4
Burst Level
37
39.7
43
IRE
Sync to Setup
(with pedestal off)
9.10
9.40
9.40
s
Sync to Burst Start
5.00
5.31
5.60
s
Front Porch
1.40
1.40
1.60
s
Burst Width
8.0
8.5
10.0
cycles
Black Level
6.5
7.5
8.5
IRE
1, 2, 4
White Level
90
100
110
IRE
1, 2, 3, 4
Notes:
MT9V125_DS Rev.. W 6/15 EN
1.
2.
3.
4.
Black and white levels are referenced to the blanking level.
NTSC convention standardized by the IRE (1 IRE = 7.14mV).
Encoder contrast setting R0x011 = R0x001 = 0.
DAC ref = 2.8kload = 37.5
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©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Package and Die Dimensions
Package and Die Dimensions
Figure 35:
52-Ball iBGA Package Outline Drawing
0.90
D
Seating
plane
0.40
(For reference only)
A
0.10 A
0.375 ±0.050
7.00
52X Ø0.55
Dimensions apply
to solder balls postreflow. The prereflow diameter is
Ø0.50 on a Ø0.40
SMD ball pad.
0.125
(For reference only)
0.525 ±0.050
1.00 TYP
5.50 CTR
Ball A1
Ball A1 ID
Ball A8
CL
First
clear
pixel
1.845
3.50
CL 9.000 ±0.075
7.00
5.20
2.688 CTR
CL
Ø0.15 A C B
1.00 typ
Fuses
CL
Optical area
C
3.50
B
Maximum rotation of optical area relative to package edges: 1º
Maximum tilt of optical area relative to package edge D : 50 microns
Maximum tilt of optical area relative to top of cover glass: 50 microns
Lid material: borosilicate glass 0.40 thickness
Image sensor die
Solder ball material: 96.5% Sn, 3% Ag, 0.5% Cu
Substrate material: plastic laminate
Encapsulant: epoxy
MT9V125_DS Rev.. W 6/15 EN
Optical
center
Ø0.15 A B C
9.000 ±0.075
Notes:
3.584 CTR
1. All dimensions in millimeters.
55
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Appendix A: Serial Bus Description
Appendix A: Serial Bus Description
Registers are written to and read from the MT9V125 through the two-wire serial interface bus. The sensor is a serial interface slave controlled by the serial clock (SCLK),
which is driven by the serial interface master. Data is transferred in and out of the
MT9V125 through the serial data (SDATA) line. The SDATA and SCLK lines are pulled up to
VDD off-chip by a 1.5K resistor. Either the slave or the master device can pull the SDATA
line down—the serial interface protocol determines which device is allowed to pull the
SDATA line down at any given time.
Protocol
The two-wire serial interface defines several different transmission codes, as follows:
• a start bit
• an acknowledge bit
• a no-acknowledge bit
• an 8-bit message
• a stop bit
• the slave device 8-bit address
The SADDR pin and R13:0[10] are used to select between two different addresses in case
of conflict with another device. If SADDR XOR R13:0[10] is LOW, the slave address is 0x90;
if SADDR XOR R13:0[10] is HIGH, the slave address is 0xBA. See Table 26 below.
Table 26:
Two-Wire Interface ID Address Switching
SADDR
R13:0[10]
Two-Wire Interface Address ID
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0x90
0xBA
0xBA
0x90
Sequence
A typical read or write sequence begins with the master sending a start bit. After the start
bit, the master sends the 8-bit slave device address. The last bit of the address determines
if the request is a READ or a WRITE, where a “0” indicates a WRITE and a “1” indicates a
READ. The slave device acknowledges its address by sending an acknowledge bit back to
the master.
If the request was a write, the master transfers the 8-bit register address for where a
WRITE should take place. The slave sends an acknowledge bit to indicate that the
register address has been received. The master then transfers the data, 8 bits at a time,
with the slave sending an acknowledge bit after each 8 bits.
The MT9V125 uses 16-bit data for its internal registers, thus requiring two 8-bit transfers
to write to one register. After 16 bits are transferred, the register address is automatically
incremented, so that the next 16 bits are written to the next register address. The master
stops writing by sending a start or stop bit.
A typical read sequence is executed as follows. The master sends the write mode slave
address and 8-bit register address, just as in the write request. The master then sends a
start bit and the read mode slave address. The master clocks out the register data, 8 bits
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MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Appendix A: Serial Bus Description
at a time and sends an acknowledge bit after each 8-bit transfer. The register address is
auto-incremented after every 16 bits is transferred. The data transfer is stopped when
the master sends a no-acknowledge bit.
Bus Idle State
The bus is idle when both the data and clock lines are HIGH. Control of the bus is initiated with a start bit, and the bus is released with a stop bit. Only the master can generate
the start and stop bits.
Start Bit
The start bit is defined as a HIGH-to-LOW transition of the data line while the clock line
is HIGH.
Stop Bit
The stop bit is defined as a LOW-to-HIGH transition of the data line while the clock line
is HIGH.
Slave Address
The 8-bit address of a two-wire serial interface device consists of seven bits of address and
one bit of direction. A “0” in the LSB of the address indicates write mode, and a “1” indicates read mode. The write address of the sensor is 0xBA; the read address is 0xBB. This
applies only when the SADDR is set HIGH.
Data Bit Transfer
One data bit is transferred during each clock pulse. The serial interface clock pulse is
provided by the master. The data must be stable during the HIGH period of the two-wire
serial interface clock—it can only change when the serial clock is LOW. Data is transferred eight bits at a time, followed by an acknowledge bit.
Acknowledge Bit
The master generates the acknowledge clock pulse. The transmitter (which is the master
when writing or the slave when reading) releases the data line, and the receiver signals
an acknowledge bit by pulling the data line LOW during the acknowledge clock pulse.
No-Acknowledge Bit
The no-acknowledge bit is generated when the data line is not pulled down by the
receiver during the acknowledge clock pulse. A no-acknowledge bit is used to terminate
a read sequence.
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MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Appendix A: Serial Bus Description
Two-Wire Serial Interface Sample
Write and read sequences (SADDR = 1).
16-Bit WRITE Sequence
A typical write sequence for writing 16 bits to a register is shown in Figure 36. A start bit
sent by the master starts the sequence, followed by the write address. The image sensor
sends an acknowledge bit and expects the register address to come first, followed by the
16-bit data. After each 8-bit transfer, the image sensor sends an acknowledge bit. All 16
bits must be written before the register is updated. After 16 bits are transferred, the
register address is automatically incremented so that the next 16 bits are written to the
next register. The master stops writing by sending a start or stop bit.
Figure 36:
WRITE Timing to R0x009—Value 0x0284
SCLK
SDATA
0xBA Address
Start
Reg 0x009
0000 0010
1000 0100
Stop
ACK
ACK
ACK
ACK
16-Bit READ Sequence
A typical read sequence is shown in Figure 37. The master writes the register address, as
in a write sequence. Then a start bit and the read address specify that a read is about to
occur from the register. The master then clocks out the register data, 8 bits at a time. The
master sends an acknowledge bit after each 8-bit transfer. The register address should be
incremented after every 16 bits is transferred. The data transfer is stopped when the
master sends a no-acknowledge bit.
Figure 37:
READ Timing From R0x009; Returned Value 0x0284
SCLK
SDATA
0xBA Address
Reg0x009
0xBB Address
Start
0000 0010
1000 0100
Start
ACK
ACK
Stop
ACK
ACK
NACK
8-Bit WRITE Sequence
To be able to write one byte at a time to the register, a special register address is added.
The 8-bit WRITE is started by writing the upper 8 bits to the desired register, then writing
the lower 8 bits to the special register address (R0x0F1). The register is not updated until
all 16 bits have been written. It is not possible to update just half of a register. In
Figure 38 on page 60, a typical sequence for an 8-bit WRITE is shown. The second byte is
written to the special register (R0x0F1).
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MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Appendix A: Serial Bus Description
Figure 38:
WRITE Timing to R0x009—Value 0x0284
SCLK
SDATA
Reg0x009
0xBA Address
Start
ACK
0000 0010
ACK
0xBA Address
Start
ACK
Reg0x0F1
1000 0100
Stop
ACK
ACK
ACK
8-Bit READ Sequence
To read one byte at a time, the same special register address is used for the lower byte.
The upper 8 bits are read from the desired register. By following this with a read from the
special register (R0x0F1), the lower 8 bits are accessed (Figure 39). The master sets the
no-acknowledge bits.
Figure 39:
READ Timing From R0x009; Returned Value 0x0284
SCLK
SDATA
0xBA Address
Reg0x009
0xBB Address
Start
0000 0010
•••
Start
ACK
ACK
ACK
NACK
SCLK
SDATA
•••
0xBA Address
Reg0x0F1
0xBB Address
Start
continued
MT9V125_DS Rev.. W 6/15 EN
1000 0100
Start
ACK
ACK
59
ACK
Stop
NACK
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Appendix A: Serial Bus Description
Two-Wire Serial Bus Timing
The two-wire serial interface operation requires a certain minimum of master clock
cycles between transitions. These are specified below in master clock cycles.
Figure 40:
Serial Host Clock Period and Duty Cycle
< 400 KHz Max
SCLK
Figure 41:
Serial Host Interface Start Condition Timing
4
4
SCLK
SDATA
Figure 42:
Serial Host Interface Stop Condition Timing
4
5
SCLK
SDATA
Notes:
Figure 43:
1. All timing are in units of master clock cycle.
Serial Host Interface Data Timing for Write
4
4
SCLK
SDATA
Notes:
MT9V125_DS Rev.. W 6/15 EN
1. SDATA is driven by an off-chip transmitter.
60
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MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Appendix A: Serial Bus Description
Figure 44:
Serial Host Interface Data Timing for Read
5
SCLK
SDATA
Notes:
Figure 45:
1. SDATA is pulled LOW by the sensor or allowed to be pulled HIGH by a pull-up resistor off-chip.
Acknowledge Signal Timing after an 8-bit Write to the Sensor
7
6
SCLK
Sensor pulls down
SDATA pin
SDATA
Figure 46:
Acknowledge Signal Timing after an 8-bit Read from the Sensor
7
6
SCLK
SDATA
Notes:
MT9V125_DS Rev.. W 6/15 EN
Sensor tri-states SDATA pin
(turns off pull down)
1. After a read, the master receiver must pull down SDATA to acknowledge receipt of data bits. When
read sequence is complete, the master must generate a no acknowledge by leaving SDATA to float
HIGH. On the following cycle, a start or stop bit may be used.
61
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MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Appendix B–Sensor Core Characteristics
Appendix B–Sensor Core Characteristics
Table 27:
MT9V125 Rev4 Imager Sensor Core Characteristics
Symbol
Parameter
Unit
Sg
Green response
LSB
Rr
Rb
Vsat
t
t
Typ
(average)
Measurement
condition
Remarks
Response Comparison
Pixel saturation signal
LSB
Readout noise
516
Conditions 1
T int = 1/120 s
0.611
Conditions 1
T int = 1/120 s
0.539
Conditions 1
T int = 1/120 s
1023
Conditions 2
Gain = 1
LSB
4.11
Conditions 3
Gain = Max
LSB
0.59
Conditions 3
Gain = 1
LSB/s
162
Conditions 4
Vdark
Dark current
PRNU
Photoresponse non-uniformity
%
0.87
Conditions 5
Ts = 55°C,
Gain = Max
Gain = 1
DSNU
Dark signal non-uniformity
%
0.045
Conditions 6
Gain = Max
SNR
Signal-to-Noise Ratio
dB
38.5
Conditions 5
Gain = 1
DynR
Dynamic Range
dB
71.7
Conditions 6
Gain = Max
Description of Measurement Conditions
Note:
All measurements are done at nominal power supply voltages, at default settings, and
at ambient room temperature except where noted. For microlens shifted array, measurements are performed in the window 32 × 32 pixels in the center of pixel array,
where the signal value is maximum. All measurements in the dark are performed
across the whole pixel array.
Measurement Conditions 1
A standard pattern box (luminance 706 cd/m2, color temperature of 3100K halogen
source) is used as an illumination source. A lens with F5.6 and a standard CM500 IR-cut
filter (t = 1mm) is used to project the image from a uniformly illuminated surface of the
pattern box to the sensor. Signals in the center of each color plane, as an average of 128
frames, at default integration time and unity gain. Values of dark signals, (see “Measurement Conditions 6” on page 64) are subtracted from light signals. Green response and
response comparison are calculated according to the following formula:
VG = (VGr + VGb)/2
(EQ 21)
Sg = VG (LSB)
(EQ 22)
Rr = VR/VG
(EQ 23)
Rb = VB/VG
(EQ 24)
Measurement Conditions 2
Illumination source and lens-filter are the same as in “Measurement Conditions 1”.
Image sensor characteristics are calculated for green pixels only, in a 16 x16 pixels
windows for Gr and Gb color planes, in LSB on the sensor output. Saturation signal is
measured at exposure 10 times higher than exposure corresponding to 500 LSB on the
sensor output at unity gain:
Vsat = (VGrsat + VGbsat)/2
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62
(EQ 25)
©Semiconductor Components Industries, LLC,2015.
MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Appendix B–Sensor Core Characteristics
Measurement Conditions 3
The array is isolated from light. Readout noise – t – is measured as average temporal
noise across the whole pixel array, as an average for Gr and Gb color planes. Readout
noise is measured in LSB on the sensor output, using 128 frames, default integration
time with two different settings for gain: unity gain and maximum analog gain (511/32).
Measurement Conditions 4
The array is isolated from light. Dark current is measured at maximum analog gain
(511/32), across the whole pixel array, in LSBs on the sensor output, at sensor temperature equal to 55°C.
Measurement Conditions 5
Illumination source and lens-filter are the same as in Conditions 1. PRNU (an average
for Gr and Gb color planes) is calculated as a ratio of Fixed Pattern Noise to the Signal,
for the signal equivalent to 50% of saturation (exposure time is adjusted), at unity gain,
16 by 16 pixels windows for Gr and Gb color planes, using 128 frames. Values of dark
signals (see Conditions 6) are subtracted from light signals:
PRNUGr = (FPNGr / VGr) x 100%
(EQ 26)
PRNUGb = (FPNGb/VGb) x 100%
(EQ 27)
PRNU = (PRNUGr + PRNUGb) / 2
(EQ 28)
SNR (an average of Gr and Gb color planes) is calculated as a ratio of green signal to
temporal noise at the signal equivalent to 50% of saturation (exposure time is adjusted),
at unity gain, using 128 frames, 16 x 16 pixels windows for Gr and Gb color planes,
according to the next formulas:
SNRGr = 20 log10 (VGr / tGr )
(EQ 29)
SNRGb = 20 log10 (VG / tGb )
(EQ 30)
SNR = (SNRGr + SNRGb) / 2
(EQ 31)
Measurement Conditions 6
The array is isolated from light. Dark signal non-uniformity is measured across the
whole pixel array at default settings except gain, which is set to the maximum analog
value (511/32). Dark signal non-uniformity (an average of Gr and Gb color planes) is
calculated as a ratio of measured fixed pattern noise to the saturation signal
(see “Measurement Conditions 2” on page 63):
DSNUGr = (32 * FPNGr / 511) / VGrsat x 100%
(EQ 32)
DSNUGb = (32 * FPNGb / 511) / VGbsat x 100%
(EQ 33)
DSNU = (DSNUGr +DSNUGb) / 2
(EQ 34)
Dynamic range (an average of Gr and Gb color planes) is calculated as a ratio of the saturation signal (see “Measurement Conditions 2” on page 63) to readout noise measured at
the maximum analog gain value (511/32) (see “Measurement Conditions 3”), according
to next formulas:
MT9V125_DS Rev.. W 6/15 EN
DynRGr = 20 log10 ((VGrsat / tGr) x (511/32))
(EQ 35)
DynRGb = 20 log10 ((VGbsat / tGb) x (511/32))
(EQ 36)
DynR = (DynRGr + DynRGb) / 2
(EQ 37)
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MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Appendix B–Sensor Core Characteristics
Supplementary Plots
Figure 47:
Typical Signal to Noise Ratio as a function of Exposure
Signal to Noise Ratio vs Exposure
50
Shot noise
40
limitation
SNR max
Signal to Noise Ratio, dB
30
20
Readout noise
limitation
10
0
0.0001
0.001
0.01
0.1
1
Exposure, lux-s
Measurement Conditions
The array is illuminated from Davidson Optronic TVO system using green spectral filter
with max = 550±5nm and full width half maximum (FWHM) = 40nm. During measurements, gain was adjusted to optimal for each value of exposure.
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MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Appendix B–Sensor Core Characteristics
Figure 48:
Typical Spectral Characteristic
MT9V125 Rev4 Quantum Efficiency
60
Blue
Green
Red
Quantum Efficiency (%)
50
40
30
20
10
0
350
450
550
650
750
850
950
1050
Wavelength (nm)
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MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Revision History
Revision History
Rev. W. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6/19/15
• Updated “Ordering Information” on page 2
Rev. V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4/16/15
• Updated “Ordering Information” on page 2
Rev. U . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3/31/15
• Converted to ON Semiconductor template.
Rev. T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5/4/11
• Updated trademarks
• Applied updated template
Rev. S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6/2/10
• Updated to non-confidential
Rev. R, Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5/6/10
• Updated to Aptina template
• Transfered registers to register reference
Rev. Q, Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1/3/08
• Updated Figure 2: “Typical Usage Configuration with Overlay,” on page 7, moved
labels closed to their respective buses
• Added Figure 11 and Figure 12 on page 18 to explain AWB measurement area
• Updated description of AWB Window Boundaries in Table 15, “Camera Control
Register—Address Page 2,” on page 63
• Updated Figure 29 and Table 13 on page 43
• Added Figure 30 and Table 14 on page 44
• Updated Figure 3 on page 8
• Updated Note 1 in Table 13, “Parallel Input Data Timing Values Using DIN_CLK,” on
page 43
Rev. P, Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8/3/07
• Added “Appendix B–Sensor Core Characteristics” on page 63.
• Added Figure 47: “Typical Signal to Noise Ratio as a function of Exposure,” on page 65.
• Added Figure 48: “Typical Spectral Characteristic,” on page 66.
• Updated Table 23, “Digital I/O Parameters,” on page 54.
• Updated Figure 40 and Figure 41 on page 61.
• Updated Figure 45 on page 62.
Rev. N, Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4/03/07
• Updated Figure 32 on page 49, Figure 33 on page 50, Table 3 on page 9, Table 21 on
page 52 and, Table 22 on page 53.
Rev. M, Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3/13/07
• Added I/O circuitry diagrams see Figure 32 on page 49 and Figure 33 on page 50.
• Re-ordered pads for DIN[7:0] and DOUT[7:0] in Table 3 on page 9.
• Updated Figure 34 on page 51.
• Fixed typos.
• Added DigitalClarity to trademarks on last page.
MT9V125_DS Rev.. W 6/15 EN
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MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Revision History
Rev. L, Production. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1/17/07
• Updates to Table 1 on page 1, Table 2 on page 2, and Table 20 on page 51.
• Updates to Figure 3 on page 8, Figure 15 on page 25, Figure 19 on page 32.
• Updates to Figures 20 through Figure 24 on page 37.
• Updates to Figure 34 on page 51.
• Added Figure 40 on page 61.
• Minor changes for typos throughout document.
Rev. K, Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11/29/06
• Updates to Figure 34 and Table 19 on page 48.
• Updates to Table 23 and Table 25 on page 55.
Rev. J, Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11/21/06
• Updated register/variable information in the following tables: Table 10 on page 30,
Table 11 on page 32, Table 12 on page 34, Table 13 on page 39, Table 14 on page 48,
and Table 15 on page 63 for Rev4_3.
• Added ordering information in Table 2 on page 2.
Rev. H, Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10/6/06
• Changed colors in Figure 1 on page 7, Figure 2 on page 7, Figure 3 on page 8, Figure 5
on page 11, and Figure 6 on page 11.
Rev. G, Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8/29/06
• Added “Data Sheet Applicable To” on page 1.
• Added Table 25, “NTSC Signal Parameters,” on page 55.
• Updated See “Sensor Registers—Short Descriptions” on page 30.
• Updated register information in Table 13 on page 39, Table 14 on page 48, and
Table 15 on page 63.
• Updated package drawing Figure 35: 52-Ball iBGA Package Outline Drawing on
page 56.
Rev. F, Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8/1/06
• Updated all figures that were not using MarCom standard colors. No technical
content of the figures was changed.
• Updated Equation 1 on page 28 through Equation 20 on page 31 using FrameMaker
equation tool.
• Many changes were made to make the document more consistent with MarCom standards.
• Latin abbreviations were removed.
• NTSC/PAL changed to “NTSC and PAL” or “NTSC or PAL” where appropriate.
Rev. E, Production. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4/28/06
• Updated Table 13 on page 43.
• Updated Figure 33 on page 50.
• Updated Figure 3 on page 8 and added note about VAA and VAAPIX.
• Added note about VAA and VAAPIX to Table 3 on page 9.
• Fixed notes in Table 4, Readout Mode Register Settings – Dout Not Qualified and
Table 6, Readout Mode Register Settings – Dout Qualified.
• Removed “Preliminary” designation on Figure 20 on page 34, Figure 21 on page 35,
Figure 23 on page 37, and Figure 24 on page 37.
• Updated Figure 19 on page 32.
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MT9V125: SOC VGA Digital Image Sensor
Revision History
Rev. D, Preliminary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4/06/06
• Updated Figure 22 on page 36.
Rev. C, Preliminary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11/3/05
• Updated register definitions from Rev1 to Rev2. New register listing formation.
• Updated NTSC/PAL termination recommendations with SMTPE Compliant schematics.
• Updated "Minimum Horizontal Blanking (in sensor stand-alone mode)" on page 29.
• Updated "Maximum Shutter Delay" on page 31.
Rev. B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .04/29/05
• Updated to Advance
• Added Register summaries; updated notation.
• Added Register descriptions; updated notation.
• Added multiple chapters and art.
Rev A, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .02/05
• Initial release
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